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1 ard

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 ard or dil.ie/4041
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: árd, árt, art, arad, arad, arrad, arruidṡliocht

also árd. árt, Wb. 24d9 . art, Thes. ii 235.15 . Somet. arad metri gratia, esp. in later lang.: arad, IT iii 104 § 202 . arrad, Ó Bruad. i 32 § xiv . arruidṡliocht, 23 G 24, 239.4 .

I Adj. o, ā

(a) Of objects not in contact with ground high: innahí ruptar ardda dunnai (of planets), Thes. ii 11.42 (BCr.). In compds. tri ardlémend, LU 4021 ( SCC 47 ). ard-luth a eich high motion, CCath. 4712 . ardnem na náemh, RC xxiv 372.25 . Cf. airdrenn, 2 airdrech.

(b) high above ground, elevated, lofty . Of a place: huand luc digas no a.¤ gl. e loco editiore, Ml. 58a12 . 47c19 . isna lucu arda, 23d23 . Of a mountain etc.: hi tilchaib ardaib, Ml. 14a9 . iter da sliab arda, TTebe 898 . Of a building etc.: gríanána . . . ardda, MU² 201 . i n-iomdhaidh aird raised high from floor(?), Magauran 1380 . Cf. compd. ¤-lepaid: iomdaighe ┐ árdleapthacha, RC xiv 30 § 12 . go rabat ind (leg. id ?) ardleabaidh / a mna a meic may they be in Thy high bed (place of honour ?), Anecd. ii 33 § 17 . mairidh an fhithchioll eagair / do h-imbearthaoi a n-áirdleabaidh, ML 50.6 . Of a tree tall: ind huinnius ardd, Sg. 67a11 . arnaib fedaib sonartaib ardaib, Ml. 146a6 . crann a.¤ , Stair Erc. 384 . Of a vessel in compds.: fó inbiur in ardchori `lofty cauldron' (deep ?), MacCongl. 39.17 . airdiena (ardíana v.l.) ibardha deep(?) yew vessels, Anecd. ii 58 § 20 . Cf. 1 ardán.

(c) Of the sea: cathair ṡlúaigh do airg d'ḟoiléim / a ngoibéil chúain aird ainiúil deep(?), IGT Decl. ex. 518 . In compds.: an ardmhuir thened high sea, ocean (?), Ériu ii 124 § 68 (calque from Lat. altum mare , Deutsche, Kelten und Iren 99 ). tar ard mhuir cciachdhuibh `tossing', Ir. Review 1913, 624 § 16 . dún is inber is ard-ler, Metr. Dinds. iii 112.34 .

(d) Of sounds loud: a.¤ aniu . . . gáir guil, Cog. 96.3 . frecra n-a.¤ n-obéle loud answer, Tec. Corm. § 25.12 . traetaít na ciulu islí na ciuil arda, BB 327b33 . In compds.: blūsair .i. nuall ardegóir, O'Mulc. 180 = O'Dav. 329 . firfid Findbennach fri dond Cúalnge ardburach loud bellowing, LU 10401 . ag Eochaid Ardghair `of the loud cry', Ériu i 81 § 11 . ardghaire mbaeth loud foolish laugh, Fél. 206.y . do breth a hardguth for aird, LL 9226 (TBC). árdghothach ┐ easurramach loud and stubborn, Proverbs vii 11 .

(e) Of colour: fual . . . á.¤ , Rosa Angl. 188.4 .

(f) In fig. usage. Of rank or superior quality noble, dist- inguished: aire ardd, one of the grades of nobility , Críth G. 368 and p. 69 . Andreas a.¤ a ordan, Fél. Feb. 6 . bit áird úas dind ḟlatha exalted (of saints), Prol. 155. a bhanaltra charthannach an Chomhachtaigh aoird mighty(?), Hackett xix 41 . óclách a.¤, imnair, IT i 79.2 . art .i. uasal, Metr. Gl. 27 § 35 . Stowe Gl. 22 . Of foundations, institutions etc. ba cóir ceniptis árdda do chongbala-su, Trip.² 1564 . bid á.¤ bid úasal do chathir i talum , 472 . abb ecailse ardae, Fél. Jan. 2 . sacramaint ro-a.¤ a cuirp fein august, Smaointe B. Chr. 3324 . Of a place: bátir Érenn ardae / la m'Luóc . . . / grían Liss móir de Albae they were of noble Ireland, Fél. June 25 . Of a feast: ré Notlaicc aird aurgaiss, Fél. Nov. 13 . In compds.: domhnaighe . . . ┐ airdfheile, AFM ii 952.15 , casc . . . ardshollumun na bliadne principal festival, Lism. L. 323 . Gramm. ón táoibhréim a. iollraidh i.e., the g p. in a dental, IGT Introd. § 142 (see ísel).

In phr. ardu árosc, see árosc.

(g) great, extensive(?): ba ha.¤ in coscur .i. ba mor, Thes. ii 334.1 (Hy. v). a.¤ .i. mor nó sochaide, ut est a.¤ in athlighi .i. sochaide facbhuit ina lige, O'Dav. 21 .

(h) proud: ná bísi ard nó íseall, L. Cl. A. B. 132.58 . atbert athesc a.¤ proud answer, LL 19874 .

(i) difficult, laborious, arduous (based on Lat. arduus JCL ix 44 ): is rét a.¤ .i. foglaim inna hirisse foirbthe gl. res ardua atque difficilis, Ml. 14c10 . roart lessom epert friusom intsamli dæ, Wb. 24c10 .

Equative: ardithir . . . seólcrand prímlui[n]gi, LU 6474 (TBC). airdithir neolla nime gach fer dib, RC xvii 416.38 . goma hairdithir re h-én, MR 300.11 .

Compar.: cia thes hi loc bes ardu ní ardu de, Ml. 23d23 . ni arddu feisin quam a chocéle, Sg. 161b9 . ni artu ní nim `nothing is higher than heaven', Thes. ii 248.3 . arddu (arddiu v.l.) dōinib / acht nōibrī nime, Ält. Ir. Dicht. ii 10 § 4 . airdiu cach múr araile, LU 2037 ( FA 11 ). airddiu, IT i 77.13 . harda (: Alba = Albu), ZCP viii 197.11 . airdi sa hairdi `higher and higher', Études Celt. i 87.23 . As superl. caithir fhionn as airde múr, DDána 119.19 .

Superl. dobeir grád as ardam, Fél. Ep. 207 . ardam dossaibh highest of bushes, Auraic. 5548 . ardam iactadh loudest of groanings, 5575 .

Adv.: eigis co ha.¤ , TTebe 4407 . ? teist dober cu arad ort / tu labor olcc eltaide edranach, IT iii 104 § 202 . is a.¤ do ghradaigh si sibh she has loved you much, Smaointe B. Chr. 4970 . ag foillsiughadh go ha.¤ showing openly, Donlevy 62.28 . In phrase ós a.¤ : gan feis lé fear ós a.¤ `publicly', Keat. ii 2924 , cf. 1 aird.

II Subst. o

(a) high place, height: etir fán ┐ ardd, Ml. 140a2 . conid Temair a hainm ind aird sin, ZCP viii 313.29 . cit n-é . . . ardae ┐ indbera do-riadhad ? BDD² 456 . rith fri ha.¤ , Tec. Corm. § 21.8 . tar Echtge na n-a.¤ 's na n-áth, ZCP viii 222.8 . triall . . . ó arduibh iarthuir Eireann `hills', Ir. Review 1913, 624 § 16 . bás an daig[h]f[h]ir . . . / do theilg thuinn a n-aighidh aird, Bard. Synt. Tr. 24.28 . gan leath-trom learg d'fhán nó d'a.¤ (: bard), DDána 119.18 . eirnithe cach na.¤ (of a wound. Cf. cnocbéim), BCrólige 64 . ní léimid na héisc le hárdaibh eas, Hackett xv 12 . mar do ghabh sruth Iordan . . . a n-aghaidh áird i.e. flowed backwards, up-stream? Eochairsg. 66.2 (cf. Joshua iii 16 ). Frequ. in nn. loc: Ard nGabla, Metr. Dinds. i 40.29 . Ard n-Umai, RC xvi 79.20 . For further exx. see Hog. Onom.

(b) Of persons: isel fri art `lowly towards the high' (proud ?), Thes. ii 235.15 . in t-a.¤ . . . Ailill na n-áth, LL 4207 . tú in t-a.¤ ós gach iomaire, O'R. Poems 26 . a n-aird ┐ a n-airdirc, CCath. 4409 . ? ní cria . . . di ardd (di aird v.l.) `do not buy . . . from a superior', Tec. Corm. § 19.7 . art fine, one of the titles of the head of the `fine' (`den aus der oder über die `fine' Hervorragenden', Thurn., Mélanges ... à H. Pedersen 302 . In this phrase always with final -t. Cf. 1 art etc.): a.¤ uasal, unde dicitur a.¤ fine, Corm. Y 26 . in t-a.¤ fine .i. inti is airdi don fine, O'Dav. 486 . dia mbe a.¤ fine ar aird . . . is a.¤ fine icus, Laws v 224.14 Comm. dia tisad a.¤ fine fae, 13 Comm.

(c) Various: is caín cech a.¤ , LU 3915 ( SCC 43 ). a.¤ n-athe (of a king), ZCP viii 108.6 . tomus fri arddu (a sign of bad pleading), LL 345e14 ( Tec. Corm. § 22 n.12 ). ní guais áidh . . . / do bheanfodh dhe dol ar a.¤ (: Tadhg) `from growing to be great', O'Hara 4400 . In phrase a.¤ i n-a.¤ fri see 1 aird.

(d) Metrical term for a final rhyming or consonating syllable in the metre rinnard , see RC vi 273 , 298 ; vii 87 ff. ; Murphy Metrics 28 , 35 . rindaird dá n-a.¤, rinnaird tri n-a.¤, rinnaird iiii n-a.¤ , Fél. 4.z ., IT iii 137 . fil and mór nard ṅáille (of the metre of the Fél.), Fél. Ep. 83 . In compd. ¤-breccad internal assonance, IT iii 87 § 95 .

Compds. Used with nouns, adjj. and verbs. Besides its use in literal sense often indicates pre-eminence in rank or excellency over others of the same designation e.g. ardrí over-king (see ). ardḟlaith (flaith. ardlathi ` chief princes ', Wb. 1a3 ). ardap (ap) chief abbot (of the a. of Clonmacnoise, RC xviii 287.15 Tig.). ardepscop (epscop) archbishop . ardṡuí (suí) chief sage. ardáenach (óenach, of Taillte, Keat. ii 3851 ). ardídal ( ídal. á. na Héirenn .i. Cenn Crúaich, Trip.² 1005 ). Cf. ardchaerich adobcomnaicsi, ardlias duib, lias bec anisiu, caerig beca ann you are important sheep and have a great fold; this is a small fold with small sheep in it, Anecd. i 41.25 . Frequ. a mere intensive or alliterative prefix adding little to the meaning. A representative selection is given below. Some compds. have been included above to illustrate meanings.

(a) With nouns. ¤-aicned haughtiness: nír dhénta uaill na ardaignedh, Études Celt. i 85.28 . ¤-ammus judgement, estimate (interchanges with airdmes), O'Curry 1063 ( H 3.18, 439a ) = airdmes, O'D. 1629 (H. 5.15, 16b). O'D. 542 ( H 3.17, 434 ). O'Curry 2578 ( Eg. 88, 49(50)a ). ¤-broenud gl. imber, Metr. Gl. 5.2 , RC xx 276.23 (ACC). ¤-chell chief church: na tri haird-cealla (Maedóc's settlements), BNnÉ 260 § 220 . ? ¤-chellach incumbent of an ardchell(?): Adamnan ardcellach, Flower Cat. 490.30 . ¤-chend, as adj. having a lofty head: ech . . . ardchend, LU 8661 ( FB 49 ). da ech . . . ardchind, 8592 (ib. 45 ). for echaib ardchendaib, Alex. 253 . a Brain ardchind, LL 306a7 . As subst. a. iarthair Eorpa ar . . . ecna, AFM ii 838.2 . Moling 50 . ¤chless juggling in the air: ardchless co n-ublaib 'juggling in the air with balls' Celtica viii 149 (Mellbretha) . ¤-chustal: a. ┐ drochgné fair, LU 10829 `his loins girt(?)', Ériu xii 178 § 9 (TE). ¤-chor: ardchur ag an bpríomháid air while the primate had authority over him, Keat. iii 303 . árdchor aige ar na Scotaibh he had supremacy over the Scots, i 14.16. ¤-gabáil: gabaid a lēnid i n-ardgabāil `tucked up his shirt', MacCongl. 9.25 . in ardgabail-sea doníat in cuanairt . . . `high-catching', Acall. 7385 . claideb . . . i n-a. gaili fora chris raised, uplifted (for action), LU 6561 (TBC) = i n-ardgabail churad bar a chlíu, TBC-LL¹ 5340 . So also RC xliii 82 § 84 . seol grás uaidhe ar ardghabháil `a sail of graces is hoisted by Him', Aithd. D. 60.5 . do ardgabalaib in domuin chief conquests, ZCP iii 17.2 . ¤-gal: go gclos go nemh an a., Duan. F. i 32.9 . As n.pr. co teach Eachdach meic Ardgail, ZCP viii 219.27 . ¤-gním breast-work, rampart: airdgníma (adhgnímha v.l.) caelaig, CCath. 1394 . ¤-mac : ardmhac oglaig (oppd. to certmac o.), O'Curry 285 (H 3.18, 157) `chief son', Plummer MS notes. crichaireacht ... a taiseach, ┐a n-ard mac n-oglach, ┐ a n-olloman, Iar Conn. 368 (H. 2. 17, 188b). ¤-menma: dimus ┐a. arrogance, CCath. 3868 . ¤-mess: nir nanacht airdmes roclos / no chairdes no condolbos great esteem did not save him, SR 3135 . tria na n-a. ra halta / a cairdes bud ceṅgalta, LL 7134 . ¤-nemed: atnaig tar fót crúach i n-a. di[a] díte he conveys him over the bloody ground into full sanctuary for his protection, Críth G. 54 . ¤-nert superior power: ardneart Muman do gabail dó, AFM ii 1098.8 . ¤-nós: alladh ┐ ardnos, AFM vi 2368.4 . As n.pr. Grigair mac Ardnōis, ZCP viii 114.25 . ¤-phersa : techtiri ártphersine gl. Christi apostoli, Wb. 24d9 . ¤-radarc : ed ardradairc . . . úan fa deas atá `of a great prospect', Ériu iv 142.16 . gurab eissan ardriaghlaightheoir nimhe & talmhan e, Adtimchiol 27b11 . ¤ríge high kingship : debthaig immonn-ardríge, SR 6538 . ¤-scél : innisim dó mh'airdsgēla great news, ZCP viii 220.40 . ¤-ṡreb : ō chéibh īochtuir airdshreibhi, O'R. Poems 204 . ¤taoiseach 'haut chef' Études Celt. xii 514 . ¤-thuile : abann ard-tuile in full spate, BNnÉ 108 § 33 .

(b) With adjj. ¤-aicentach: do bhádar árdaigeantach haughty, Ezekiel xvi 50 . ¤érmach, éirmech: an agh fholuaimneach ard-érmeach, Acall. (Leabh. ó Laimhsgr.) ii 27.22 . ¤-mór : esculus . . . .i. fid arddmár `a very high tree', Sg. 53a7 . ar muraib ardmoraib an baili, TTebe 4453 . trí chert Amairgen ardmóir, LL 1762 . ¤-menmnach : airecht . . . a. high-spirited, CCath. 5362 . ¤-medrach sportive (of a wave), ML 94.16 . ¤-mín : a ingenraid n-a. tall and gentle, LU 3601 ( SCC 30 ). óclach seta fata . . . n-a., LL 11793 . ¤-réil : co sleib n-Ailp n-a. lofty and bright, Rawl. 78b35 . ¤-úallach high and haughty. As n.pr. a. ingen Ḟind, Acall. 6453 . ¤-úasal : a ardrí . . . a., MU² 834 . cech etha ardūasail imbeth, ZCP xi 92 § 19 .

(c) With vbs. ¤-chuirid : d'ardchuir m'atuirse which increased my sadness, Hackett xii 29 . ¤-ḟodlaid : maith fáth ro hardfódlad de was nobly divided(?), LB 185a21 . ¤-gaibid : ro ardgaib Assal, Fen. 342.20 . ¤-légaid : airdleghais B. . . . an leabar ngreccda read aloud, BNnÉ 84 § 169 (cf. ar-léga). ¤-lesaigid ir: ro hoiled ┐ ro hardleasaidhedh í (of Mary), Ev.Inf. (LFF) 171 § 24 . ró hoiled ┐ rohardleasáigiodh iad educated to a high standard, RC xiv 28 § 6 . ¤-mesaid : ar a eól is ardmesta `for his knowledge he deserves high esteem', Metr. Dinds. iii 438.8 . ¤-rígaid: airdrīghaigh rí, ZCP viii 205.4 . ¤-thidlaicid: ro edhbair ┐ ro ardthiodhlaic he nobly bestowed, Anecd. iii 6. x .

at-reig

Cite this: eDIL s.v. at-reig or dil.ie/4913
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: ineresomni, a(t)fraig(id), atré, atraacht, atraracht, atomriug, atomregar, adreig, atraig, attruic, adraidhe, adraigi, atfraigh, affraig, afraig, atafraig, atragat, afraigid, atra, ardotrái, atrōi, érig, eirig, érged, afraigid, atraiged, atraidis, -erus, -eirreis, adré, -éir, condaǽrset, -eirset, -érsat, atressed, adtresed, -eirsed, atammresa, -érus-sa, ad-reis, atré, asr, atresim-ne, ata reset, atresat, atrésit, addreset, attrasatt, atresed, dotresed, atrestáis, atreistis, -eirsitis, adomracht, atomraracht, érracht, rotéracht, -errachtair, atracht, atarecht, atraacht, atráracht, asráracht, a-dreacht, a-drécht, erracht, -érracht, -erracht, -errecht, atra, at-re, adre, dotracht, atrachtabar, asrarachtatar, atarachtatár, atráchtatar, atrachtár, -errachtatar, atrachtus, atrachtais, atrachtsat, -setar, atraighsiot, atraidhset

v (* ess-reg, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 594 ) with inf. pron. agreeing in number, person and gender with subject in meaning rises (often also rises and goes, goes). Perh. archaic use without pron. in: ineresomni gl. suscitare, Thes. i 713.26 (`in which we will raise(?)', note). Note also: atomrachtatar, ZCP xii 365.17 (meaning not clear). Later with gradual obsolescence of inf. pron., beginning where verb is in dependent position, and ultimately as simple verb éirgid, q.v. Some forms of the s-subj. and fut. may explain exx. given under dreisid. In mid. Irish a form a(t)fraig(id) arises with inorganic -f- prob. originating in cases where the inf. pron. ended in a vowel (cf. ataregat, LU 8191 , atafregat, 8200 ). (Leniting forms a more likely starting-point Loinges mac nDuíl Dermait 85 ). The ipv. atré, etc. is an orig. s-subj. form ( GOI 375 , Watkins, Celt. Verb 139 , Zimmer, KZ xxx 118 - 119 ). The s-subj. and fut. are distinguishable only by context. The form atraacht occurring occas. in mid. Ir. may be a dissimilation-form from the perf. atraracht. Cf. also atralacht cited below. For archaic forms permissible in classical verse see IGT Verbs § 17 .

Indic. pres. 1 s. atomriug, Thes. ii 354.24 (perh. rather to be referred to ad-rig, see Binchy, Ériu xx 232 - 234 ). atomregar, MacCongl. 83.26 . 3 s. adreig, Wb. 13a12 . atraig, LU 8191 ( FB 14 ). attruic, LU 633 (ACC). adroigh, Studies 1918, 282 § 17 . ? adraidhe (: slaidhe), SG 148.11 = adraigi, Acall. 2421 . atfraigh (see above), ACL iii 3.31 . affraig, LU 8196 ( FB 14 ). afraig (atfraich v.l.), IT i 265 § 27 . atafraig (fem.), LU 8810 ( FB 15 ). 3 pl. atragat, 8843 (ib. 64 ). afraigid, RC xii 100 § 137 . Ipv. 2 s. (see above) atræ, Ml. 126c3 . atra, LU 3533 ( SCC 30 ). ardotrái (attraicc, v.l.), TBC-LL¹ 4766 = atrōi, TBC-I¹ 3012 (cf. ar-éirig and artotroi (.i. eirig) a Chuscraid, Ériu viii 173 § 3 ). érig, LU 3592 ( SCC 30 ). eirig, IT i 125.1 . 3 s. érged, LU 8130 ( FB 9 ). 2 pl. afraigid, TBC-I¹ 3081 , 3456 (afraighid suas dénaidh eachd, O'Cl.). Indic. impf. 3 s. atraiged, Rawl. 84a53 . 3 pl. atraidis, BB 300a12 .

Subj. pres. 1 s. -erus, Thes. ii 357.17 . 2 s. -eirreis, SR 1172 . 3 s. adré (: sé), IGT Verbs ex. 215 . -éir, TBC-LL¹ 3752 . 3 pl. condaǽrset, Ml. 46a12 . -eirset, TBC-LL¹ 2797 . -érsat, 769 . Subj. impf. 3 s. atressed, LL 12574 . adtresed, YBL 214b15 (printed addrecht , Ériu i 118.1 ). -eirsed, Trip.² 463 . TBC-LL¹ 4543 .

Fut. 1 s. atammresa (= res sa), Ml. 31c14 . -érus-sa, MU² 1047 . 2 s. ad-reis, Lism. L. 2660 . 3 s. atré, TBC-LL¹ 985 . asr, Anecd. ii 14.11 . 1 pl. atresim-ne, PH 3531 . 3 pl. ata reset, Blathm. 955 . atresat, TBC-LL¹ 985 . atrésit, PH 3596 . addreset, Gorm. Apr. 22 . attrasatt, ZCP x 344.6 . Condit. 3 s. atresed, PH 4753 . With change of preverb dotresed, PH 1859 . 3 pl. atrestáis, TBC-LL¹ 1166 . atreistis, CCath. 1093 . -eirsitis, BNnÉ 33.38 .

Pret. and perf. 1 s. adomracht, RC x 88.1 . atomraracht, MacCongl. 83.31 . conom érracht , LU 10761 . 2 s. ni rotéracht , Trip. 458.29 . -errachtair (erachtais v.l.), Lism. L. 2660 . 3 s. atracht, LU 8420 ( FB 29 ). atarecht (with fem. subj.), Vita Br. 33 . atraacht, TBC-LL¹ 1941 (see above). asraracht, LU 10790 . atráracht, Trip.² 612 . asráracht, 2287 . Cf. atralacht, LU 3655 ( SCC 32 ). a-dreacht, Dán Dé xxvi 32 . a-drécht (: écht), IGT Verbs ex. 216 . ro erracht , ACL iii 14.26 . -érracht, LU 312 . -erracht, 313 . -errecht, Todd Nenn. 180.6 . Note also: atra, LL 398b13 . at-re, ACL iii 311.1 . adre, Marco P. 8 , 54 (? scribal errors). With change of preverb: dotracht, RC xxiv 377.11 . 2 pl. atrachtabar, PH 3769 . 3 pl. asrarachtatar, Trip.² 2719 . atarachtatár, LU 4900 (TBC). atraachtatar, TBC-LL¹ 2643 . atráchtatar, 3601 . atrachtár, SR 4461 (guaranteed by metre). atrarochtor, RC xii 96 § 127 . -errachtatar, Alex. 895 . With endings of s- pret. 1 s. atrachtus, PH 1540 . 2 s. atrachtais, PH 1245 . 3 pl. atrachtsat, PH 1286 . atráigestar, TBC-LL¹ 3970 (sic. Leg. -setar?). atraighsiot, AFM vi 2098.y . atraidhset, Ann. Conn. 1230.4 .

Vn. éirge.

(a) rises: nach tan atraig ┐ . . . noch dand suides `whenever he rises and whenever he sits down', Mon. Tall. 140.20 (§ 32) . atresat uile la hescomlúd duitsiu `all will arise at thy going forth', TTr.² 101 . Of arising from sleep, etc.: geiss dó grian d'ergi fair . . . acht combad é atressed rempe, LL 12574 . ni indnais fort lepuidh dia not-erruis, ZCP xiii 280.15 . dorochair cotlud form conom érracht innossa, LU 10761 . Of recovery from wounds: atré slemun slán-chréchtach `he shall arise smooth and sound of wounds', Metr. Dinds. iii 166.28 .

With follg. accus. attruic (.i. atraracht) roard tráth Dé Colum cuitechta ascends to the company of God, LU 633 (ACC). adrē frach (? leg. fráech ed.) fírbrātha, ZCP viii 211.25 . at-rae buaíd ┐ bennachtain (a greeting), Grail 1690 . With cogn. accus. at-raachtatar Ulaid érgi n-aínfir ar a fathchi . . . amach arose as one man and went out, MU² 246 . la sodhain tra attrachtsat lucht na cathrach ēirgi athlamh aoinfhir, Fl. Earls 120.29 .

In various extended applications: atraidis bolga nemi for a ngruaidib appeared, BB 300a12 . Of noise, emotions etc.: asraracht a interiecht ngallraigthi, Anecd. ii 48 § 9 . ni errachtatar lind . . . ferga, Alex. 895 . atracht en gaili . . . ind, Cog. 188.15 . Arises, occurs, happens: conerrachtatar catha ┐ debtha occo fein, Anecd. iii 68.20 . Grows up, matures, extends: feib atré in mac bec atresat a gníma óclachais leis, TBC-LL¹ 985 . atraracht nert claindi Dedad the power of Clann D. increased, ZCP viii 303.14 .

Meaning frequently more closely defined by prepp. and advv.

With A: atrecht in lūan lāth asa mullach, TBC-I¹ 397 . co n-érsat Ulaid assa cess, TBC-LL¹ 769 . intan adregat asa suan, Ériu ii 130 § 98 . in t-inad asa n-errachtair (erachtais v.l.) innósa . . . is as adreis do mórdhail bratha it is from there you will arise and go to the great meeting of judgement, Lism. L. 2660 . adreisit na huili marbh a talam, RC xxviii 316 § 21 . atracht a bás, BNnÉ 14 § 18 . atrarochtor na Fomoire asa scoraibh sechtair `marched out of . . .', RC xii 96 § 127 . atracht as cach fasach i n-a cele she passed from one wilderness to another, v 199 § 5 .

With co: hi tiugnair atreset sil nAdaim cusin ḟuigell n-aurdeirc will rise to meet, KMMisc. 146 § 7 . atrachtsat na ríghu gusin airdrí, BNnÉ 324 § 37 .

With DI: atré lassar lond de loiscfess talum uli, KMMisc. 146.20 .

With DO rises to meet, to attack, makes for: co n-érracht cach di alailiu isin dail co rabi cach díib i n-ár a cheili, Trip.² 497 . ataregat ind fir dó the men attack him, LU 6164 (TBC). atractatar na slóig aile dóib, CRR 34 . atomregar dō . . . co herard `I advanced to meet him', MacCongl. 83.26 . atraacht glass-anfud in mara . . . dóib, CRR 10 . atraig Fergus dia chlaidiub F. rises to get his sword, LU 5412 (TBC). atrachtsad (adraigseatar v.l.) Laigin do gabail foraib, Anecd. i 18.1 . atraig Brían don tiprait tall goes, Ériu iv 102.1 .

With FOR (later AR): at-raachtatar . . . ara n-armaib they made for their weapons, MU² 161 . tecuit uile ┐ atraig forru they all come and she overpowers them(?), ACL iii 326.18 . co n-erecht a neart for Saxana his strength grew over the S., Todd Nenn. 180.6 . adre in sliabh . . . for an sliabh naill `the mountain arose and went on the other mountain', Marco P. 8 . at-raracht matin . . . for [rig]raith na Temrach went out on, ZCP xx 218 § 1 . ataregat int shlúaig huili ara chend rise before him, TBFr. 276 . atbertar sund asregad sidi ar cend a martra would go to meet, YBL 121a28 .

With FRI: ciphe gním frisan-erreis whatever deed you may undertake, SR 1172 . in t-epscop . . . na hérracht fri humhalóit asré fri denam cuil the bishop who did not rise up as a mark of respect from humility will arise to do evil, Anecd. ii 14.10 . atrestáis mathi in choicid rit báig the nobles of the province would rise to your call, TBC-LL¹ 1166 . atracht in mílid frisin mbéist the soldier attacked the serpent, PH 7234 . co n-eraig fri cach lin immodcing `rises against' (of a stream), Ériu ii 114 § 40 . at-racht grían ra lecnib na hIrlúachra, MU² 457 .

With I: adomracht am ṡeasam, RC x 88.1 . atraghat . . . Túath Dé imbaidh na nAthnensta then the T.D. form a confederacy with the Athenians, Leb. Gab.(i) 144.26 . ni eracht an fer aile ina aididh no cia atracht did not attack him, Laws v 304.19 Comm. atraghat an aenfecht (v.l.) ina[n] dóchum they arise to attack them together, CCath. 1886 . atracht Pilip i n-agaid Hiruaith co fhalti fris rose to welcome H., PH 844 .

With IMM: atresat righ ┐ rigfile[d] . . . iman orgain-si, Anecd. ii 50.8 .

With LA: genco heirset Ullta aile léo `should go along with them', IT ii2 123.35 .

With ó: atré slán o neimib a n-arm, Dinds. 39 ( RC xv 427 ). an doigh do chuaidh ad chridhe / adroigh uaibh ar mh'impidhe, Studies 1918, 282 § 17 . ? ar[n]a heirsed cogad uaidib doris asin Troi for Greco, BB 444bz .

With ÓS: re fiuchud na ferge fírgarge hitrácht úasto, LU 6466 (TBC). tic . . . tond baiti . . . ┐ adraig (adraid MS) a n-airdi uasin luing, Aen. 248 .

With RÉ rises before (in token of respect): is e ceta neracht riam, Laws iii 28.10 . rofuacradh lasind righ connach h-eirsiud nech reme-seom, Anecd. iii 34.z . ní érrac[h]t nech dibh reme, ii 14.5 . feraid . . . fāilte fris ┐ attraig riam, ZCP viii 311.38 . atrachtatar remi huile `they all rose up to greet him', Ériu iv 128.14 .

With advv.: adre amach dar beōlu in dūin `goes out', Marco P. 23 . at-racht sūas, Sc.M² 4 . afraighídh suas, dénaidh echt, marbhaidh an tréd immon torc, AFM i 506.14 . afraigidh .i. éirghídh amhail atá . . . afraighidh suas dénaidh eachd, O'Cl.

benaid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. benaid or dil.ie/5647
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: benim, benaim, benai, benith, benaid, bennaid, benid, bentai, -ben, benas, benait, -benat, -rubaim, benair, benar, -bentar, -benad, -bentais, ben, benad, benaidh, benat, benar, -bia, -ruba, -rubai, -bethir, -ruibther, betir, -rubad, -rubaitis, -rubdais, no-m-bethe, bīu, biëd, bíthus, bias, bifas, -biter, bethir, -bífad, -bífed, mbíthe, beo, bii, b, bissis, bisius, bië, -beotur, -rubha, -ruba, -rubai, -rubi, rodmbi, ros-bae, robéotar, robeotar, robeobdar, -rubatar, -rubhradar, bíth, -rrubad, bíthi, bitha, -bítha, ro-bīthe, bethi

v See Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 369 , 461 , GOI §§ 551 , 654 , 691 (a) , KZ xlvii 159. Indic. pres. 1 s. benim, Thes. ii 42.7 . benaim, LU 6170. 2 s. benai, TBC-I¹ 3592. 3 s. benith, Thes. ii 250.11 , benaid, Ml. 46d4 , LU 6206 , bennaid, 5213 . benid, TBC-I¹ 397 , bentai, 1201 (with suff. pron.). bentus, Airne F. 2.17 . -ben, 424 , Blathm. 98 § 26. Rel. benas, Corm. Y 1235 , Críth G. 556 , TBC-I¹ 3605. 3 pl. benait, Fél. Jan. 31 , June 30 , -benat, MU² 544. With ro-: 1 s. -rubaim, LU 6230. Pass. sg. benair, Ériu ix 47 § 19. Rel. benar, Thes. ii 254.3 (Stowe M.). 3 pl. -bentar, Ml. 91b3 . Indic. impf. 3 s. -benad, LU 9137 ( FB 88 ), 3 pl. -bentais, TBC-I¹ 30. Ipv. 2 s. ben, TBC-I¹ 3593. 3 s. benad, Wb. 20c8 . 2 pl. benaidh, Ériu ii 120 § 58. 3 pl. benat, TBC-LL¹ 5834. Pass. sg. benar, Ml. 93d16 .

Subj. pres. 3 s. -bia, Laws iv 124.10 . With ro-: 2 s. -ruba, TBC-I¹ 1596. -rubai, Críth G. 581. Pass. 3 s. -bethir, Ml. 36a5 . -ruibther, CRR 54. 3 pl. betir, Ml. 54a17 . Subj. impf. (with ro-) 3 s. -rubad, TBC-I¹ 2769. 3 pl. (?) -robeotais, Cymmr. xiv 118 § 19 ( Rawl. 132b35 ). -rubaitis, TBC-I¹ 806 , -rubdais, Metr. Dinds. iii 104.24 . Pass. sg. no-m-bethe, Ml. 39a19 .

Fut. 1 s. bīu, TBC-I¹ 3592. 3 s. biëd, Celtica xxi 200.6 . bíthus (with suff. pron.), LU 10481. Rel. s. bias, TBC-LL¹ 3453. With -f-: bifas, Rawl. 132b36 . Pass. pl. -biter, Anecd. i 44.4 . Rel. s. bethir, Blathm. 957 . Condit. 3 s. no bīad, TBC-I¹ 2942. -bífad, SR 5812 , -bífed, TBC-LL¹ 744. Pass. s. no mbíthe (nom bithe, MS.), Blathm. 506.

Pret. and perf. 1 s. beo, TFrag. 108.6 = AFM i 302.9 . 3 s. bii (disyll.), Blathm. 98 § 25. b, LU 1750 (ICM). -bí (= -bai, TBC-I¹ 696 ), LU 5176. Note also (with suffix. pronoun and intrusive -s-) bissis, RC xii 68 § 34 , bisius ib. Rel. s. bië (disyll.), Blathm. 279. 3 pl. -beotur, Corm. Y 698 (59.5) = -beodutar, Corm. 24 (gaire). With ro-: 1 s. -rubha, AFM i 242.9 (= RC xvii 177.2 ), 2 s. -ruba, Wb. 13d25 . 3 s. ro bi, Rawl. 88a30 , -rubai, LU 5334 , -rubi, BDD² 187 , rodmbi, Laws iv 176.26 . ros-bae, CRR 56. 3 pl. robéotar, LU 5110 (= TBC-I¹ 625 ). robeotar (beóatar, robeobdar, ro hortsat, v.ll.), Metr. Dinds. iii 98.3 . -rubatar, TBFr. 60 , BDD² 695. Note also: go n-da-rubdatar, TBC-LL¹ 4384 (see Ériu xiv 118.1 ). -rubhradar, ZCP i 464.29 . Pass. sg. bíth, Metr. Dinds. iii 94.23 . ro bíth, RC xxiii 308.33 . -rrubad (sic leg.), Fianaig. 10.21 . pl. bíthi (bithi, MS.), Blathm. 203. bitha, RC xxiii 308.33 , -bítha, Arch. Hib. ii 62 § 52. ro bitha, Ml. 100b2 , TBC-I¹ 1373. ro-bīthe, ZCP xi 62.4 .

Part. see bíthe. vbl. of necess. bethi, Ml. 114c12 . Vn. see béim, bíth. Later with stem ben-, boin- (cf. boingid), bain- throughout (with ā-subj., f- future and s- pret.). See rubaid.

I

(a) beats, strikes: in O. Ir. gl. pinso, Thes. ii 42.7 , perculsus, Ml. 45d6 , pulsat, 46d4 , iecta, 123c17 . beanaim .i. buailim, O'Cl. b.¤ in t-aingel in sruth co fleisc, LU 2117 ( FA 18 ). bi ind ala slabrad suil ind rig, Ériu iii 136.2 . co mbensom dia durnn inna ētan, TBC-I¹ 423. fer benas dam óenbéimmim who fells an ox with one blow, Críth G. 556. bentai Cuc[h]ulaind cona claideb, TBC-I¹ 1201. b.¤ in talum o chois deis he strikes the ground with his right foot, PH 1337. benith galar (a charm), Thes. ii 250.11 . araile fer . . . robenad on crithgalur was stricken by, Lat. Lives 98 § 93. benfat na demna o phianaib examla me, PH 2231. (of a head of hair) b.¤ braine a dá imdae it strikes against (i.e. touches) the edge of his hips, BDD² 963. drud rú asa mbearna bheanaid `whose gap they strike at' (Gloss.), O'R. Poems 859. an mheadh as lán dom lochtaibh / bean a clár dod chumhochtaibh `strike up . . . the scale weighted with my sins' (?), Dán Dé xxii 12 . Transfd. casts (a shadow): co mbentais foscod i medōn a dā gruaide (eyelashes), TBC-I¹ 30. reaches: benaidh immorro inis Breatan seach hErinn saerthuaid co cian (`extends', Todd Nenn. 31.2 ), BB 203b40 .

Of hand-clappers, bells strikes, rings: ben do chlocc, Trip.² 1370. clocán bind / benar i noidchi gaithe that is struck, IT iii 16 § 40 . benais Sencha bascrand, MU² 923. robenadur na cluic `sounded', ZCP vi 285.1 . benait cluig ┐ ceōlāin . . . uaidhip fēin `the bells and chimes . . . of themselves rang', Fl. Earls 52.2 . In phr. b.¤ (cloc) FOR (? AR), see II infra.

Strikes (fire), lights: co bethir gl. inuratur, Ml. 36a5 . roben in tenid Chascae = incendit ignem, Lat. Lives 5 § 4. do benusa teine ┐ doronus a fadodh, BNnÉ 69 § 114 .

Note also: F. féigbind ro ben bríg mbreth who passed weighty judgments (Thurn.), ZCP x 271.4 . With galar: benaim galar `I slay the disease´ Celtica xxv 252 . benim a galar, Thes. ii 249.7 . benith galar, 250.11 . See also 1 fris-ben.

(b) hews, cuts down, off: bíi Ququlaind a dī ord lāma ┐ a dī ortt coisse, ZCP viii 120.21 . bennaid Cu Chulaind omnae, LU 5213. do benuit leō roga ro-chleth . . . ┐ mīne mōirf[h]eda, ML² 1064. benat scíathu let them slash shields, TBC-LL¹ 5834. (of breaching, knocking down a wall) dia robenad in t-ochtmad múr, PH 8014.

(c) slays; wounds: beosa L. an[d] do chailg, TFrag. 108.6 (= AFM i 302.9 ). ra mbeótar i n-ecomlond, LU 6680 (= TBC-I¹ 2138 ). intī bifas nō genfas (sic) nech do slōg araile . . . arthús, Rawl. 132b36 . nad ro marb in bech rodmbi (glossed: ro gonastar e, 178.7 Comm. ) `the bee which stung him', Laws iv 176.26 . Eoin . . . do thriall tar sáil / is mó bhíth mé is do ghríos mé ná is mian do rádh `what has wounded me more sorely', O'Gr. Cat. 581.10.

(d) Of crops cuts, reaps; gathers: (of Adam) co n-aireadh ┐ co mbenadh gan allus, BB 16b2 ( ITS xxxiv 58.15 ). benaid in gort uile `they reap the whole field', Ériu v 116.14 . glenn . . . ina mbenaid dáoine ímforcraidh spísraid, Maund. 54. an chnú ní 'na bláth beantair, Dán Dé vii 15 . luibh leighis re báidh beanais with love (for us) He plucked a healing herb, DDána 48.1 . (of turf-cutting) mani bentar hi ina haimsir coir, Laws i 132.7 Comm.

(e) incises, engraves: ise in luathrindi sin robenadh i sciath C. that is the `luathrindi' (lit. ash-point) that was cut in the shield of C., Ériu v 72.23 . (of drawing Ogam characters) no da mbentar uile, LL 5338 ( Auraic. 5449. )

(f) takes (away), carries off: bensat giallu iar congail, RC xvii 145.14 . Of tax, tribute, etc. exacts, levies: mili dam mili bo benaim `I exact', 49.9 .

II With follg. adv. do ben a claidheamh amach drew his sword, ITS xix 44.4 . lér bhain sé a fhlaitheas . . . amach arís `recovered', Keat. ii 1089. do benadh luirech an ridire sin amuig `was captured', L. Chl. S. 38. do bean Úa B. . . an gealladh . . . ar aiss retracted, Expugn. Hib. 69. do benatar ar lár laim ris `they fell to the ground', BCC 132.

With prepp. With A takes from: in pars benar a hichtur in lithe `the particle that is cut off', Thes. ii 254.3 (Stowe M.). ercōit benus do ṡūil as do chinn, ACL iii 308.z. is tu rogab misi . . . ┐ roben fhuasgailt asum `got ransom from me', ZCP vi 285.8 . (of a rescue from a castle) go mbendaís an tiarla as d'áis no d'eiccen, AFM vi 2172.25 . do bheanadar as . . . they inferred that . . ., PublicRecords Appendix 40.22 . eunuchi . . . .i. na daoine as a mbeantur, 23 K 42, 94.18 . na h-ainmhíntidhe a mbaintear asta which are gelded, Corp. Astron. 90.21 . as e as adbur as a mbainter na catraca `that is the material from which cities . . . are formed', Ir. Astr. Tr. 36.7 . do benadh comnuidhe asainne forsan muir we were stayed, BNnÉ 7 § 22 . robenus lēim luthmur . . . as mo sdét made my steed leap, ZCP vi 65.9 . beantur fiuchad as `bring it (i.e. milk) to the boil', Rosa Angl. 94.2 . b.¤ custam as levies toll on: bentor custam as a n-eachroidh in gach baile dip, Fl. Earls 86.1 . b.¤ greim a see greimm. ? gan mo bhac, a Dhé, i ndeacraibh / ná beantair lat é as m'olcaibh, DDána 61.6 .

With DE takes from: robenaitt a lama ┐ a cosa donti dorone were cut off, Ann. Conn. 1224.3 . benuis screapall beg . . . de `broke off', Fl. Earls 34.17 . dobenadh a ceimniughudh de the power of walking was taken from him, Aisl. Tond. 107.3 . Of covering, clothing, etc. ben a erriud ┐ a étgud de take off his equipment and his clothing, TBC-LL¹ 4061. bensat a chroicend de `stripped his skin from him', PH 2146. bean an dá bhliadhain déag . . . do na hocht gcéad déag bliadhan úd `deduct . . . from', Keat. ii 1160. do ben minna da ṡíair fa marbad uile `he made his sister swear that she would kill them all', Maund. 82. go mbeanfaidhear cúntas 'na smuaintighthibh dhe an account of his thoughts will be demanded of him, TSh. 7304.

Various phrases. b.¤ céill, súil de, see cíall, súil. b.¤ cert de, see cert. do bhean Ír díobh . . . tosach `outstripped [them],' Content. xxx 4 ; cf. ag béin túsa d'íbh Táil, IGT Introd. § 38. ris an mbréig níor bhean dá mhóid he did not break his vow (?), A. Ó Dálaigh l 31.

With DO: lucht an bheatha dá mbeanfadh on whom it would fall (i.e. a deluge of rain), DDána 75.22 . do ben escor don nech the person fell, BCC 452.27 . do bhain a mhaoith (sic MS.) do gach fior affected everyone, Ériu i 98.32 . ro bhen a droch-dhiach dhó oir fuair a righedh ar carr `his evil destiny awaited him', AFM v 1818.12 . ní bhean th'aigneadh d'Eóghan thy opinion did not effect E. (i.e. E. was not of thy mind), Ir. Review 1912, 471 § 5 . dom anmain is eadh bheanas / an mac do bhí i mbraighdeanas the child . . . is my soul, DDána 7.21 . gidh cúich mé, a bhean, beanfad daoibh / madh áil leat leannán macaoimh I shall be yours, 67.14 . Caiter ḟíona .i. an chailleach dhubh do ben dó who adhered to him, Ó Héodhusa 42.8 . ní bheanann dúinn trāchdadh orra annso it is not our business to . . ., Mac Aingil 2586 . ní bheanand doibh offic Chriosd do ghabhail chuca `they have no right to', Carswell 225.

With FO: b.¤ foo (in ras. H) attacks them, LU 4874. bean far dtoirmisg-ne far dtoil try to prevent us from achieving our wish, DDána 95. 24 . má bheanann faoi ag mionsmuaineadh . . . ar na neithibh si if he happens to be thinking, Mac Aingil 360 .

With FOR (AR): forom-sa co m-benfat a n-osnaid ┐ a mmallachtain it is at me their sighs . . . will be directed, TBC-LL¹ 197. benais Medb béim n-aisce fair reproached him, 472 . benfait Ulaid form do lecud th'oenur sin cocrích, 1176 . ní bheanfa aimhleas no olc / ormsa inghean Con Connocht `Cú Ch.'s daughter will not charge me with hurt or harm' (?) Studies 1921, 589 § 8 . ro ben cotlud na haidhchi forro deprived them of, CCath. 2439. ni bhenabh sa a chuid don tsaogal fair, BNnÉ 182.15 . ar neach do bhean a mbúaludh / uabhur h'each mear dhā mūnadh `the mettlesomeness of your swift steeds . . . deprived a person of (the need of) beating them' (Notes), O'R. Poems 2535. nā benaidh amhiris for Dia imm immut a mirbhol do not visit God with disbelief (?), Ériu ii 120 § 58. b.¤ (cloc) for (? ar) lit. rings (a bell) against, hence excommunicates: gabais salmmu escaine foraib . . . B. a chlocc foraib, Trip.² 1303. cor benadh an Bernān Ciarāin (i.e. the saint's bell) fair, RC xvii 383.11 . benait co mBríg . . . / barr find for slúag enair they, together with . . . B., bring the host of January to a good end, Fél. Jan. 31. See 1 glas.

With FRI (LA): traig . . . isī benas fri lār touches the ground, Corm. Y 1235. is béss didu ind liacc benir (sic MS.) ilbeim friss gl. lapidem offensionis et petram scandali, Wb. 4d15 . fuair fearthain . . . / nochar bhean re brat an naoimh, Dán Dé iv 22 . in Brug risa mbenand tond, Ériu vii 219 § 6. ? co Luimneach lethanglas / frismbarca ben, iv 154.2 (see F 428.56). benum . . . frisna catrachaib filet fri toeb mara let us visit, LB 142a29 . acht co mbeantai (toccaibti, v.l.) mur friu `if only a wall were set up against them', Ériu viii 179.9 . inud in ro ben in nathair fris 'the place where the serpent had stung him', ITS xxxv 34 § 119 . Fig. touches, affects; is concerned with, meddles with: benad fria chubus fessin gl. opus suum probet unusquisque, Wb. 20c8 . benaidh rind labhairt ar aesaib(h) an domhain, Leb. Gab.(i) 2.7 . ná bean ris, Proverbs xx.19. Ronán . . . / Colman fria mbaig benaim `whom I entreat for their blessing', Gorm. Aug. 18 (? modelled on late Lat. use of pulsare in sense of rogo, see Du Cange s.v. 1 pulsare ). ara mbaig fris mbenab, Nov. 4. gach ní dar bhean le Tepoitt `all the possessions of T.', AFM vi 2146.19 . an té do-ní adhaltrannas . . nō bheanas ré mnaoi neamhpósda, Parrth. Anma 2495.

With I: b.¤ side sleg n-ind, LU 1522. suil beanfuighthear innte = before it be meddled with, Proverbs xvii 14.

with ó forms, derives from (gramm.): cia an t-éntuillréim dég iollraidh ó nach beantur samhlughadh amhuil, IGT Introd. § 2. ? aer o bard benar, Laws v 228.28 .

béo

Cite this: eDIL s.v. béo or dil.ie/5671
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: béu, béu, mbi, bii, -bíi, béoa, beó, bh, beó, bíe, beoloiti

adj o, ā. In O. Ir. also béu (note n. pr. Beuchell, Sedulius Scottus, Monumenta Germaniae, Traube). See GOI § 204 , § 206 , § 352 . n s. b.¤ , Wb. 10b27 . béu, 13d6 , Ml. 44c11 . a s. f. mbi, Laws iv 218.17 Comm. n p m. bii. Wb. 3b6 , -bíi, 3b7 . a pl. béoa, Thes. i 4.31 . duine beó, g s. beó, bh, IGT Decl. § 205. bean beó, g s. beó, bíe, § 139 .

(a) (i) as attrib. living, quick (ii) as predic. adj. alive . (i) eclás Dé bíí, Fél.² i 20. ité uiui in dóini bí, Sg. 39a23 . na heoin beoa do gabail to catch the live birds, TBC-LL¹ 1334. Crist gunig gach mbeathaidh mbi (: eabraidhi) `Christ who controls all living life', Ériu xvii 74 § 8 ( Laws iv 218. 17 Comm. ). gē dosanntaig bhetha[id] mbī / nīr tsechain Rí an alltair ē earthly life, ZCP vii 304.2 . i lámhaibh an Dé bheó (= Dei viventis), TSh. 5397. Of fire: do theinid bī, ACL iii 242 § 7. Of spring water: benaid in talum . . . ┐ tanic topar usce bíí ass, PH 1338. lively, spirited (of a combat): troid beó fa comthruime cur, IGT Decl. ex. 529.

(ii) céin bas mb.¤ in fer gl. uiuit, Wb. 10b23 . is cundubart leu indat bii gl. qui . . . se uiuere nesciunt, ZCP vii 482.12 ( Enchir. Aug. 75b ). an beó do thigerna ? BDD² 1519. ro hadnaiced na geill . . . ┐ siad beoa `the hostages . . . were buried alive', RC xxiv 184 § 17. madh beo na daoine, Content. xxv 8 . living, alight (of fire): ní béu cid in teni, Trip. 10.17 . For the phr. béo bocht see 1 bocht.

(b) As subst. o, m. a living being; in spiritual or mythological sense an immortal: oc ascnam tíre tairṅgiri inna mb. `the Land of Promise of the Living', Wb. 11a19 . dodeochad- . . . a tírib beó áit inna bí bás nó peccad, LU 9996. cen sa écnach nach bí `without reviling any living thing', Ériu iii 104 § 40. ar nī fírḟlaith nad nīamat bi (bíí, v.l.) bennachtnaib whom the living do not glorify, ZCP xi 97 § 59. totchurethar bíi bithbi the ever-living ones invite you (i.e. Conle, to come to the other-world Land of the Living), LU 10027. is cumma barrurim biu ┐ marbu dó in like manner he enumerated for him the living and the dead, TBC-LL¹ 4761. amail bid bēo nobeith ann, ACL iii 5.15 . do mess for bíu ┐ marbu `to judge the quick and the dead', Ériu ii 194 § 7. gan beó, gan baistedach / aram (leg. ar) bith [c]āemh cé no living creature, ZCP viii 212.15 . beo gach buainchethra, Metr. Gl. 31 § 60. In spiritual sense: créud íad na beóa ar a ttiobharthar breath ? who are the saved (?) who will be judged ? Parrth. Anma 1561.

(c) In phrases. Used with possess. pron. usually in sing.: ní col dó cid less ar mb.¤ et ar mmarb gl. siue ergo uiuimus etc., Wb. 6b20 . a beō nach óe do breith to bring any of them alive, TBC-I¹ 685. ragaid do beo no do marb you shall go dead or alive, TBC-LL¹ 1224 ( LL 8614 ). beannacht dá mbeó is dá marbh a blessing on them living and dead, Dánta Gr. 3.12 . ní suthain a mbí they do not live long, ZCP vi 261.29 . re na beo fen during his own life, BCC 33.

In phr. i mbíu alive (with gen. or possess. pron.) in the lifetime (of): nī dlegat a ndola i mbiu, Ériu vi 121 § 5. otáam inar[m]bíu / nochotacca cusindíu `since we have been alive', Trip. 140.13 . ar ropo námasom na bíu do Laignib `in his lifetime', RC vi 165.34 ).

(d) the quick of the skin: bheith ag dol i mbeó ar Dhia . . . lé dubháilcibh to cause distress to God, TSh. 2296. tairnge i mbeó (prov.), Hard. ii 408.9 . táirnge a mbeó go raibh ann do bhonn, Éigse vi 6.29 .

See argat.

Compds. With nouns: cenmotha beoalma, Anecd. ii 59.1 . -athair in leg. technical term mac(c) b.¤ -athar son of a living father, hence a son unqualified to make valid contracts: gach mac beoathur nad bi saor a chor, Laws ii 288.7 . trí nata[t] túalaing sainchuir: mac beo-athar, ben aurnadma, dóer flatha, Triads 151 . rucus rāith ar mac ṁbeoathar, ZCP xv 311 § 7. -bethu: mess ┐ beobethu animal fodder, ZCP xii 366.10 ( PRIA xxxvi (1923) 310.5 ). Cf. also ZCP xvi 203 - 204 . ¤búaid: ' sin chrích badba co mbeó-búaid (bladbuaid, v.l.) `of living excellence (?)' (Notes), Metr. Dinds. iii 372.6 . ¤chned: dire beocneidhi `the penalty for a non-mortal injury', BCrólige 39 n. 6 . ¤chride: ni minec bar mearughudh / isin brugh co mbeocraidhi with beating heart, IT iii 89 § 114. As attrib. ar da n-echaib . . . beochridi blenarda, LL 10358. lé clódh beóchroidhe bos `with sorrowful beating of hands' (?), Gleanings from Irish manuscripts 18 § 29. ¤chrod livestock: marggad beochruid bó ┐ (facs.) ech, LL 25108 ( Metr. Dinds. iii 480.1 ). ¤chruth: mic Metusalem do b'fhada bhí a mbeóchruith `in mortal shape', ITS iii 84.24 (1900) . ¤dartaid live calf: [d]ersaid bec beodartaid (beomartaid, v.l.). / mani tugedar (leg. tuigther, note) d'ilbíadaib, Ériu vii 6.12 . ¤dédail (?): Rind ┐ Faebur fegar / cen baegul ria mbeodedail, LL 20341 (untransl. Metr. Dinds. iii 272.6 ). ¤dil (leg. technical term, opposed to marbdil q.v.) animate possessions i.e. livestock: as-renar cona fuillem co ndiablad aithgine, mad marbdile: mad beodile, co n-as ┐ los ┐ fuilled ┐ fuillem, Stud. in E. Ir. Law 38 § 18 ( Laws ii 376.2 ). indile (.i. beo dile), O'D. 989 (H. 3.17, 853). ni tascnai fine, na orbu, na beodil, na marbdil `the live chattels', Laws ii 288.3 . ¤ḟedan: beo-ḟeadain . . . for feraib fedair `live carrying' (away on sick maintenance), BCrólige 58 . ¤gasrad: beóghasraidh `vigorous company', Studies 1920, 417. 18 . ¤idbart living offering: amal rundgab in beuidbart sin gl. uitulus, Ml. 87b9 . ¤mainchine service during life: bar mbéomaicne (mbeomainchine, v.l.) ┐ bur marbmaicne (marbmainchine, v.l.), Acall. 3506. ¤thlus livestock: fear ro ba saidhbhre i nErinn a mb.¤ , AFM iv 1128.18 .

Of fire: (?) ¤bruiden burning hostel: adcíat in daigid nduilig / 'na brainig don beó-bruidin (breó-, v.l.), Metr. Dinds. iv 236.35 . ¤chaindell: fri beocaindle with burning candles i.e. clear testimonies of witnesses ( Bürgschaft 7 § 3 n. 2), ZCP xiii 20.7 . atait secht fiadnaise . . . ite secht mbeocaíndle and ro forosnad gae cach rig seven burning candles i.e. certain disastrous events accepted as evidence of his `falsehood,' Laws iv 52.9 . See BCrólige 58 notes. forath ni acair acht beo-cainneall a flaitheas . . . acht an tí dana taithnemach é amail caindill (sic leg., Stokes, Laws Crit. 8 ) mbi .i. mac flatha, ┐ ua aroile, Laws iv 380.3 . ¤grís living flame: co ro bheathaidhsiot beóghrís a seangomh, AFM vi 2054.2 . an tshacramuint-si . . . do bheith 'na béoghrís gacha subhāilce dhamh `stimulant' (Gloss.), Parrth. Anma 5122. ¤luisne burning flame, brand: ar clann Fheóraisne sa n-eachra / b.¤ i n-am debtha díbh, IGT Decl. ex. 179. ¤theine blazing fire: fúair bás ┐ beó-thenid (breo-, v.l.) `he met death in fatal fire' (viz. the burning of Bruiden Da Choca), Metr. Dinds. iv 236. 16 .

With adjj. derived fr. nouns: ¤bríathrach of living words: bennacht Brenainn beobhriathraigh, Anecd. ii 32 § 3. ¤tharrach, ¤thlusach possessed of live-stock: gnithi manach beothlusach, O'Dav. 1530.

With vnn., life-, (while) living: ¤élud (in Laws, in contr. with mairb-élud) abandoning, evading while living (the obligations of tenancy): fri beo-eludh, ZCP xiv 343 § 5 ( Laws ii 228.16 ). ¤léiciud: (of ensuring discharge of liabilities between co-tenants) sith aili no beolegud nascaither na smacta so iarsin `living deposits i.e. witnesses' (Mann. and Cust. i cxcii n. 347), O'Curry 31 (H. 3.18, 13a). ¤scarad (of the termination of a contract between flaith and tenant in the lifetime of the parties) separation during life: atait secht mbeoscartha do flathib ┐ a n-aiccillnib imis-fuaslaice[t] dligid do coraib, ZCP xiv 383 § 48 ( Laws ii 312.21 ).

As intensive prefix oft. meaning deadly: ¤chobra speech before death, farewell: beochobra Con Culaind isind ló fúair bás, LL 13845.

With second element expressing action causing danger to or deprivation of life. ¤bág: a topur na tonn táide / moambí bocur beó-báige `round which hung a threat of mortal import' (sic leg. Corr.), Metr. Dinds. iii 344.8 . ¤gletin deadly (?) combat: ba balc-gent co mbeó-gletin `mortal in conflict', Metr. Dinds. iv 188.24 . ¤marb slain: co fagbaindse a n-eltae beómarbae isnaib slébib, LU 9321. ¤chorach: flaith Dúine Bárc beó-choraig `of deadly-hurling D.B.', Metr. Dinds. iv 8.32 . ¤gonaid, ¤gonaigid wounds but doesn't kill (?), to the quick: bertatar cloic (sic) cach fir beógaíti leo ass, LU 8003 (BDD). māth bēoguin rogonae nech `a life-wound ', Cáin Ad. 44. R. do dul beoghonta dia thigh `severely wounded', AFM iv 690.3 . créad do bheoghnuigh snódh na gréine ? `what has deformed the features of the sun ?' O'Rah. 146.2. ¤loitte, ¤loittithe severely, fatally wounded: beoloiti, Ann. Conn. 1373.5 . rucad Conn beoloitide forin nGrencha .. . et sepulerunt , 1411.28 . ¤marbad act of slaying, killing: do bhualadh ┐ do bheomharbhadh to knock down and kill (viz. cattle), AFM v 1470.15 . ¤thollad act of piercing to the quick: beara . . . ré beó-tholladh bocht-anam ann, TSh. 6677.

With first element bí- see bícherb, bíchim.

4 blá

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 4 blá or dil.ie/6002

Forms: blaí

n m. also blaí. boundary (mark); enclosure: in da bla dec frisi cuindrighter crich `the twelve marks by which a boundary is defined', Laws iv 142.8 Comm. bla imfoghla; crich do teid uisce glaise airm fo leanad ín da comarba ím da biad for cechtar ín da leithe. Adsuigaidhter cricha for sin, 144.10 Comm. bla mucnaige .i. crích son inchoisce cet bona crann no cuaille i talum no dibell muilinn no sendroiched fo tuind, O'Curry 33 (H.3.18, 13). bla reime. Crich son incoisce rout rig no tuaithi . . . no bothar. Is blai críche insin, 34 (14). (B. na f.) cechaing . . . tar dorus an bla amauch, ZCP viii 102.18 = dorus na ratha, Ériu ii 186.17 .

brúchtaid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. brúchtaid or dil.ie/7066

Forms: brúchtad

v (brúcht) bursts, belches forth; springs forth, pours, overflows : brucht .i. sceith . . . bruchtaid co sal co salaib .i. bruchtaid sim co salcaraib, O'Dav. 250 , Ériu xiii 44.22 . robrúcht in talum `the earth burst open' (at Crucifixion), KMMisc. 144.21 . a n-aen uair bruchtais a meas ┐ a mblath ┐ a nduilli `break forth', Dinds. 59. airm asa mbrūchtat Ollar ┐ Ollarba whence spring forth O. and O. (rivers), Corp. Gen. 121.24 . in ni bruchtas de (sc. claide) what overflows from it, Laws v 488.25 Comm. T. . . . asa ṁbrucht srúaim soïs `out of whom burst a stream of knowledge', Fél. Apr. 4. Ainle . . . / fris ṁbruchta muir mílach, June 21 . ? brūchtait bith / Fiachu Labrainn, / Smirguil, Smrith, Corp. Gen. 6.19 . brúctaidh fri híath nAnann, Ériu xiii 40.25 . flaith . . . brúchtas roimse robartai (rhet.), BDD² 1012. sāer sāerus broind bēlra bēil brūchtus ūad (rhet.), Anecd. v 22.17 . ro bruchtsat lucht na cathrach na urtimcill `crowded round him', Stair Erc. 467.

Trans. ro bruchtsatar eassa ┐ aibne . . . mur-bhruchta . . . cacha moir eisc `poured forth . . . shoals of', MR 102.1 . ? brúchtis bí a croith innallaili combu ógslán, LU 10610 = bruitis (bruigis, bruitisbe, brutisife, v.ll.), Comp. CC 6. orcc brecc brondḟinn bruchtas de magur fo muirib, Corm. Bodl. 26 (see magar ). brūchtaid in būar bódela (rhet.), ZCP viii 105.3 . gur bhrúcht sí (an Fhraingc) foirne uaithe d'áitiughadh críoch oile, Keat. ii 927.

Vn. brúchtad.

cairrcech

Cite this: eDIL s.v. cairrcech or dil.ie/7943

adj o, ā (carrac) stony, rocky : uir thar sliabh cairgeach clochach, BB 29a2 = cairchech, LL 779 . talum garb . . . c.¤ , IT i 190.33 ( FA 30 LB). bruigi . . . cairrgeacha . . . na Teibi, TTebe 836 .

1 caisirne

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 caisirne or dil.ie/7971

ind talum . . . óigreta co reod, co c.¤ amal chairrci tenntidi, IT i 190.34 (FA), cf. casarnach.

cléirech

Cite this: eDIL s.v. cléirech or dil.ie/9416

Forms: -eadh, cléirceadh, cléirchiu, clercho, cliarcho, cleirchiu, clerco, cliarcho, cliarcha, cliarcho, clercho, cleircho, cléirche, cléirce

n o, m. (Lat. clericus). Early Mod. Ir. g pl. -eadh, IGT Decl. § 23 . cléirceadh, Ériu v 90.29 . Distinctive v a pl. cléirchiu, also clercho, cliarcho etc. cleirchiu, Snedg. u. Mac R § 51 . clerco, RC ix 22 § 22 . cliarcho, § 21 (cf. also cliarcha, SG 78.16 ). cliarcho, Snedg. u. Mac R § 16 . clercho, § 30 . RC ix 24 § 27 . cleircho, 22 § 22 . Mod. Ir. n pl. also: cléirche, Ir. Syll. Poetry 70 § 1 . cléirce, Rial. S.F. 1397 .

(a) cleric, one in orders (not necessarily an ordained priest): clēirech a clericus i.e. electus , Corm. Y 352 . cleireach gl. clericus, Ir. Gl. 422 . triar c.¤ . . . oc baithis na hi Brigti, Vita Br. 2 . alali clerech sruith, 11 , cf. sruith clérich, LU 1215 . cléirig do dénum it(i)gi a thige, Críth G. 572 . do munntir Coluim / Cille cléirigh, Snedg. u. Mac R § 56 . Cormacc ba cain clérech / haue Liathain, Fél. June 21 . clérich Hérenn, Thes. ii 320.3 ( Hy. ii 61 ). Suarlech co cleirchibh Midhe, AU an. 851 . cisne a trí a nemtiger c.¤? talum-cumscuthad tria firta ar fiadad, marbad na mbeo ┐ beougha na marb, O'D. 2209 (Nero A vii, 144b). dun tsailmcedlaid . . . d' adhantaigh ┐ do cleirech gu coraind a tonsured clerk, Laws v 24.5 Comm. cleirig ┐ mna ┐ mec, i 242.10 (exempt from the liabilities of sellchecht). ro fergaidhedh in clerech, 6.8 Comm. (of Patrick). i comthinoltaib láech ┐ clérech, LU 2253 ( FA 31 ). do cleirchib ┐ caillechaib, Ériu xix 60 § 8 . dechor eter cleirchiu ┐ laichu, § 7 . M. . . . comarba Patraic, cenn cleirech iartair tuaisceirt Eorpa uile, AU an. 1020 . i fiadhnu[i]si cleirech nErenn, idon, in Leghait ┐ U[i] Osein . . . ┐ na n-epscop archena, an. 1157 . mairg thochrus fri cléirchib cell, SG 78.14 . sóifid fiannas i cella ┐ i cleirchiu, RC xxvi 40 § 213 . in rabhattar caraitt cleirech occut `clerical friends', 362.13 . clērech graece cleros, sors, quia de sorte dictum est , O'Mulc. 216 . écosc cléirigh forsin dara fer ┐ écoscc láich for araile, SG 78.30 . cuigir no seisir do chleirchibh ┐ do shagartaibh do mharbhadh, AU iii 600.3 . gabhait clérich na cille occ ettarghuidhe an Choimdedh, Hugh Roe² 40.27 . clérech ná tuata `person Ecclesiastical', RSClára f. 52a . adeirmisne, na bráithre cléirigh, an o[i]ffige do réir na cléire oile (officium dicebamus nos clerici secundum alios clericos), Rial. S.F. 1648 . sacramaint ina ttabhairthear cumhachda ┐ grása do shagartaibh ┐ do chléircibh, Parrth. Anma 3091 .

(b) clerk; scholar, man of letters : laoch clerech `a lay cleric(?)' (distinguished in text from fer graidh), Ériu viii 121.5 . cethrar cleirech fo an inadh a caithinn an t-imperi a cuid ac scribenn cach oenḟocuil da n-abar sé, Maund. 193 . a maigistreacha moreladhnacha ┐ a cleirigh canonda, Stair Erc. 1782 . na héigsi is dot fháidhibhsi, / na cléirche, na cliarsgola, Ir. Syll. Poetry 70 § 1 . clerech uisce Arda Macha, BCC 358.26 (§ 337) . do ba cléirech do ba [ceard] `a sage', A. Ó Dálaigh lv 21 . do chiúnaidh cleireach [na comhairle] . . . an pobal `the town-clerk', Acts xix 35 .

(c) sacristan, acolyte : dá ndeachaidh an cléireach . . . i n-am an Aifrinn do rádh, dlighidh an sagart an chuid eile de'n Aifrionn do fhriothólamh dhó féin dá raibh an cléireach gan filleadh chuige, Eochairsg. 125.22 . go cclérech ndeghchluach ndesgrédech `Clarke', RSClára f. 88b . coisrig thū féin mar aon ris an tshagart ┐ freagair dhō leis an ccléireach (at Mass), Parrth. Anma 4419 . bhí an cléirioch sásta, / an sagart ró-bhaodhach, ZCP v 217 ( Midnight court 505 ). ní maith sagart gan cléireach, cited Mid. Court glossary s.v.

(d) As epithet or sobriquet: Corcran cleirech, cenn Eorpa im crabud ┐ im ecna, AU an. 1040 . Tadhg mac in cleirigh .H. Concobair, an. 1056 . da mac Maelcobha Clerich, MacCarthy 402.1 . Clereach (? leg. in c.¤) Ua Sealbhaigh, ard comharba Bairre, AFM ii 922.12 .

cnoccach

Cite this: eDIL s.v. cnoccach or dil.ie/9768

Forms: cnocach

adj o, ā (cnocc) lumpy; hilly: cnocach gl. gibberosus, Sg. 22a8 . talum . . . cairrcech cnocach, IT i 190.y (FA Eg.). Compar. ba cnocaighi more hilly, Fl. Earls 28.y .

As subst. Ard na nGeimhleach ré ráidhtear an Chnocach aniú, Keat. ii 4465 .

crúaid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. crúaid or dil.ie/13191
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: crúadh, cruaidhe, crúaidh, cruadha, crúaidh, cruadha, cruaidhe

i

I As adj. hard(y), harsh; stern, strict: daingen no cruaidh gl. durus, Ir. Gl. 674 . bidh cruaidh cuiglidhe, Blathm. 237 . miach cruithnechta cruaid inbid hardened, ZCP xiv 355 § 13 . in moin cruaid, Laws i 132.4 Comm. crūaid a gal, Sc.M² 21 g . gabur . . . c.¤ , LU 8626 ( FB 47 ). gairid cāi crūaid den, Four Songs 8 § 2 . ticfait cruaidi casracha, SR 8039 . nae m-bliadhna cruaidhi coimsigh `strict', MacCarthy 418.w . fairrci cruaidh ` rough ', Leb. Gab.(i) 266.15 . crabaidh cruaid strict, BB 296b11 . bás cruaidh, PBocht 12.50 . na neithi remra ┐ na neithi cruaidi, O'Gr. Cat. 265.2 . aisgidh . . . ┐ í cruaidh, Aithd. D. 43.1 . fa cruaidh an tseanmhóir hard to understand, PBocht 11.21 . isin phrisun cruaidh, Smaointe B. Chr. 4736 . re hēudaighibh cruaidhe garbha, Beatha S. F. 1805 . cennaighe crūaidh, ZCP viii 208.20 . mochen daonna as cruaidh creidme, BNnÉ 280.19 . cruaidh fa rún, DDána 117.40 .

Transfd. meanings: gér' budh cruadh a chroidhe, RC xxix 112.16 . ar gcairde croidhe cruaidhe, Measgra D. 22.34 . Gramm. voiced (of sound, consonant): do-ní brígh connsuine bhuig don chonnsuine chrúaidh, IGT Introd. § 105 . connsuine crúaidh no bog, § 55 (15.24) . an tan bhogthar connsuine crúaidh, § 29 (10.25) . is caeli ┐ is cruaidhi inas inni eli (of sounds), Auraic. 1481 . In phr. is (attá) c.¤ do (for) it is hard for: fa cruaid d'E. eturra `E. was hard-pressed', Stair Erc. 2003 . ar pearsanna . . . do ghlacadh da madh cruaidh do `if he were obliged', Trans. RIA xv 87.w . atá cruaidh ortsa difficult for you to understand, Desid. 3635 . Of cream or curds, thick : for foesam duit na crothi cruadi cúl-budi, MacCongl.² 32.989​ .

Equat. cruaidhither ri crandlæm, TTebe 3364 . Compar. nís cruaidhi gl. durior, Ir. Gl. 1118 . crūaidhi indāt clocha a cridhi, Ériu iii 29 § 2 . gá cruaidhe ceisd ?, DDána 12.1 . Adv. cu cruaid, Lat. Lives 103.17 . neach dá mbí go cruaidh ad chionn `one who is bold against thee', Bard. P. 20 § 9 .

II As subst. crúadh f. g s. cruaidhe, IGT Decl. § 39 (91.13) . crúaidh m. g s. cruadha, § 41 . crúaidh f. g s. cruadha, cruaidhe, § 42 . tri meich . . . do cruaidh cruithnechta of (hard) dried wheat , Laws ii 200.30 Comm. fer ler robhog ar ccruaidhne `my hard (verse)', Bard. P. 30.10 . dia do chruaidh stubbornness (chev.), Aithd. D. 73.4 . do chomhshnoidh cruaidh a chridhe, DDána 20.44 .

Usu. in meaning steel (?): ? conid fri c.¤ n-aurdairc n-aister, LU 7415 ( BDD 100 ). frisna gaibed iarann na cruaidh do cruaidhiph na cruinne, CCath. 5247 . cruaidh shídh na ndealg ndoidhíolta `the steel in the peace made by the priceless nails', Aithd. D. 65.19 . crúaidh a gcindbeirte, IGT Decl. ex. 615 . crúadh a ṡleighi, ex. 1084 . a chrithear do chruaidh nimhe, Aithd. D. 46.23 . do dhearbhadh chrúaidh cheann choirrshleagh, O'R. Poems 2484 . cnedh ó chrúaidh gurm, IGT Decl. ex. 1129 . a dtuagh ghualann, a gcruaidh róghlan, O'Rah. 74.50 . Transfd. sreith mholta . . . do chruaidh chorcra ar gceirdeine, Aithd. D. 46.11 . Attrib. g s. sa mbró crúaidhe, IGT Decl. ex. 1156 . mír cruadha . . . ar gurt gabhaidh (of a warrior), AFM v 1602.6 . a mhír chruadha `thou piece of steel', O'Hara 2926 . a mhír cruadha dár fháomh Íle, SGS iv 144 § 31 . tinne cruadha (a chief), AFM v 1292.20 .

Compds. Frequ. in alliteration. With nouns: diar cobair ar cruadhag `hard battle', Gorm. 30 . cruaidh-bhéim trasgartha, MR 274.1 . is mi-cinelta cruadbeil (of horse), Celtica ii 42.136 . dā cruadh-buillib, ML² 1732 . tar crūadchaircib gered `hard rocks', MacCongl. 85.20 . tanic immach . . . ina chrúadchippi chatha, LL 32757 ( TTr. 1967 ). a cruadhchorpus Gaodhailgi, H 3.18, 157.13 . cruadhcosaige, ┐ haitt glun (disease of horses), Celtica ii 34.45 . fuasgail sinn as an g-cruadh-chás, Oss. iv 276.16 . fochicher achruadchasra, SR 8205 . ech . . . círdub crúaidchend (as adj.), LU 8665 ( FB 49 ). frifúrad . . . / . . . nacruadchorad, SR 5886 . luind cendach corr cruadeigme, Ériu vii 197.z . clann Chraith chrodha i gcruaidh-fheirg-bheirt `in deeds of fierce anger', Content. xxix 23 . Coire mac Cruadhgabann, Anecd. ii 55.18 . riacruadgail nacórad, SR 6911 . cernach caur cruaidgniad, Corp. Gen. 9.8 . corp crist . . . / forraolangair cruadhgubha `severe lamentation', Blathm. 66 . co cethra uvullmellaibh . . . cruaidhiarainn, CCath. 5268 . dronga ar nár cheisd cruadhlaoighe `hard poems', Ir. Review 1913, 595 § 9 . cait[h]chressa ic a cruaidhletradh, CCath. 6083 . cruaidrī, Corp. Gen. 9.16 . crúaidhrinn chaoilṡnáithaide, BS 10.12 . ? iar catha cruaidriss, Corp. Gen. 2.35 .

With adjj.: cruadhbhog caismirteach (of sound), Hackett² xxxiii 5 . fri cernu crúadchassa, LU 7424 ` stiffly-twisted(?)', BDD² Gloss . imdho cridhe cruaidhetaidh (: edaigh), Reeves Ad. 286 . cloidim cru[a]idgher curata, Aen. 1954 . cona cennaibh . . . cruaidrinnai[g]the hard-pointed, CCath. 5460 .

With adjj. derived from nouns: a cath Gabra cruadhairmigh, Acall. 4019 . ada cloitine cruaidhbeimnecha (sic leg.), RC xi 30.10 . i mbíd cruind-ḟer crúad-buillech `stern- smiting', Metr. Dinds. iii 226.20 . in bhuide Chonaill chruaid-chnedaig, SG 21.17 . resin cothucud . . . cruad craidech, Cog. 192.8 . in cunndais cruadcuisech `hard-spirited', ZCP vi 273.16 . ar na ccur chuige go crúadhchúiseach = hardly bestead, Isaiah viii 21 . cruadh-chūiseach in bhar ccreideamh tenacious, Mac Aingil 6311 . maic Sailt chláraig crúaid-íachtaig `hard-groaning', Metr. Dinds. iv 248.16 . talum . . . cruadlasrach, IT i 190.33 (FA). ná bithí . . . cruádmhuineulach, Deuteronomy x 16 .

With vbs. crúadh-cenglaidh an olann dábar n-aighthibh, Cóir Anm. 245 (388.14) . in chuirp ra chrúadchlaidbius which I mangled cruelly, TBC-LL² 3393 . co rachruad-chrithnaigseatar snaitheda saignen tened, TTebe 280 . ra crúaidgéraigit a claidib, LL 31920 . docrechtnaigheadh ┐ docruaidhghonadh, Ériu v 102.1 .

detfadach, detbudach

Cite this: eDIL s.v. detfadach, detbudach or dil.ie/15811

adj smoky, misty (?), cf. detach: tene dub dóiti detbudach, IT i 191 ( FA 30 LB). talum . . . dub dorcha detfadach, 190 . i nglennaib . . . detfudachaib, 191 . hi tegdais . . . aduair imthruim . . . salach . . . dub dorcha detfadach, PH 8298 . i clúsalaib duba dóimne dorcha detfadach marbthaig malartaig íchtair ifirnd, 8245 .

dlúmda

Cite this: eDIL s.v. dlúmda or dil.ie/17077

adj (dlúm) massy, solid: adchíd inis . . . lār cain clūmdhai, talum dlūmdai, Anecd. i 64 .

feidligud

Cite this: eDIL s.v. feidligud or dil.ie/21471

Forms: feidligtheo, feidligthe

n u, m. (vn. of feidligidir) remaining, persisting: f.¤ do hi fochaidib, Ml. 63b15 . is dligthigiu a cumscugud quam a f.¤ its permanence Sg. 22b12 . g s. serc feidligtheo oco, Ml. 15a5 . feidligthe, Sg. 16a14 . rop [f]err léa a feidligud i n-ógi to remain a virgin TTr.² 1856 . folamastar fedlegud (.i. anmain, ACL iii 28.6 ) hi toeb Clare, Trip. 200.21 . mad ail leind fedliugud i tír na mbeo, PH 8068 . an lánamhain sin d'feidhliughadh i n-óitid ... go cenn seacht mís remained youthful Irish Texts iii 15.16 . fédliugud isin cinded ecoir persisting in the wrong resolve PH 5259 . feidliugud a timnaib De, ZCP iii 30.6 . ni chumaic demun fédliugud fri re n-oenuari i talum ..., LB 260a11 (= feidhliuccudh, RC xxvi 364 ).

foglaigid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. foglaigid or dil.ie/22751
Last Revised: 2019

v (cf. fogal and 1 foglach) injures, damages, (with FRI or direct obj.): tuc d'Ioip, ro fhoghlaigh gach nech, | nem ocus talum thoirtheach 'he gave to Jove, who harried everyone, heaven and fruitful earth', Ériu lxiv 48.122 . In Laws Comm.: acht narab tre bithbinchi [sic leg.] foglaigit ris, v 488.39 (of oxen). slan d'fir in eich cia foglaidhe int each acht narab tre bithbinchi ressium; slan dosum ge foglaide risin n-each, 490.20 . ro foglaid urradh ris, iii 128.26 . seoit aine risa foglaiter, i 160.26 .

1 folach

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 folach or dil.ie/23046
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: folach, falach, foilge, f., falaidh

o, u (vn. of fo-luigi, cf. fulach) folach falach, IGT 111 § 52 . n p. foilge, Rawl. 111b33 . `Examples are lacking to show the gender and declension ... in O.Ir. It was probably one of the neut. o-stems which have heteroclite plurals (s-stems),' Bergin, Ériu xii 221 . Originally s-stem, Phil. Soc. Trans. c (2002) 411 n. 23 .

(a) hiding; the act of covering, or hiding: f.¤ .i. custodia latine , Corm. Y 615 . folag ... .i. custodiae , O'Mulc. 569 (these could well belong to fulach). f.¤ (synonym of clúdadh, scáth), Kirk ( Eg. Gl. 155 ). tabuirsi ní dot édach damh umum ... uair ni fhuil f.¤ mo dhenachta umum, Études Celt. i 88.10 . boí Mairend cen folt, conid mind rigna no bid oc foloch a lochta, LU 4225 . do bhí brat ... dá f.¤ go bróig, Oss. vi 82 . boi cend Eoin i talum iarna f.¤ , PH 951 . fuair Elena an croch noem ... arna ḟalach ac na hIdhalaib, Maund. 74 . cosmhail ... lé hionnmhas ar na ḟ.¤ a bhḟearann, Matthew xiii 44 . sgél nach tarbha d'ḟ.¤ ort, IGT, Decl. ex. 2117 . d'ḟ.¤ th' ḟeirge, ZCP xii 384.15 = Dán Dé p. 29 . eclais ... arna ḟ.¤ lé luaidhi roofed (?) with lead Maund. 77 . ferr lem leabaidh ... i mBeinn Bhoirche gan fholoch, BS p. 154 (§ 83) . do ghlac follach oruinn took cover (of a stag) Oss. vi 22.15 . adba folaig ` hiding-place ' Metr. Dinds. iv 172.15 . Cf. fonn fír-ḟalaig ` harbourage ' 86.82 . (Fig.) ni ḟéad ar ndúthaigh d'ḟ.¤ `it does not depreciate the greatness of our country' Content. vi 42 .

Of burial: biaid com ḟoluch án iar tonuch mo tháeb LU 9935 (`burying me splendidly' PRIA iii 536 ). d'éis th'fholaigh after Thy burial Dán Dé xxviii 30 .

Cf. a gabāil ... ┐ a cur i loch da f.¤ , Ann. Conn. 1365 § 8 (Ann. Clonm. has for this committed to a strong place in a logh to be kept', but according to FM the person in question was drowned). Cf. mad iar fod-f.¤ ecaib (.i. mad iarna f.¤ fon fot), Laws v 448.24 (29) = iar fot folug .i. folug dofet huire, H 3.18, 390a ( O'Curry 864 ).

i foluch in hiding, hidden: cid atá i foluch fond erlar sa ?, LU 174 . co ḟuil himagin Isu ... i ḟaluch icon Ebraide LB 2a14 ( PH 95 ). ní ḟaicimsi do lochtaibh ort ní ... ach muna ḟuilid a ḟ.¤ [i bhf.¤] innat unless they are hidden within thee Ériu iii 154.5 . ni raibhe i f.¤ fo thalmain ... ní ná fuaratar, Cog. 114.26 . mar fuair ... leabhar an reachta i bhf.¤ san dteampall, TSh. 7318 . ni brod bec a falach C.C., YBL 37b44 ( TBC-I¹ 2488 ). g s. as attrib. hidden, secret: a huilc falaidh , ACL iii 239 § 31 . locht folaig, PBocht 12 § 22 . a rún falaigh gur reac roibh, 11 § 18 . lámh na leannán bhfoluigh, IGT, Decl. ex. 943 . ger ghoid fholaidh a hidden theft BNnÉ 243.2 . nír écc folaigh ib. 14 . formad folaigh, Dán Dé xxxi 39 . dia tegmad drem folaid ort secret foes ZCP vi 272 § 11 . i n-úair ḟolaig `in a secret hour' Metr. Dinds. iv 116.110 . ni fios falaidh it is well-known O'Gr. Cat. 501.20 . do chuir fesa falaig da indsaigid, Ann. Conn. 1315 § 5 (= f.¤ folaighthe `secret messages' ALC). glár falaigh ní hionchuir air `the tale must not be hidden' SGS iv 140 . For [toirrcheas] fola, Dán Dé x 24 , A. Ó Dálaigh li 14 , we should probably read folaigh.

(b) In concrete sense a covering: in f.¤ um [a] sūilibh, Fier. 78 . falach sroil ... dia cumbdach, BNnÉ 203.4 . folach mo chinn my veil Song of S. v 7 . na foluidhe veils Isaiah iii 23 . scairt, f.¤, liónan `the caul ' Kirk ( Eg. Gl. 535 ). mo chorp peacthach ... nochan falach dearcach donn, Dán Dé xxix 4 .

(c) A hiding-place: foilge cen moene .i. cen a moinigud do neoch na foluch hiding-places without treasures, i.e. without enrichment for any one in concealing them Rawl. 111b33 ( Ériu xii 221 ). Cf. (d) below. f.¤ ... i fail fer fíal (of a grave), Metr. Dinds. iii 140 . amhail chréachtacha 'na gcodladh na bhfuar-fhalchaibh = dormientes in sepulchris TSh. 4709 .

Cf. call tré ḟalach íaruindi | a mbarr dharach, IGT, Decl. ex. 1949 .

(d) something hidden; a hoard: atá foluch i Sléibh Fuait ... trí cét uingi don ór dherg, Acall. 3923 . atchúaid di cach foloch forḟolaig dá tharmnugud don mac every treasure he had hidden for the benefit of the son LL 290b29 ( RC xiii 454 ). co n-ēcius dóib a fil lim di foilgib, LU 5770 (= TBC-I¹ 1299 . See Ériu xii 220 ff ). ? is hē scérus foilgi fri Laigniu who will make the Leinstermen part with their hoards (?) ZCP xii 237 § 61 . im f.¤ fiann do thaiscelad (.i. both folachta .i. im cach set .i. biad nā seoit do berar as an uarboth), Laws i 202.2 (206.4) `for robbing the hunter's tent' transl.; for disclosing (i.e. rifling ?) the repositories of fians (?). But perhaps folacht (= 1 fulacht) is meant. ō tug ... Muiri | falach d'ōr buidi 'na broinn, ACL iii 242 § 18 .

gainemda

Cite this: eDIL s.v. gainemda or dil.ie/25184

adj (gainem) io,iā sandy: ráthaigsit indsi moir ... ganemdha a talum , RC ix 464.13 . isin Moab n-gainemdai, Alex. 331.

lubair

Cite this: eDIL s.v. lubair or dil.ie/30874
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: laubair, lubra, lebuir, lubar, lubfur

n i, f. (Lat. labor(em), Pedersen Vgl. Gr. i 238. See also GOI p. 51 ). Also laubair, lubra, lebuir; with non-palatal -r: lubar, ACL iii 314 § 27 . lubfur, ZCP iii 29.28 . See also below. Gender influenced perh. by opar, but see Vendryes, De Hibernicis Vocabulis 78 .

(a) labour, work : a[i]cced cacha laubra, Críth G. 409. im l.¤ ┐ im tech naidhidh, O'D. 1708 ( H 2.16, c. 920 ). mas duine nach grad tuc a biadh no a lubra amach, O'Curry 2442 ( Eg. 88 f. 36(37)a ). coro shaerustar .x. mbliana cen l.¤ cen saethar iat, RC xii 432.28 . nirbo lethmáel ind l.¤ / ro marb Crechmael comchubaid feat, LL 22263 . sáor airmittnech . . . dognídh lubhair gach naoimh, BNnÉ 10.13 . mad dognither l.¤ . . . do drochtib ┐ toc[h]raib `work at bridges and causeways', RC xii 430.8 . lubhra . . . ┐ lesaighte `works and repairs', Cog. 138.28 . iar ndenum na lubhra, Laws ii 36.19 Comm . don ti oca ndentur in lubhra, 21 Comm . in lubhair, 27 Comm . lagsa for lugair (leg. l.¤), Ériu xviii 64 § 32 . lubhra .i. obair, O'Cl. In legal phrase saíre lubra: suire lubru [.i.] on trath co raile `workman's free-quarter', Laws ii 36.3 . in tsaire lubra, 23 . saoire lubhra, no biata, O'Curry 2442 ( Eg. 88, 36(37)a ). See also fáer.

(b) In religious context manual work (carried out by monk): tuesmot a fuil i n-áini ┐ i laubair ar Chríst `in fasting and in labour', Thes. ii 247.20 . cé rucésa áini nú laubir n-oco `although he suffer fasting or labour', Thes. ii 247.4 (leg. cení césa aíni na laubir n-oco 'although he does not endure fasting or labour thereby' Celtica xxi 417 ). mad airchiund dia laubuir ┐ ernaigti, Ériu vii 172.18 . di lebuir, 138.25 . cen ṡaethar lubra no ernaigthi, LL 285b43 . trī torba isind ló .i. érnaigthi ┐ l.¤ ┐ legund, ZCP iii 29.27 . crābad, ecna óg / lubar lor rit lind, KMMisc. 274.10 (libuir v.l.). do denamh a sáetha[i]r / do móradh a lubar, BNnÉ 309.26 . ferr l.¤ áine, RC xlv 26 § 39 . trédi indarbus démnu . . . l.¤, díthreb, áine, PH 8390 . Gilla mo-C. . . . tuir . . . lubhra ┐ trebaire, Gorm. Mar. 31 (gl. 4) . nā bī a n-espa, / is ed timarna in Rī / lubra, lēgad, ernaigthi, / dēnadh ēgin na nī, ZCP vii 310 § 6 . robé l.¤ eculsa Dē isna lāmaib-sea, ACL iii 232.29 . do lubhair a tempuil / ceilebradh is crabhadh, BNnÉ 308.23 . roddet in cach cill cháid / . . . l.¤ cretra commairg, Ériu viii 67.20 . Also in general sense of religious duty: tredan . . . is í l.¤ as dech la Dia dognither i talum , RC xii 428.y . iar ndenamh iolar mainisdreach ┐ recclés, ┐ gacha lubhra ecclustacda `duty', AFM iii 8.14 .

As quasi-vn.: occ lubair ┐ acc ernaighte (saothar, v.l.), BNnÉ 300.3 .

moirtchenn

Cite this: eDIL s.v. moirtchenn or dil.ie/32477

Forms: moirtc[h]enn

n n. or m. (<Medieval Lat. morticinium, ZCP ix 35 , Pedersen Vgl. Gr. i 194 ).

(a) dead flesh, esp. the flesh of an animal which has died from natural causes? formuichthib .i. moirtchenn (gl. suffocatis, Acts xv 20 ), Thes. i 497.22 ( Ardm. 181a1 ). mortcend .i. ab eo quod est morticinium .i. marbadh, Corm. Y 872 (= muirtchend, Corm. p. 29 ). baten (.i. bat[h]-aten .i. ēc obann) .i. moirtcend atbail a aonur, 114 (= muirtchend, Corm. p. 6 ). nech . . . hithes morchiund no lúis a lind i mbé in morchend ` carrion ', Ériu vii 146 § 3. cach soim is cech doim . . . is talum moirtc[h]enn martair | carcair coitchenn dia corpaibh a grave-yard (?), ZCP vi 265 z (g p. or adj. ?).

(b) transf. sudden death, destruction (cf. Corm. Y 114 quoted above)? is mortcend do ilslúagaib, FB 71. Cf. bruth matho, murtchét for crethaib, ib. 52 , where Zimmer, ZCP i 90 - 1 , suggests reading: murtchend for cethraib (the scribe having mistaken the contraction for n for an accent).

1 nó

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 nó or dil.ie/33204

Forms: no-, atnoí, no, nu, na, ná

conj. or ; acc. to Pedersen Vgl. Gr. i 441 a petrified imperative from the vb. no- (found in 3 s. pr. atnoí); Thurneysen, Thurn. Hdb. § 873 , conjectures that it may have been orig. negative.

In O.Ir. also written no and nu ( Cambr. 37d = Thes. ii 245.36 ), and in Mid.Ir. somet. na, ná (through confusion with ná nor). In O. and Mid.Ir. lenites initial of a follg. noun (possibly in O.Ir. of a vb. also: no chonutangar, gl. aut comitur, Ml. 14c5 ); not so in Mod.Ir.

Generally expressed in MSS. by the Lat. contraction for vel (ł).

Used as disjunct. conj. to separate members of a clause or co-ordinate clauses in order to express one or more alternatives. Gl. aut ( Ml. 14c5 , 136b5 ) and vel ( 94c10 ). lia diis no thriur more than two or three persons, Wb. 13a4 . is lour dā preceptóir no thríi, 13a9 . fó dí nó fó thrí, FB 81. cith ine [sic leg.] chuis nu ine laim nu ine meraib whether in his foot or in his hand, Thes. ii 245.36 ( Cambr. 37d ). cid mór in duil nó cid becc, Ml. 145c3 , cf. 17c3 . cid i caisc nó chorgus, Fél. Ep. 562 (corgus v.l.). itir foss no utmaille, itir suide no ṡessam, Hy. i 3 (T.). troscud ind nó bith for usciu ┐ bargin (alternative penances), Mon. Tall. 9. nad ḟetar-sa . . . ar bad chalmu in Galian Lagen na Lúagni na Temrach andathi-siu whether the G. . . . or the L. . . . were braver than you, CRR 48. eplid do gorta . . . no ithed cách a céli uaib, PH 1023. ron-áil fair conā tormaigfed nó nā digebad cid a oen-fhocul not to add nor take away a single word, Mon. Tall. 61. nā rachthai ón Troí co tucthar síd dúib esti ná co taethaisti acci nó co ndechaisti ḟurri until peace be granted you or till ye fall or till ye overpower it, LL 240b26 ( TTr. 1774 ).

In disjunctive questions: in oc urnaidi Con Culaind bía fodechtsa no in lim-sa doraga? wilt thou await C. or come with me ? SCC 46. indat sochenel no dochenel?, PH 695. ba cunntabairt lemm in n-ó Dia no in n-o diabul ro boí sium, 1493 .

Somet. loosely used where sense is not disjunctive, almost = and: cait i fuarais hi no cia dosgni hi?, PH 208. abair friumm cia cathair duit no caide h'ainm no cia fochund fora tanic, 1137 . Cf. nách nó deilighthi atá annsa chorp acht nó ar ocus that it is not disjunctive `or' which stands in the text but `or' used for `and', H 3.18 p. 645a ( O'Curry 1445 ).

Often (like Eng. or) used instead of ná in a neg. sent., somet. in juxtaposition with the latter: nichar-fail tlacht nó dagbíad, SR 1560 , cf. 512 . ni boi . . . i nnim nó hi talum , LB 112a10 ( MacCarthy 62.4 ) = i nnim nā talmain, SR 1511. áit innā bí bás nó peccad nā imorbus, LU 9996. ni coir lais berrad nā fothruc[ud] . . . nó nach gníomrad ale, Mon. Tall. 55. ní lécset uacht no scís no íttaid . . . fair, PH 1973. gan rún faladh nó formaid, Dán Dé xxv 34 .

nó . . . nó either . . . or , expressing an absolute alternative ( = Lat. aut . . . aut): no teidh-si . . . ar seachran no ni theid, Luc. Fid. 364.20 . no do an Criosd a bfochair a eagluisi . . . no nior an, 369.1 .

In late texts a spurious pl. form is occas. found, on the analogy of oldáit, indáit, etc.: mar dogénadh mac [sic leg.] tíre caírigh nóid uain sheep or lambs, RC xix 50 § 67. do fhiafruigh . . . an rabhadar biadha náid lóinte aca, Keat. ii 264 .

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