Search Results

Your search returned 70 result(s).

1 aile

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 aile or dil.ie/978
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: oile, eile, arch, aild, aile, aile, aill, aile, aill, aili, ailiu, ailiu, áili, aili, aili, aile, ailib, aile, aili, aile, aili, aili, a., n-aill, n-aile, éile, éle, aill, aili, ailiu, ailiu, aile, alaill, allail, alaill, alaili, alailiu, aili, alaaili, alaili, n-aile, allaili, aile, alaili, aili, alaile, holailiu, horaili, fulailiu, folaill, hualailiu, alaile, alaill, alaile, arele, lelele, alaill, aláil, araill, alaili, aláili, álaili, araili, áréli, alailiu, arailiu, alaili, aili, lialailiu, liala ailiu, aile, alailib, alaili, aréli, alaili, indala, indala, dondala, indala, indala, indala, all, AILE, ALAILE, arailiu, alailiu, alaile, (a)la, al(l)

In later lang. oile, eile other, one of two, second , pronominal used as adj. and noun. Inflected as io, iā -stem except in n a s. neut. (aill, see below). GOI §§ 486 ff. , Hamp, Études Celt. ix 477 (aill, arch. aild). Old-Irish forms. Stressed forms

(a) aile (as adj. follows noun; as subst. always with article or nach). As adj. n s m. aile, Wb. 12c46 . n. aill, 9c3 . a s m. aile, Wb. 9d31 . n. aill, 13a1 . g s. aili, Sg. 30a2 . d s. ailiu, Wb. 21a7 . ailiu, Sg. 30b4 . n p. áili, Wb. 12b1 . aili, 22d14 . a p. aili, Sg. 28a6 . g p. aile, Wb. 12b3 . d p. ailib, Wb. 12b11 . Fem. n s. aile, Wb. 10d18 . a s. aili, Sg. 189a8 . g s. aile, Sg. 188a12 . n p. aili, Sg. 22a3 . a p. aili, Sg. 191a2 .

n As subst. n s m. nach a.¤ , Wb. 20a10 . n s n. a n-aill , Wb. 4b24 . a s m. nach n-aile , Wb. 8a3 . éile, éle (influence of céile, GOI p. 308 ), 6a15 , 6c18 . a s n. na aill , Wb. 17c23 . g s. nach aili , Wb. 17b28 . d s. nach ailiu , Sg. 209b12 . a p. amal na heliu, Sg. 9b1 . ailiu gl. quos (nullos tepefacit sol), Ml. 94b20 . Fem. g s. inna aile , Thes. ii 15.42 (BCr.).

(b) With double stem ala aile, alaile, with dissimilation araile (with stress on -ail-) (as adj. precedes noun; as subst. does not take article or other proclitic, cf. Ped. Ériu xv 188 ff.).

As adj. n s n. alaill ṡain, Sg. 6b24 . allail (recte alaill, edd.) pronomen , 209b10 . g s. alaili thríuin, Sg. 96a4 . d s. alailiu chruth, Ml. 98d1 . n p. alá aili aidme, Ml. 89a9 . alaaili réta, Sg. 111b5 . a p. alaili dliged, Ml. 18c11 . g p. ala n-aile ndoine, Ml. 54a21 .

Fem. a s. allaili mbeasti, RC xi 446.1 . g s. ala aile aidme, Ml. 51c5 . d s. alaili tain gl. quando, Sg. 222b2 . n p. ala aili interiecta, Sg. 10a1 .

When used with a prep. ending in a vowel alaile sometimes drops its initial: holailiu, Ml. 80a2 . horaili, 2a6 . fulailiu (sic MS.), 102d2 . folaill, Laws iv 102.14 . But hualailiu, Ml. 40d17 . Sg. 25b12 . With la see substantival use infra.

n As subst. n s m. alaile, Wb. 6b20 . n s n. alaill, 7d11 . a s m. alaile, Wb. 5d15 . arele, 9c19 . With la: lelele, 16c24 . a s n. alaill, 4c33 . aláil, 12a10 . araill, 23b21 . g s. alaili, Wb. 4c13 . aláili, 12a34 . álaili, 13a9 . araili, Sg. 10a10 . áréli, Wb. 13a5 . d s. alailiu, Wb. 2a14 . arailiu, 21a13 . n p. alaili, Wb. 13a16 . ala aili , Sg. 215a1 . a p. with la, lialailiu, Ml. 14a4 (liaailiu, MS.). liala ailiu, Sg. 32b5 . g p. ala n-aile (gl. reliquorum), Ml. 37a21 . Sg. 201b15 . d p. alailib, Wb. 25b13 . Sg. 208b8 . Fem. a s. fri alaili , Sg. 202a4 . d s. aréli (see above), Wb. 8a7 , alaili, Sg. 189a7 . 212b3 .

In Bardic verse this form alliterates with words beginning either with r- or vowels: líonmhar dá reic re-roile, DDána 61.3 . sgol i n-ucht ar-oile ag ól, 103.25 .

(c) Unstressed forms (always adjectival preceding noun or aí, see below, and most usually with preceding article or cach). With article (both words indecl.) n s m. indala mmod, Ml. 45b11 . a s m. indala fer, Wb. 4c16 . d s. dondala lucht, Wb. 16c20 . n s f. indala chlas, Ml. 138d1 . g s f. indala rainne, Sg. 74b7 . a s n. indala lestar, Wb. 4c32 . With cach, usually cach la: cach la sel, Wb. 15d9 . cach le céin, Ml. 19c1 . Without art. somet. also all, see C I (a) below.

A. The form AILE.

I As adj. following its noun other, second: frituidecht a.¤ anísiu, Sg. 21b11 . pronomen naill, 197b17 . fogur na liter na.¤ , 4a8 . guidiu itge n-a.¤ , Fél. Ep. 413 . anní nail as much again, IT ii1 180.177 . cethri fogaetha a.¤ , SR 49 . immon michil lasin crosfigill-so immon muiri lasind crosfigell na.¤ immasech `with the next', Mon. Tall. 137.z (§ 28) . do nach raod aliu `to any other matter', 143.30 (§ 43) . isind le[i]th ailiu, Críth G. 591 (eliu, MS.). do c[h]ellaib elib, BColm. 62.20 . forsin triur aili `the other three', RC xxiv 174.10 . aisceda imda eili, Sc.M² § 4 R . Longínus in ainm ele, PH 673 . a dhuine dhiombuain eile, DDána 27.3 . céd eili d'uaislib `a hundred other nobles', IGT Decl. ex. 60 . ┐ ní eili and furthermore, Hy Maine 161.31 . beag oile as congnamh ré chois `little else', Dán Dé x 17 . aill with non-neut. noun: ro-lēcus-[s]a gaí n-aill cucut-su, Sc.M² § 13 . issin láim n-aill, MU² 543 . do thuc bulli n-aill, TBC-LL¹ 1998 . fecht n-aile (n-aill), úair a.¤ another time, on another occasion see fecht and 2 úar. Of future time, next, forthcoming: lathi n-and resint samḟuin a.¤ cind bliadna, LU 3298 ( SCC § 10 ). cosin caiscc naili `until the next Easter', Mon. Tall. 132.17 (§ 12) . nach (na) . . . a.¤ (aill) any other . . . : nábat nacha arm aili `let it not be any other arms', Wb. 11d14 . dochum nacha rainne a.¤ , Sg. 188a12 . indtan noteigdis nach leth aili, Mon. Tall. 129.18 (§ 6) . in nacha reduibh ailib, Ériu ii 106.9 . Masc. with neut. noun: huare nad fil na nert n-a.¤ , Ml. 29d5 .

n II As subst.

(a) another, the other, others etc.: cuit inna aine ┐ inna a.¤ of the one and of the other, Thes. ii 15.42 (Bcr.). amal na heliu `like the others', Sg. 9b2 . arus leth do fallaib an aill do doebdadaib `for half is due for the neglects, the other for the claimants,' Laws iv 126.21 Comm. mad a.¤ da lina beta olca folaid `one of two parties', ii 366.11 . ma a.¤ dá lína bes anfoltach, O'D. 565 ( H 3.17, 441 ). co ndearnadhsom in a.¤ chédna likewise, TFrag. 22.22 . mani tucad . . . ní din chéttadall ni bered a n-aill, Sc.M² § 1 . ní fargaib bennachtain ┐ ní thuc anaill (alali, v.l.), RC viii 52.25 . aroile . . . anaill the one . . . the other (ref. to léo), Grail 3399 .

(b) period of two days: a.¤ do mnaib . . . treisi do rig, Laws i 78.15 . nat ṡasai aena tar a.¤ `that one day should not be extended beyond two days', 120.18 . athgabail a.¤ itir uin ┐ treise rosmidir Sencha, 126.11 . cach athgabail a.¤ , 144.24 .i. for ata anad naili ┐ apad aili, 146.21 Comm. is for dail na haili, 146.12 Comm. athgabail a.¤ do ingin im comorbus a mathar, 146.y .i. ar ata anadh naili, 148.3. Comm. a.¤ déc space of twelve days (cf. a.¤ déc one twelfth , (g) infra): a.¤ do mnaib, a.¤ dec doib im roe, Laws i 78.15 .

(c) Frequ. a n-aill something else, anything else: nimbe anaild arbera bith `he has nothing else that he may eat', Mon. Tall. 146.16 (§ 50) . ind lethbairgin ┐ ind cethramtu nó anaild `the half loaf and the quarter or other quantity, 151.z (§ 63) , ní fogbat merdrecha Ulad a n-aill acht foraim én dóib, LU 3254 ( SCC § 5 ). it é do theoir ríagla / nítroib anaill bas diliu `have thou naught else dearer', Ériu i 194 § 7 . in fil anaill? ol Grigoir `is there anything else?' ZCP iii 30.21 .

(d) Hence with ocus, etc. furthermore: ┐ anaill forácbus[s]a . . ., LL 279a7 . ┐ anaill béus, iarfaig-siu and furthermore, ask . . ., TBC-LL¹ 1920 . ┐ dano a n-aill and úair ni chesend nech, LU 2654 . ┐ anaill niro tagaill . . ., Grail 2786 . Cf. similar use of araill: et araill aile dana béus, TBC-LL¹ 106 . ┐ araill and, dano, . . . ní fil rígain . . ., LU 4015 ( SCC § 46 ). araill ele bheós ro leth ainm . . ., AFM v 1858.z . ┐ araill ele nir bó siodhach . . ., vi 2052.10 .

(e) Uninflected aill . . . aill one . . . another, some . . . others (not found in O. Ir. Glosses): imrordus in rígraid / . . . / aill úas laithib lígdaib / aill fo díanaib déraib some . . . others, Fél. Prol. 23 . aill fir mair . . . / aill ingene húage `one of a mighty man . . . another of a virginal maiden', June 5 . áill fri cumaid . . . aill ele fri teichead (of persons), Alex. 309 . .lll. carpdech . . . aill bruitt budi aill bruit deirg `some in yellow mantles others in red mantles', RC xiv 412.8 . Hence adverbially partly . . . partly: aill is tóla catha crūach / aill is cōra cacha crích, ZCP xi 110 § 30 . go ruc in ingen leis aill ar áis aill ar égin, Ériu xi 46.13 . Cf. aill .i. aonfecht .. . ut est aill torla tres tochuired, O'Dav. 34 , Ériu xiii 15.11 .

(f) With nach any other: arna arroímatsom nach na.¤ `lest they should receive any one else', Wb. 14d37 . cen acaldaim nach aili, Sg. 153b7 . cen acomol naich aili do `without joining any other to it', 197b17 . nib écen na aill, Wb. 22d12 . ni gessid na aill act búaid precepte, Wb. 26a34 . ní epur na haill `I say nothing more', Sg. p. 217 marg. sup. (Thes. ii xxii). in fail na aill adcota[r] dam, Trip.² 1323 . cona bía cuit do nach ailiu i nHére, 2766 . do-bérad naill ( = na aill) would give something else, BDD² 276 . With partitive DI something else of: asbéram na aill diar ṅgnímaib, Wb. 17c23 . in fuil anaill d'ingantaib air?, Grail 2983 . Cf. aill do buadaib Duind C. andso something of the triumphs, TBC-LL¹ 1529 .

(g) In numerals (fractions). a.¤ déac one twelfth: oile dég f., IGT Decl. § 3 . oil a dég (oil dhég v.l.) lochdach, IGT Decl. § 14 . aili deac brotto `the twelfth part of a second', Thes. ii 13.29 (BCr.). erpais Patraic aili deac Erend dó the twelfth part of Ireland, Trip.² 911 . `a.¤ dhéc the twelfth part, the Brehon's fee . Anglicé allayéag,' O'Don. Suppl. ni uil aile déc dosomh ┐ atá éiric a gubreite fairsium, O'D. 536 ( H 3.17, 432 ). da tecarthar ni da folaid cruid on breithemain, no ailedec, Laws i 234.17 Comm. diablad na aile dec, 234.18 Comm. no co thormaigi fa geall co roib aile dec, v 252.20 Comm. log a breithemnuis, aile dec, 212.22 Comm. Perh. also in: ni bhía an oile dēgsi am díaigh / nach foighe Ó Bríain d'éicsi úaim, IGT Decl. ex. 216 . barr na ngēg uile re n-idnaibh / uile dég gun fidhbaidh ortt (lochtach), ex. 225 . Cf. Kl. enair for dardain ail uathaid fuirre `the second day of the moon thereon', RC xviii 176.27 (Tig.). 284.2 . For ail dec 35.9 Stokes suggests reading ail uathaid.

B. The form ALAILE etc.

I As adj.

(a) other: aliud pronomen . i. is allail (recte alaill, edd.) pronomen , Sg. 209b10 . cenn cridi ┐ alaaili réta `and other things', 111b5 . sech alaili dliged ┐ indliuchtu `apart from other sayings and meanings', Ml. 18c11 . imtech[t] Boinde . . . ┐ alanaile n-aband, AU i 308. 11 , cf. 330.4 , 374.4 . In later lang. neut. form somet. used after noun irrespective of gender: leth in moige . . . al-leth allaill, RC xi 446.52 . don taeb araill, Stair Erc. 782 . isin luing araill, Grail 2969 . isind láim anaill, TBC-LL¹ 1719 . Note also: adhaigh n-aill n-aile another night, BNnÉ 324 § 38 .

(b) Usually some, a certain (gl. quidam, aliquis): hualailiu chlausul gl. uelut in clausula, Ml. 40d17 . holailiu lon gl. quodam adipe, 80a2 . ainm alaili thríuin `name of a certain hero', Sg. 96a4 . alaill ṡain, 6b24 . hualailiu mud gl. quodammodo, 25b12 . con alailiu fogoir (leg. fogur, edd.) gl. aliquo `with some sound', 39a2 . alaili tain gl. quando, 222b1a . ac gūmāidim ala naile nairec ninganta falsely boasting of various wonderful inventions, Corm. Y 825 . cornan alaili cuislendach, `a certain piper Cornan', Mon. Tall. 131.23 (§ 10) . alaili fáith marb, Trip.² 1395 . di araile anmcharait, ACL iii 5.3 . aroile fer angid, PH 818 . doní . . . araile gaitt irisech `she commits a certain pious theft', BColm. 84.10 . i n-araile domnuch, ZCP iii 33.15 . ro indsaig araile carruic . . . ┐ ros buail, Grail 1435 . in araile locc i lLaighis `at a certain place', AFM ii 1066.3 . Cf. co aroile mainistir ecin, RC x 187.4 .

n II As subst.

(a) another, the other: ni ferr nech alailiu, Wb. 2a16 . ni áir do neuch molad alaili, 16a24 . is coitchen do cechtar de ainm alaili `the name of each is common to both', Ml. 14d12 . intí diib bes tresa orcaid alaile, Ml. 19d6 . tar cenn alanaile gl. aliorumuice, 95d9 . Sg. 201b15 . cenmathá dobrethir ┐ alaaili `except the adverb and other (parts of speech)', 71b17 . muidit secht catha ren Osseirgé for na Déise . . . asberat araile is tricha cath others say, Ériu iii 138.102 . in foirend is craibdige araile `the folk who are more believing than the rest', PH 6363 . coná baí aithgne neich sech alaile díb, TBFr. 271 . cach gabal tra issuidiu araile hisesam `every other division is sung sitting, the next standing', Mon. Tall. 140.4 (§ 31) . gach clas ro claideadh do línadh do arbaim alaill do imbim the furrows to be filled alternately with corn and butter, Laws iv 98.14 Comm. drécht diib i nAidniu, araill diib oc Dubcechair, ZCP viii 305.30 . Hence alaile . . . alaile etc. (the) one . . . the other, another: biit alaili and rofinnatar a pecte rosíu (sic) docói grád forru alaili is iarum . . ., Wb. 29a28 . alaaili diib hi remthechtas . . . alaaili dano it coitchena eter remthechtas, Sg. 215a1 . Later araill . . . de is used of all genders: comérgit Ulaid araill díb . . . araill, LU 5017 . Cf. a dá grúad . . . co ndeirgi fola laíg ┐ araill eile co solusgili sneachta, BDD² 38 . Also when first part of phrase contains ind ala (infra).

(b) With idea of mutual action each other: con rochra cách a.¤ lit. that each may love the other (= that all may love each other), Wb. 6d1 . rosbennach cách dib elathain aroile, Fél. 4.20 . Eogan . . .┐ Oed . . . do marbad aroili, Ann. Conn. 1340.12 . ar bruinnib ┐ ochtaip aroile ┐ a chēile, Fl. Earls, 80.17 . Frequ. with prepp.: combad imned for araill domsa so that it should be trouble upon trouble for me, Wb. 23b21 . Cf. in peccath for arele, 9c19 . is ball cách dialailiu, 5d4 . ar a ndig cechtar dīb sech anaile (araile v.l.) so that they can get past each other (of two chariots), Corm. Y 1082 (96.11) . ni dernai nechtar n-ai olc fri araili, TBFr. 24.3 = fria chéile, 420 . ón tráth co roili, BDD² 1251 . lán ón orsain go ar-oile / an teach . . ., DDána 85.37 . casmhail a rún dá-roile, 92.6 . an ro loitseat Goill ┐ Geraltaig imo roile (roile) isan tansa `the injuries mutually done upon each other', AFM v 1734.15 . dīss derbrāthor dieroile `two . . . brothers', Fl. Earls 124.1 . ?asrean a ceile agh fo laill do `his neighbour shall give him another calf', Laws iv 102.14 Comm.

(c) somebody, something; a certain person or thing . In sg.: araill tra cairigedarsom there is a certain thing (?) (`there are other things now which he blames'), Wb. 25b9 . So also: [con]-secha alaill indib (`he corrects another thing in them'), 26c1 . aroile do lāmhoip S. Niclās `one of the hands', Fl. Earls 80.20 . ba ingnad liasna Fomoire alaill tarfas doib isin cath a certain thing, RC xii 92 § 122 . atpert aroile fris `a certain man', Stair Erc. 1449 . Note also: ara ara bélaib isin charput sin araile forseng fánfota forbrec a charioteer in front of him . . . and he was, LU 9274 . In pl.: is sí cétbaid alanaile `this is the opinion of some', Ml. 36a1 . circunflex la grecu for alailib diib, Sg. 208b8 . With DI: araill d'feraib Midi `some of the men of M.', RC xviii 23.31 . do deachaidh fein cona mac . . . ┐ ar oile dia mhuintir innte, Leb. Gab.(i) 242.26 . d'foraithmet araill dona neithibh remraiti, 272.6 . araill d'áes na cemenn sin, CCath. 86 .

(d) As adv. (d s n.) arailiu `otherwise', Wb. 21a13 (introducing an alternative explanation); cf. alailiu chruth gl. aliter, Ml. 98d1 . alailiu, Wb. 9a23 (see Bergin, Ériu xiv 29 ; xvii 1; Pedersen, Ériu xv 188 ). alaile, Anecd. iii 59.2 . araili .i. gne eile, Laws iv 68.3 . Perh. also in TBC-I¹ 1044 , TBC-LL¹ 1833 ff. (reading ... cadān co leith. Allaile (alailiu LU) dia tonda etc.) .

C. The form (a)la, al(l).

I As adj.

(a) other, one of two, second (in this use a `compositional prefix', GOI § 394 ): all-aidchi on another night, IT ii2 194.21 . alachéill in sin, ZCP viii 313.29 . Morc .i. ala flaith na Fomoire, Leb. Gab.(i) 80.30 . béra cend ríg alathúaithi lat, BDD² 727 . fria lesa alabrugh of other territories, O'Curry 454 ( H 3.18, 242a ). rogrād fir alathīre 'great love of a man of another land', Ériu ii 15 § 2 . ? nach for ala thire tí tarrassais 'that you did not abide upon the surface of another land', PMLA lvi 940 ( LL 37013 ). li ala lécuinn Saul `by one of S.'s cheeks', Ml. 55c1 . ala n-or di i teg, a n-aill fri sīn, Corm. Y 35 (aurso). ala thred dub alaili find, Anecd. i 57 § 58 . tēora blaī būirig . . . blaī mescae . . . alablaī dúnaid la túatha téchtai tecraiter the second exemption, ZCP xi 83.1 . cath Ocha alachath `the second battle', RC xiii 54.10 . ala-chor second contract, Laws ii 274.z . mád ala feacht iar mbrethaib forru `for the second time', 66.16 . See also under compds. and 1 al. See also under allabrig.

(b) With article ind ala one of two, (the) one (. . . the other) (see also B II (a) supra): dotóeth indala fiacail airthir a chinn `one of the two teeth', Thes. ii 248.9 . arambé indala rann cen diall `that one of the two parts be undeclined', Sg. 74b6 . ind ala c. gl. praetermisit unam c (i.e. by writing hoc for hocc), 205b5 . co lluid tré scíath n-ete indala heóin one of the two birds, LU 3282 ( SCC § 7 ). doroigu ind ala fer . . . et romiscsigestar alaile, Wb. 4c16 . is léir dorigni indala lestar is dínnimu dongní alaill, 4c32-33 . ni coir dídnad dondala lucht et troscud dond lucht ailiu, 16c20 . īadais andala (indara, LU) sūil . . . asoilg alaile, TBC-I¹ 394 . benaid . . . Mac Cecht a chend dondala fir . . . ro boí in fer aile oc élúd, LU 7942 . Loch nE. dindala leith di ┐ Slíab C. dind leith ailiu, Trip.² 1957 . Later indara: indara láim dó fri ubull bragat in chon. dobeir araile fria chúl one of his hands, LU 5012 . indara fecht . . . canait ceol . . . in fecht n-aill contúaset fri ceól muintire nime, 1978 ( FA 5 ). is hé indara fer . . . ró an . . . Donnmal int aili, Trip.² 1521 .

(c) ind ala the second (cf. tánaiste): cengsat siar dind ara chur `for the second time', Metr. Dinds. iii 4.33 . isin dara cét lá deidenach don ré `on the second last day of the term', Laws iv 136.1 Comm. Hence in compd. numerals: ala rann deac `one twelfth', Thes. ii 13.29 (BCr.). issed indala nainmm déc the twelfth name, Thr. Ir. Gl. 25.9 = indara hainm, Corm. Y 750 . indala descipul lxx at the seventy-second disciple, Laws i 20.2 Comm. fir errainne co alasét sesed with sixty-two `séts' ZCP xii 361.21 . ?torad cach trethain ala cairrge, Laws v 484.2 (Comm. takes as all beyond). Cf. co treathan ala cairge no ala caire, O'Curry 20 ( H 3.18, 9a ).

(d) cach (a)la every other, every second: cach la céin . . . in céin naili sometimes . . . sometimes, Ml. 19b1, 3 . cachlacein `alternately', Mon. Tall. 146.29 (§ 52) . is i fescur cachlacēin / dlegar dīdnad dōib they are entitled to a meal on alternate days at vesper-time (of fasting regulations), ZCP xiii 29.14 . cach la sel dún for imrádud dé in sel aile for precept `at one time meditating on God, at another time preaching', Wb. 15d9 . ammarbad cach la sel iarum do a mbeogud indtale dia marbad `he continues alternately to mortify and revive them from their dying state', Mon. Tall. 147.16 (§ 52) . bó cona timthuch cech la blíadnai . . . colp[d]ach ḟirenn lee in mblíadnai n-aili every second year, Críth G. 266 . cach alablīa[dain] every second year, Corm. Y 1082 ( Anecd. iv 96.16 ). cach ara bliadain, Laws iv 140.29 Comm. druinech cechla bean / crecōir cechla fer, ZCP ix 170.17 . ate cuir treineacha la Feine cach la fear dia urgaire, alaili dia forngaire, Laws iv 54.13 . gach re n-am alternately, Dán Dé v 41 .

II n As subst. indala n-aí (invariable) one of the two: is dochu ind ala nái oldaas a n-aill, Wb. 4b24 . togu ind ala n-ái . . . damnad alaili `to choose one of the twain . . . to condem the other', 4c13 . ci atbela ind ala n-ái ni epil alaill, Sg. 30a3 . ind ala n-aí antúaid alaile andess, 67b22 . co n-accai in da mnaí . . . indala n-ai brat úaine impe alaili brat corcra, LU 3285 ( SCC § 8 ). elcuig indalanae, ruibidh alailiu, ZCP viii 105.11 . da fítt . . . inddala hí do tabirt do Día . . . araile do tomailt fadein, Mon. Tall. 161.10 (§ 80) . Later also ala (n-)aí: ar lēicse ala aí di arailiu, ZCP xv 316 § 10 . ni frith ala ai do thacru, 354 § 42 . dá [n]dorus [n]-and—comla[e] ar ala n-aí, clíath ar alailiu, Críth G. 101 . bōthar, talla dā boin fair .i. alanāi for fot alaile for tarsnae, Corm. Y 1082 ( Anecd. iv 96.17 ).

COMPDS. cosnamach fri hailecricha, Ériu viii 173.28 . i n-ailithír, Trip.² 2033 . asna hailithírib foreign countries, TTr.² 1747 (cf. ailithir). aile máthair, Sg. 152a2 (not treated as compd. by GOI § 394 . Perh. infl. by the Lat. altera mater). See also C I (a) above.

anfoirbthe

Cite this: eDIL s.v. anfoirbthe or dil.ie/3577
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: anḟoirbthe

adj (1 foirbthe). Later anḟoirbthe

(a) incomplete, imperfect (of persons or abstract qualities): imchesti anfoirbthi `imperfect mutual questions', Wb. 29c11 . mád anforbthe ind anim, LU 2126 ( FA 19 ). ar tola collaide ┐ ar n-accobar anforbthi, LB 132a17 . díchurid uad in uabar n-anforpthi, PH 3494 . is anfhorbthe sin a cleirig (of a cleric tempted by desire), Fél. 40.25 . dōene anforbthi, ACL iii 316 § 44 . As subst.: ni tuccai nach a.¤ / buith fo riaguil mo chomae `no imperfect one understands', Ériu i 202.8 . cid mor d'ulc do-gné . . . / . . . is d'anfhorbthi, Celtica ii 29.13 . In religious sense: int óis a.¤ , Wb. 13c13 . do óis anfoirbthiu, 12d26 . na bi heirisi .i. na bi hanḟoirbthi, O'Curry 2287 ( Eg. 88, 21(22)c ). In more literal sense: ionadh fhir anfhoirfe rude, uncivilized(?), BS § 58 . Of young people, immature : minores .i. inn aes moith ┐ anfoirbthe, Ml. 45b17 . lenamh ócc anfoirbti, BNnÉ 239 § 171 . an giolla beg anfoirbthi (of Cú Chulainn), TBC St. 742 .

(b) Of numbers: foirbthe ar anfoirbthiu `a perfect number for an imperfect' (gl. decem milia), Wb. 9a10 , 12d25 . corrici míli .i. foirbthe ar anfoirbthiu gl. et alia mille, Sg. 207b10 . āirim anforbthe amal atā .iii. . . . āirim forbthe ut est a sē . . . airim ollforbthe ut est a dō dēc, Auraic. 1443 . is si sin in dethber airme anforbhthe amal rogabh a tri no a cuig ar nach fuillter o chouitibh, 4493 . āirem anfhurmithi na n-apstal īar n-imorbus i.e. eleven, MacCongl. 51.14 .

Gramm.: sechmadachtae n-a.¤ past imperfect (tense), Ml. 62a16 .

ar-fich

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ar-fich or dil.ie/4111

Forms: airgal

v (* air-fich-, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 521 )

(a) fights, does battle: arslaidh a n-áthu arfich a ngressu he fights their combats, LU 8313 ( FB 23 ). arfich ó aíb ech ┐ analaib fer, 8347 (ib. 24 ). arfich far n-áthu ┐ far n-irgala, Comp. CC 8.24 (`he wins your (fights in the) fords', Gloss.). fer fiaclach caille, cullach arfich tréd, O'D. 2201 (Nero A vii, 140a). tricha cath ba clothach n-oll / arfich arm Illand ṅgorm, LL 6085 . ardafich he fights (overcomes?) them, ZCP xii 235 § 52 . ? coarfichbem coemchlanna Carpri cosa (rhet.), Corp. Gen. 79.13 .

(b) overcomes, vanquishes: arfiuch fuili `I vanquish blood' (a charm), Thes. ii 249.7 . arfich tola tothlai `that vanquishes urgent desires', Fél. Apr. 15 . arfich gāis gail wisdom overcomes valour, Anecd. iii 13.18 (= Tec. Corm. § 15.2 ). in tṡluaig tictís dia thaichmi / arfigtís a glan-graifni `conquered its bright races', Metr. Dinds. iii 2.7 .

Vn. airgal.

1 bith

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 bith or dil.ie/5971
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: inb, betho, beotho, betha, biuth, bithu, bithe, mbetha, bethaib

n u, m. GOI §§ 73 , 307 . n s. an b.¤ , Blathm. 245. a s. inb, Wb. 22b13 . g s. betho, 1a3 , 14b10 , 29a8 , 31b18 , Ml. 16c5 , 54a15 , 88a3 , beotho, Wb. 11a19 . betha, 15d9 . Ml. 46d6 , 68b9 . d s. biuth, Wb. 12c16 , Ml. 24b13 . a p. bithu, Wb. 4c4 . bithe, Beatha Bharra 62.111 , BNnÉ 7 § 23 . g p. mbetha, LU 2001 ( FA 6 ). d p. bethaib, Imr. Brain 26. b.¤ m. (acht gan illradh aige), IGT Decl. § 71.

I

(a) the world: isin biuthso gl. in hoc mundo, Wb. 12d4 . isin mb.¤-sa gl. in hunc mundum, 29b14 . is dered ṁbetho inso `this is the end of the world', 10b3 . fon mb.¤ `throughout the world', Thes. ii 334.4 (Hy. v). do thustin an betha, Ériu ii 98 § 1. tuigithir blath inb.¤ `blossom covers the world', Ériu xxii 41 § 4 (MS). ad-comaicc a erball do thochur in beatha tar a cheann (of Leviathan), BDD² 503. no sirfed . . . in m[b]ith mbras, LU 3554 ( SCC 29 ). céin boí in díliu forsin b.¤ (for b.¤ v.l.), Airne F. 76. in b.-sa is b.¤ cáich ar n-uair `this world belongs to each (generation) in turn', Ériu ix 48 § 22. m'ænur dolod forsin mb.¤ `alone I came into the world', ii 56 § 14 . da mad he in b.¤ uli dogebtha, PH 7581. timcheall an betha `round the world', TTebe 4471 . cech noeb . . . bias / for b.¤ barrglass broenach, Gorm. 250 Ep. § 1 . báidhtir an bioth, DDána 26.16 . do lucht an bheatha, TSh. 7645. Freq. in phr. fir betha inhabitants (men) of the world, mankind, people: fir betho, Ml. 16c5 . di ḟeraib Hérenn nach di feraib betha, BDD² 917.

Often in theolog. sense the (temporal or material) world as opposed to the spiritual one: ó deithidin in betho .i. ó sétchi, Wb. 10b15 . amal ro mbo marb Ísu don biuthso `dead to this world', 15b25 . ní car Brigit būadach b.¤ , Thes. ii 327.13 (Hy. v.). mo chlūasa / . . . / nār ēistet . . . / . . . for b.¤ bētach the shameless world, ZCP vi 259 § 3. docotar . . . fri tola in betho `to worldly desires', Wb. 29d8 . See 1 cé.

(b) land, territory, soil: urcollud b.¤ brug betha go banna .i. uasal-collud for in mb.¤ .i. for in tír, O'Dav. 312. dobeir in ṁblicht isin ṁb.¤ , Ériu ix 50 § 37. bid íatt bus mesa / dūibh for b.¤ Banba, ZCP viii 110. 31 . lachttrom dúibh an bioth `the land', Magauran 354 .

(c) existence, life: i ndiththrub in beotho `in the desert of Life', Wb. 11a19 . ná ragad ar cúlu . . . co bruinni mbrātha ┐ betha, TBC-I¹ 1834. báire an bheatha `life's game', Dán Dé vii 3 . ar táille an bheatha i n-a mbíod span of life, xxiii 25 . Note also: amal aipgitir in betha `the alphabet of the fauna', Auraic. 5600.

In ds. in phrases ar-beir, airbert, comairbert biuth, see these words.

In phr. isin b.¤ , for (ar) b.¤ in the world, in existence; hence developing to anywhere, at all; (follg. a noun) any, whatsoever, see also s.v. 1 cía; freq. follg. a noun in neg. sentences nothing, no(one) at all: can co rabur acht oenlá . . . ar b.¤ but one day alive, TBC-LL¹ 1112. baterc for b.¤ mnai a samail for chóemi scarcely anywhere was there to be found, PH 830. na Ulltach eli for b.¤ `or any Ultonian', MR 38.16 . imad dérchointe . . . ┐ cecha eccumsanta for b.¤ of every unrest whatsoever, PH 4314. a bpéin budh mó san mbioth `in the greatest possible pain' (Gloss.), Desid. 1440. gibé ar bioth ní whatever , 593 . ni chumaic tra nech for b.¤ (isin b.¤ frecnairc-sea, LU 1996 ) tuaruscbail . . . na n-oirecht sin, FA 6 (LB). nac fitir a chuphus for (ar v.l.) b.¤ cidh no biadh doib donn orgain, Anecd. ii 49 § 11. nach béradh aen troigh teichid . . . ar comha ar b.¤ , Cog. 252.18 = ar coma sa b.¤ , 186.10 . ní háil leam . . . obair ar bioth shaoghaltha, Desid. 2511. ní fhuil ar bioth eascairde aguinne as mó, 478 . Note also: ba lōr a onōraighi . . . ar b.¤, dia madh rī no-biadh ann grand . . . enough indeed for a king, Fl. Earls 46.z . ar b.¤ any, Eg. Gl. 707. nom-bera ar bith at all events, RC xxiv 60 § 19. tar gach mbioth ` everywhere ', BS 30.22 . See McCaughey, SGS xii 30 - 33 .

II Age, period (see GOI § 365 ): is hé in b.¤ dédenach diand ebrath b.¤ sīl Chuind ┐ Muman ind [ḟ]laith co bráth, ZCP viii 313.30 . b.¤ cc. rob. ccl. a `bith' is 200 years, a `robith' 250, O'Curry 21 (H.3.18, 9b). o rosaigh co dechnemur is ann is ro b.¤ , 20 (ibid.) ? ic turc[a]bail na mbithó, Lism. L. 760. In phr. isna (tre, tria) bithu for ever: is dia bendachthe isna bithu gl. benedictus in secula, Wb. 4c4 . tria bithu na mbetha (Lat. per saecula saeculorum), LU 2001 ( FA 6 ). tre bithu betha (= in saecula), Lat. Lives 2 § 2. noco techtai sruth intí ná eissi acht lán tre bithu (= semper), 29 § 23. ro hedhbhradh dó hí trí bithe 'was surrendered up to him in perpetuity', Beatha Bharra 62.111 ​​​​. anaid hi sist ┐ hi ccairdes tre bithe, BNnÉ 7 § 23​ . piana ... o nach ternaife tré bíthe, Aisl. Tond. xiii 3 . See sír.

Compds. (freq. bid- in Wb., but cf. bith- 3b4, 3b7, 24a17). Only in meaning lasting, permanent, perpetual (later also as intensive and/or alliterative prefix). Cf. b.¤ .i. sir, Corm. Y 126 n. 8 . nad etsa bas b.¤ , ACC 98 (indep. use of bith ever , Misc. Hib. 50 § 366 ).

With adjj.: ag Tegh Moling biothainglighi ` ever-angelic ', BS 80.y . an ógh bithálainn bennaighthe `beauteous', BNnÉ 275 § 254 . robo bith-buaghlach (? -báoglach) bailedhach buadhartha, O'Dav. 297. act bid bidbéo gl. non moritur, Wb. 3b2 . is bithbeo corp crist, 3b4 . bad bithbíi i n-ísu, 3b7 . totchurethar bíi bithbi (rhetoric), LU 10027. teine bithbéo ` perpetual ' (Vocab.), Críth G. 180. a bhó bhithbhliocht always rich in milk (of Mary), Aithd. D. 97.27 . fear biothcaithmheach ` constantly-spending ', AFM v 1424.26 . nipsa bla bithdilis (b.¤ diles, v.ll.) inalienable , Anecd. ii 60.6 . it bithdommai sidi dǽ gente gl. inopes, Ml. 36c14 . bithḟotai sidi gl. uocalibus semper longuis, Sg. 5b 1 . bithgairddi gl. perpetuo breues, Sg. 5a14 . scieth bithghel, TBC St. 4561. Ol ṅguala .i. dabach Geirg, for lár in tige bithlán ` ever-full ', Ériu iv 30.25 . Brigit bé bithmaith `ever excellent', Thes. ii 323.1 (Hy. iv). a cind secht mbliadan mbithmas, ZCP v 23 § 4 . no-meilinn léini mbithnuí, Lament 2 . combi bidslán ` ever-sound ', Wb. 4d33 . cen soinmigi ┐ doinmigi do tecmung . . . acht robu bithsóinmech doib, Ml. 90c27 . for pianad bithsuthin `in the everlasting punishment', Ml. 26d12 .

With nouns: .iiii. bliadna pennite ┐ bith-ailithre (= cum peregrinatione perenni), Ériu vii 144 § 21. beannacht ┐ bithbheannacht perpetual blessing, DDána 120.31 . bithbés troiscta `continual fasting', Mon. Tall. 161.1 . uita aeterna .i. . . . bid bidbethu, Wb. 4a13 . immin bidbethid, 15c14 . i mbithchāin `as a perpetual law', Cáin Ad. 28. bithchen do thíchtu, MU² 58. comalta ┐ fer bithchotaig dam, LU 6007 (TBC). mnā do uhith i mbithdōire in perpetual bondage, Cáin Ad. 16. bithfer fíta na riaglae one who keeps to the prescribed ration, Mon. Tall. 151.24 . donfé don bithflaith `eternal kingdom', Thes. ii 325.16 (Hy. iv). do bithgres always, SR 4912. ní dúthrais a bithingnais `his perpetual absence', Thes. ii 291.10 . [i m]bithphennit, Wb. 24a17 . bidserc doib gl. inseruerunt sé doloribus multis, Wb. 29b23 .

With vnn. doarngert bithanad isin chill sin, RC xxiv 56 § 17. bhithbeith gan forcenn i fudhomhnuibh pian, Ériu ii 122 § 63. biddixnugud fírinne `eternal existence', Wb. 14c31 . bidfoglim doib gl. semper discentes, 30c15 . in bithiata hi robaid riam `of the perpetual closure', Ml. 46a8 . ba ferr lim dobertha oldaas a bithtarṅgire than to be constantly promised, Mór M. 262 § 1.6 .

With vbs. ( GOI § 384 ): ro-bithbéo it pardus `may I be for ever', Fél. Ep. 39. faithchi i mbithbiat caírig `in which there are always' (Vocab.), Críth G. 198. in Coimde robhithbhai ┐ bhithbias, Ériu ii 106 § 19. ? is fris con bith bennaib búredar (= bith-buireadar co mbennaib, ed., 105 n.43), ZCP xi 87 § 48. a Chrīosd, bhiothmhairios ad th'airdrígh, Parrth. Anma 4827.

brénad

Cite this: eDIL s.v. brénad or dil.ie/6719

vn. of brénaid. act of rotting, putrifying, stinking; (trans.) making rotten, defiling: cen lobadh cen brenadh dó (sc. tola muir[é]isc . . . fo tír), Dinds. 76. mar marb ar mbrenadh, Ériu ii 90 § 11. go mbia bréantas ag bréanadh shrón an chiontaigh i n-ifreann, TSh. 6547.

bris(s)id

Cite this: eDIL s.v. bris(s)id or dil.ie/6848
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: brisde, bris(s)ed

v (bres ? See Thurneysen, Keltoromanisches 94 s.v. (Fr.) briser; Pisani, Jn. Celt. Stud. i 50 - 51 ; cf. also Études Celt. xxv 129 ).

I Trans.

(a) breaks, smashes; destroys; gl. benaid, 1 bronnaid, con-boing: rosbriss no roben (gl. rosṁbī), Thes. ii 346.31 (Hy. v Comm.). ronbris, ronbrúi, O'Mulc. 830 g. na robris gl. nádchombaig, Thes. ii 346.30 (Hy. v Comm.). brisi . . . cia robria ord for inneoin `breaks', O'Dav. 300. brisid scíathu lenna laech, LU 3632 ( SCC 31 ). brisus (brissis, LU) Fergus . . . .iiii. carptiu dēac, TBC-I¹ 325. ro brisiset cleith di clethaib ind rightige, LU 8371 ( FB 25 ). brister in carbat, Laws iii 264.23 Comm. gur mhionuigh ┐ gur bhris iad, TSh. 821. anbthine . . co ro-bris a longa ` wrecked ', PH 7040. Of bread breaks (into parts); cuts up: tuccad (bairgen eorna) . . ., ┐ ro-bris, PH 1771. Of inflicting physical injury breaks, fractures; injures (bones, limbs, etc.): brí ([ro] bri[athar], ed.) .i. brisster . . . diablad n-aithgina neich ro briathar .i. diablad sin boin bristi ┐ bó laisin mboin slain, O'Dav. 287. ro brise Cochlán gilla Léith, Ériu xiii 66 § 61. Cf. co ro brised leo C. gilla L., Dinds. 126. go róebriss (curro bris, Stowe 5021) cnáim i n-a chind, TBC-LL¹ 6138. brister coss erēne circe, Fing. R. 310. tothfond foro co mbrister `until they (sc. horses) are injured', Laws i 164.14 Comm. In more abstr. sense. na briss . . . mo chride, LMU 18 ( IT i 81.37 ). ro brissed (rus-bris, v.l.) co mór `he was greatly broken', RC xiii 60 § 55. nīr bris a hōigi in t-Ardrī did not violate, ACL iii 244 § 10. In poetry, causes imperfect rhyme (by not employing corresponding consonant classes): snaidhm gaídhilge agus a glas | créad bhriseas 'what causes the binding of pronunciation and its clasp to be imperfect', Celtica xxvii 58 § 1 . bristear aghaidh i n-aghaidh | comhardadh ag cosanaibh 'consonants corresponding to one another make rhyme imperfect', Celtica xxvii 58 § 2 . See also comardad (c).

(b) With following prepp. etc. cid nodmbrisi in fer so a bóairechas? what deprives this man of, etc. (?), Críth G. 145. brissis gésca din chrund, Fraech 196 .

(c) defeats, puts to rout; overthrows; gl. maidid, sraínid. Absol. and with FOR (AR) usu. with obj. cath, irgal, etc. Also with DI: muna má .i. muna mbrisi, O'Cl. rosroena .i. robrisse gl. roróina ( reunn cathu, 18 ), Thes. ii 325.36 (Hy. iv Comm.). ? brissid úath n-adarccna (rhet.), LU 8354 ( FB 24 ). brisid Cūc[h]ulaind tricha lōech dīb cosin tailm C. overthrows (injures ?) thirty . . . with the sling, TBC-I¹ 1075. brississ tola he (sc. C. Cille) subdued desires, ZCP viii 197.5 . brister immairecc fairsom gl. conterat, Wb. 7c4 . cach immarec . . . is M.F. nod ṁbrissed, Fing. R. 61. ro brisius aurgala / for triunu na túath, LU 9349. noí catha ro brissitár rempu, 2797 . oenḟer ro bris for cach, Sc.M² R 8 . Note also: an tí dobrisfeadh uirre gan an chain ┐ an cadhus sin do dhíol `whosoever should refuse to pay (her) that tax', etc. Ériu v 94.17 . brisis Mogh Nuadhat de `M.N. defeated him', Keat. ii 4077. brisfighear díot fá uile ríoghachtaibh an dómhain (= dispergaris per omnia regna, Deuteronomy xxviii 25 ), Eochairsg. 80.5 . Fig. go mbrisfimni (mbrisimni, MS.) . . . / don ríoghraidh ghil `we (sc. poets, with our . . . praise) shall put to rout', Ériu ix 164 § 14.

(d) Of an oath, pledge, justice, etc. breaks, violates, transgresses with prep. FOR (AR) prec. indirect obj.: dia brisistair na reanna aicsidi ┐ nemaicsidi fair when he violated the stars, visible and invisible, Dinds. 81. bristir fír fer for Coin C., LU 5839 (TBC). ni ba me brisfes firindi fair lit. (that will) infringe justice on (him), Aen. 2744. do briseadh cunnradh ar cách, DDána 21.1 . Conn . . . nár bris bóid, IGT Decl. ex. 680.

II Intrans.

(a) breaks; breaks down, fails, comes to an end: ni robris (= non est fractum), Lat. Lives 80 § 73. ge nār brissetair leaca oigridh na prímhabhann, Fl. Earls 64.14 . do bhás uí Ch. . . . / druim ratha Banbha do bhris, SGS iv 66 § 27. brisfidh do dhearc your sight will fail (in death), DDána 43.8 . With AR: brisidh uirre re lo conoidhche it opens (of an abscess), 23 K 42, 434.18 . fa dheoigh air ass iad (sc. bronnta) do bhris `the gifts . . . failed him at last', O'Hara 950. With amach: brisfid do chantaóirighe amach le fíon nuadh = thy presses shall burst out, Proverbs iii 10. no gur bhris síad amach a harm an Priustúnidh `they broke away from', Rel. Celt. ii 206.6 .

Part. dar bernadaib brisde , CCath. 4104. for comardad briste imperfect rhyme see Murphy Metrics 1 , Ir. Syll. Poetry 8 - 9. bristi, na bi a n-aic[d]e ` broken (silver), not made up', Laws v 396.19 Comm.

Vn. bris(s)ed.

See bristid.

cáemna

Cite this: eDIL s.v. cáemna or dil.ie/7609

Forms: caomna, caemna, cáemnad, caomhnaidhe

n io, [n. ?]. Later f. caomna (g s. and n p. id.) f., IGT Decl. § 3 . caemna, Verbs § 47 . Later occas. cáemnad. Note g s. caomhnaidhe (without rhyme) (cáemnugad?), Studies 1920, 99 § 11 . Cf. cáemanta.

(a) act of protecting, keeping : ron-snáda mo C. / don bithchoemnu bías `to the eternal protection', Fél. March 13 . sírchóemna m'anmasa, LU 1193 . bid co[e]mna dó fri dianbas, Trip. 381.10 . is sind ro briss in cóemna, LL 296b11 ( SG 363.1 ). lá na breithe bí gam chaomhna / a chroch Dé, Dán Dé iii 19 . do-dhēandís . . . / cáomhna is coimhēd mo mhacáimh, KMMisc. 360 § 8 . as íad dorinne . . . caomhna ┐ comhfurtacht dom chill, BNnÉ 266 § 234 . báttar . . . seal ar choilltibh c.c. acca ccaomhna `sheltering themselves', AFM v 1764.4 . chum an tsoisgéil . . . do chaomhna to adhere to, Eochairsg. 43.2 . cen caemna edaigh . . . imme, Stair Erc. 124 . Attrib. g s.: an formad seachain, ná tabhair dhó grádh caomhna, Párl. na mB. 1485 . In sense of friendship, camaraderie: an lánamha . . . bhíos i gcaomhna ┐ i gcomann a chéile, TSh. 1104 . caomhna .i. caraid, O'Cl. In concrete sense: tri cáemnai Erend: abdaine Lusca, ríge trí Cúalann, secnabóite Arda Macha `the three comfortable places of Ireland', Triads 46 . caemna Érend Lusca, aíníus Erend Ceanandus, BB 65b12 . caomhna .i. comairce, O'Cl. c.¤ AR protection against : cen co fríth c.¤ ara chomolc `though he found no shelter for his guilt', Metr. Dinds. iv 110.34 . brothracha . . . dia ccaomhna ar fhuacht, Hugh Roe² 22.24 (fo. 6b) . do chaomhnadh na Breatan ar iomruagadh na nGaedheal, Keat. i 6.11 . c.¤ ó: do chaomhna . . . ó gach úabhar, Párl. na mB. 3002 .

? caemna .i. eolus na filidechta, H 3.18, 652a 36 .

(b) act of providing entertainment; pleasure, good cheer, food : cothud .i. cōemna, Corm. Y 303 . fledh . . . / do bí ac Aodh arna caomhna, SG 28.34 . cōemna cōecat bliadnae, Corp. Gen. 70.14 ( Ält. Ir. Dicht. ii 15 § 1 ). carthain cǣmna, miscais míchǣmna, MacCongl. 93.26 . frithberta coemnai cumnig dichaemnai, LL 344d18 ( Tec. Corm. § 16.58 ). ni tódúscaither tola o bar corpaib tria choemna, Alex. 982 . ní chuincet téti na comai (coemnai, v.l.) in cenél sa, 840 . dia n-dígba nech ní den airbert bith ┐ din choemna connic do thomailt, 974 . do c[h]ōemhnu nā d'innemh, Sitzungsb. Pr. Akad. v (1919) 93 § 26 . dlegait aurḟocra co ol / drond dia caemnu cuit, LL 3761 . Domnall rochaith caemna crech, 15850 . ni thormailt bíad no bronnud / no caemna no comloṅgud, Metr. Dinds. iv 326.18 . is lia cach coemna ┐ cach airfitiud forsin talmain, LL 279a9 .

Cf. coimge, cumnad.

1 cía

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 cía or dil.ie/8965
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: cía, ci, cá, gá, cá, gá, cár, cá, cía, citné, cia, ciodh, cisne, cipé, cipé

interr. and indef. pron. Given in list of interrogatives, Laws v 6.1 ff. Comm. ; for forms permitted and prohibited in classical verse see IGT Introd. § 16 . See GOI §§ 456 - 460 , Strachan, Ériu i 6 ff. , Bergin, Ériu xii 205 ff.

A As interrogative.

I General form cía (ce, ci) (`unstressed or weakly stressed,' GOI § 456 ) without indication of gender. In later lang. freq. cá, gá (cf. gia, TBC-LL¹ 56 , giá, 730 etc.). who? what ? (in direct and indirect interrogation).

(a) With dependent verb (as conj. part. or in accordance with Bergin's Law). As subject of vb.: cia beir búar o thig Temrach who takes? LL 1566 . cía rét Brega?, LU 9306 . ? cia saig do rús Herind. . .?, LL 1787 . cía taisiu?, LU 6307 . cia bátar do bésa?, Tec. Corm. 7 . ní fitir R. cía-rraba / crích `whose was', Metr. Dinds. iv 4.45 . immoscoemorcuir ceptar hé, Corm. Bodl. 34.21 . As object: ce róich `how far . . . extends', Sg. 26a11 . cia roich eneclann?, Laws iii 536.1 . cia-roig dire? Ir. Recht 13 § 14 . cia fairneac?, Ériu xi 44.3 . cia acca whom didst thou see? LU 7135 . bec a ḟis duid cia do ordo, Anecd. i 7.5 ( do(o)rdo, SCano 198 `what I croon', Gloss.). So also in cíar(r)icc (separate article). Rarely cid in this use. Nom. cid dernad?, LL 251a18 . Accus. cid dernais?, LL 251a39 .

With inf. pron. usually cich-: cichib foruireth? . . . fon-roireth imned what has been caused to you? TBFr. 399 = ZCP iv 45.28 . cichib-roerad? what has been prepared for you (i.e. how have you fared?), IT iii 237.62 = cichib roér ol Bodb. Nin foruireth nammaith olse, LL 246b24 . mnā brataiter . . . cichi brata? cichi aig? cichi goin? who abducts them? TBC-I¹ 1081 (cicen, cíche, ciche, LU). ? ciche bárogell a regg / sonend ┐ dubdonend, LL 376a4 . Exceptionally: ar feisidh ciab dergeine `who has made you', Blathm. 91 § 6 . fir gontair, mnā brattar, bai agthar . . . cistabrata, cisdagata, cisdabeir? TBC-I¹ 2989 . See ZCP xxii 29 .

With copula: innaní asbertis cipad a déne ind hesséirgi `that used to say what would be the swiftness of the resurrection', Wb. 25b27 . conid fessed cia bed flaith inna diad, Ml. 89b7 . For cía ba chan see can.

Hence in various adverbial meanings. (b) how ? cia Ulto ána acca?, LL 13439 . cumma cīa-thōetsat imbi, Sc.M² 3 (`how', Gloss.). cía festa `how should ye know?' Metr. Dinds. iii 48.12 . cia ḟacci ar sluág?, TBC-LL¹ 223 . is cuma dó c.¤ eipli, Liad. and Cuir. 20.17 `how he dies', Contribb. 363 . With deut. form: cía dorochair Cróeb Dathi?, Metr. Dinds. iii 148.1 . Note also: cīa tairicc? Tairic hi cind teora mblīadna when? ZCP viii 312.29 .

(c) where ? In later lang. cá, gá (nasalizing), with narrative tense cár. cá `lochdach', IGT Introd. § 16 . Orig. with téit: ni fetatar cia deochaid where he went, LU 3329 ( SCC 12 ). nocon ḟess cia deochatar, LL 290a27 . With deut. form of vb. cia dochuatar ass? where did they go? TFerbe 565 . In later lang.: cá ngabhaid?, Oss. iii 232.5 . Keat. Poems 1545 . cá bhfaighion tú an raidhirc so?, ZCP v 215.419 . cā ndearnais do c[h]ēadc[h]reach?, Feis Tighe Chonáin 145 . cár ghabh, 490 . cá ar fríth é?, ZCP v 215.418 . carbh ail les dul, Stair Erc. 981 . With attá: ga ffuil maithe na Féine?, Duan. F. ii 322 § 15 (see iii 151). ga bhfuil suim . . . na naitheantadh `what is the abridgment?' Donlevy 52.22 . ro fhiarfaigh I. ca rabe A., Stair Erc. 25 . do f[h]iafraigdur dī cā raibhe sí whence she was, Feis Tighe Chonáin 1666 . Note also cia racha, ITS xvii 188.1526 etc.

(d) With fíu glossing Lat. quam, how (great, etc.): cia fíu .i. mór ní gl. quam admirabile, Ml. 17b12 - 13 . gl. quam (sollicite), 23a10 . ce fiu gl. quam maxime, Sg. 114a3 . See Dict. Fasc. fíu and compare cia fiú me bheith beó etc. how can I remain alive? ITS xvii 159.963 .

(e) With follg. noun (often as antecedent of rel. clause). With masc.: ciachruth gl. quomodo, Sg. 212a1 (see 1 cruth). cia dune ind inni-sseo gl. qualem . . . hominem, Ml. 35c33 . cia mod .i. imba do gres . . . `what measure', Ml. 100d4 . Perh. also in the follg.: dús cia port indib maith óigedacht `in what place', Wb. 26b24 . cia salmscribdid conicfed són `what psalmist?', Ml. 14a6 . amal nad finnatar sidi cia loc sainriud dia regtais, 99b10 . cia randdatu bis indi, Sg. 27a12 . cía cethrar? Rí ┐ brithem etc., Críth G. 536 . cia file ar secht ccumhaluibh dlighidh what poet . . .? Ériu xiii 18.4 . cia fot atúsa isin chotlud sa how long? LU 6359 . gá fad?, TSh. 1618 . ca sén dob ferr?, Ériu iv 224.13 . ca ræt in muirn . . . ar-at-cluineam?, TTebe 1901 (see crét). ca hinad?, LB 137b51 . gá cara don uile as fhearr?, A. Ó Dálaigh xv 5 . DDána 50.12 . gá fhios nach . . . (ḟ = bf?), O'Gr. Cat. 456.10 . gá chúis fá . . ., 12 . cár bh'iongnadh?, Hard. i 204 .

(f) With fem.: cia airm `what place', Wb. 12d18 (see cairm, cáit). ceseirc gl. quam caritatem habeam, 14d15 (differently GOI 289 ). ce meit gl. quanto, 33a1 . ce mét aimmser bes indi `what times may be in it', Sg. 25b16 . ce méit a[s] sinu aís quam A. `how much older', Wb. 34a5 . See méit. cia dú gl. quo, Ml. 40c7 . cia inni soas `how He turns', 123d8 (see note). cá huair díscáeilter in doman nó cá tráth thiucfus Dia?, RC xxiv 382.32 . ca delb rogabais? Ériu iv 104.15 . cia ben is mesa do mnáib?, ZCP viii 113.11 . cá slat is slimghile bas?, O'Gr. Cat. 332.27 . ga hobar dhíbh nach doiligh?, Studies 1921, 588 § 1 . gá breath rug féin ar an bhfear? Dán Dé xxv 16 .

(g) With neut.: cia eret mbete oc m'ingraimmim-se `how long?' Ml. 33a9 . cia airet bis micomus etc., Laws ii 186.6 . cia hairet, PH 1501 . See airet, cairet. anfis ca cinel aire nos beir etc., Laws i 188.6 Comm. cia forcenn doberthar foraib, Ml. 33a9 . na fetar . . . ca galar . . ro-t-básaig, CRR 3 . cia indas conaittechtatar a n-íc, Ml. 90b16 . décaid . . . a arm cia indas rundgabsat, 55c1 (see indas, cindas). cia leath reghma?, Anecd. i 2.9 ( SCano 25 ). cia tír, ZCP viii 318.33 .

(h) cía with follg. prep. and noun or pron. rendering oblique cases of Lat. pronn. (see GOI 228 - 229 ): cia ar neoch gl. ad quid, Sg. 217a5 . Cf. cia erneo gl. quam ob rem, Ml. 101a4 . ci erniu gl. quamobrem, 47b1 . cairhe biit, Sg. 242b1 leg. ciairneo = quamobrem, n . ciarrét gl. quamobrem, Ml. 48c2 . cide gl. de quo (cia de? cid de?), Sg. 3a9 . cia du neuch gl. ad quem . . .? Ml. 16a9 . cia dunaib hi do foirmsed gl. de quibus adderet? 35a17 . cia du forcunn gl. quem ad finem, 33a9 . cia du rét gl. cui rei? 121d1 . cia isnaib hí gl. in quibus, 49c13 . cia in n-erbirt ṁbiuth gl. in quem ussum, 46b28 . cia i n-olcaib gl. in quibus malis, 23b2 . ci onaibhi, gl. quibus, 47a10 . cio ainmnid dixnigidir gl. ex quo sit nominatiuo? Sg. 207b3 . ciofut gl. usque quo, Ml. 20a17 . 93a15 . ci ho fothaib són gl. quibus (dementiae facibus accensi sunt), 16b19 . ci o retaib gl. quibus rebus, 35c35 . gl. ex quibus rebus, 44d24 . cio thomus gl. qua libra etc., 55d16 . So also probably in later lang.: cia chuige a ndírighmid ar nurnuigh, Donlevy 364.16 . ca as a tangadar, Stair Erc. 1412 . casa ticit siat, Ir. Astr. Tr. 146.1 . Hence perh. in later phr. gá d'ulc what is the harm of? (see olc, Bard. Synt. Tr. 45.z ). gá d'ulc bogur an bhása?, IGT Decl. ex. 758 . gá d'ulc mé gan mothugadh?, ex. 224 . gá d'ulc óigrí eslobar?, O'Gr. Cat. 470.9 . Cf. 2 cair. See Éigse xii 136 .

(i) In phrase cíadono why (then)? (see GOI 289 See further Éigse xii 136 .): ar cia dono gl. ut quid autem, Wb. 2d10 . hóre ro-n-ortigestar dia cedono tuidecht friss `why then?' 6a4 . ce dono rigne occo `what, then, is the good of prolixity in it?' 8d15 . cepu dono adrad dǽ do thabirt do Pool?, 7d16 . ciapu dono dún indarpe geinte `why should we then expel the Gentiles?' 19a14 . ? ēludh ann for romhuir / nícon fess cia dona, ZCP x 344.13 .

(j) In various constructions with adjj. In early legal texts with superl.: cia measom do cain ts.? `what is the worst of . . . ?' Laws ii 194.1 . cia dilsiumh d'ḟiledhoibh, Ériu xiii 31.2 . cía háithemh eó? acais dlighidh, etc., 25.6 . Prob. also: cia so do rinnibh etc. 20.30 = ciaso do ninnaib, O'Dav. 1289 . In later lang. in phrase gá beag is it not enough? ga beag mur ḟáth duilghis, IGT Decl. ex. 1057 . cá beag d'fhiadhnaise? Studies 1920, 97 § 2 . gárbh fhearr céim, 98 § 6 . gá bheag dhúinn dá dhearbhadh ort is it not proof enough for you? Content. vi 25 . Freq. with compar. in rhetorical questions. Cf. ga meisde ┐ ga c[h]an ┐ ca d'ulc, Bard. Synt. Tr. 45.z . gá cruaidhe ceisd what more difficult question (is there)? DDána 12.1 . ga deacra ní do neithibh?, IGT Decl. ex. 938 . car doilge [le] inghin Taidg / éc Aodha aird . . . / inā d'Echtaigh a bás bróin / Corbmaic hūi Cuinn . . . , ZCP vi 269 § 4 . ca ferr duind ar mbeandacht do chur . . . go fer in liubair sea na a fágbail aigi?, LU 2769 (colophon). gá fearr m'áis-se ná m'aindeoin how is it better to get my consent than to constrain me? Dán Dé i 5 . ga feirdi me do m[healladh]?, Bard. Synt. Tr. 45.2 . cá bud fherrde, PH 7582 . gá misde don cholainn chriadh / an t-anam d'faghbháil ilphian what harm? Dán Dé xxv 41 . m'uabar gá mó mínáire?, O'Gr. Cat. 346.33 . do Mhuire gár mhó guasocht?, Dán Dé xx 47 . Note also: cá minic do chionntaidh sé `how often', Donlevy 320.28 . an lícc dimor uccat fil forsan tulaigh, cía mó atá i ttalamh dhi na uása how much more of it is in the earth than above it? BNnÉ 8.16 .

II Inflected (`more fully stressed', GOI § 456 ) cía, cisí cid, citné etc. In classical verse the forms cia and ciodh are stressed, see DDána 12.1 , 58.35 . `cía, can, cúich . . . were in direct interrogation used with the copula *esti (cf. mod. Ir. cé h-é) . . . ', O'Brien, Féil. Mhic Néill 88 .

With indep. form of verb (a) cía m.: cia beraid doib a remeperthe `who will refer to them the aforesaid?' Ml. 37a9 (perh. transition from I(a) above). Usually with rel. clause: cía rédes ruind?, BDD² 294 etc. cia dib gebus t'forba?, RC xxiv 194.1 . cía de as sru[i]thiu?, Críth G. 492 . cīa nād cūala?, ZCP xi 109 § 7 . Prob. also in follg., where there is no mark of rel.: cia con-icc ní dúun?, Wb. 4b11 . cia folínfea? 12d14 . cia dobera íc do Sión?, Ml. 34d5 . dús cia atrebea isin chathraig `to learn who will dwell in the city', 35b24 . cia de dogega `which of them I shall choose', Wb. 23b33 . dús cīa díb do-ngegad, Sc.M² 19 . caidi bad ferr la hUltu, a mmarb nō a mbeo . . . ?, TBC-I¹ 681 (cia dé, LU). do fiarfaidh A. de cia dá cloind do beith etc., ZCP xi 128.34 . quis est horum qui vicit . . . .i. cia ro blaiss bethaid?, LL 281a32 . cia aca is rogha leat?, Hard. i 274.y .

(b) cid n. (rel. frequently marked): cid aem no-dom-bera-sa cucuibsi, Wb. 1a8 . cid atobaich cen dílgud cech ancridi `what impels you . . . ?', 9c20 . nícon fitir cid asbeir, 12c22 . ro fitid cid aridfuirig a foilsigud, 26a11 . dús cid forchomnacuir indi `to learn what hath happened therein', Ml. 16c5 . cid du-gén-sa osme `what shall I do, even I?', 30b9 . ní fintar cid attrebthar and `what is possessed there', Sg. 200b13 . niconfetadar cid fodruair `they . . . knew not what had caused it', Mon. Tall. 147.13 . asbert nicon feddur cid fil do sirgabail na biaide I do not understand your continual singing of the Beati, 127.2 . cid dogén?, ZCP viii 113.9 . cid tuccais ō Guaire what hast Thou got from G.? ACL iii 2.10 . With subst. vb. in nasalising rel. clause what ails, what is the matter with? see attá. With copula: nad fes cid as maith no as olc [do] denum, Ml. 51b7 . dober Dia aithesc cid as denti no cid as imgabthi, 51b8 . cid as dech do mnáib? what is the best type of wife? ZCP viii 113.5 . Note the variation in: na cóig guthaidhe, cía dhíobh as glan no as neamhghlan, no ciodh as cáol no as leathan da bfeadhuibh oireaghdha, ┐ créd atá na ndefhoghrachuibh etc., IGT Introd. 1.10 .

With nouns in sense who is? what is?

(c) m. cía (also occasionally with other genders, and regularly with ainm, see Ériu i 9 ): cia haes esca?, SR 7964 . cía méit in gill?, Críth G. 282 . cía [a] míad sidi?, 586 . cia th'ainmsiu?, LU 10774 . cía hainm? what's your name? BDD² 264 . cía hainm dá mnaí?, 365 . cia n-anmand what are their names? TFerbe 357 . cīa cétliaigh robūi ind-Ēirinn?, ZCP viii 105.12 . cía bar lín-se is[in] indsi-se?, Ériu iv. 142.21 . nī hētur cia hainm in maic aile, ZCP viii 293.24 . cia don teora crannsa an chroch, Dán Dé iii 27 . cia an monghar mór-sa?, DDána 85.6 . cia an duine bhias beó = quis est homo? TSh. 3125 .

Forms in -so, -su etc. (cf. indic. pres. 3 s. of 2 cía. See Celtica vii 38-42 ): ciaso baili ata in crann?, SR 7931 . ciaso buaid duinne?, Bodl. Dinds. 27 . cia so gním what deed? TBC-LL¹ 958 . cíasu anmann bai for suidiu?, IT ii2 195.153 . nī fetar-sa ciasu adba etc., Fing. R. 969 . ciasa bas . . . do bean . . . in bas-crann?, Ériu iv 116 § 26 (`whose hand?'). ciasa fogealtad son? .i. miach cacha mis, Laws iv 106. 15 Comm. ím comirc doib ciasa hairm ín ro scuirsid, 106.22 Comm. ciasa run, Auraic. 5210 (císi, v.l.). ciarsat comainm celisiu what's your master's name? LL 9041 (TBC). carsat comainm?, Acall. 390 . ciarso choma no bértha dó?, LL 8937 (TBC). garsa gním sain?, 9990 (TBC).

(d) cía with pron. who is? cia tussu díxnigedar who art thou? Wb. 4c24 . cia hé nu-n-dixnaigther-siu gl. qui sis, Ml. 75c9 . ciahé gl. qui (sit), 14d14 . cia hé `who is it?' 46c17 . ce hé roscríb `who it is that has written', Sg. 197a19 . cinní sin frisnaiccai siu `whom dost thou expect?', Thes. ii 227.30 (from intí-sin, GOI § 460 ). cia so who is this? Anecd. i 8. 23 ( SCano 257 ). cía so?, Sc.M² R 10 . cīa and-so?, 11 (for inso?). cia tusu?, RC xxiv 200.9 . fochtuis Feilis scela de, ce he budein, ZCP vi 25. 18 . cīa pad cīa . . . acht . . . Condere . . . who should it be but C.? Ériu i 114 § 3 . beag a fhios agad . . . / cia misi d'fhearaibh Eireann, Studies 1924, 243 § 17 . With -so, -su: cía so thú?, LU 10768 = ciasu tu, Ériu xii 170.3 . cársa cúich thú?, Mer. Uil.² 90 . cársa cía[s]ib-si etir?, 250 .

(e) cía with follg. prep. as antecedent of rel. clause (cf. I (h) above): cia dia fiachaigedar gl. ad quem debeat, Ml. 44b3 . cia forsa tiagat? `on whom do they fall? Laws ii 178.3 . nicon-fes cīa ō-tucad, Sc.M² 3 . cia ar nach tug a thrócuire? Dán Dé xxv 46 . cor dib Painiel dian / Gabriel cia ar nach cor?, KMMisc. 254.14 . d'iomad rogha ag Día dá dhiomda / fola cía dá ttiobhra ar tós, IGT Decl. ex. 109 .

(f) cisí, ces(s)í with f. noun: cisí chomairle ǽm `what indeed is the counsel?' Ml. 34c18 . cissi slabrai in díscer sa? LU 5162 (TBC). cissi gáir seo?, 4475 . císí (sic) suillse mór sucut?, BDD² 591 . áil dūn a ḟis . . . cisī rāth so, Ériu viii 157.6 . Freq. with follg. rel. clause: cessi aimser hi rogbath `at what time it was sung', Ml. 24d10 . cisi aimsir hi for-comnactar in gnimai, 97a5 . cisí digal didenach dumberaesiu a Dǽ, 100d5 . co n-eperthae cia aiccent ┐ cisi aimser derb thechtas, Sg. 26a6 . cisi rann dogéntar di, 27a13 . cesí aram gl. ad quod genus uel numerum refertur, 197b3 . cisi chiall bís indib `what is the meaning that is in them', 217a2 . cisi muime bat tualoing what fostermother could have? Blathm. 100 § 32 . cisi mathair con bert / an geinsi? ib. (MS. cisi in, text). cisi gnuis . . . forta napsalmo?, Hib. Min. 3.76 . cise noail noclanna `by what oath shall it be settled?' Laws iv 142.3 . cisi airm hi tá L.? LU 3620 (SC. 31). rāidh frim cisé (ciséd, v.l.) dāil di ṡund dogénum, ACL iii 294 § 13 . cisi breth rucais?, Rawl. 113a2 . cissí dichuimni rod dall?, LL 21767 . fég darisse . . . cisi chonar dotháet `look again, what road is he coming', RC iii 183.33 . inderb . . . cisi uair no cisi aimsir regthair, Ériu v 120.3 . cisí hairle do beradh, Hugh Roe² 292.14 . With ellipse of rel. clause: tair limsa . . . co ndérais. Cisí dígal?, MU² 1034 . Also somet. with other genders: ciasi animnairme (ainm n-áirme) fil . . ., Hib. Min. 2.41 . ciasi ord fil forna psalmu, 6.196 . ra iarfaig . . . cissi log conattaig, LL 30975 ( TTr. 156 ). occa scrúdadh . . . cisi cruth no aithfedh, Hugh Roe² 96.15 . Note also: atbertsat cipsi magen i ferfaithe in cath, Dinds. 188 ( RC xvi 274 ).

(g) cid with n. noun. In sense what is? cid aes ṅ-esci? BCr. 32a9 . cidh dire Mac-ḟuirmidh?, Ériu xiii 25.27 . cid an ní seo?, BDD² 242 . cid damhna bar ndocesaid?, ACL iii 310 viii 3 . ciodh achd ar ghrádh no ar ghrádsa / clár págsa d'fhior ón Aodhsa?, IGT Decl. ex. 137 .

With follg. rel. clause: imrádat imráti cid maith as déntí `as to what good is to be done', Wb. 1d7 . cid ḟolad ṡluindes, Sg. 25b17 (see note). ce torad gl. quem . . . fructum habuistis? Wb. 3b29 . cid chenél gl. quod genus . . . refertar, Sg. 197b3 . Perh. also: cidechor (= cid dechor) gl. quae sit differentia, 23a2 . In difft. constr. (cf. II (c) above): ced torbe doib etarscarad . . . fria tola what does it profit them? Wb. 13c6 . ce torbe dúib-si . . . in fogur-sin, Ml. 12d5 . ced slīab inso thall?, TBC-I¹ 614 .

(h) cid with pronoun: ced ed tra `what is it then?' Wb. 3b28 . cid so?, Mon. Tall. 130.15 ; YBL 118a23 ; ZCP xiii 179.3 . cid sin?, BDD² 448 . cid ón `what is that?' RC iii 184.25 . ceadh sibh acht na seacht dtroighthe what do you amount to? DDána 53.21 .

(i) cid with DO. With follg. neg.: cid dait-siu . . . nád bod latt curadmir, etc. why shouldn't you have? LU 8139 ( FB 10 ). cid daib . . . nach mair[b]fed sib?, TTebe 1865 . cidh damhsa cen dul d'iarraidh a maithme why should I not go, etc.? RC xxvii 294 § 38 . Note also: cidh duibsi what think ye of it? (?), RC xxvi 366.13 . cidh dhúinn déanamh a bhfeasa `why need I tell of them?' Content. iv 27 .

(j) cid with DI: cid de ón what does that matter? LU 6361 . cid de-side why so? TBC-LL¹ 5580 .

(l) cid with prep. and rel. clause: cid asa fordailtea grád túa[i]the on what basis have the lay grades been laid down? Críth G. 6 . Sliab B. cid diata whence is it named? RC xv 301.5 . cídh día ndearnadh Adhamh, 23 E 26, 5.18 .

(m) In similar construction in meaning why? With AR: cid arind epur frit why do I say it to thee? Wb. 5a31 . cid ara ndluthid caratrad friu iterum?, 27a30 . cid ara todlaigther inso, Ml. 32a5 . cid ara fodaim int ais firian inna fochaidi? 55d11 . cid armad machdad etc.? Sg. 167a4 . cid arṅdid huathuislib ildaib disruthaigedar?, 198b3 . cid ar bad?, Thes. ii 227. 34 . cid ara n-eperr Críth Gablach?, Críth G. 1 . cidh ar a fhuil Cuncha ar in inadhso?, ZCP xi 40.35 . With DI: cid dia leícid cundubairt for drecht uáib?, Wb. 13b12 . cid dia n-éirena(i)tar?, Críth G. 121 . rofiarfaig . . . desim cid dia mboi fora iarrair, Grail 1522 . With IMM (later FÁ): finnaid . . . cid imma ndernad in t-id, LL 8053 (TBC). cidh ma tancais alé `why hast thou come . . . ?' Ériu iii 158 § 11 . cid 'ma n-iarthai?, TTebe 1700 . cid . . . 'mara loirgis, TFrag. 118.15 . ciodh far dhoilghe trí thairnge?, DDána 40.10 . innis dúinn ciodh fa ttánghuis, Duan. F. i 78.16 . ciodh fa ttiobhradh, IGT Decl. ex. 1311 .

(n) cid as adverb, why ? cid no mbetha . . . on what account shouldst thou be . . . ? Wb. 4c24 . cid na déccaid?, Fél. Prol. 201 . ced nach maith?, Trip.² 1968 . cid nabsin Fedelm-sa . . . cichsed, LU 8296 ( FB 22 ). Tond Chlidna cid aréracht?, Metr. Dinds. iii 214.54 . cid éige, a bean?, Celtica iv 16.154 . cidh tāi a[g] gul?, ZCP viii 559.5 . cid . . . na caithi do chuidich? Ériu v 36.19 . do chách ciodh nach aithréasda?, DDána 58.35 . cidh na ro chomaillis an gealladh doradais?, BNnÉ 295 § 22 . Cf. cid ane . . . meic na mbachlach . . . do chomram cucum what business have the sons of rustics to be contending with me? Sc.M² 12 .

(o) where ? whither ? With téit: co n-at[h]comaircter nde cid ted, RC xiii 222.5 . cid nothēigid ?, ZCP xiii 176.8 . co fesamar úait . . . cid thége whither thou goest, Ériu iv 140.5 . ní fedar festa cidh rachad, Anecd. i 77.9 . cid lotar ?, LL 12826 . cid ghébmoe ?, BDD² 245 . Exceptionally with attá: d'iar[r]aidh fhessa . . . cuith a roiphi in ingen where, TTebe 33 (leg. cáit ?).

(p) In phr. cid tra acht, see trá.

Plural forms.

(q) citné, citni (prob. from cia ata n-é ` who, what (is it) that they are?', Thurn., ZCP xx 372 , GOI § 456 ). assindet sunt tra citné cumacte diandid cóir infognam what are the powers, Wb. 6a9 . citne gl. (sí . . . quaeritur) quae (gentes), Ml. 16b13 . cit né briathra robatar `what were the words?', 61b7 . cit né robatar `what were they?', 8 . asindet ón ciné (leg. citné? edd.) fochainn . . ., 101a3 . citni rig reachta . . . / robatar 'sind amsir sin?, SR 2347 . citni trenfir dotiarmórsetsu?, LU 10261 . cit n-é uisce . . . do-ríadhad?, BDD² 456 . ni fetar citne briga / mo dul i teach cor-riga I do not know what good there is in my going into the house to kings, Ériu v 30.2 . citni cenela na fuillet, Rawl. 69a29 . indis . . . dam . . . / citne clerig notrefet, / citne oic notndeirget, Three Hom. 110.16 , 17 . citne tire in geinseadar?, Leb. Gab.(i) 234.20 = Keat. ii 741 . Without follg. noun: citné foruar what are they which He has prepared? Wb. 8b5 . citne and dī rott eblatar?, LU 10284 . citn-éisidi?, BDD² 555 . ? citne in ferand?, LL 15993 = Todd Nenn. 222.3 (ceisi urrand, v.l. 223 n.).

(r) cisne (described as an `iarmberla', Auraic. 1308 ): cis n-é amuis ata chórai?, Críth G. 578 . cisne lesa . . . tascnat . . . ?, Laws i 230.21 . cisne tri leaca robaid?, v 450.1 . cisne sgéith sguirde caithche?, Ériu xiii 17.15 . cisne trí gealla nád fuilled . . .?, 33.28 . cisne tri horba doranaiter la Féne? O'Curry 2167 ( Eg. 88, 5(6)a ). cisne a trí a nemtiger cléirech, O'D. 2209 (Nero A vii, 144b). cís ní doghair oes eiscí? IT iii 262.12 . cia on cotagair æsa escai?, 61.18 = cis non dogar eassa uiscci?, Leb. Gab.(i) 264.13 . Exceptionally with pl. ending: cisneíd side ? . . . baes ┐ aneolus ┐ eitges, ZCP xii 363.2 .

(s) cis (see ZCP xx 372 , Ériu xiv 140 ): cis tána? ZCP xx 372.19 . cis n-dithle `welches sind Entwendungen?', 17 . cis duirn díolmhuine dlighther?, Ériu xiii 23.5 = O'Dav. 584 . cis dúar dían drongaighther . . . ?, Ériu xiii 26.2 = cis [i] duar etc., O'Dav. 883 . cis daghmaine domain dingnaith? O'Curry 2460 ( Eg. 88, 37(38)c ). cis rechta na gaibter a fiadhnaisi? 2600 ( Eg. 88, 51 (52)b ).

(t) Phr. cis lir how many (are) ? See Bergin, Ériu xiv 140 ff. cislir .i. cia lear no lin na sochaidi, Laws v 4.x Comm. cis lir tairgsin cach fine `how many are the . . . ?', 463.13 . gabála báise cis lir `the ways of folly, what is their number?' Tec. Corm. 14 (24.2) (gabail, v.l.). With follg. noun and rel. clause: cis-lir fir for a nasgar how many men are there who are bound? Ériu xiii 31. 21 . cis lir lanamna docuisin la feine? Laws ii 344.1 . cislir fodhla fil forsan mbron?, Anecd. v 24.16 . With follg. rel. verb: cis lir ata chóra[i] do ríg do giull how many (things) are legal . . . ? Críth G. 505 . cis lir congellait? Laws i 230.3 . cair cis lir dos-liad . . . ?, Ériu xiii 30.33 . Rarely with pl. -t: cesc citlir topuir, O'Curry 505 ( H 3.18, 257 ). See 2 lir.

(u) c(i)ata: ciata glinni con-daigi?, MU² 65 . cata cuir con-daigi-siu?, 72 . ciata builg itir ón?, RC xiii 66 § 67 . ni fedadar ceta inada . . . no indsechtais, CCath. 776 . Note also: cialín nasluag . . . / . . . ceti arbair, SR 7907 .

B As indef. in a variety of phrases.

(a) cía with noun: cia port i mbai a mathair wherever her mother was, Vita Br. 4 . cía baili i ffod as iatt sin / oidheadha na n-ócc eistidh `whatever place they may sleep' (reading i ffaoíit with note), Leb. Gab.(i) 188.3 .

(b) cía with vb. (conj. and prot.): cia tīasam wherever we go, Thes. ii 299.30 (Hy. i). cia bronntar indi, Críth G. 234 . cia taccra(i) whoever may claim (them), 425 (see 398 n.). cía denar cia therar whatever I do, whatever I say, Ériu i 227.5 . nocha n-érlai asin chathraigh acht cía térnai do rind gai, TTr.² 158 . a n-athair rempu cia thé `where'er he went', Ériu iv 100.2 . In chev. with adverbial force: cia bé however it be, LL 382 , 15039 . cia bia, Rawl. 137a38 . cia de do teacomnacair whichever it happened to be, Blathm. 98 § 25 (see notes). Cf. ciade gl. uter, Sg. 242a1 . ? is derb ní báes cia 't bera, Metr. Dinds. i 36.95 .

(c) cía with indic. of attá: cia bai dia chalmacht . . . bái dia nertmaire however brave he was, TBC-LL¹ 773 . niconibdis bandai cormmai . . . cia bith ara tecmainged dóib `they used not to drink a drop of beer whomsoever they might happen to meet', Mon. Tall. 129.19 . ( Ériu xii 209 ). cipia frisa ferthar tnú whoever shall be an object of envy, Ériu v 211.69 ( Ériu xii 209 ). cía búi de `whatever came of it' (cheville), Metr. Dinds. iii 396.23 . cía baoi dhe .i. gibé dobhi dhe, O'Cl.

(d) cip, cib with noun: cib cenél tra diaro scribad ind epistil to whatever people, Wb. 3b20 . cip port i ndēntar, Cáin Ad. 36 . Usually with cruth however it be, at all events: cipcruth bíid páx libsi etc., Wb. 5d33 . cipcruth tra, 12d24 . ni confetor cib cruth ind aingel fa dia, Blathm. 100 § 31 . See cipindus.

(e) cecip with noun (see Contribb. s.v. cech ): cecip maighean i raegbadh wherever, AFM i 30.3 . cecib tan tiostaois, v 1552.4 . tre bithin gona, no fiabhrasa cecib diobh whichever it was, vi 2024.5 . cecib nech tairisnighes iniort an coimdheadh, 2126.1 . cecip cruth foghabhtais, Hugh Roe² 86.2 . In follg. the use is strictly speaking interrogative: ní feas cecip tucht i tudchaidh, AFM iii 286.3 .

(f) cipsi with noun: cipsi aitt i loich dosfail, Rawl. 127a44 . cepsi cruth, BB 22b13 ( for cip c.¤ , Ériu xii 208 n. ). cipsi cruth `no matter how', Hugh Roe² 290.22 . cipsi mbith dáil for congra, Hard. ii 292.y . airlim n-eicne cipsí whatever it may be, Laws iv 92.z .

(g) cissí: ro geall Sir Persaual di sin cidhsi cor ara fetfad, Grail 1979 . case chruth i mbet, TBC-LL² 348 .

(h) cía bé, cipé, cid bé etc. with noun ( Ériu xii 208 ): cia bé a mmet `however great it may be', Ml. 61b28 . cipé leth tiasam, Thes. ii 299.42 . gidhbe an smólach ní chodhlann `even the thrush does not sleep', Duan. F. i 84.30 . cipe cruth, LU 3870 ( SCC 38 ). cipé rí bes hi Caisiul, ZCP viii 315.27 . ce-b e nech and do-neth . . . , PH 478 . cipé tan bud ríg tusa for Érinn 'whenever', FDG² 11.327​ . cipé a léire baistither in duine however devoutly, Ériu i 218 § 3 . gidh bé neimhdhéine do neinn, Dán Dé xiii 8 . cidh bé dhíobh staid, TSh. 3986 .

(i) cía bé, cipé etc. with verb: ciphéade (sic leg.) asberam `whichever', Ml. 25d11 ( Ériu xii 209 ). cipé da mbad áil etc., MU² 560 . céb é uabsi comallas frimsa hé, LU 9013 ( FB 76 ). atú ar bhaois gidh bé nach fuil, Dán Dé ix 8 . gidh bé ara geall, 16 . cibé labhras, TSh. 1781 . acht gidh bé éistios riomsa, Proverbs i 33 . gidh be ar bith bheanas ría `whosoever', vi 29 . Note also: mairbt[h]eim coich bē a dīe, Corm. Y 419 .

(j) cipé as adv. at all events , etc.: cipé gl. ubilibet, BCr. 31c2 . do gessaib ríg T. . . . / . . . cocad ruind co bráth ce bé `howsoever it be', CRR 54 . fiū cōicait cumal cipē, Fianaig. 50 § 27 . is maith liom a theacht gidhbé, Oss. vi 166.12 . ciphe de, BB 398b6 .

(k) cíabed, bad, beith etc.: ciabed ammet inna fochaide however great, Ml. 39a13 . cia beith a lin na noged however numerous the guests, Vita Br. 7 . ce bad hé frisa ndénte to whomsoever ye should do it (so Ériu xii 210 ), Wb. 9c24 . ciabadh hé richt a mbeith `in whatever shape she might be', Ériu xii 154 § 18 (TE). cebedh si maigen . . . a mbeith `in whatsoever part of Ireland she might be', ibid. cé beth da lánáille, ZCP viii 208.29 (but see Ériu xii 206 ). ge do beith do méit a tindenuis, Mer. Uil.² 146 . ciabadh e, Blathm. 96 § 20 , restored as ciabad de `whichever it be'. cia beith no co bia-so fó mebail whatever happens, LMU 10 .

(l) ciped (see Ériu xii 208 ): ciped techtas nech `whatever it is that anyone has', Wb. 12d41 ( Ériu xii 210 ). gip ed no raditís, TBC-LL¹ 152 . cipead dommaire `whate'er befall me', Ériu ii 90 § 16 . gibedh o ttíosadh whencesoever they shall come, TFrag. 190.16 . ciped mac díb no gabad gasced, TBC-LL¹ 1089 . giped chuin at some time or other, 3338 . ciped laa . . . forsa m-be notlaic mór (cidped, cipe, gebe, cip, MSS.), Ériu ii 208 § 28 . cip ed de at all events, CRR 4 .

(m) cid: cidh urrunnus nodleisead in t-athair `whatever proportion . . . the father is entitled to', Laws iv 60.24 Comm. cidh dergoine daon, O'Dav. 585 = cib dergona daon, O'D. 2199 ( Ériu xii 206 ). cid dusgní whatever he do, BColm. 100.9 . Cf. cidh ead dogneth hEchtair do calma imon Troi whatever brave action . . . , BB 433b24 .

(n) cid cía: cid cía bes inti whoever be in it, BColm. 52.21 . seanfhocal súd solus a chiall / ciodh cia do chum, Ériu xvi 132 § 2 . cidh cia ro chodail and 'san aidhchi sin nochur' chodail Didho, Aen. 873 . cidh cía donī, ZCP x 51.7 . na cionnta gidh cia 'gá mbeid whosoever shall have (i.e. commit) sins, Dán Dé v 13 . ? gidh cia frí senadh atúaidh, Duan. F. ii 166 § 44 . Note further: cia bad cia dia theilcfead (sic) sop, Ériu v 34.8 . cid bé cia thú `whoever thou art', TTebe 4720 . ciped chia díb nomarbtha artús, RC iii 183.8 . gidh créd do íar Aitheirne, IGT Decl. ex. 1377 .

See 2 cía and 3 cía, 1 cóich.

cían

Cite this: eDIL s.v. cían or dil.ie/9003
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: cén, cíana, cíana, chíana, ciana, cían, céin, céin, géin

Arch. cén ( Ériu ix 48 § 23 , xvi 146.7 below). The follg. may contain a by-form cíana: ed cíana , Harl. 5280, 42b (cited Meyer Contribb.), TTr.² 499 , hi tir chíana , Trip.² 1438 , if not attrib. gen. of the abstract cíana, q.v. Cf. also cu ciana , LL 13576 ( Irish Texts i 33.10 .).

I As adj. o, ā long, enduring; far, distant : c.¤ .i. fada, O'Cl. Attrib. of time: ho etartetarcur cián `at a long interval', Ml. 88d13 . sechmadachta ṅ-ocus ┐ c.¤ , Thes. ii 229.26 . fri ed cián for a long time, TBC-LL¹ 1846 . íar n-aimseraib cíanaib, Imr. Brain 17.12 . ra charusa in laech út uair chéin for a long time, TBC-LL¹ 4560 . loc dam-sa . . . co hūair chéin, ZCP viii 312.2 . tri rei ciana `for a long time', Ml. 90d14 . iar reib cianaib, Ériu xvi 36.5 . dolodar . . . filid . . . riab cianaib iarsna gnimaib-sea (`a little time'), Auraic. 149 = reib chianaiph, 2452 . roan . . . fri ré ciana = multis diebus, Lat. Lives 4.9 . bui iarum imale fri Fergus re ciana, Ériu xvi 37 § 1 . fria rē ciana, Grail 629 . bai cocad mor etarro fri re ciana iarsin, RC xxiv 186.9 . le headh gcian, Aithd. D. 52.5 .

Of place: i crīchaib cīanaib, ACL iii 224.20 . adclos ua na (fana v.l.) crichaib ciana comaidchi, TTebe 694 . écndairc cian ut ille gl. absenti, Sg. 138a2 . i cendachaib cianaib in domain, PH 5500 . tancatar a tirib ciana, 5497 .

Of persons: Colmān cian of yore, Corp. Gen. 126.2 . Conán máol coinntinneach c.¤ `wearisome (?)', Duan. F. ii 258 § 37 . Corpre comramach c.¤ (: fírian), LL 15741 . Nial c.¤ Caille `old', Arch. Hib. ii 61 § 42 .

Other applications: ce beo i tairisium chian, Airne F. 138 . gidh céim c.¤ , BS 120.15 . faghail chian distant, Magauran 4396 . in cú ch.¤ (: níad), LL 29333 .

Predic. with copula, usually long (of time): ni ba cián ṁbete oca cloinib, Ml. 28a10 . nipi c.¤ a masse in choirp lasting , Wb. 28c25 . ni ba cian mbias in pecthach, Ml. 56c22 . ni ba cián ṁbete and, 66d14 . is cián arfolmas dún in sin, Wb. 21a2 . as cian do rairngredh, Blathm. 127 . is cian bus cuman, TE 9 (Eg.). domun dīan / cia bether fair nī ba cīan, ZCP vii 498.5 . cian bhus bladh, Aithd. D. 21.36 . as cian ata an sean-fhocal, MR 286.21 . Of space: is c.¤ etarru `far', Ml. 119d10 . im fochróib bá c.¤ `whether at hand or afar', Sg. 151b2 . ré nách c.¤ , LU 1992 ( FA 6 ).

In phrases. is c.¤ co it is long till (freq. with neg. shortly, soon): niba ch.¤ (leg. c.¤ ? Edd.) cu forcenn á saiguil gl. instare tempus, Ml. 56d7 . níbí cian conid apail, 91d2 . mad c.¤ co tari a fobdhub if it is not immersed quickly (a spear), BDD² 1237 . nirbo chian co toracht C.C. in sligid cetna, LU 8530 ( FB 39 ). nir-bo chian do Chonchobor . . . co facca, CRR 11 . ní cian . . . co teccema frit-sa é, Grail 2665 . Note also: nir cian d'Ercuil . . . in tan nocunnuic in rí E. soon saw, Stair Erc. 463 .

is c.¤ ó it is long since, far from. Of time: is c.¤ ós accobor lemm far ríchtu I have long wished to come to you, Wb. 7a3 . is cian . . . o rot carus, Grail 2359 . robo cian o nach facca-som iad, 1550 . mairg nach cian ó dchualabhair, Content. xi 4 . cian ód cualadh, Keat. Poems 1357 .

Of place: ni cian huaib imbíat `not far from you where they are', Mon. Tall. 151.9 . ni c.¤ úait here he is, IT i 71.20 . is c.¤ uait . . . airm in-das-fil, TBC-LL¹ 884 .

In disjunctive phrases with gar: cid c.¤ cid gair gl. quanto tempore, Wb. 3c5 . cēn gair cech fān imthéit lēn `sooner or later every wanderer comes to grief', Ériu ix 48.23 . cian gar dom beith it ingnais `whether I be a long or short while away from thee', LL i p. xvi 11 . c.¤ garit co bráth, 307a8 ( SG 386.18 ). gēr c[h]ian gar, ML² 156 . As quasi-conjunction however long, as long as, while : cián gar ro batar for innuropair sin, TBC-LL¹ 2038 . cien goirit boi C. ig a díchur dhe, 2302 . co na baoí tesbhaidh neith . . . cian gairitt battar hisuidhe, AFM vi 2276. 11 . cid c.¤ gairit ro bás . . . atrochair . . . , Acall. 4736 . cian gar co toirset nóim ind until (?), 2673 (cid cian gairit no co tí, v.l.). See 1 gar.

With prep. LA: rochīan limsa anad fri sodain I am not prepared to wait that long, TBC-I¹ 375 = c.¤ lim-sa di shodain, TBC-LL¹ 881 . ba cian lasin righ boi an t-ara tall, BNnÉ 323 § 33 . cian lem . . . / tren tucc fa toirrsi m'aignedh it grieves me(?), 254.21 . fada ar saoghal d'éis na bhFian / ní cneasta ná badh cian linn if I did not find it tedious, Measgra D. 71.22 . cíen liom 's ní ar a ghrádh `I long for', Duan. F. ii 162 § 28 . Note also: is c.¤ dúni beith acot irnaidi, TBC-LL¹ 991 .

Adv.: in ch.¤ gl. diu, Ml. 38b4 . Cf. níbu in c.¤ (níbuncían, MS.) riam gl. non multo ante, 32b17 . ro clos cian son a garma `far', Thes. ii 312.16 (Hy. ii) glossed: fo Herinn. co c.¤ dar éis na haband `till long after', Metr. Dinds. iii 168.20 . co cíen `continuously', Ériu xix 10 § 5 . iar tochaithem a bethad dó . . . co cian i fhechtnaigi, PH 4296 .

II As subst. ā, f. (elliptical for ré c.¤ , Zimmer KZ xxx 26 - 27 ). a long time, period : triasna cíana cotaislia .i. trisin ré cian, LU 985 - 6 ( ACC 90 ). is cian mór ó 'tbaltsa, 9496 . baoi cian d'aimsir ag coimhmeasgadh flaithis na Rómha `a length of time', Keat. i 226.19 . mainistear . . . do bhí cádhasach cian d'aimsir, iii 1345 . In: re cian do bhliaghnuibh, Párl. na mB. 390 and re cian d'aimsir, Parrth. Anma 6000 re (see 1 ré) may be noun and cían adj. le cianaibh for ages, Hackett² 21.15 . Of distance: is c.¤ do thír már do muir / eturru is Imlech Ibair, ZCP viii 327.36 . In cheville: céin n-gle `temps glorieux', RC xvii 282 § 6 .

In a variety of adv. phrases. Without prep. (cach la céin) . . . in céin n-aili: cach la céin aisndís dia throgai in céin n-aili aisndis dind fortacht durat Dia do at one time . . . at another, Ml. 40b8 . in céin n-aili `at another time', Sg. 8a9 . in céin n-aili gl. nunc, Ml. 39d12 . Cuaird Comgi Michíl, Cuaird Comgi Muire a n-ainm laisim i cen n-ale (of Hymn to Michael and Hymn to Mary) `respectively', Mon. Tall. 137.20 . Note also: dī-cechlacēin is diultad, alaill is aidbliugud, Corm. Y 418 . nach céin (with neg. vb.) any long while: arna bether ocu nach cein, Mon. Tall. 164.17 (§ 89) . ní beind nach céin i ndamnad, KMMisc. 212.11 . See also 1 nach. Various: atat connarc cein `long ago', Blathm. 102 § 38 (if not céin = féin, cf. tá chéin, for M. Milscothach silence a while(?), BDD² 447 ). is cīan mór hūadh ō dac[h]ótar mo chíghi-si i ndīsca, Cáin Ad. 8 . cian mór uadh `long ago', CCath. 4067 . ro-haidnaiced is cian uad `long ago', PH 657 . do foillsighed dó c.¤ suil do thicfed long before he was due, BNnÉ 328.22 .

For céin mair (with céin used as preverb, GOI 241 ) see maraid. Note further: cein do mhair, Blathm. 207 and n. to 825 . canais moir, 34 , see n. to 133 . can mair in clercin `long life to the little cleric', Ériu v 236.74 . cēnmair Ulltaib, TBC-I¹ 3424 = bochin Ultu, TBC-LL¹ 5748 . bo chinmaír rissa ṅ-gebat, 5707 = cen mair, TBC St. 4709 . Cf. nī gcēinmair doraa an māin (.i. ní mogenar dochonnaic an eladha), ZCP v 488 § 7 (B. na f.). céin mair seems to have influenced céin móir in later language occasionally giving céin máir (see below).

With CO: co céin móir for a long time, LU 5230 ( TBC-I¹ 752 ).

With DI from of yore, long; from afar : ba di chein `from of yore', Blathm. 98 . do-arrchet di chéin no mbiad adrad dǽ la genti gl. sicut scriptum est, Wb. 6d8 . o Adam co dilind dein / in chet-aimser daib dichen, Lec. 30 vb10 . is do chéin gid so afar, TBC-LL¹ 4689 . can dodeachaig? . . . ní do chein, YBL 174a40 . boi . . . Petur i cómitecht Ísu do chéin, PH 3135 . do chéin mair anall, 7046 (see céin mair above). do ch.¤ nó do c[h]omhfhogus `from far or near', Duan. F. ii 62 § 12 . Also in pl.: robadar cethtri cridiscél liom-sæ de chianaib `I have long had four darling wishes', Mon. Tall. 136.20 . As quasi-adj.: sen-briathar do chéin `from of old', Celtica iv 10.41 . Tuatha De Danann dochein, Lec. 58a10 = BB 31a41 . ar ṡeirc ind óclaích . . . di chéin, LL 31153 ( TTr. 336 ).

With ÍAR: in chaingnímai aili is iar ceín rofinnatar after some time, Wb. 29a30 . iar cein, PH 1024 . iar cein shortly, Aisl. Tond. 105 § 3 . íar cēin móir, BColm. 70.18 . iar ccein máir iarsin, BNnÉ 90.24 (see céin mair above). iar ceín mair, BB 18a49 . iar sin iar cenmair, Ériu viii 174.33 . iar cen mair do Th. . . . co faca, Aisl. Tond. 106 § 5 . ier cēin mhāir `a long time ago', Fl. Earls 208.30 . Note also: cu-du-boing cein (.i. iar cein) comarba curu, Bürgschaft 21.4 (for féin ?).

With I N-. For variety of forms cf. rachad a ccéin ┐ a ccíana ┐ a ccíanuibh, Bard. Synt. Tr. 26.19 . indtan noteigdis i céin `when they went a long distance', Mon. Tall. 129.21 . taig drochcarad hi céin (proverbial saying), BDD² 58 . fer bis a cein, Anecd. i 15.1 ( SCano 501 ). dā ndeachaid Congal a ccéin, ZCP viii 109.1 . seisrech . . . a toigheacht a gcianaibh cuige, BNnÉ 186.26 . i gcéin 's i ngar, 51.14 . Note also: rolaus cian i cein / ardo charait i mbrón, LL 18615 . As quasi-adj.: créd agaibh aoidhigh a gcéin `from afar', Studies 1924, 241 § 1 . Rarely of time: ní tualaing ionchoisiod i ccéin i gcuimhne for long, Ériu xiii 29.11 . With ocus: imb i céin fa i n-accus beo-sa, Wb. 23b41 . i ceín ┐ i n-ocus, Thes. ii 356.20 (Hy. vii). cid i cein, cid a focus, Laws i 240.17 Comm.

With ó. ó chéin from of old, long ago : iarsindi ro-n-an hua céin di aisndis dun popul gl. tam longum `after he had ceased a while', Ml. 126b1 . F . . . . atbath ó céin, Trip.² 1513 `long ago', Trip. 133 . is mé ro baeglaiged ó chéin, LU 3921 ( SCC 44 ). Bretain o chéin rodochumdaigset the B. had built it long before, Anecd. iii 70.2 . ós é sin ó chéin ar nós `our ancient custom', Content. xxviii 71 . [Críst] roncuinnig ō chēin chain, ZCP iii 18.27 . o chein mair anall, PH 3422 . ó chíanaibh just now, lately, already: fotdāilfind a nilparttib ō chīanaib acht nīpad Fergus (C.C. to Etarcomal), TBC-I¹ 1198 . mac na trí curad at-rubart a (= ó) chíanaib, MU² 679 . ticbatis Herind o chianaib they would have reached Ireland a while ago, Snedg. u. Mac R 13.9 . leis an íairmbérla adubhart ó chíanuibh just now, IGT Introd. 30.18 . Used as quasi-adj. recent, just mentioned : int urchar o chianaib `the cast just now', TTebe 2087 . is don drochgaidhilg o c[h]ianaibh é above mentioned(?), IGT Metr. Faults287 § 130 . gach re cuidechta a cianaib every other company mentioned, BCC 384.21 .

As n. pr. m. tochomladh Céin a Caisil, Anecd. ii 46.18 . See also Corp. Gen.

III As conjunction

(a) (in) céin (later also i céin , géin ), céine (for) as long as, since, when . Folld. by nasalizing rel. clause in O. Ir. (see GOI 553 ) and in later language also with follg. rel. clause (see Duan. F. iii 44 n.l . ). cein mbith oc ic, Blathm. 39 . cein ba dibh amhatair `since His mother was of them', 103 . ceín rongabus i carcair `so long as I am in prison', Wb. 23b18 . cene ṁ bether in hac uita , Ml. 107d8 . cene conmesarsa olseseom ┐ céne connoither mo thimnasa `as long as I shall give rules . . . and as long as my injunctions are observed', Mon. Tall. 129.29 . cen bai Cormac beo, Ériu xvi 84.101 . céne (cean a, MS.) forcomédaidh fírinni, 65.21 . céin mbete i llucc irnaigdi / céne mbess coic fíal findbalc, iii 104 § 34 . i céin ra búi seom aice-sain, TBC-LL¹ 2956 = an ccein, TBC St. 2564 . hi céin bae Issau ic triall dont ṡeilcg, Celtica iv 8.20 . in cen bes coir dib, Laws i 136.10 Comm. i céin raibh nemh is talamh while heaven and earth last, BNnÉ 314 § 8 . in cein do bas arin cuirt `while this assembly was in session', Ann. Conn. 1228.5 . in gein ronbuí 'na bethaidh, Duan. F. i 55.8 (`a pseudo-archaism', iii 44). géin bhus beo, Content. ii 42 . ? Cf. cen bad buidech, Metr. Dinds. iii 192.35 (leg. céin, Corrig.).

(b) céin co until: cein conid ris `till I reach him', Blathm. 102 § 42 . an frim céin córda sille, LU 3807 ( SCC 37 ). céin co tí . . . don chath, 5872 ( TBC-I¹ 1403 ).? ní béra demon díb nech / cen corop (leg. cor'p) óg nó aithrigech `while they are perfect', BColm. 52.7 . céin co n-ebar in fín nua imalle frib (words of Christ at Last Supper), PH 2995 . céin go dtarrastair .i. no go dtarla, O'Cl. gen gar muig rempu till they won the victory, BNnÉ 310.12 . Exceptionally with art.: in céin co roiscc in ceilebrad, Grail 1790 , ? Cf. cen co tola , Fing. R. 181 (see n.).

COMPDS. With nouns: iar ccianaois, AFM ii 640.12 . cienaimser ria n-a thōgbāil, Fl. Earls 110.15 . a chisde na gcianbhann lúidh (to a prince), DDána 79.27 `O thou who art skilled in the old valour feats', Ir. Monthly 1921, 247 . ? Colla Uais uas chianbla chain, LL 15753 . tochombaig Ciannacht cianbruige, Laws iv 8.17 `C. has recovered distant lands', Celtica vi 227.5 . i cind chían-chóicthigis, TBC-LL¹ 2050 (as two words LL 9331 and so also at 22815 ). ní ro chumaingsiot a chianchosnamh fris in lion sloigh, AFM vi 2026.9 . bud fata bas chianchuman, LL 7822 ( TBC-LL¹ 294 ). co crich cinnte . . . cein-eisergi caich, MR 264.5 . a gcáoile ┐ a ccíaneitche, Ériu v 80.12 . hí cíanfoccus at some little distance, BDD² 626 . dála . . . catha chianfhoghla, DDána 83.8 . clogat . . . cianḟulaing, MR xiv 21 . ar gcabhra i gciainimneadh, Aithd. D. 76.8 . cichsot cēnmuir `shall advance to the distant sea', Ériu xvi 146.7 .

With adjj.: isin set cianfotta, BB 240b15 . tellach dá dechmad / cíanramar `long and solid(?)', Celtica vi 221. 11 ( Laws iv 4.18 ) = cennramar, O'Curry 846 ( H 3.18, 384b ). With adjj. derived from nouns: seanoir cianaosda, MR 42.6 . sein leabar cianáosta, Gorm. p. xviii . a chloidhiomh . . . cianainignech destroying far and wide, MR xiv 24 . clanna cianairgnecha Cuirc, Caithr. CC 81 . do Macc cían clothach `far-renowned', BDD 157 . rosc corrglas cianradarcach, BB 427a36 . níor bhó cianṡaoghlach somh iar ngairm tighearna de, AFM vi 1996.9 . do bhuidhin chuirthe ciainsiublaigh, AFM vi 2318.7 . deaghmhac cian-teasdach Conchubhair far-famed, Miscell. Celt. Soc. 177.w . an chloch cian tuinigte `enormous', AFM vi 2012.11 . ben bhocht chumhthach chíantuirseach, Ériu v 80.5 .

clad

Cite this: eDIL s.v. clad or dil.ie/9294

Forms: clod

n o, m. Also clod. Cf. 1 claidid, claide. See Ériu xxii 191 .

(a) ditch, trench; also dyke, earthen rampart (the former is probably the earlier meaning. When associated with múr or doé the clad is the ditch from which the earth of the múr or doé has been excavated) surrounding a dwelling, monastery or graveyard; also as a boundary between estates or territories: cladh clodh m., IGT Decl. § 69 . `cladh . . . a bank, rampart', Eg. Gl. 136 . .uii. claid . . . na[d] dírenatar cinaid, cia robdait[h]er indib . . . c.¤ dúne, c.¤ cille, c.¤ f[e]irt, c.¤ usci t[h]airidne, c.¤ linne muilind, c.¤ fót[b]aig móna, c.¤ bís im droichet `seven ditches whose liabilities are not atoned for, whatever may have been drowned in them', Coibnes § 13 . in c.¤ asa tabar fodbach na mona .i. na cuiteda, n. 9 . c.¤ bis fás conid lína tóla[e] n-uisci, § 12 . rot, .i. bec, .i. im a mbi c.¤ Ramat, .i. mor, .i. im na bi c.¤ , Laws i 232.18 Comm. isedh is feichem eachtar criche ann fer tar crích trichat cét, gen co be acht in cladh etarru ┐ in fer agras, O'D. 666 ( H 3.17, c. 487b ). ar cladh feruinn mbiudbuid, Laws i 290.x Comm. dul tar mur, no dar c.¤ na cilli, v 476.12 Comm. tir da randa flaith . . . a claetar poll .i. c.¤ .i. i claidter poll i[c] comraind in feraind, iv 8.6 Comm. fer . . . ind claid the ditcher, Mon. Tall. 133.14 (§ 16) . tuam (.i. c.¤), Corp. Gen. 18.14 . baí ar cūl in catha i clud ┐ a gilla ōsa chind, 403.30 . ní bíd c.¤ na hairbi na caissle im thír i nHére, LU 10568 . ro hadnacht . . . isin chlud imechtrach . . . rigratha Loegairi, 9817 . co tocba clod cechtar a da roth . . . con[id] slicht suachnid fri ed mbliadna, 8492 (H). noí cluid . . . / noí ndui na timchell nine ditches and nine ramparts, LL 3558 ( Metr. Dinds. i 30.37 , cluidhe, v.l.). romaid . . . for Gallaib . . . ┐ ro scalit fo chladaib ┐ fo glentaigib, Cog. 76.10 . conacclaid múr n-Aillinne . . . Buirech . . . focerd asin clud in cloich fil indti, Dinds. 17 . ag déanamh cloidh timcheall a reilge, Keat. iii 1073 . Of a grave-mound: ó do claidhedh cladh úire / ar Ceithern, TBC St. 3729 .

G pl. as epithet: ar Cruachain na c.¤ , LL 10139 . rí Cera na c.¤ , MacCarthy 168 § 2 .

Also somet. of stone or partly of stone: mó na ail borbchloche (sic leg.) i clud / cechtar a da glún, LL 29915 . tar chladhaibh clachísli camcharadh, CF² 1157 . cladh clach, Studies 1924, 244 § 20 .

Of the Roman walls in Britain: is leis doronad c.¤ Saxan a n-agaid na mbarbarda . . . ┐ ase ainm in claid sin . . . Guaul ┐ . . . c.¤ aile i nagaid Gaedeal . . . .i. C.¤ na Muice, Todd Nenn. 64. 1 - 4 and note.

C.¤ coicríche boundary ditch or dyke between territories: Conchobur . . . . / coilles cludu cocriche, Ält. Ir. Dicht. 17 § 14 . go mba lór do clod coicrice a slicht, RC xii 86 § 93 . teacht ar chiomhsaibh ar gcríche / d'fhéaghuin an chluidh choigcríche, Aithd. D. 39.8 . Fig. caistiall . . . robadh cladh coigcriche ┐ robadh cliath gabhála fri hUltaibh, Hugh Roe² 216.14 .

C.¤ comronna (-roinne) dividing dyke : cladh comronna . . . ōn Āth Cliath co chēile .i. Eisgir Riata, ML² 983 . luaithi dhó ag dol na choinde / ná bó tar chlodh comhroinde, IGT Decl. ex. 1523 . Cf. atá dá chéibh 'na gcludh ronna (of hair), Aithd. D. 28.34 .

(b) By extension of the waves of the sea: tar cladhuib troma tuirseacha na trethan, ML² 689 . Hence, of hair: re folt camlag cladh gcopdha, Magauran 1861 . do chéibh na ccladh mbraointe mbán, O'Hara 3285 .

Compds.

(a) With noun. a ghríobh chladhachuidh Chonnocht, Aithd. D. 34.21 . craebhthonna cladhanfaidh cuipgheala Clidhna, CF² 1329 . cloidhbhile míonabhla, Aithd. D. 4.6 . glaise it shúil cladh-chlaise id chéibh, Dán Dé xxix 21 . ¤-etrige (see etarche): ba sruth-aibne . . . cach clais ┐ cach c., MR 240.16 . ¤-eng (2 eng): fa chloidheangaibh síodha an chláir Chonallaigh, DDána 83.15 . cladfocal dá chelgbuain, Caithr. Thoirdh. 34.39 . red chladhfhalt gclaon, PBocht 2.7 . Donnchad an chladhfhuilt cíabhuigh, LL 396.15 . ? ¤-imbel: [Uí] Raghollaigh . . . / far ciadhímil gach Cathal, O'R. Poems 2578 . ¤-mala: co n-a clad-mailgib curad `prominent eyebrows', MR 180.11 . cladh-mhúir for lucht ghalar ngráineamhail (of burial customs), TSh. 5774 . ¤-ucht: óradh na gcladhocht um Dheirg ndalldamhaigh, DDána 83.21 .

(b) With Vn. aigmhéil dá bharr / béim súl ar chách re a chladhḟaicsin at seeing its undulations(?), DDána 114.8 .

(c) With adj. tonn chorrach . . . chladhanbhail . . . Chlíodhna deep-troughed , ML 94.18 . i mmulluch Cerna chlaidard, LL 24166 . tar na ciséalaibh chladhardha (of the sea), RC xxix 110 § 2 . Eóghanacht Chaisil chladhcháoin, Caithr. CC 27.19 . caistiall clodhdaingen, Grail 3729 . camchúl cladhdhlúth cadhblúb cruinnighthe cuach close-waving , Hackett xxxii 3 . a Crūachain cloidhḟinn, ZCP xiii 18.13 . go Dún gcloidhfhionn gCaoin, DDána 91.21 . nir sudhseat Caiseal cladhglas, BB 60b43 . san tigh . . . chlaidhréidh, DDána 119.3 . go Crūachain claidhreidh Connacht, Duan. F. i 87.11 . go Cruachain clad-ruaid, Hy Fiach. 178.z . ciabh chloidhshéimh, O'Hara 2910 . fonn claghshocair len cóir báidh, 3 . in Coraind chladhuaine, Acall. 7566 . co barr críchi claduair Cuind, LL 29733 . a chiabh chladhúr, Dánta Gr. 16.106 .

? cocrú

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ? cocrú or dil.ie/9937

n brississ tola dobert c.¤ cró nglinde, ZCP viii 197.5 . Leg. co crú?

con-dáili

Cite this: eDIL s.v. con-dáili or dil.ie/12048

v (dáilid)

(a) shares, participates in (FRI with): ? ailid srian cach rig echcumal (sic leg.) trichat set inn-a fuillem la aithgin acht ni condailet il-gnima lit. which many deeds share i.e. (a bridle) which serves a number of different purposes(?), Laws v 414.25 . acht ni condaili anfir . . . acht ni condaile ennac, O'Curry 836 ( H 3.18, 832a ). can cethrar con-dáile coimhdhíre who participate in equal díre(?), Ériu xiii 30.24 . na bi aen cairde connailfeadh, O'Curry 666 ( H 3.18, 327 ). ? connla .i. coimdeilighither ut est daig ala condla cricha ni taighet reime tola toxla, 575 ( 286 ). ar conlui (leg. condáli, Stokes, O'Dav. 341 ) an aníme ín cathaigh the bad fence bears part responsibility for the trespass, Laws iv 126.1 Comm. ? ar a cinta condlat ar conrarcicht selbha slechtaibh aithre, ZCP xii 365.22 . is i side condaile comdire friu, Laws v 474.11 . ? naomhchaire condáile osgura frí hégsi, Ériu xiii 26.12 . trian n-eclaisi is fine frisi-condlaither, O'Dav. 341 . con-dáile fíor fria gaoí strives with(?), Ériu xiii 16.31 . condalithisi (leg. condálidsi, Edd.). . . . ar n- aurnithi friindi `ye share . . . with us', Mon. Tall. 158.23 .

(b) meet(s) together: condālet a fīanlag `the warrior-bands meet', Fianaig. 34.3 . comhdháilit íar na bhárach og Loch Cé ┐ dogníatt síth, ALC i 130.7 ( AFM ii 1038.5 ). ? caín condaldae doïb, ZCP x 344.5 .

Vn. 1 condail? Cf. siabair mochondáil, Thes. ii 293.4 . See comdál.

congbaid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. congbaid or dil.ie/12152

adj (cf. con-gaib): dia cheniul choṅgbaid, LL 16058 ` conquering ', Todd Nenn. 240.9 = codnaigh, Uí Maine 208ra2 . a c[h]uirp c.¤ (congbaib, MS.) tenacious (?), ZCP vi 265 § 18 . As subst. mad intí . . . imgaibes tola isin coemnu immbí is e-side is fellsab ┐ as ch.¤ , Alex. 987 = `Enthaltsamer' (abstemious), ZCP xxx 151.45 . ba congbhaidh Cearbhall do ghrés ` conservator ', AFM ii 572.16 .

credba(ig)id

Cite this: eDIL s.v. credba(ig)id or dil.ie/12821

Forms: credbad

v (see credba) shrinks, consumes, gnaws : nis credhba linn na tene .i. nocha credhbhann `does not corrode', O'Dav. 556 . amail a colla credbaither cin baisted, O'Curry 2140 ( Eg.88, 1(2)d ). manī credbatis inna tola `were not made to wither', Celtica viii 72.121 . diambad Conchobar credbaigte, LU 3537 . nimcredbod catha fri cricha, ZCP xii 403.4 (rhet.). nom credba(d) ceo trommchumad, Ériu viii 172.18 . nít chredb caíne núachair `does not touch you', TBC-LL² 2696 . cáin in crand ná creadhba corp, YBL 12b22 . gnúis credbas midend, TFrag. 200.5 = crédhbhas, AFM i 562.10 . ? tré . . . dilgud an airttrich roncredbais it ṡethnach hsartalach riamh, Aisl. Tond. 106.21 .

Vn. credbad. Part. ceithre cumala 'na chru creabhdhaiche coagulated (?), O'Curry 1041 ( H 3.18, 435b ). crua credbaigthi, TFerbe 185 . corp crédbhai[g]dhe, AFM ii 618.16 (Arch. iii 311 § 5).

1 crochaid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 crochaid or dil.ie/13043

Forms: crochsat

v (1 croch) crucifies, hangs : rochrochsat Crist, Wb. 5c11 . amal bid fíadib no crochthe gl. crucifixus, 19b6 . ro crochsat , Ml. 24d4 . ní crochfaiter ind fir will not be hanged, LU 6724 = BDD² 217 . S. . . . crochais écrait N. `gibbetted N.'s foe', Fél. Mar. 8 , glossed ro cuibrig, p. 90 (= ZCP iii 222.9 ). immárach indarafer / niba grádach, crochfaider ( Gen. xl 19 ), SR 3274 . do rat fén gosti im a bragait, co ru-s-croch buden, PH 6464 . do chrochadar a chlann féin / éanMhac Dé, DDána 60.33 . gadaidhe gach láimhe leis / crochair, Dán Dé xx 24 . do crochadh a gcruite i gcrann, SG 7.21 . nár crochus an talam can congmhail ó ní ar bith air `have I not hung the earth without fastening it to anything?' Maund. 157 . crochtar é = crucifigatur, TSh. 3196 .

Extended applications: nu dam chrocha gl. discrucians me, Ml. 32d28 . écen charcra crochais / slúag már M. mortified , Fél. Dec. 30 . ar Chríst crochais colainn, Fél. March 12 . coloind crochsus, ZCP viii 198.5 . crochaid bar tola collaide, PH 2540 . na fíréin . . . chrochas iad féin . . . i naomh-chuing riaghalta, TSh. 8678 .

2 crúach

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 crúach or dil.ie/13168

Forms: cruäch

adj o, ā (1 crú). Earlier cruäch. gory, bloody : mo corpán crūäch, Fianaig. 10.3 . do cholg . . . / cruoch, LU 10363 . adnaig tar fót c.¤ away from the scene of the wounding, Críth G. 53 . bráen c.¤ `gory rain', RC xxvii 300.1 . fo duilnib sleg coícrind crūach (seven sylls.) `bloody spears', Hail Brigit 10 . aill is tóla catha crúach, ZCP xi 110 § 30 . isí mór caem cruach high-coloured (of Andromache), BB 427b7 . or' ort Gola cruach golach bloodthirsty , SR 5921 .

Perh. in n. pr.: idal and / diarbo chomainm in Cromm Crúaich, Metr. Dinds. iv 18.3 . d'adrad Chruimm Chrúaich, 20.36 .

As subst. slūagadach Liphi, crūach Clóitigi (of king Aed Finnlíath), ZCP xii 235 § 51 .

dígde

Cite this: eDIL s.v. dígde or dil.ie/16311

n , f. vn. of do-guid deprecating (anger), asking pardon, praying forgiveness . With gen. of person prayed to: oc digde Dé, Hy. vi 19 . tola fanna . . . freitech domnāin . . . ba si d.¤ Dé (i.e. averting God's anger), Ériu ii 55 . d.¤ ind cāich rocrādis to ask pardon of all thou hast offended, Mon. Tall. § 36 (141). ni do[t] d.¤ táncamar-ni, ZCP viii 318 . nech crādes a chēli im ní . . ., ic a guitheth . . .; mani eroema saidi a dígdi n-uad if the other will not accept his excuses, Ériu vii 168 § 12 . With gen. of fault: iar ndigdi cach cloein after asking forgiveness for every wrongdoing, ACL iii 319 (= iar tidru, LB 261a 81 ). digde cech diubarta, dilgadh cecha torccabala, ZCP iii 452 . In wider sense praying, beseeching: oc dighde ar cinn in duinebath praying that the mortality may be averted, Anecd. i 40 . digal dia seacht mbliadan | ba si digde a chridhe the prayer of his heart was vengeance on that day seven years (?), AU 516 = AFM 510 , CS 512 , RC xvii 127 . in fer . . . ic dígdi na mná, ZCP viii 311 . ? cach foxal cen logud, cen aithce, cen digide is cona diri `without . . . entreaty', Laws ii 388 ( Stud. in E. Ir. Law 54.26 ). oc digde e nanolc, Ériu xvi 181 § 21 . A boon, blessing (?): atnecham diar ndigdi to bless us (?), Fél. Dec. 26 . Cf. O'Cl. : dighdhe .i. beannachd. In chev.: dighdi dath `prayer of colours' (?), Auraic. 556 . fo digdibh, LL 393a4 (a `díchetal'). See díge.

díing

Cite this: eDIL s.v. díing or dil.ie/16362
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: dííng

adj (intens. dí- + ing) very hard, difficult: is diing cleith in maith (gl. facta bona abscondi non possunt), Wb. 29a31 . massu diing a nrogādamar if what we have prayed for be exceedingly difficult, 15c22 . d.¤ cóic bai do bethugud and five cows can hardly be fed there, Trip. 198 . ding .i. decmaic, O'Mulc. 331 . airnin arding . . . ding fil and is teirce feuda fodera `the difficulty which is there is caused by a scantiness of letter', Auraic. 3661 . As attrib.: fa deilm ding hard to bear, excessive (?), Lec. 583b23 . Adv. tuargaib [in Findbennach] a chend go dííng raised his head with violence, butted (cf. other sense of hard?), TBC-LL¹ 6128 ; 6193 . As subst. cethair dingi (dinge, v.l.) inda pecthach .i. ding dōib nād fācbat a tola ... 'four hardships of the sinners', Celtica viii 72.127 . See díic.

díl

Cite this: eDIL s.v. díl or dil.ie/16367
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: díol, d.

[u, m.]. vn. of 1 do-lá. díol m., IGT Decl. § 95 .

I Legal act of discharging, taking the place of (?): mana-hatmaiter fri ní itir is a dá comgrád do dil de ┐ neach diambidh logh enech in cunnra, da dil don feichemuin; no cethri comgrádh da dil dibh a ndis (i.e. if a surety is not acknowledged he must be discharged or replaced by two persons of his own standing and one person whose `lóg enech' is equal to the contract; or alternatively these two must be replaced by four of their standing), Bürgschaft 44 . na fiadhain dligthecha . . . acht mana bet a da comgrad do díol díbh, O'D. 671 ( H 3.17 491b ). sena iar naititin . . . is a da comgrad do dil de nar aititniged dó two persons of his own standing are required to discharge him from the amount for which he was acknowledged as surety (?), O'Curry 316 - 17 ( H 3.18 174b ). gialla gabhala dia dil dia mbe tuarasndal bansgal (i.e. as female testimony is not sufficient in itself a `giall gabála' is required in addition), Cáin Ad. § 53 (see Bürgschaft 44 n. 3 ). Hence: do liud fiadnaise . . . .i. do dil a fiadnaise, Laws i 138.22 Comm. Cf. díol .i. diultadh (B. na f.), ZCP v 485 . In phr. díl ┐ séna: feich cin dil cin tsena fully acknowledged (substantiated) debts (?), Laws v 310.13 . muna be for diul ┐ sena, i 276.29 . iii 326.12 . ? Cf. is and fogéba do mnaí | cen d.¤ séna fo ṡóergnaí, Metr. Dinds. iii 354.78 .

II General senses.

(a) requital, recompense, retribution; atonement, reparation: in tan ata dil in cinaigh isin rob fein `when the beast itself is value sufficient to pay for the damage', Laws iv 88.12 Comm. nochan fuil dil in cinaid aga do setaib, i 110.18 Comm. ca dil raghus ar in duine ina chinta? a marbhadh ina cinta comraite, O'D. 550 ( H 3.17 col. 437 ). cen d.¤ (.i. cen biathad) daimi rissi, RC xx 158 § 8(ACC) .i. cen dil oegidechta in scelaige, ib. dom-bér i nd.¤ do mac ind ríg romarbus `I will give myself in forfeit', xiii 462 § 67 . a ndíol a ndearrna mise d'ulc . . . marbh-sa me, Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 40.x . carnn in chotaig sin la cách | cen nach ṅd.¤ cocaid co bráth | eter chlainn laind Labain lóir | ┐ clanna I. retaliation (?), SR 3042 . go bráth bud é mo díol de | techt tar sgél in chloideimse requital , SG 252.27 . a banscál, bid maith do d.¤ | fogeba nem cen anfīr, YBL 314b16 . triasin apstal doberair in d.¤-sa foirn, PH 2161 . cenmothat a oeigid ┐ cech oen dia mbói dil uad amach to whom he was under an obligation (?), LB 130b47 . seacht bpeacaidh dhleaghmuid do dhíol `we must atone for', Dán Dé xxxi 33 . leanum Crist co carthanach, | denum dil dar ndroch-ceirdibh, Lib. Flav. i 33ra9 . ní díol liom a los m' ḟola | ingreim fer mo chognoma I deem it not a fitting recompense, O'Gr. Cat. 463.7 . i ndíol mo sgeóil, TD 25.23 . ní ṡirfid fós díol 'na ndearna | síol bhF. ar an bhfaghuilsin, 16.31 . go dtiobhradh díol ar gach dán `a reward ', 8.22 . na fuighbittís díol fiach ina ffaltanas badh ferr a better satisfaction of their grudges, AFM vi 2080.8 . dream ar nach díol a ndearmad a fitting requital, Content. xxix 22 . saidhbhreas . . . an tsaoghail do dháil dó i ndíol Rachel .i. ghlóire nimhe, TSh. 9964 . ós é an bás is díol ┐ is tuilleamh i n-íoc an pheacaidh, 1539 . rainn díola dom dhán do Dhia verses offered in requital (?), A. Ó Dálaigh v 1 . i ndíol a ndearna mise do dhochar do Ch., Keat. ii 3201 . i ndíol a ṡáruighthe, iii 1403 . do bheir Día rath beg saoghalta . . . dona drochdhaoinibh a ndiol na maithesa bige do righneadair, Luc. Fid. 37.13 . ionnas go ttugadh [Críost] diol cert do Dhia san aindligheadh tugadar ar sinnser . . . dho, Luc. Fid. 44.6 .

(b) satisfaction, sufficiency; act of satisfying (a debt), paying; act of entertaining (poets, mendicants, etc.): cách aca nd.¤ riam a mbrugh | idir hécis is ollumh, Anecd. i 29 § 32 (v.l.). oc dīl occorso do chēli Dē, Ériu i 46.2 . mos-luadat . . . do d.¤ a n-itad co Boinn, Dinds. 16 . gan d.¤ a ṡainti, MR 250.18 . ag diol a bhfiach `paying their dues', KMMisc. 50 . coire . . . | 'na mbeith diol seacht gcéad d'fulacht, Duan. F. i 62 § 20 . smuaintighid nach bidh a ndiol aimsiri acu, 3 C 19, 70vb21 . nach roib agamsa don duine d.¤ fíach re tabairt tar cenn a anma, 3 B 22, 33b15 . legar fiuchadh doibh . . . no gomad diol bherbhthi in ptisan `sufficiently boiled', 3 C 19, 139a30 . do bhéaruinn duid do dhíol saidhbhris, A. Ó Dálaigh xlix 12 . ag caithem a ndila dona toirtibh, BCC § 355d . tareis na mboct do dil `after the poor had been satisfied', § 78 . cidh sámh leis an sódh . . . is doiligh leis bheith agá dhíol paying for it, TSh. 3606 . ní raibhi acht begán fiach orra féin ré ná ndíol, Mac Aingil 447.10 . teach do dhenom . . . do N. . . . do díol dámh Éreann `for the entertainment of the learned men', AFM iv 706.y . an breithemhnas aithridhe . . . do ghabháil chuige go toltanach ┐ a rún do beith aige a dhíol an tan fhedfas to fulfil, Ó Héodhusa 212.2 . a d.¤ coimhéta, ZCP vi 296.17 .

(c) treatment, handling: ge fūarais ūaind | onōir dalta . . . rab olc | ar ndīl ort arnat oilemain, ACL iii 235 § 30 . ag fechain an díla do-bera se ar an féin gach lai, CF 429 . gár bheag croidhe an Ríogh do roinn | 's gach díol oile [dar] fhuloing, Dán Dé xx 26 . an díol do-bheirid na crumha ar an gcolainn, TSh. 3884 . as bocht mo dhiol agad, Luc. Fid. 288.1 . Note also: a cor ar d.¤ maith `put to a good use' (of riches), PH 7751 .

(d) equal; complement; fitting object, warrant, guarantee; what is fitting or worthy (folld. by gen. or DO, rarely I N-): connach fail . . . dó dúal na do d.¤ ri gail na ra gaisced there is none to equal thee, TBC-LL¹ 3792 . ní mó ná díol mo ghaisgidh-se im' aonar atá ionntaibh they are not more than my single-handed valour can cope with, CRR 72.6 . gan a dhiol d'fhilidh induind a poet worthy of him, ZCP ii 351.z . co dtuc leis iat (sc. logs of timber) fóna ndíol taobán `with their complement of rafters', SG 292.25 . caogaid laoch . . . cona ndíol do mhnáib, 268.10 . ben díola degduine `fit for a gentleman', 142.4 (attrib. gs.). díol fuatha flaithes Eirenn `a mark for hatred', 469.13 . dil cach fedna 'na fearaib `his men worthy of any host', Hy Fiach. 212.1 . diol a bainne do soithidhibh vessels enough for her milk, BNnÉ 10 n. 16 . fil bur ndiol do ab sunn `a fitting abbot', 7 § 21 . tri ced bó . . . cona ndioll capall `with a proportionate number of horses', ALC ii 366.3 . a chuirp . . . | tú fa ríor nochar mhúin meise | dúinn gion gur díol treise thú though thou wert no guarantee of strength to me (?) Dán Dé xix 9 . na mná dhíobh ba díol tola | ní hiad anosa is annsa, Dánta Gr. 6 § 3 . díol san cheathrarsoin `the match of those four', TD 32.6 . ní díol síothchána síol gConaill no warrant for pacification, 16.4 . gé tharla a díol uirre d'uaislibh (sc. uille an ríogh) `its due of nobles', 11.26 . lór le fear má fuair do bhriathar, | beag 'na dheaghaidh do dhíol port `what place thou choose (?)', 29.18 (whatever you may say?). as sinn ios mó dho dhíol trúaighe dona huile dháoinibh, 1 Corinth. xv 19 . is maith an díol smachtuighthe é a proper subject for correction, TSh. 3478 . fá Dhia do dhéanamh a dhíola féin dá chréatúir `what pleases Him' (Gloss.), 8595 . ní feas do neoch an díol grádha nó fuatha é féin, 1155 (nemo scit an odio an amore dignus sit). a dhíol d'oidhre `an heir worthy of him', AFM v 1568.y . ni diol fochmhuide Dia, Luc. Fid. 278 . geall díola do chléir a warrant for rewarding poets, Ó Bruad. ii 128.21 . ris aní se . . . do chríochnughadh mar is díol as is fitting, TSh. 32 (for dual?).

(e) lot, fate: luadfet ed rígi cach ríg—is d.¤ firi na fer fíal the true fate, LL 32a48 . truag in garg-dīl rognīd and | for ingin ardríg hErend (of a princess burnt to death), LL 192b28 . on lo ro tilgedh ar in muir iad ni fes a ndil o thoin alle, KMMisc. 318.27 . Murchertach . . . | re ceithri mbliadhan fichet; | a cleitech cāidh, a dīl de (sic leg.) | ro bāidh fín, ro loisc tene, MacCarthy 410.y . do chuadar a ndrochdilaibh, 410.2 . olc d.¤ i torchair mac Duind, Metr. Dinds. iii 150.9 . ferr do d.¤ innáit sin uile .i. missi do tharrachtain duit, Acall. 4597 . nír ḟeadadar a dhiol na a dhiach, Hy Fiach. 38.16 . gan chodladh . . . | gan chobhair . . . | as doraidh mo dhíol, BS § 19 . dil in Aeda sin . . . indesat duib, Fen. 72.3 . ? biaidh tú it aoinmhnaoi agamsa. —Ní hagam féin atá mo dhíol, ar ise, acht agam oide, Keat. ii 4727 .

(f) end, destruction: d.¤ a uerbo deleo ┐ deleo mortifico , O'Mulc. 345 . díol .i. críoch, O'Cl. dia mbera breith fír for sein | ni bia d.¤ for th'airmitein, SR 3320 = erchra, LB 116a2 . bithaittreb péne . . . cen nach ṅd.¤ etir (of Hell), LL 281a19 (= crich, LU 1405 ). truag in garg-dil rogníd and | for ingin ard-rig hErend 'woe for the violent fate that was then contrived for the High King of Erin's daughter' Metr. Dinds. iv 328.39 , Peritia xvi 228 .

See díla.

dírraim

Cite this: eDIL s.v. dírraim or dil.ie/16754

Forms: dírram

n also dírram. By-form of dírimm, q.v.

(a) act of flowing rapidly, rushing, crowding (?): in lán mara ac diraim (dirram, v.l.) 'na ruadhbuinne robhurta i n-aigid na gaeithe, CCath. 1971 . ro gab in ruadhbuinni robarta ic asccnam ┐ ic dirram for urtrennaib in traga, 2638 . lointi na slógh for snam [┐ dírramh] sechnón in longphuirt lasin tola uisci, 2347 .

(b) throng, crowd (?): tanic side reme dírrám slóig móir co Accaill Breg, CRR 23 . cid in dirram slóig móir rofail itegaid, ib.

Load More Results