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ad-rími

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ad-rími or dil.ie/550

 

Forms: adrímiu, -airmim, -airmiu, adrimi, -airmi, adrimi, atarimi, atrim[i], adindrími, -áirmi, -ármi, adrimet, atarimet, adrimther, adrimter, adrímter, adrimiter, adrimetar, -ármidhter, -áirimh, adrimtis, atarímtis, -arim, adríme, adrimet, adrimther, -árimther, adrímed, -airmed, -airmitis, adrimfem, adrímfiter, adrímfetar, adrímfinn, atarurmius, adruirim, -arraim, barruim, adruirmisset, a-ta-ruirmiset, adruirmed, aírmithi, áram, áirmid

v (* ad-rím-, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 602 ). Indic. pres. 1 s. adrímiu, LU 9323 . -airmim, Sg. 205a2 . -airmiu, Thes. ii 338.2 . 2 s. adrimi siu, Ml. 24b6 . -airmi, LU 10269 . 3 s. adrimi som, Wb. 14d2 ; Ml. 24a13 . atarimi, 111c17 . atrim[i], 49a11 . adindrími, -áirmi, Wb. 13d17 . -ármi, 6a1 . 3 pl. adrimet, Ml. 129d19, 22 . atarimet, Sg. 26b6 . Pass. sg. adrimther, Ml. 46d24 . Thes. ii 246.26 . Pl. adrimter, Ml. 99d9 . adrímter, Sg. 202a5 . adrimiter, Thes. ii 246.28 . adrimetar, Ml. 111a10 . -ármidhter, TTr.² 193 . Ipv. 2 s. -áirimh, Ériu ix 177 § 7 . Indic. impf. 3 pl. adrimtis, Ml. 91a6 . atarímtis, Sg. 188a3 . Subj. pres. 1 s. -arim, Wb. 14d17 . 2 s. adríme, Thes. ii 28.32 . 3 pl. adrimet, Ml. 103b5 . Pass. sg. adrimther, Thes. ii 10.6 . -árimther, Críth G. 2 . Subj. impf. 3 s. adrímed, Ml. 21a4 . Sg. 69a5 . -airmed, Ml. 46b31 . 3 pl. -airmitis, Trip.² 1885 . Fut. 1 pl. adrimfem, Ml. 14d5 . Pass. pl. adrímfiter, Sg. 153b1 . adrímfetar, Thes. ii 229.30 . Condit. 1 s. adrímfinn, Trip.² 2107 . Pret. and perf. 1 s. atarurmius, Hib. Min. 3. 383 . 3 s. adruirim, Ml. 28d5 . -arraim, 49c9 . barruim, TBC-LL¹ 4761 . 3 pl. adruirmisset, Ml. 101b2 . a-ta-ruirmiset, Sg. 188a1 . Pass. sg. adruirmed, Wb. 2d7 . Part. of necess. aírmithi, Wb. 8c13 . See áirmide. Vn. áram. Later as simple vb. áirmid. IGT Verbs § 68 .

I

(a) counts, numbers, computes: amal as ndliged fir bís i n-arim do neuch atarimi `to one that counts them', Ml. 111c17 . ar mad iar n-aicniud adrimther, Thes. ii 10.6 (Bcr).— atairim-si, ol si. Atairimi iarom — count them . . . he counts them, Irish Texts i 3 § 9 . rimfed rind . . . .i. no airmebad rétglanna nime, ACC § 64 ( RC xx 258 ). tuccait . . . a murthréta mucc a fedaib . . . ro rímit ┐ ra hármit, TBC-LL¹ 76 . ada usce nosbera . . . for nim atrímther a laug, LB 228 marg. sup. og iarraid co nairmither fri re `full price of fosterage is reckoned by the time', Laws ii 174.19 . iss é dédenach roarmed it was the last that was numbered, BColm. 92.21 . noco n-airimther ganim mara ni hairemthar ar marbad do macaib ríg, RC xviii 173.12 . co-n-airmestur gainemh mara, RC xxiv 381.4 . do áirmhius noí fichit scíath, ZCP viii 223.1 .

(b) In more general sense of records, recounts, mentions: in gnímai adrimter hi libur iudicum , Ml. 99d9 . nī rurīmiu nī āirmiu / a ndorigēnai ind nóebdūil `I cannot reckon, I count not what the holy creature hath done', Thes. ii 338.2 (Hy. v). co n-árimther inna grá[d] téchtu that he may be reckoned in his proper grade, Críth G. 2 . in tan nach a ngradaib flatha airimter na riga sin, Laws v 24.z Comm. cech martir adrímem, Fél. July 17. Ep. 87 . roairmiustar (roairmestar v.l.) D. douibhsium a n-anmanna, Anecd. ii 55 § 17 . ni roarmide hicond rig Leue no Beniemin it has not been told that L. or B. were with the king, Rawl. 79a7 . atrímead filid na n-G. comtís . . ., Alex. 249 . airem daib seanchassai . . . bar múinntire relate to them, Alex. 191 . ní ruirmiu, ní airémha . . . / a tainic de ancessaib Eireann . . ., AFM ii 600.17 . ni aireomamaid a cogtha, L. Chl. S. § 37 . a ccreacha . . . ni hairimter hi leabraibh, Cog. 38.21 . d'eis ar áirmemar / ar M. in addition to all we have recounted of M., BNnÉ 223.11 . ar áirmhis oruibh d'eachtaibh / do shíol E. `as for the deeds you have told of the race of E.' Content. iv 18 .

(c) takes into account: ni armim-sea ón I take no account of that, TBC-LL¹ 5085 . cona hairmithea bunad eitir `original ownership is not reckoned (i.e. taken into consideration) at all', Laws ii 370.3 Comm. nír airmedar na h-esbada sin o ranic an Maél Flidaise leó they did not count (i.e. they made light of) these losses since they had the M.F., Celt. Rev. iv 206.31 . díanam airmitis-[s]e mu bráthair oc raind a feraind if my brothers should take me into consideration in the dividing of his land, Trip.² 1885 . mad t'árim . . . bail i m-biat dagláich . . . nít ármem itir ┐ nít imradem, TBC-LL¹ 1853 .

(d) counts as, regards as; considers to be: is samlid atrim[i]som in forcomet sin amal bid coscrad dognethe do `it is thus he reckons that protection as though it had been destroyed', Ml. 49a11 . bāeth, buide . . . macne Ailb (nailb v.l.) āirmi (airmighther v.l.), Ält. Ir. Dicht. ii 13 § 1 `thou reckonest the sons of A.,' Ériu xii 201 . ise an Toirrdelbach sin as mó airmhid Conallaig orra do brisedh catha Chnuic an Bodha `it is to this T. that the C. give the most credit on their own side for winning the battle. . .' L. Chl. S. § 56 .

(e) searches out, investigates: adrimisiu gl. rimeris, Ml. 24b6 . adrimi son gl. adpendit examine, 24a13 .

II In idioms with prepp.

(a) ascribes, assigns to (DO): a nadruirmed do Abracham .i. fírinne tri híris `what has been counted unto A. even righteousness through faith', Wb. 2d7 . is secht ṅdana airegda airmither do'n Spirut noem `seven excellent gifts are assigned to the Holy Ghost', PH 8029 . ní armither . . pian . . . dona anmannaib, the souls are not considered to suffer pain LU 2120 ( FA 18 ).

(b) counts as (AR): ni áirmi som ón ar chumscugud `he does not count that as change', Wb. 13d17 . ní nairmi ar bethaid etir `he reckons it not as life at all', Ml. 82a8 . combad ar gair aicnid adrímed in suidiguth `so he would reckon the position for shortness of nature', Sg. 69a5 . as ar chenél cruche adrímther in coicsath `fellow-suffering is counted as a kind of cross', Thes. ii 246.26 . adrímfinn ar nempní i condiulcc in maithiusa tarfas dam, Trip.² 2107 . Hence a.¤ ar x do y counts as x on the part of y: adrimtis-som ar aithissib dunni buith fut recht su `they used to count as reproaches to us', Ml. 91a6 . dorolaig in peccad ┐ ni narraim ar chaire do, 49c9 . fis timnae ndæ . . . is ar sainemli adrimther to neuch rudfinnadar `knowledge of the commandments of God is reckoned as excellence to him that knows it', 46c24 . iss ed sin armither ar adnacul dóib for that is regarded as their burial place, LU 2533 . is ar martrai atrimther dó `it is reckoned to him as martyrdom', Mon. Tall. 146.19 . atait tri cuir tindtai mac beo-athar im a athair nach airmead (= áirmet) liubair na Feine do ar ingaire a tindtog, Laws v 436.23 . ar ní armide ar laechdacht duit-siu comrac frim-sa sund it would not be reckoned as bravery for you, LL 14137 .

(c) considers as, places in the same category as (LA and ETER): participia .i. ataruirmiset la gerind `participles i.e. they have reckoned them with the gerund', Sg. 188a1 . is la noeb scriphinna atarurmius I have included them among the sacred writings, Hib. Min. 3.83 . cid nácham airmisiu . . . lais na trén-firu sin . . . cid dam nachat airmébaind etorro? why dost thou not reckon me among those strong men . . . why should I not reckon thee among them? LU 10269 . uair airemthar do-sum itir deib é da eis `he shall be numbered among the gods', TTebe 2187 . do bhríogh go n-áirmheann an eaglais idir na hoibreachaibh trócaire . . . é, TSh. 5624 . With AR: áirmid eólaig ar mnāib āill[e] a haimsire ī the knowledgable consider her as one of the beautiful women of her time, ML² 485 .

(d) a.¤ x for (ar) y reckons x against y, blames y for x: ba treissi . . . don aithrighe . . . inas dona holcaibh ro áirmittis deamuin form which the devils reckoned up against me, RC xxvi 372.7 . nā hāirimh ar Chorc na cclīar / gē do-bheradh toir is tīar do not blame C., Ériu ix 177 § 7 . oramsa do hairmhedh riamh / a n-dernsabair . . . / daibh fein áirmeocthar anois, Caithr. CC § 60 . With FRI: nicon airmi fri nech cia ba menic thi does not count it against a person, Laws v 76.11 .

1 áes

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 áes or dil.ie/644

 

Forms: āis, áesa, aíse, áeis

n o, n. g s. āis, Corm. Y 322 , Ériu iv 158 § 35 . Later also áesa, aíse. Later f. áeis f., IGT Decl. § 14 .

(a) age, years (of persons, etc.): ce méit as [s]inu aís quam Abracham , Wb. 34a5 . is a cétnae nais gl. Cuius primam aetatem, Ml. 87b10 . is ed a n-áess cétna atáat, Trip.² 1381 . cia hais a roibi M. . . . a n-ais a da bliadan dec, YBL 155a32 . gach mac . . . da raibi a n-aeis in Airdrīgh who was the same age as the high king (i.e. Christ), ACL iii 245 § 22 . secht mbliadnai fil inna aes, BDD² 1140 . it mathi ind óicc ina n-aes, 897 . is e laech a aesa is dech ro bai a nErinn the best warrior for his age, TBFr. p. 15 § 1 . Murchad . . . / macc a āisse as ḟerr co n-anmain, Bruchst. i 14 § 24 ( IT iii 74 § 35 ). cinnas a aesa-sum in meic bic sin innossa, TBC-LL¹ 845 . is áis cēt bliadan dam `I am a hundred years of age, ZCP vi 58.15 . aois áiridhe ┐ foghluim iomchubhaidh (qualifications of candidate for orders), Parrth. Anma 3107 . ar a.¤ in the matter of age, in years: cia ba nóidenán ar áes (: ingaes) `though he was a babe in years', Thes. ii 291.16 (Hy. i). ingen bad chomadais dó ar aís ┐ cruth, LU 10187 . mású ar aís m'athar, as sinem and Éndae Cromm if it be a question of my father's age, Trip.² 1485 . íar n-áesaib according to age: a fari dúib iar n-aesaib, LU 9052 ( FB § 80 . ) mithig anad do báesaib / nocha n-iar n-áesaib tíagair it is high time to desist from folly, it is not according to age that one goes (to death), ACL iii 215.6 . Fig. cia áis in lái anosa? what time is it?, Acall. 505 v.l. cetain ar ai laithi sechtmaine ┐ ochtmadh uathad ar aí aessa esci as regards the age of the moon, AU ii 152.2 . ?cia on cotagair aesa éscai, LL 1564 . With qualifying words: iar n-ais toga the age of choice (i.e. of marriage or otherwise), Ir. Recht 37.28 . a n-ais ica leth dire, Laws v 150.25 Comm. riasiu thi aes cadhnuigh doibh, ii 46.15 Comm. go bhfuilim i n-aois óg-laoich (i.e. thirty years), Dán Dé xxv 39 . a n-áis tserruig when it is a colt, Ériu iv 214.26 .

(b) stage, period (of life): ho oclachas ón, cenid ed as chetnae náis in homine, Ml. 44c26 . colamna āis .i. aimsera āis .i. naoidendacht etc., (of the seven ages of man), Corm. Y 322 . teit i n-oesaib co fo tri / gach oen fhothraigios eiste `life's stage is traversed thrice', SG 248.32 . Specifically of youth, prime: is dered dot' āeis (of a woman past her beauty), ZCP vi 266 § 6 . i tuile a ratha ┐ a áissi dó, CCath. 353 . Of old age: co háis ┐ chríne, LL 283b9 . uile attrebthaide na cathrach etir áes ┐ áetid old and young, LL 220b42 . ( TTr. 270 ). i sliab n-óited i fiadach (fidach v.l.) n-aise (ais v.l.), RC xxvi 26 § 92 . beimmi cen aes, cen érchra, sunn co brath, Trip.² 274 . cen ais cen forcend, PH 7125 . i n-a ligi áisi . . . ár ṅdichur a ṅgascid, CRR § 14 . fleadh aíse the Feast of Age, one of the festivals of the Túatha Dé Danann: do bhídís T.D.D. . . . ag caithiomh Fleidhe Aoise ann gach síoth fá seach, Atlantis iv 118.26 . ag caithiomh na Fleighe Aoise go súbhach, 138.28 . Fig. feadh an laoi-si ma fhleadhaibh / bu fleadh aoisi d'fhileadhaibh, Ériu v 54.z .

(c) lifetime: dochaith se dā trian a aisi ┐ a aimsiri re gaisced, RC x 190.26 . is and robaí in domun immedon a aísi ┐ a brotha ┐ a borrfaid, LL 235a30 . Colum co crábud co ngrís / dom snádud iar n-aís for nem, LL 4815 . gur chaitheas urmhór m'aoise, Dán Dé xi 7 . feadh m'aoise throughout my days, xv 2 . In phrase ó (a) aís all (his) life: a ndor-airngred duit ót áis, Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 20.7 . amal bid occaib nobeith o ais as if he had been at them all his life, RC x 78.16 . ar tí Temra duit ot áis, `since thou art intent upon Temair for thyself' Cog. 124.3 `all thy life', Ériu ii 87 . ben Chaim Oliuan o haís all her life, LL 16478 ( RC xlvii 290.6 ).

(d) age of the world, era: is d'aes tānaissi, nī tār / ō dīlinn co Abrahám, ZCP iii 17.9 . fodhailter in aimsear . . . a bliadhain i saegul, a saegul i n-aeis, MR 108.6 . an tan fá haois don Tighearna, 447 , Keat. ii 6142 .

(e) In phrases with úair: as í sin aes ┐ uair ro ghabh íttu Diarmait that was the very time when, Acall. 2321 . as i sin . . . aes ┐ uair dobi imshnim mor ar menmain Ioib, TTebe 2595 . ó do riacht chuice co haes na huairi sin till that very moment, Acall. 1625 . on luan re samain go hais na huaire seo, ZCP x 301.20 .

1 aigen

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 aigen or dil.ie/925

 

Forms: aighen, aigheann

n m. aighen (oighean, v.l.) m. IGT Decl. § 53 . ?aigheann f. § 12 . cooking-vessel, pan: patena .i. oighen, Ir. Gl. 86 . a.¤ .i. ōgḟæn, amail bid lethnaigthe (lethnuge MS.), Corm. Y 55 . in aignib gl. in patellis, Sg. 92b3 . mac aighin a spoon-fed child, Laws ii 176.20 Comm. in t-a.¤ bellethan, i 134.2 Comm. mina thi asind iurn in aighin (of a pot used for making pottage), Lism. L. 302.28 . crem oghin cremium in sartagine, Aisl. Tond. 97.5 . dorat Dia tri hedburta roptar ferr do Ciaran .i. coiri deis a aighin (where Lat. has sartago, Plummer MS notes), Lism. L. 4275 . for foessam duit in[d] aigin lán do crāibechān (in a comic blessing, where it comes after `coire'), MacCongl. 83.7 . na rucc uaind fri gainim ngarg / acht agen ardd . . ., ZCP iii 222.16 . la corran ind again (in aigin v.l.) úair, 18 . a.¤ ┐ biel leó, Ériu i 44.3 . baoí oighén . . . ag dénomh leanna, AFM iv 788.7 . aighin urgnamha `cooking utensils', v 1750.6 . adhan (aghan, v.l.) . . . crocán ceangail ná cnagaire, Ó Bruad. ii 234 xxxi . fághbais an fheoil 's an aighean, Aithd. D. 75.14 . oigheann, 2 Samuel xiii 9 . na hoighne teineadh, Exodus xxxviii 3 . annsan oighean friala, Levit. ii 7 . aighne is greidle gallchloch, Studies 1920. 417.35 . As n.pr. Aighen mac Angabhann, Anecd. ii 55 § 17 .

1 ail

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 ail or dil.ie/954
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: oil, oili

n i and k, f. (See GOI § 320 and ZCP xvi p. 183 ). oil f. (g s. and n p. oili), IGT Decl. § 14 .

(a) boulder, rock: cid armbad spiritalis ind a.¤ . . . isi ede ind a.¤ rúnde, Wb. 11a19 . asind a.¤ `out of the rock', Ml. 93b9 . in lind . . ./ do ḟuc doib asind ailig (: maig), SR 4068 . dind a.¤ tuargabad asin tiprait, Trip.² 1067 . co mmemaid a chenn frisin n-ailich, 1507 . cobsaide ailech `firmness of rock', Thes. ii 356.4 . a.¤ (.i. cloch) trom, LU 9949 . petra lasin Laitneoir, a.¤ lasin nGaedel, Auraic. 1087 . dobertha ailge arda foa doitib, RC xii 434 § 37 . mo shuidiugad amal cech nailig ele isin múr clochisea, LB 157b8 . bás Mongāin . . . don a.¤ doteilcc Artūir air, ZCP vi 269 § 7 . enghuba esa ra ha.¤ , SG 366.25 . do bhí an oil ar muin Mhuire / far loigh tuir na trócaire (of the stone at the mouth of Christ's tomb), DDána 20.42 . atā foillicht a choss issin ailigh, Fl. Earls 208.22 . a.¤ .i. cloch, O'Cl. a.¤ áobhta .i. ail aithbhe .i. cloch frith ar tráigh, ib. With defining gen.: a.¤ chloiche large stone: ro bai a.¤ chloche ar a cind, IT i 82.2 . trascraid . . . oilche cloch forru, Aen. 2209 . darsin oilig cloiche, LB 126b23 . a.¤ adartha see 1 adrad. Fig. a a.¤ na sonairte (in a litany to the Trinity), Hib. Min. 43.12 . uathmar a.¤ (of God), SR 4773 . Of persons: ind a.¤ bratha . . . in t-occlaech ard allata, CCath. 2917 . in a.¤ mbratha nach fuilget nerta trenmiled, BB 419b16 . a.¤ cothaighthe gacha comlainn, AFM v 1340.17 . a.¤ ollaman a firmly established teacher, ZCP iv 237.27 . a.¤ firindi, Anecd. ii 8.24 ( Airne F. 272 ). ? Moisi mo cech n-a.¤ / i toisigecht in popail, SR 4451 . Aron ba amru cech n-a.¤ , 4513 .

In n.loc.: Colmán Alo, Thes. ii 269.41 (Ardm.) aduersum Coirthech regem Aloo C. king of Ail (Clúade), 271.33 . See also Hog. Onom.

Compd. ¤-bla stone boundary-mark, Laws iv 142.16 .

(b) grave-stone (cf. 3 oil): cu fil a ailcha imbi, Fianaig. 38.12 . cid glic fri ailchi uara `though he be cunning at carving cold stones', Fél. 188.9 . oil adhmaid a stone of remembrance, Ériu x 80 § 42 . beim fri ailchi aicetail .i. co mbi aicetul anma in fir nod cren accomul noguim .i. ogum na creca do beth illic firt, O'Curry 484 ( H 3.18, 251 ). iomdha oil úir san eing-se, DDána 92.2 . ail leachta grave-stone , Laws iv 142.17 Comm.

(c) monument, memorial(?) (cf. ailad?): forácaib ailgi ┐ airisni da márgnímaib, LL 221a33 ( TTr. 299 ). rolín in domun uili d'algib a nirt ┐ a níachais, 222a46 (ib. 380). d'ailgib ┐ d'air[is]nib a nirt, 225b45 (635). ailche ┐ airise a gnim, BB 414b45 . dia ailgib ┐ día gaiscedhaib, TTr.² 1501 .

(d) foundation, basis (of law, etc.): ar it é trénailig (trenailche, trenailce, MSS) in sin frisa n-astaiter bretha in betho, QML xiii 4 § 1 . is and do-n-icfad na duba digeanna cen a.¤ cen fasach `without foundation without precedent', Laws v 480.20 . co nailchib roscud ┐ fasach ┐ testemuin, O'D. 2211 (Nero A vii 145b). breth cen ailig, Triads 244 .i. gan hailche 'na timchioll, .i. rosg ┐ fasach, p. 43 . Sencha . . . ni conberedh breth ngua gin teora ailche astudha cacha bretha, Laws i 24.23 . sruth do aill . . . do foxla ailche . . . imtha samlaidh in fer samailter fris; baidhidh droch leighniudha fortabhraidsi co nailchib testemna ┐ cedfaidhi, iv 356.12 . ni íadat iubaili for étechti a.¤ , LU 3473 `prescriptive periods should not close upon a foundation of illegality', SCC p. 34 . is ae fo a.¤ .i. iubaile tsaorratha inso, Laws ii 198.2 Comm. ?laighidh a.¤ for naesaib, iii 220.21, 24 , 226.21 . a.¤ .i. dliged no briathra, O'Dav. 631 . a.¤ .i. dliged (B. na f.), ZCP v 486 § 6 . a.¤ (also ailech) anscui(ch) the lit. immoveable rock i.e. unshakeable testimony: for-toing a.¤ anscuichthe lais (.i. for-toing airdi no aimseir . . . no laid no litteir . . . it hē mairb in sin fortongat for biu, nī fortongar cenaib) an immoveable rock testifies along with him (i.e. a sign or time . . . or a lay or letter . . ., those are the dead that testify against the living, without them there is no over-ruling testimony) ZCP xv 361 § 46 (xvi 228) . feitheam for-toing fir fri hailche andscuithe, O'Curry 1890 ( 23 P 3, 22 ). it he a secht in sin con-osnat cach n-imt[h]aithbech: fiadnaisi inraici, ailig anscui[ch]thi . . ., Bürgschaft 21 § 62 . tri filidecht techtai, tri ailge anscuichthi, tri airmitin sen, ZCP xii 363.35 . ni ruc C. breth riam cen teora ailig ancsui[ch]thi breth occa .i. ailig aicnid gaisi etc., CF 73.4 ( SG 89.30 ). ?do fuair . . . a liomhdha (= líomhadh?) an algaibh `in the noble arts', Oss. v 146.5 . See also under 1 all

Cf. 1 ailech.

aindliged

Cite this: eDIL s.v. aindliged or dil.ie/1253

 

n o (dliged) unlawfulness, illegality; unjust deed, misdeed: da thi aindligid air, Laws iv 196.6 Comm. iarna gabail . . . ina aindligedh `illegally', RC xviii 162.20 (Tig.). do dighailt h'anndlighidh ┐ h'ecora fort-sa, Stair Erc. 1297 . tarcaisne ┐ aindligheadh d'fhulang, Desid. 2240 . Banbha fa bhreith a chinidh / . . . is aindhlighidh, DDána 80.42 . lá dár ḟóbair aindligheadh the day he attempted treachery, TD 16.33 . a cinaigh (leg. i cinaid) a andligidh, Ériu iv 176 § 17 . do chionntaig é féin ina aindligthibh blamed himself for his misdeeds, SG 12.27 . lomnán d'ulc is d'aindlighthibh `abounding in wickedness and sin', TD 7.34 . méad m'éagára is m'aindlighidh `the sum of my wrong and injustice', 42.3 . With do-gní: dogní . . . a.¤ dia chomarsain, PH 7641 . With do-beir: gach uile aindlighedh da tucsat na ced-aithreacha damh, Smaointe B. Chr. 199 . aindligheadh béoil ┐ láimhe do thabhairt dá chomharsain injustice in word and deed, TSh. 2962 . díol cert do Dhia san naindligheadh tugadar na daoine dhó .i. an pecadh, Ó Héodhusa 55.17 . asé as blaisfémhia ann aindligedh no aithis do thabhairt le briathraibh do Dhia, 154.12 .

ainglés

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ainglés or dil.ie/1375

 

adj (glés) ar a.¤ out of order, dismantled(?): Ráth Dá Thí fúinn ar farbhás / tadhbhás dúinn í ar ainghlés, IGT Decl. ex. 944 .

airlán

Cite this: eDIL s.v. airlán or dil.ie/2173

 

n (lán): co ruice ur-lan cumaili `to a full `cumal'', Laws v 340.20 .i. co thi uasal linad cumaile, 346.19 Comm.

airndel

Cite this: eDIL s.v. airndel or dil.ie/2307

 

n o, [n.?] (indell) See Ériu xiii 217 , Lochlann ii 212 . trap, snare: a.¤ .i. ar-indel .i. indel aire, Corm. Y 75 . dligid airnell (airndel v.l.) aurfocra, Anecd. iii 14.9 . elta én a . . . arnelaib, Alex. 1010 . air[n]del ningelt .i. cuithech no bir, O'Curry 509 ( H 3.18, p. 258 ). bir airndil for ur ceime no conaire, 723 ( H 3.18, p. 346 ). eascaire in bera airndil, Laws iii 272.9 Comm. trian in lan diri . . . on bir airnil, 450.19 Comm. án cach tigradh forrethar airndil nach suidhi[g]thi anmann i n-eicill, O'Dav. 796 . airnnelaib .i. for eunaiph, Auraic. 2394 . a n-airneal, Content. xxv 7 . As vn. d'airniul ar ḟíadaib, Metr. Dinds. iv 122.7 .

See fornel.

aisnéis

Cite this: eDIL s.v. aisnéis or dil.ie/2507
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: aisndís, faisnéis, -i, áisndís, aisndís, aisṅdís, aisṅdeis, aisṅdíis, aisndís, aisṅdís, aisndísen, aisṅdísen, aisdísen, aisṅdís, aisndís, aisndis, aisṅdísin, aisndisnea, asṅdisnea, aisndisen

n O. Ir. aisndís. n, f. (see GOI § 730 ). Later also faisnéis f. (g s. and n p. -i), IGT Decl. § 13 . Vn. of as-indet. IGT Verbs § 83 . n s. áisndís, Ml. 14d3 . aisndís, 44c30 . aisṅdís, 94b3 ; Sg. 59b7 . aisṅdeis, Sg. 161b3 . a s. aisṅdíis, Wb. 12d20 . aisndís, Ml. 145c8 . aisṅdís, 145c9 . g s. aisndísen, Ml. 40d18 . aisṅdísen, Sg. 203a4 . aisdísen, 198a10 . d s. aisṅdís, Wb. 27a8 . aisndís, Ml. 64d2 . aisndis, 126b1 . n p. aisṅdísin, Sg. 3b23 . a p. aisndisnea, Ml. 24b5 , 35b20 . asṅdisnea, 51d2 . g p. aisndisen, Ml. 64d2 .

(a) act of relating, telling, explaining; narration, explanation: cid glicc . . . oc aisṅdís, Wb. 27a8 . ni comadas du aisndís inna mmaraisndisenso acht in spirut noib, Ml. 64d2 . aisndís is tri chaingnímu rosegar . . . ind hires, 14c19 . cid écen áisndís do neuch as doraid coleir, 14d3 . aisṅdis dind fortacht durat dia do, 40b8 . hond aisndís gl. præfatu, 51c3 . huan aisndís gl. adnuntiatione sua, 42d10 . tre aisndéis sechmodachti, Trip.² 21 `a declaration of the past', Trip. isam ómun ar a a.¤ , LU 5349 (TBC). is fota fri haisnis is tophlíúin menman, 7913 . ní h-adlicgi . . . / a ḟasnís (aisnes v.l. St.) do ócaib Ulad, TBC-LL¹ 4769 . táin Bo Cualngni do faisnēis, ACL iii 4.11 . cenco cumhsanaind icca aisneis ria mbrath, Ériu ii 136 § 120 . scrutan screptra aisnis ḟorcitail, LL 371c45 . is rimsa . . . ro hérbad ar eisnéis ┐ a acallaim fíad int ṡlúag `for explanation', Ériu iv 144 § 22 . ger' bdar goacha na haisneisi `though the accounts were mendacious', CCath. 751 . Forus Feasa ar Éireann d'fhaisnéis, Keat. i 2.9 . examhlacht aisneisi, Leb. Gab.(i) 2.14 . ar Mac nDé mar fríoth faisnéis tidings , Dán Dé vi 6 . scél .i. moladh no a.¤ , Ériu xiii 77 § 223 .

Of pronunciation: inna aisṅdísen dochuirde .i. dochrud leo .n. indiad .m. `of the difficult pronunciation', Sg. 203a4 . derbaisṅdísin .i. derbḟogir gl. ipsae pronuntiationes, 3b23 . Of a biblical passage or saying: is he . . . leth ataībe an aisnesea la Matha, RC xlvi 233.25 . Of a type of satire: cis lir fodla aire . . . a tri .i. aisneis ┐ ail ┐ aircetal aisneis . . . indisiu tria hainsimh cen chuidbus, BB 299a6 ( Jn. Celt. Stud. i 201 ). a[t]aat tri fodla for aír .i. aisnéiss, ail, aircital aisnés .i. indessin tria táinsimad cin chuibd[iu]s con n-immdercad grúade, H 3.18, 870 (ib. 211 ). Of a type of metre: cetal na haisnése so sis, IT iii 63 § 125 . In phrase agallaim is faisnes, a metrical fault consisting in addressing and talking about a person in the same stanza: gabh h'eduidh . . . a Chumaill / na legeadh se a luing tar lear (1.) (na leig budh chóir), IGT Metr. Faults §§ 23 , 73 , 120-24 . faisnéis is agalluimh a n-énrann, Introd. 2.27 . lochdach . . . attús chomhfhocuil . . . faisnéis no agalluimh, 24 § 97 . as í an fhaisnéis nach cóir a ttús chomhfhocuil fúaras, do-chíeabh, tiogabh, no a leithéid eile, 28 § 121. Also fresnés go n-a.¤ , see fresndís.

(b) Legal act of giving information, informing (against): má ro innis is fiach faisneisin do . . .manar innis is fiach seillid uadh, Laws iii 104.24 Comm. fiach aisneise[n], O'Dav. 1420 . do'n thi do ni aisneis for in gataidh, Laws v 188.14 Comm. co rub aisneis doberar fair, 324.3 Comm. cutruma ata in fiach aisnesen d'urrad ┐ do deorad . . . don aisneis doniat . . . don aisneis doniter orro, O'Curry 2127 (H 4.22, p. 86). cethre aisnesi (sic leg.) no cethri gne i naí fogra aptha, Laws i 282.31 Comm. , 284.20 Comm. aire tuise .i. tuisechu i n-urd aisnesin he ina'n t-aire ard prior in right of speech, Laws iii 24.27 Comm. trí fáilte co n-íarduibi: fer tochmairc fer gaite fer aisnéise, Triads 67 . Cf. aigde aisnéise tell-tale faces, Tec. Corm. § 16.8 . In phrase freisneis ┐ a.¤ statement of case (by plaintiff) and answer (by defendant) see fresndís.

? andachtae

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ? andachtae or dil.ie/3472

 

n Brian Ruadh, co raibhe sgagtha / le hiomad a andachtæ / ar saorbharr dTemra da thi / ni dherna aonrann d'Enri (of the completion and testing of poetic training), ZCP ii 352.7 (`durch mannigfache Prüfung').

anscuichthe

Cite this: eDIL s.v. anscuichthe or dil.ie/3782

 

Forms: anscuithe

adj also anscuithe (scuithe) immoveable, unchangeable: caire ainsic .i. . . . nō anscuithe .i. neamscuithe .i. gan toichned dogrēs, Corm. Y 361 . anscuiche .i. cona scuichither dia gablaib, Laws i 48.16 Comm. in gach brudin . . . coire ansguith[e], RC xxi 397.1 . ail a.¤ lit. immoveable rock i.e. established point: for-toing ail anscuichte lais .i. f. airdi no aimseir . . . no laid no litteir . . . it hé mairb in sin for-tongat for biu, ni fortongar cenaib an immoveable rock testifies along with him i.e. a sign or time . . . or a lay or letter . . ., those are the dead that testify against the living, without them there is no over-ruling testimony, ZCP xv 361 § 46 ; xvi 228 . feitheam for-toing fir fri hailche andscuithe, O'Curry 1890 ( 23 P 3, 22 ). tri ailge anscuichthi, ZCP xii 363.35 . ni ruc C. breth riam cen teora ailig anscui[ch]thi breth occa, CF 73.7 . ropot samaigthi i n-ollamnas amal ail anscuichthi, RC xxvi 53 n.l . Fig. of a person: am dún díthogail am ail a.¤ , Misc. Hib. 20 § 3 ( IT iii 53.26 ).

As subst. immoveable property: connic duine a scuithche ┐ a andscuithche uile do thabairt ina nertslainte don ecclais, O'D. 2283 ( Rawl. B 506, 25d ). is indearb dona scuichib curab inand dono um andscuiche, Laws v 208.z Comm. a leth . . . ar scuithi . . . a leth ar scath anscuichthi in respect of moveables or immoveables, 34.15 Comm. Cf. ansclithe.

1 arthrach

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 arthrach or dil.ie/4332

 

Forms: a., -aigh, -aighi, arrtharach

n o, m. a.¤ (g s. -aigh. n p. -aighi) m., IGT Decl. § 55 . Cf. aitherrach (atharrach), and see O'Rahilly SGS ii 21 . Also arrtharach.

(a) act of ferrying; conveyance: na sochaidi isi[n] purt a[c] cuindghid arrtharaigh fair `entreating him to be ferried over', Aen. 1315 . ni thabrad arrtharach doib tar sruth aciron, 1317 . ní dom a.¤ is olc leam, Measgra D. 50.25 `journey', Gadelica 13 .

(b) ferry-boat, boat, ship: ní fuaradar a.¤ ann acht énluingín, Stair Erc. 2267 . ná cuir lán an arrthruigh ind / dál anfaidh resan ainim, IGT Decl. ex. 903 . do breith in Erennaich . . . dar muir gen artrach, Auraic. 76 v.l. (gen airiugudh, text). do chuirsiod arthraigh uatha ar Loch nEachach, Keat. iii 2504 . go raibh sé trí céad a.¤ (aturrach v.l.) ann, Ériu i 79 § 6 . artrigi in locha, Ann. Conn. 1225.17 . ro sccaoilsiot a n-arthraighe ó aroile, AFM iii 90.4 . tangattar . . . chúca i narthraighibh, ii 1060.11 . a.¤ Dhá Thí Ireland , Measgra D. 54.51 . Vessel (as container) : im árthach galair `a hulk of sadness', Ó Bruad. i 26 § 1 . mar budh mhiann liom an t-árthach / bheith lán gan aén chínnteacht, Hard. i 192.7 .

attá

Cite this: eDIL s.v. attá or dil.ie/4927
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: attá, Fil, fil, faeilfit, fil, fil, atóo, attó, attóo, ató, -táu, -ttóo, -tó, atái, atái, -tái, adta, ata, at, atáa, attáa, ataa, att, -tá, -ta, -táa, -dathar, ataam, attaam, ataid, ataaith, ataaid, ataad, -taid, ataat, ataat, -tat, -taat, tathum, tathut, táithi, táthus, táthunn, taithiunn, tathuib, tás, fil, fil, feil, fel, fail, fil, file, fel, fele, feil, fail, biuu, -bíu, -bí, biith, biid, bíid, -bii, -bí, robīi, -rubi, -rubai, -ruba, bíis, biís, bis, bís, bithir, bither, -bither, -rubthar, bímmi, -biam, bimme, biit, bíit, robiat, -biat, -bíat, -rubat, bíte, -bíinn, -biinn, -bíid, -bíth, -bid, -bith, bithe, -bímmis, -bitis, -bítis, b, bíth, bíith, bíid, biid, bíd, bithom, biid, bith, biat, beo, beu, -béo, bee, b, -bee, robhe, beith, beid, bed, beth, -b, -bée, bethum-sa, rob, robe, rubé, rob, robbé, -roib, bess, bes, bethir, bether, -bether, bemmi, beimmi, -bem, -robam, beithe, bethe, -beith, -beid, -robith, beit, rubet, be(i)t, -bet, -robat, bete, -beind, -beinn, -betha, nobed, nobeth, -bed, -beth, -robad, -rabad, -bethe, -bemmis, -beimmis, -bemis, -bethe, -betis, -[ro]ibtis, bia, bie, bieid, bied, -bia, -bia, -bia, -bía, bethiumm, bethib, bias, bies, beithir, -bether, bemmi, beimmi, -biam, -piam, bethe, bethi, -bied, -bieid, biet, bieit, biet, -biat, -bíet, bete, beite, nombeinn, nobiad, -bíad, nobemmis, nobetis, b, -bá, bói, bái, -bói, boie, boithius, boíthi, baísu, both(a)e, botha, -both(a), bamar, bámar, -baid, bātir, -batar, batar, rob, -roba, -raba, rob, robói, rambái, robui, -robae, -robe, -rabae, romboth, rombod, -rabad, robámmar, -robammar, rubaid, -robaid, robatar, robbátar, -rabatar, -robatar, -rabtar, buith, buithi, atáu, atú, itu, it, atú, ataim, -t, -tái, -toi, taoi, -t, atá, attá, ata, at, atáthar, dáthar, atass, -das, itám, tám, ataum, ataim, atamaoit, atámaoid, atám, -taum, -dtám, atathai, atathi, atáithi, -táithi, -dathai, -taidh, itāt, atáit, ataut, táid, -táit, itat, atat, fil, -fhile, -fhuile, -fuili, -ḟoili, -ḟuile, fail, fail, fuil, -fail, -fuil, -uil, -ḟil, -ḟuil, -ḟoil, fil, fail, fail, filter, -fuiltear, fuilemm, -failmet, -ḟuilmíd, -ḟuilmíd, -ḟoilmíd, -ḟuileam, -ḟoileam, -bhḟuilti, failet, filet, fuilet, -failet, -filet, -fileat, -fuilet, -fuilid, failet, failet, fuilet, filet, bim, bím, -bím, -ruibim, -bi, bíd, bíd, -bí, -bíonn, -bind, bídh, -b, bither, -bithar, bímit, bídmaid, bímíd, -bímíd, -bíom, bíth, bīd, -bíat, -bít, -bíd, bit, bít, bhínn, nobīth, robíth, bhíodh, bhíoth, bithi, -bithi, bithea, naboitis, nobīdis, beitis, bitis, bhítís, bhídís, bír, b, bīdh, bíodh, bíoth, bíom, bíthe, bídh, bidhí, bíod, ber, uér, beor, bheith, bur, -rabor, -rabhus, rabasa, bear, rabhar, -bear, -rabhar, bé, beir, -rab(a)i, -rabha, -rabhair, -mbéis, -beis(se), -rabais, beis, rabais, -beis, -rabais, beth, -b, -raib, -rab, -raibhe, rabh, raibh, -bé, -raibh, -rabh, bess, beas, bethur, beme, bemmit, bemait, -bém, -beam, -ruibem, -rabum, bheam, rabham, bethi, rabthai, beit, -bet, -beat, -rabat, -rabut, -rabhait, -rabhaid, -rabheid, beinn, rabainn, beithi, beithe, bethe, beitheá, beith, nobith, mbeadh, -mbeath, -rabad, -bethe, -bette, rabtha, mbiadh, nobeitis, nobeidis, mbeith, bíat, biat, biad, bhead, bed, bét, bett, -biu, -bhiú, biad, -bi, bía, biae, biaidh, bía, -bía, bethair, bied, biaid, biáid, -bia, bíes, bés, bes, bess, bhias, biass, beither, beithir, bemit, bemait, -bem(ni, beimíd, -biam, -biaim(ne), -ben, bethi, beitte, bete, -bed, biait, biat, beit, beiti, beti, betit, beidid, -bīat, beidíd, beid, -bíad, no-béind, dobeind, do beinn, -beinn, bheitheá, biadh, -bied, bífad, rot-fiadh, biath, bhiadh, bethe, bheidīs, ro-bádus, bhádhus, bhí, -rabus, -rabhas, -rabadhus, bá, -raba, bádhus, -rabadhas, basa, bhádhuis, bhí, -rabadais, -rabhais, bhádhuis, -rabhadhuis, bae, bóe, baei, búi, -bae, -buí, robai, robae, robói, bí, robuidh, bí, bhói, bhaoi, -rubai, -roibe, -roibi, -roba, -raba, -raibhe, -rabha, -robha, bí, -raibi, baí, -rabha, -rabhustair, boí, bāi, būi, bae, buí, baí, boí, both, rombatha, robās, rombas, robás, -rabus, rabas, -bádus, -bás, bás, bas, -rabas, bas, bhás, bāmur, bámar, bhámair, -rabamar, robabair, -babhair, robadbair, bhábhair, -rabhuir, -rabhabhair, bādar, -bátir, badar, bádar, bídur, -rabadar, -rabhadair, baisit, -rabhsad, bátar, bátar, bheith, beitte

(ad-tá) subst. vb. is . The distinction betw. subst. vb. and copula is in the first place syntactical, and cases are found where there is no distinction of form. Cf. the type, common in ACC: boe sab he was a leader, ACC 26 . See further below, and the discussion by Bergin, Ériu xii 208 - 211 (cia taísiu, cia bé, etc.), who refers to cases like: is uera pictura ro bai sin, Thes. ii 6.32 as emphatic. See also Ériu xvi 46 , GOI 475 . For nimtha laám, Wb. 12a21 , nímptha fírion, 8d24 (copula ?) see GOI 487 . Note also the form of the pron. in (later): matait tall iat, Laws iv 86.8 Comm. , atá ar conair é, ACL iii 216.z . bí N. eices cecinit, RC xvii 175.14 is perh. a mistake. In follg. use of subst. vb. perh. due to infl. of Latin: mar nobéind athair doib = pater eram pauperum, PH 6107 . ata in innsci ordugud etc. = oratio est. . ., Auraic. 591 .

Apart from the ordinary indic. pres. all forms of subst. vb. are from a root beginning with b-. In indic. pres. the stem tá (in absol. position attá) is used in non-rel. sentences without conj. particle, after conj. particles with inf. pron. dat. and when the conj. particle consists of a preposition and rel. (s)a n-. Absolute inflexion of tá- is found in oldaas, indaas, etc. than (is), in meaning is angry, and with follg. suff. pron. The uninflected form fil (with accus.) is used after conj. particles where no dat. inf. pron. is present, in leniting rel. clauses and often in answers to questions containing subst. vb., and in archaic texts in absol. position in meaning there is . For fuller details see GOI 476 - 483 and exx. below. See also Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 419 ff. , Strachan, Phil. Soc. Trans. 1899, 1 - 82 , Ó Máille, Ériu vi 1 ff. , Études Celt. xxxiv 143-44 . Forms of gaibid, do-coissin, díchsnigidir and 1 ad-cumaing also have the force of the subst. vb. in certain uses, see separate entries.

Note further that attá is usual after hóre (see Wb. 19a19 , 22d14 and compare GOI § 781 ) and occurs later after amal ( LU 7072 , Laws iii 90.18 ). Fil is somet. found in sense there is in mid. Ir.: fail crois d'ór in cach dorus, SR 361 . TBC-I¹ 2561 . Note also: fil derg it is red, Marco P. 173 .

The use of accus. after fil continues into the classical period, see IGT Introd. § 129 , Bard. Synt. Tr. 92 - 93 . A few exx. of forms other than fil with accus. occur: ni raibi deilb, TTr.² 1664 , ní raibi . . . mhnái, 370 , ní bhiadh mnaoi, Ó Bruad. ii 252.z (with assonance). Note also with inf. pron. rosṁbai inna tass, SR 5107 . ? nim tha maith . . . do chath fri firu, LU 3343 ( SCC 13 ). From the mid. Ir. period on fil takes personal endings except in 3 s., and occurs occasionally as an independent verb: faeilfit (fut. 3 pl. absol.), Caithr. Thoirdh. 120.26 . In rel. function attá is found side by side with fil from an early period: is heiside attá hi S., Trip.² 534 , a lucht atá istig, RC vii 298.131 , the form fil finally disappearing in this use.

In mid. Ir. fil occurs for earlier -tá with dat. inf. pron.: nichar fail tlacht, SR 1560 , ni-s-fil biad, PH 1310 . Also in rel. clause after prep.: bale hi fail, LU 7516 , fors fil, Imr. Brain 43 (see also Strachan, Stories fr. Táin 3rd ed. p. 1 note).

The consuet. pres. 1 s. conj. -bíu has in classical Ir. the force of a future: biad ní biú, IGT Verbs § 7 , see also TBC-LL¹ 882 , Acall. 6179 , Duan. F. i 43.4 .

Early forms (for fuller lists see Strachan loc. cit.). Indic. pres. 1 s. atóo, Wb. 12a21 . attó, 21c19 . attóo, 26d8 . ató, 26d17 . -táu, 32a10 , -ttóo, 17d24 , -tó, Ml. 92b8 . 2 s. atái, Wb. 5b27 . atái, Ml. 110d15 (sic MS, see Ériu xiv 30 ). -tái, 5b38 . 3 s. adta, Laws v 390.10 (see ZCP xxv 247 ). ata, Wb. 13c26 , at, 27a11 , atáa, 6a19 , attáa, 32a6 , ataa, 26b31 , att, 4b11 . -tá, 31c7 , -ta, 2b12 , -táa, 13a35 . Impers. -dathar (see GOI 477 - 478 ), Wb. 21c9 . 1 pl. ataam, Wb. 15a13 , attaam, 32a28 . 2 pl. ataid, Wb. 4a4 , ataaith, 20b16 , ataaid, 23c28 , ataad, 22d14 . -taid, 19d26 . 3 pl. ataat (trisyll.), Blathm. 471 . ataat, Ml. 55d11 , 37a10 . -tat, 42b10 . -taat, Sg. 71b3 .

With suff. pron. tathum, Metr. Dinds. iv 284.3 . tathut, Fél. July 24 . táithi (tathai, v.l.), Críth G. 197 . táthus, Fél. Feb. 5 . táthunn, Prol. 217. taithiunn, Thes. ii 293.19 . tathuib, Rawl. 88b51 .

For rel. s. without preverb (taas, tás) see atás, indaas, 4 ol.

The form fil, etc. As conj. form: fil, Wb. 16b9 , Ml. 92a8 , Sg. 193b7 . feil, Wb. 24c4 . Ml. 60b2 . fel, Wb. 3c38 , Ml. 27d10 . fail, 44b10-11 , Sg. 32a1 . As rel.: fil, Ml. 121c8 , file Wb. 23a5 , Ml. 51d11 , Sg. 151b7 . fel, Wb. 4c1 , fele, Ml. 93c7 . feil, Wb. 33b18 . fail, BCr. 18c4 .

Consuet. pres. 1 s. biuu, Wb. 16d8 . -bíu, 20a3 . 2 s. -bí, Ml. 135d1 . ACL iii 312 § 4 . 3 s. biith, Wb. 29a26 . biid, 4d33 . bíid, Sg. 150b4 . -bii, Wb. 28b25 , -bí, Ml. 103c3 . With ro: robīi, TBC-I¹ 1730 . -rubi, Wb. 11c17 , -rubai, Ml. 20d4 , Sg. 7b3 . -ruba, 3b28 . Rel. bíis, Wb. 13a12 . biís, 28b28 . bis, Ml. 61a33 . bís, Sg. 140b2 . Impers. bithir, Ml. 56b15 . rel. bither, 108b4 , -bither, 100c21 . -rubthar, cited GOI § 784 . OIPG 69 . 1 pl. bímmi, Ml. 15a4 . -biam, Wb. 16a8 . Rel. bimme, Wb. 12c11 . 3 pl. biit, Wb. 29a28 . bíit, Sg. 217a1 . robiat, 138a5 . -biat, Ml. 59d7 . -bíat, Sg. 148a4 . -rubat, 138a5 . Rel. bíte, Wb. 9d28 .

Indic. impf. 1 s. -bíinn, Ml. 108b1 , -biinn, 58d9 . 3 s. -bíid, LU 5080 (see Ériu xvii 121 ), -bíth, Sg. 148b6 . -bid, Ml. 33a5 . -bith, Vita Br. 12 . Impers. no bithe , CCath. 3971 . 1 pl. -bímmis, cited GOI § 785 . 3 pl. -bitis, Ml. 86d6 . -bítis, Sg. 5a15 .

Ipv. 2 s. b, TBC-I¹ 2391 . 3 s. bíth, Wb. 10a8 , 25 , bíith, 8d9 , bíid, 5d33 , biid, Ml. 74d3 . bíd, Wb. 3a14 . With suff. pron. bithom, Fél. Ep. 404 n.17 . 2 pl. biid, Wb. 23c11a . bith, 22b26 . 3 pl. biat, Ml. 51d13 .

Subj. pres. 1 s. beo, Wb. 23b41 . beu, Ml. 53b8 . -béo, Fél. Prol. 273 . 2 s. bee, cited OIPG 70 and see GOI 482 . b, ZCP viii 311.z (see xxiv 122 ). -bee (perh. absol.), ZCP vii 494 (Enchir. Aug.). -bē, Fing. R. 82 . With ro: robhe (restored as ro-bé), Blathm. 92 § 9 . 3 s. beith, Ml. 108a11 . beid, Wb. 14c23 . bed, 3c10 . beth, Thes. ii 245.34 (Cambr. Hom.). -bǽ, Wb. 22b14 . -b, Sg. 29b14 . -bée, Wb. 12c43 . With suff. pron. bethum-sa, Fél. Ep. 384 n.14 . With ro: rob, Wb. 5d30 , robe, 18c4 , rubé, Ml. 20d4 , rob, Wb. 28a23 , robbé, Sg. 169a1 . -roib, Wb. 16c24 , Ml. 118c5 . Rel. bess, Wb. 5d14 . bes, Ml. 77d3 . Impers. bethir, Wb. 5d33 . rel. bether, Ml. 107d8 . -bether, Wb. 10a18 . 1 pl. bemmi, Wb. 31c11 . beimmi, 19a16 . -bem, 24a10 . -robam, 26c10 . 2 pl. beithe, Wb. 18b16 . bethe, 24b13 . -beith, Ml. 46a10 . -beid, Wb. 27c9 . With ro: -robith, Wb. 26a28 . 3 pl. beit, Wb. 10b5 . rubet, 26a23 . ro be(i)t , Vita Br. 35 . -bet, Wb. 9d27 . -robat, 11d9 . Rel. bete, Wb. 10c22 .

Subj. impf. 1 s. -beind, TBC-I¹ 1856 . -beinn cited GOI § 787 . 2 s. -betha, Wb. 4c24 . 3 s. nobed, Wb. 3b10 . nobeth, Ml. 27b1 . -bed, Wb. 9d1 . -beth, Ml. 88b15 . -robad, Wb. 17a13 . -rabad, 34a4 . Impers. -bethe, Trip.² 2828 . 1 pl. -bemmis, Wb. 9a3 . -beimmis, 29d23 . -bemis, Vita Br. 23 . 2 pl. -bethe, Wb. 9c20 . 3 pl. -betis, Sg. 138a9 . -[ro]ibtis, Wb. 28a1 .

Fut. 1 s. bia, Ml. 137b7 . 2 s. bie, cited GOI § 788 , OIPG 70 . 3 s. bieid, Wb. 4d6 . bied, 14c1 . -bia, 5d35 . -bia (disyll.), Blathm. 572 . -bia and -bía, GOI § 788 . With suff. pron. bethiumm. Ériu xiii 20.6 . bethib, ZCP viii 316.5 (see xxix 174 ). Rel. bias, Wb. 23b38 . bies, Ériu iii 102 § 32 . Impers. beithir, TBFr. 248 . -bether, MacCongl. 61.4 . 1 pl. bemmi, Wb. 9c10 . beimmi, 21b7 . -biam, 15a1 . -piam, 30b17 . 2 pl. bethe, cited GOI § 788 . bethi, Trip.² 1589 . -bied, Wb. 9a21 . -bieid, 26d26 . 3 pl. biet (disyll.), Blathm. 472 . bieit, Wb. 4c40 . biet, 9d27 , Sg. 198b6 (also bíet, GOI § 788 ). -biat, 9c28 . -bíet, 40b14 . Rel. bete, Wb. 13c26 . beite, 4c40 .

Condit. 1 s. nombeinn, Ml. 59a22 . 3 s. nobiad, Ml. 32d5 . -bíad, Wb. 9d1 . 1 pl. nobemmis, Ml. 134b3 . 3 pl. nobetis, Ml. 100c7 .

Pret. 1 s. b, LU 9407 . 2 s. -bá, cited GOI § 789 , OIPG 71 , see perf. 2 s. below. 3 s. bói, Wb. 31c18 . bái, 27a16 . -bói, 17d17 , Ml. 78a4 . Rel. boie, Thes. ii 242.11 (Ardm.). boīe (MS. ba), Ériu xvi 46.10 (see n. 0 and Celtica vi 223 ). boíë (MS. baoí), Ériu xxvi 67, 85 . Cf. cech nóeb bói, fil, bías, Fél. Ep. 289 (where six sylls. required). With suff. pron. boithus, IT i 137.8 = boithius, 21 . boíthi, Sc.M² 3 . ? baísu, Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. i 37.5 . Impers. *both(a)e, postulated GOI § 789 , botha, TBC-I¹ 1572 . -both(a), Vita Br. 33 . 1 pl. bamar, SR 1558 . bámar, 3286 , Imr. Brain i 48.5 . 2 pl. -baid (baïd ?), cited GOI § 789 , OIPG 71 . 3 pl. bātir, TBC-I¹ 217 . -batar, Ml. 55c2 . Rel. batar, Ml. 123b5 . See GOI § 789 .

Perf. 1 s. rob, Wb. 28a9 . -roba, Ml. 44c4 . -raba, TBC-I¹ 3068 . 2 s. rob, LL 14442 . 3 s. robói, Wb. 5c10 . rambái, 2c13 . robui, Ml. 93c3 . -robae, Ml. 41a5 , -robe, Wb. 18d7 , -rabae, Ml. 28d3 . Impers. romboth, Wb. 19a9 . rombod, 5b31 . -rabad, Ériu iv 146.4 . 1 pl. robámmar, Wb. 20d12 . -robammar, Ml. 105b16 . 2 pl. rubaid, Wb. 3b19 . -robaid, Ml. 46a8 . 3 pl. robatar, Wb. 24c5 . robbátar, Sg. 57b1 . -rabatar, Ml. 100c11 . -robatar, Sg. 45b1 . -rabtar, Ml. 37a16 .

Vn. buith.

Vbl. of necess. buithi.

Later forms (see also Ó Máille, Verbs of Existence in Irish, Ériu vi 1 ff. ; Mulchrone, Verbalformen der Vita Tripartita, ZCP xvi 440 ; Falconer, Verbal System of LU Táin, Ériu xvii 116 ; Strachan, Verbal System of SR, Phil. Soc. Trans. 1895, 1 - 76 ; O Daly, Verbal System of LL Táin, Ériu xiv 80 ; Mac Eoin, Verbalsystem von Togail Troi, ZCP xxviii 125 ; Sommerfelt, Le système verbal dans In Cath Catharda, RC xxxviii 41 ; Nuner, Verbal System of the Agallamh na Senórach, ZCP xxvii 272 ; PH Glossary; Lloyd, Impersonal passive forms of the Irish substantive verb, Ériu i 49 ff. ; TD Introd. lxxv ; IGT Verbs § 7 ).

Indic. pres. 1 s. atáu, Trip.² 1412 . atú, 2578 . itu, SR 1187 . it, TBC-LL¹ 434 . atú, IGT Verbs § 7 . ataim, Fier. 14 . -t, Acall. 4516 . 2 s. -tái, SR 3102 . -toi, TBC-I¹ 937 . taoi, TD 15.48 . cia doaisiu mac?, RC xxvi 30 § 128 . 3 s. -t, Trip.² 744 . atá, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. attá, Trip.² 534 , ata, SR 7708 etc., at, Acall. 429 . Impers. atáthar, TBC-LL¹ 3316 . dáthar (: máthar), IGT Verbs ex. 99 . atass, Ériu iv 114 § 17 (:as). -das (: as), IGT Verbs ex. 104 . 1 pl. itám, SR 1727 . tám, 3493 . ataum, PH 1556 . ataim, TBC-LL¹ 874 . atamaoit, TBC St. 121 . atámaoid, atám, IGT Verbs § 7 . -taum, PH 1506 . -dtám (: ár), IGT Verbs ex. 111 . 2 pl. atathai, PH 2734 . atathi, 597 . atáithi (: fáithi), IGT Verbs ex. 105 . -táithi (: sáithi), ex. 96 . -dathai, Alex. 190 . -taidh, Ériu ii 118 § 53 . 3 pl. itāt, TBC-I¹ 3132 . atáit, CCath. 1215 . ataut, PH 1064 . táid, TD 8.5 . -táit, CCath. 1701 . Rel. itat, Trip.² 882 , atat, SR 7949 . For later forms in meaning than (is) see atás, indaas, 4 ol. See also II (d) below and daas.

The form fil. 1 s. ni ḟuilim, ni ḟoilim, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. -fhile, PH 8116 . -fhuile, 3335 , -fuili, Acall. 3217 . -ḟoili, -ḟuile, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. fail, TBC-I¹ 60 , SR 353 etc. ro fail , TBC-LL¹ 263 , fuil, 3072 . -fail, Trip.² 2764 , -fuil, 872 , -uil, PH 3181 , -ḟil, Acall. 3709 . -ḟuil, -ḟoil, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. fil, Trip.² 842 , fail, SR 392 , no fail , 933 . With impers. ending: filter, MacCongl. 31.25 . -fuiltear, TD 2.42 . 1 pl. ra fuilemm , TBC-LL¹ 2971 . -failmet, SR 6320 , -ḟuilmíd, Acall. 5101 . -ḟuilmíd, -ḟoilmíd, -ḟuileam, -ḟoileam, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 pl. -bhḟuilti, Acall. 962 . 3 pl. failet, SR 345 . filet, 477 . fuilet, TBC-LL¹ 4739 . -failet, Trip.² 1119 . -filet, TBC-I¹ 1848 , -fileat, CCath. 1270 . -fuilet, 427 . -fuilid, TD 7.23 . Rel. failet, SR 400 . ra failet , TBC-LL¹ 5225 . fuilet, 4709 . filet, PH 435 . See also do-fil.

Consuet. pres. 1 s. bim, PH 6393 . bím, -bím, IGT Verbs § 7 . ? -ruibim, SG 373.29 . 2 s. -bi, SR 2035 . bí, ní bí, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. bíd, TBC-I¹ 1453 (LU). biid, SR 4537 . bíd, 4588 . -bí, TBC-I¹ 472 . -bíonn, TD 22.12 . -bind, RC xlix 37.13 . bídh, -b, IGT Verbs § 7 . Impers. bither, PH 7441 . -bithar, Laws iv 234.2 Comm. 1 pl. bímit, Acall. 886 . bídmaid, 5481 . bímíd, -bímíd, -bíom, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 pl. bíth, Acall. 6139 . 3 pl. bīd, TBC-I¹ 1075 (bít, LU). -bíat, TTr.² 330 . -bít, PH 4189 , -bíd, TD 5.5 . Rel. bit (= bíït), SR 7259 . bít, TBC-LL¹ 1320 .

Indic. impf. 1 s. do bhínn , TD 23.7 . 3 s. nobīth, TBC-I¹ 593 (nobíid, LU cited above). robíth, TBC-I¹ 1903 (LU). do bhíodh , TD 14.23 . do bhíoth , 26.12 . Impers. bithi, Auraic. 5286 = -bithi, RC xx 150.y (ACC Pref.). no bithea , Acall. 156 . 3 pl. naboitis, TBC-I¹ 855 LU (nobitís, Y). nobīdis, 3621 (Y). bítís, 1898 (LU). no beitis , LL 407a27 . ro bitis , PH 1957 . do bhítís , Acall. 830 . do bhídís , TD 15.18 . Rel. tri cnuasa bítís ann, Acall. 455 .

Ipv. 1 s. bír (: gním), IGT Verbs ex. 94 . 2 s. b, Parrth. Anma 3871 . 3 s. bīdh, ZCP vi 271.z . bíodh, TD 16.2 . bíoth, 17.1 . 1 pl. bíom, Dán Dé xiv 17 . 2 pl. bíthe (: -chíthe), IGT Verbs ex. 95 . bídh, ex. 109 . bidhí, Luc. Fid. 3430 . 3 pl. bíod, TD 16.19 .

Subj. pres. 1 s. ber, SG 172.15 . uér, Ériu ii 92.9 . beor, v 222.46 . bheith mé, TD 8.9 . -ra bur , TBC-LL¹ 1112 . -rabor, ZCP xii 401.30 . ? -rabhus, ZCP v 523.27 = rabasa, Ériu xii 144.12 (TE). -rabar, ZCP iii 32.37 . bear, rabhar, -bear, -rabhar, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. bé, SR 1607 . beir, BNnÉ 288.29 . Acall. 592 . -rab(a)i, BDD² p. 80 . -rabha, Irish Texts iv 75 § 16 . -rabhair, Fing. R. p. 13 note 86 . -mbéis (: Céis), IGT Verbs ex. 100 . -beis(se) (: meise), Dán Dé xiv 20 . -rabais, Fing. R. 86 , BDD² 363 (see ZCP xxvii 75-8 ). beis, rabais, -beis, -rabais, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. beth, TBC-I¹ 270 (beith, v.l.), IGT Verbs ex. 101 . -b, TBC-I¹ 1671 . -raib, Trip.² 2753 . -rab, TBC-I¹ 1430 . -raibhe, Parrth. Anma 2616 . rabh, raibh, -bé, -raibh, -rabh, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. bess, TBC-I¹ 1104 (beis, Y). beas, IGT Verbs § 7 . Impers. bethur, Laws ii 36.20 Comm. 1 pl. beme, Snedg. u. Mac R 9.14 . bemmit, TBC-LL¹ 2137 . bemait, Acall. 5478 . -bém, CCath. 1124 . -beam (: leam), Dán Dé xii 10 . -ruibem, SR 5540 . -rabum, PH 7899 . bheam, rabham, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 pl. bethi, SR 1233 . rabthai, PH 1977 . 3 pl. beit, Trip.² 1653 . -bet, TBC-I¹ 1053 . -beat, Lism. L. 4702 . -rabat, Laws iv 42.29 Comm. -rabut, PH 994 . -rabhait, BNnÉ 269.4 . -rabhaid, Parrth. Anma 2836 . -rabheid, RC xxix 136 § 51 .

Subj. impf. 1 s. do beinn , do rabainn , IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. no beithi , Trip.² 2972 . no beithe , 2983 = no bethe , Trip. 252.21 . do beitheá , TD 1.44 . 3 s. no beith , Trip.² 2967 . nobith, TBC-I¹ 3543 . dá mbeadh , TD 29.6 . -mbeath, IGT Verbs ex. 97 . -rabad, RC iii 184.24 . Impers. -bethe, Trip.² 2828 . -bette, Metr. Dinds. iii 382.19 . rabtha, TBC-LL¹ (C) 1675 . 1 pl. dá mbiadh sinn, TD 28.25 . 3 pl. nobeitis, SR 7855 . nobeidis, TBC-I¹ 3557 . dá mbeith siad, TD 26.36 .

Fut. (see Bergin, Ériu ii 46-8 ) 1 s. bíat, TTr.² 89 . biat, PH 1244 . biad (bíatt v.l.), CCath. 5137 . bhead, Parrth. Anma 6378 . bed, ZCP vi 41.10 . bét, 69.2 . bett, BNnÉ 52 § 42 . -biu, TBC-LL¹ 882 . -bhiú, Dán Dé xiv 20 . biad, -bi, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. bía, Trip.² 1593 . biae, SR 1599 . -bíai, BNnÉ 291 § 2 . biaidh tú, TD 1.26 . bía, -bía, IGT Verbs § 7 . bethair, ZCP ii 225.4 . 3 s. bied, LU 10362 . biaid, Trip.² 1071 . biáid, TBC-I¹ 169 (LU). biaidh, -bia, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. bíes, Trip.² 2671 . bés, CCath. 300 , bes, 657 . bess, PH 4666 . bhias, TD 3.50 . do biass , L. Chl. S. 1 . Impers. beither, Acall. 5259 . beithir, ZCP x 415.11 . 1 pl. bemit, LU 9753 , PH 1501 . bemait, CCath. 1467 . -bem(ni, LU 9753 . beimíd, -biam, IGT Verbs § 7 . -biaim(ne) (: siairni), ex. 108 . ? -ben, BCC 396.19 . 2 pl. bethi, SR 3083 . beitte (: eiti) (beththi, bete v.l.), IGT Verbs ex. 102 . -bed, Trip.² 1590 . 3 pl. biait, Trip.² 2665 , TBC-I¹ 2057 (beite, LU). biat, Trip.² 1288 . beit, TBC-I¹ 80 . beiti, TBC-I¹ 2078 . beti, SR 8157 . betit, SR 853 . TBC-LL¹ 246 , TTr.² 760 . beidid, ZCP x 338 § 1 . -bīat, TBC-I¹ 1132 . beidíd síad, BCC 290.12 . beid, -bíad, IGT Verbs § 7 .

Condit. 1 s. no-béind, PH 6107 . dobeind, 7489 . do beinn, -beinn, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. do bheitheá , TD 19.13 . 3 s. no biadh , CCath. 3754 . -bied, TBC-I¹ 504 . ro bífad , TBC-LL¹ 5112 . rot-fiadh, IT iii 320.4 ( Cóir Anm. 70 ). do biath (: sgiath), IGT Verbs ex. 97 . do bhiadh , TD 2.54 . Impers. no bethe , TTr.² 533 . 3 pl. do bheidīs , Parrth. Anma 5227 .

Pret. and perf. 1 s. ro-bádus, PH 699 . do bhádhus , TD 23.6 . do bhí mé, 5 . -rabus, Acall. 7913 . -rabhas, 1584 . -rabadhus, 356 . do bá , -raba; do bádhus , -rabadhas, IGT Verbs § 7 . do basa ( : bádusa; proscribed form), ex. 103 . 2 s. ro bhádhuis , CCath. 553 . do bhí tú, TD 28.6 . -rabadais, PH 3725. 8121 . -rabhais, Acall. 123 . do bhádhuis , -rabhadhuis, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. bae, SR 7608 . bóe, 6265 . baei, BDD² 127 . búi, CCath. 95 . -bae, SR 4975 . -buí, Trip.² 1505 . robai, SR 2229 , robae, 2262 . robói, PH 2572 . ro bí , CCath. 1302 . robuidh, Ériu iii 198 § 22 . do bí , CCath. 278 . do bhói , Acall. 58 . do bhaoi (: draoi), Dán Dé xii 22 . -rubai, SR 1241 . -roibe, BDD² 498 , -roibi, 1393 . -roba, 251 . -raba, 1533 . -raibhe, TD 2.25 . -rabha, 8.36 . -robha, 1 . do bí , -raibi, do baí , -rabha, IGT Verbs § 7 . With depon. ending -rabhustair, BNnÉ 322 § 31 . Rel. boí, Trip.² 626 . bāi, TBC-I¹ 1277 . būi, 630 . ro bae , Trip.² 288 . ro buí , BDD² 287 . ro baí , 1451 . ro boí , 1517 . Impers. both, Trip.² 2264 . rombatha, Ériu ii 20 § 3 (-a added later). -rabad, iv 146.4. robās, TBC-I¹ 2147 . rombas, SR 7564 , robás, TTr.² 151 . -rabus, Trip.² 54 . rabas, Laws iv 212.22 Comm. , -bádus, MacCongl. 43.22 . -bás, 61.3 . do bás , do bas , -rabas, IGT Verbs § 7 . do bas (: as), ex. 98 . do bhás (: fhás), Dán Dé xxvi 9 . 1 pl. bāmur, TBC-I¹ 399 . do bámar , Acall. 1283 . do bhámair (: Ádhaimh), Dán Dé xv 17 . -rabamar, TBC-I¹ 2495 . 2 pl. robabair, Anecd. ii 14.9 . -babhair, Blathm. 23 (see notes ). robadbair, TBC-I¹ 2502 . do bhábhair , TD 22a.1 . -rabhuir, Acall. 114 . -rabhabhair, TD 22a.2 . 3 pl. bādar, TBC-I¹ 472 . -bátir, TTr.² 1308 . ro badar , CCath. 573 n. ro bádar , Acall. 75 . do bídur , 5942 . -rabadar, TBC-I¹ 3108 . -rabhadair, TD 26.10 . ro baisit , O'Dav. 728 . -rabhsad, TD 16.21 . Rel. bátar, Trip.² 591 . BDD² 505 . ro bátar , 543 . Vn. an bheith , IGT Verbs § 7 . Vbl. of necess. beitte, TD 28.30 .

Cf. cenmothá, íarmothá, óthá.

Used in meaning is in a large variety of contexts. Normally replaced by copula (see 1 is) in certain fixed syntactical patterns (classification, identification, etc.), and when used in these cases exceptional (see above and II below).

I Expressing existence.

(a) Used absolutely is, exists, there is, etc.: ata in coimdiu gl. Dominus in cælo sedis eius, Ml. 30b27 . nabad hed a méit nádmbǽ `let it not be only that it is not' gl. nec nominetur in uobís, Wb. 22b14 . ní fil aimsir nad mbed ref. to fuit et est semper, Ml. 17a15 . ní torménmar-ni ara mbetis in gnimai sin gl. præter spem nostram, etc., 115b1 . ni fil chumtubairt gl. indubitabilia, etc., Sg. 154b2 . ma nubed `if it existed', 31b21 . ro baoi siomh re tuisdinsiú `he existed', Blathm. 632 . as e as soithcerndomh fil, 773 . ma rombe is maith if it is, it is well, Laws iv 2.14 Comm. ni rabi uair . . . nad ro bai `there was no hour . . . that He existed not', Ériu ii 106 § 16 . a cin for athair .i. uair na bí mac, Laws iv 240.16 Comm. Columb [ro]baoi, Columb bīaas, ZCP viii 198 § 20 . tar ēis a mic . . . / nī raba acht dā aenbliadain `was alive only two years', Ériu iii 198 § 24 . as a rad ata a nadmaim cin co be by saying there is a covenant though there is not, Laws iv 52.30 Comm. ni tha . . . ní a ngeimre in winter there is nothing, 90.1 (with petrified inf. pron. 3 s. n. in dat. sense?). ní bía terca bíd there will not be a scarcity of food, BColm. 52.5 . bid dno maith, ┐ ni bi derrscugud de `yet there is good, and nothing to surpass it', Auraic. 703 . is tré ómun bíid serc, Ériu i 195.1 . céin beti neóil im gréin ngil, Metr. Dinds. ii 38.z . i céin raibh nemh is talamh as long as . . . endure, BNnÉ 314 § 8 . bai cocad mor etarro, RC xxiv 186 § 19 . In phrase (acht) atá ní (chena) but, moreover, see 1 ní (e).

In periphrasis when emphasis on some element other than the verb is required: bieid nach dréct diib hícfider, Wb. 4d6 . bieid bes ferr de, 32a13 . do budh cusmail rit co robuis uair ecin, ┐ co n[d]ingenta rét feramail `that thou wert once such an one that thou couldst . . .', ZCP vi 87.13 . ba-sa tan / nī folabrainn ilach gamh, Ériu ii 95 § 3 . ata[a]t .iii. cáini nad chumgat comarbai do chumscuchud, Ériu xvii 68 § 9 ( Laws iv 210 ). Note further: atāit teora brīathra / ata lōgmaire for nim, ZCP vii 312 § 25 .

With words expressing time: bieid aimser nad creitfider, Wb. 28c14 . aidchi robuī `one night', Ériu ii 222.25 . fecht robai `once', Mon. Tall. 147.2 (§ 52) . biaidh uair 's . . . a time will come when, Dán Dé vii 31 .

Introducing a statement: cia beith ara rogba bóairechas riasíu ropo chúairddulchach though it be that he assume, Críth G. 67 . dá mbeith fós go mbiadh an Fhraingc comh líonmhar ┐ adeir seisean `granted that', Keat. ii 933 . má tá go seachnoid síol Éibhir . . ., TD 29.7 . ci(d), gi(d) bé whatever, whoever (see Ériu xii 210 ): ria flaithaib, .i. rias na flaithib, cibe flaithe iat `whatever chieftains they be', Laws iv 154.17 . gidh bé lá cheannghar an chairt, Dán Dé xiv 17 . cidh bé do bhean díbh an dúthaigh, DDána 26.1 . bíd (ipv. 3 s.) co n- although: admhuim . . . mo pheactha . . . bīodh gomadh é mo mhīan a bhfolach though I should wish to hide them, Parrth. Anma 4625 . bīodh nach gcaoifithea go spesialta fá gach peacadh though you might not weep specially for each sin, Mac Aingil 235 . bíth gur gheallas . . . though I promised, Ó Bruad. ii 212 § xiv . In constr. manibed x ní bíad y were it not for x y would not be, see má II (b).

(b) The subst. vb. is usual with predicates consisting of adverbial phrases of all kinds (prep. and noun, adjj. and nouns used adverbially, etc.) and thus enters into a large and varied corpus of idioms. A select list follows. Reference should in all cases also be made to the nouns, adjj., adverbs and prepositions concerned.

With CO: atáthar sund chucut your adversary is approaching, LL 10300 ( TBC-LL¹ 3316 ).

With CO N-: atúsa com thegluch there is myself and my household troop, TBC-LL¹ 437 .

With DI: im chaingin robui de muintir Tamlachti friss `about a business that arose between the monastery of Tallaght and him', Mon. Tall. 157.7 (§ 72) . masu de chlaind Echdach aird / atāi, ZCP xi 108 § 1 . ní bia debaid . . . de, Ériu iv 108 § 69 . Of materials: an crann dobí na sesam ... dobí sé do cepresus was a (lit. of) cupressus, Maund. 9 . In phrase a.¤ di such is: roboi du meit a pecthae `so great were their sins', Ml. 98c6 . má beth tra do hūaite ind āessa gráid `if the ordained folk be too few', Ériu i 220 § 13 .

With DO: biid do anmmaim cathrach `(Samnis) is as the name of the city', Sg. 104b5 . nád robatar suin do ṡlund in dúildetad inchoisget `there were not words (enough) to signify . . .', 45b1 . manusbeth tenga dia relad `if (the sun) had a tongue', Ériu ii 126 § 81 . ata eric a fogla do dul a ruradh o duine, Laws iv 50.5 Comm. Expressing possession, etc.: con roib core dúib fri cách so that you may be at peace with all men, Wb. 26b30 . in fochricc file do i nnim, 29b29 . cach ngrád asid n-ísliu bíid dó i céilsini, Críth G. 374 . robi timna in ríg don Comdhe, RC xviii 182.5 . nico mbái dó acht bás there was nothing for him but death, Vita Br. 32 . fecht robúi damsae domchaomnacuir `once it happened to me', Mon. Tall. 144.7 (§ 45) . atá damhsa ris an dáimh / gan ísliughadh neith dá gcáil it is my duty in regard to the sages not to belittle . . ., Content. xiv 8 .

With FOR (later AR): as ṅdath glas roboi forsind sl[é]ib the mountain was green, Ml. 84d4 . cech dath is maith ré neach bid forro, RC vi 183.9 . cēin beó ar in mbith mbuide, Ériu ii 92.16 . nocha cuinnghim bethaid mbí / ōtú ar sīth mo Rīgh amuigh since I am outside the palace of my king(?), ZCP vii 301 § 10 . scríbend menmman .i. robbói for a inndṡliucht-som `it had been in his mind', Sg. 178b4 . in sét atá form aire on which I am intent, Ériu vi 115 § 6 . a mhacnas orm gidh eadh raibh though I greatly desire to do so, Dán Dé xix 6 .

With FRI: nobiad fri femen `it would be (used) with the feminine', Sg. 207b2 . ní biat remsuidigthi friu `there are no prepositions with them', 215a5 . ni humhal robabair rim cen erghe rónn you were not submissive to me, Anecd. ii 14.9 . ba [mait]h ro mboth friu they were well treated, TBFr. 145 . is throit ra bass risin fer út that man was quickly dispatched, TBC-LL¹ 2986 ( LL 10035 ).

With I: is hi tuaisciurt slebe sióin ata in chathir, Ml. 67d8 . ataam ar ndiis i cuimriug, Wb. 32a28 . is and . . . bieid finis, 13b29 . is sunt bia-sa i n-eilithri, Ml. 137b7 . nach dú i mbí isnaib salmaib iustitia, 109a2 . bēti a scēla illāidib, ZCP iii 37.32 . dēna torba airm i mbī, vii 311 § 9 . ro-bas i lurg an madma la clannaibh Néill the Clanna N. pursued the rout, xiv 234.16 . adh bes fiu da trian na samuisce atá isín focreic, issed ata isin fogail doníther ris na ferandaib cétna i fuacht an geimridh `a calf which is worth two thirds of the `samhaisc'-heifer which is paid for the rent, it is it that is paid for the trespass', Laws iv 92.16 Comm. cínta do niad na cethra . . . leth a mbia ina nairlim isedh bias ina tairsci `half of that fine which lies for their `airlim'-trespass . . .', 74.8 Comm. cod a midídar ruire trachta ┐ raite? Nin; co rabadar ocht nurcora dec and do fhleascach, 138.4 Comm. ní bhíadh na ghoin é d'oighedh / toil Dé muna deónaighedh His wound would not be enough to cause His death, IGT Decl. ex. 378 . Common in form with suff. pron. 3 s. n. ma beith nech and tra labrathar ilbélre if there be anyone, etc., Wb. 13a4 . ar atá brithem and cenut-su `a judge is there apart from thee', 6b25 . ataat alaaili interiecta and it coitchena do cach ceniul, Sg. 10a1 . attaad teora bliadna and. Niconcomracamar díoblíonaib `it is three years since we two had intercourse', Mon. Tall. 134.26 (§ 21) . For phr. cid fil and trá see trá. In idiom tá sé i n-a fhear he is a man (see Dillon, ZCP xvii 307 ff. ): is amlaid . . . atá in rigsudi sin inna chathaír chumtachta, LU 2005 ( FA 7 ). cidead bes ina bibdaid `even though he be a caitiff', Ériu v 22.20 . gu raibhe 'na cholum ghel, Acall. 1080 . ce raib se i n-a fhír, PH 7324 . do bí 'n-a mnaí grádaig ac Find, Acall. 2018 . do rígh gion go rabhthá id mhac, DDána 91.15 . Note also: tuc . . . aithne gurbh e righ Eirenn do bí ann that it was in fact the king, Ériu iii 152 § 6 . ro innis do gur 'uo he Isu ro ui ann, RC xii 344.15 .

With IMM: ni baitir, ni loisctir cein beit immo `he is not drowned or burnt as long as they are on him', RC vi 183.8 .

With LA: gan bheith le Dia is ann bhus aithreach if we are not on God's side, Dán Dé x 27 . Expressing possession and related ideas: is lib atá a rogu, Wb. 9a23 . is derb lium attá latsu gl. certus sum autem quod et in té, 29d14 . ainmm ninchoisc cenéuil issed file la laitnóri, Sg. 30b8 . is airi nobíth digaimm leo ante ρ. sin, 9b10 . ni fil bríg laisiom hisind accobar sin `he considers that such desire is no great matter,' Mon. Tall. 151.13 (§ 62) . is dé atá lem, fobíth, etc. this is why I think so (of an assertion), TTr.² 343 . itá a rīgan la cach ríg sund, TBC-I¹ 190 . fail leis secht nimi, SR 629 . ar ní ḟil acht oenlám lim, LL 14150 .

With ó: báoi alaile anchoire antuaid o sláne `there was a certain anchorite from Slane in the North', Mon. Tall. 159.8 (§ 77) . cech lennánacht fil isin domvn is úadhi atá originates with her, TTr.² 370 . Bressal Ó Tressaig ō' tāit / Hī Tressaig `. . . from whom are sprung', Ériu ii 50 § 7 . ni fil[et] o neoch ┐ ni filter uaidibh `they are not derived from anything, and nothing is derived from them', Auraic. 1507 .

With OC: ar notéighed dīa sathairn init co mbídh oc Cnocc Droma Coblai, ZCP viii 106.29 = Trip.² 2858 . ma no bith . . . mo c[h]laideb acom if I had my sword, TBC-I¹ 3543 . co rabat aidmi oc cech altōir . . ., Ériu i 219 § 9 . in ti ac na biat ba, Laws iv 36.10 Comm. in fhil biad ocaib sund? PH 6709 . ná raibh agad ar n-éra `refuse me not', Studies 1918, 99 § 16 . In impers. constr. cindas atathar occat? how are affairs with thee? RC xxvi 368.9 . a.¤ y oc x x has the power to do y: ní bhía . . . ag boigṡín / mo chor tar creich Phádraigín, Ériu ix 163 § 7 .

With adverbs and adv. phrases: céin bett abus `while they are here below', BColm. 98.28 . ní rubai nach cruth ailiu `it cannot be otherwise', Sg. 7b3 . ataat ám in chrut sin, 140b1 . hóre nád robe Tit ar mo chiunn, Wb. 14d29 . na muindtire bís id choimidecht `of the monks that live with thee', Mon. Tall. 128.8 (§ 3) . dá rabh mé ar éanmhagh is í, Dán Dé ix 12 . is bether go hīsiul de, ZCP x 51.6 . bidh co mín michuir ret c[h]airdibh, vi 272 § 3 . is samlaid insin robói a flaithemnacht indibsi, Ml. 18a8 . nī hamlaid beitid na nāimh . . ., ZCP xiii 9.26 . dobadus co subhach rompa, KMMisc. 319.27 . léig mar atāit tall, ZCP viii 202.4 . trath atusa sund, TBC-LL¹ 2379 . ionmhuin uan nar fhás ó mhnaoi / do bhás go truagh ar a thí , Dán Dé xxvi 9 . Note also: dá mbem a-moigh `if we win forth', Ériu ix 162 § 2 . With interrogatives: ceth leth atā E., TBC-I¹ 376 . can ata? whence is it? Hib. Min. 8.270 . cāit atā do t[h]igerna?, TBC-I¹ 789 . ciatā inso?, ZCP viii 311.13 . a Findtain, arse, ┐ Éri cía gabad ca rabad inde? `where have things been therein?' Ériu iv 146 § 23 .

(c) Used with inf. and suff. pron. to express possession. With inf. pron.: rosmbia a lóg `they shall have payment for it', Wb. 5d35 . ind indocbál no-b-tá in futuro, 14c16 . ro-n-da-biad cech maith, Ml. 33b13 . rombia-sa la dia . . . a day will come for me when, Vita Br. 12 . roborbē (roburbe v.l.) which is yours, Cáin Ad. 27 . nīmthat asnai I have no ribs, TBC-I¹ 2871 . gell cóic sét di neoch rodmbí `of whatever he has', Críth G. 283 and n. uair nach tá tír dia fhulung fri re napuidh because he has no land to support him (?), Laws iv 30.19 Comm. rom be nem may I have heaven, Snedg. u. Mac R 14 § 76 . Femen intan rombai rí . . . when it had a king, RC xvii 148.19 . cia luag nomtha?, SR 1165 . rombí lethbairgen, Anecd. i 73 § 211 . atbert Cathair nimthasa ní dhuit I have nothing to give you, LL 386b22 . Note also: nintha do imtecht liumm `I have (lit. we have) no news', RC xiii 222.20 . With cumang (or similar word) and prep. DO has the power to: nímtha cumachtæ ṅdo, Ml. 140b7 . ní-s-ta som . . . cumang domm orcuin-se, 60d3 . nísmbói didiu do chumacc a mmbo do imain they hadn't the strength to, Vita Br. 24 . sáerthar lat in domnach cech cumang rotbé (rodbe, rotbia, v.ll.) dó `with all your might', Ériu ii 204 § 22 . nícom thása cumang dia tabair[t], TBFr. 302 . apraind nachimbai-si nert do theacht cucu alas that I had not strength . . ., TBC-I¹ 3439 . Used independently is able: nīmt[h]a a dechmad d'indisin / nech doní do maith `I cannot tell a tithe of all the good he does', BColm. 70.6 . nimta-sa sin . . . uair da caithius mo dan re sciathaib Ulad I cannot do that . . ., Ériu v 72.8 . Note also: ango dano for Ingcél adfía basa lecht bas briscium `peradventure I shall be the frailest corpse', BDD 102h ( RC xxii 211 ) = at-mbia basa lecht bas brisceam, BDD² 716 (leg. ro-t-bia?).

With suffixed pron. taithiunn . . . / ni fris tarddam ar n-áthius `we have . . . something to which to apply our acuteness', Thes. ii 293.19 . táithi caire umai he has a bronze cauldron, Críth G. 197 . tathum rūn, TBC-I¹ 848 . bethib sūirsi lim-sa dano ye will enjoy freedom with me, ZCP viii 316.5 . tathat lim logh do áes, logh do sinnsire thou hast with me = I accord thee, xii 365.13 . baíthium anfud mílach mend, LU 3018 . tathuib comram, Rawl. 88b51 . tathum o día praind, Anecd. i 64 § 120 . tāthud ochtar la suidiu / airm hi fail a crōlighe `thou wilt find eight men . . .', Fianaig. 12 § 16 . tathai eolus maith, ZCP vii 310 § 1 . tatos subhae `they have happiness', Blathm. 82 . Pleonastically: tathai erouidh . . . bithbron `Herod . . . has eternal sorrow', 83 .

(d) In nasalising rel. clauses to denote has something the matter, is ailing: ced das in ben maith? `what ails the good woman?', Thes. ii 329.48 . cidh tás do sūil, a clērich? what is the matter with your eye? RC xxvii 280 § 35 . Oengus mac in Dagdai hisiurcc di bliadan. Cid tas or Bodb, RC iii 345.9 . ra[fh]etur sa . . . an daas ind ingen what is wrong with the girl, Vita Br. 5 . ni fetarsa cid no-tó I do not know what is the matter with me, ZCP viii 176.5 . cid no-taí? Sc.M² 3 . roḟetarsa a n-attath[a]i. Ni taam ni or Cano, Anecd. i 9.25 ( SCano 293 ). cid tāthaí, a maccu? . . . oc imresain atām . . ., Ériu viii 157.16 . ni confetatarsin cid rombui hissennath, RC iii 344.10 . dia ḟis cid robái (rombui, v.l.) grían to find out what was the matter with the sun, Ériu iv 140.13 .

With prep. DO feels (inimically) towards, is angry with, worries: propter incredulitatem fracti sunt .i. cani airi .i. badochu lem són is [hed] romboth doib that is the fault found with them, Wb. 5b31 . cren dímsa m'ingin . . . Cid dathir di? . . . Is dichmarcach what cause of annoyance has she given? Vita Br. 13 . fiarfaig Conchobar scēla dō. —Cidh tāi di ṡodain? ol Bricriu why do you bother with it? ZCP v 502.15 . cadai-siu duind?, TTebe 424 . In good sense treats in a special manner: ca tāthar dúin do domnach des / sech gach laithi lāndiles? `why do we hold Sunday above . . .?' Ériu iii 143 § 7 . With added prep.: cidh 'ma bfuile dam? ZCP x 10.11 . ná bí réd chathrachaibh dhúinn `talk not to us of your forts', Content. vi 31 . See further s.v. daas. Frequ. in class. verse in phrase gá dtá, dás (acht) what is the use? in short. Either gá dtá or gá tá may be used to suit alliteration, see Ir. Syll. Poetry 86 . fogus orchra don éigsi / gá ttás cur ré coiméidsi `how can she be saved?' Studies 1923, 421 § 1 . gá dás luadh imdheachta an ḟir? `what need to recount', TD 13.40 . gá dás mé dá mīrbuile / acht sé d'fás ó ÓghMuire, IGT Decl. ex. 200 . gá dtám? —acht torchuir bu dheas in short, TD 3.10 . With follg. prep.: gá dtám ris . . . / acht meise féin foidhidneach, TD 3.41 . ga dtú ris, a rí L.? / ort chuirim mo chomuirghe, 30.12 . ní bhiú ris acht, Dán Dé vi 31 . ní fhuilim dó, xi 30 .

(e) With words indicating number, quantity in sense of accompanied by, having: bí[i]th a th[a]urchreicc cóic ṡétaib, Críth G. 71 . baei Conairi a ceithri cairpthig il-Lifiu, BDD 12 (a cethror cairpdech, v.l.). itó-sa lín do gona, TBC-LL¹ 434 . denam d'ḟiadach na muice in lín Feinde atámait, Acall. 2223 . atáthaoi líon a n-ithte, Keat. iii 4439 . atú-sa caegait fer, MR 248.17 . Later: bed-sa ┐ mili ridiri maraen rium ad diaig, ZCP vi 41.9 .

II Expressing state, condition, kind, etc. with pred. consisting of noun, pron. or adj. (usage more usual with copula, see introd. section above).

(a) With noun pred.: boe sab suithe cech dind, ACC 26 ( RC xx 168 ). boe saegul sneid, 24 . boe dind oc libur leigdocht, 27 . biait betha airchind they will be chieftains of the world, Rawl. 125b9 . With subj. standing between the vb. and pred.: atá dia atach ṅ-dún-ni ais dethrebo God is a refuge to us the people of the two tribes, Ml. 66d1 . bói Fíachnae Lurga athair Mongáin, Imr. Brain 42.1 . Cf. Sg. 20b3 .

(b) With adj. pred.: boe seim sáth, ACC 25 . biat slana, SR 4167 (copula?). feib atam nocht, 1347 (copula?). bía slan, LU 3344 ( SCC 13 ). Cf. habe . . . (.i. sana sis .i. slán bee), Enchir. Aug. 82a ( ZCP vii 484 ). dlegar doibsium na be lobtaigh cor ( ar dlegar doibsium na bed lobthaig cor, O'Dav. 1191 ) (Atk. in Glossary emends to be[t]), Laws iv 54.10. atámait ainmfesach, RC xxiv 371.7 . bítíss meth (leg. methi, ed.) occ tinntúd, IT iii 235.z . co filim garbliath i rricht, LU 1272 . ro boísium imnedach i tossuch a bethad, LL 7305 . ro-bádus-[s]a dronnach, PH 2788 . céin beorsa beó as long as I am alive, Ériu v 222.46 . is follus co fuilti eaclach, Fier. 69 . maith dīghōltar ant andlocht / bethar taoblom tarrnocht trūagh folk will be, ZCP xii 395.23 . With subj. betw. vb. and pred.: is trissa ndede sin biid duine slán et fírian, Wb. 4d33 . amal mbís tegdís fás [amm]edón ┐ scópthe gl. sicut domus uacans et scopata, Tur. 14 ( Thes. i 485.23 ). arrobói a rígthech lán de rígaib, Imr. Brain 1 . amal no beithi féin béo and, Trip.² 2972 . co mbatar na hádnaicti óbéla, PH 676 . bis an puls tonnmur lethan, Rosa Angl. 272.8 . oir dobi se crodha do laim ┐ mor do mét, Fier. 2 .

(c) With part. as pred. Immediately follg. vb. (see GOI 475-6 ; OIPG 147 ): amal nombemmis érchóilti gl. tanquam morti destinatos, Wb. 9a3 . biid ersoilcthi ar chiunn for ríg `be ye opened before your king' (of doors), Ml. 46a7 . co rabais (rabhdais, v.l.) marbtha mudaigthi, TTebe 854 . With subj. standing between vb. and pred.: ataat mesai Dǽ nephchomtetarrachti the judgements of God are incomprehensible, Ml. 55d11 . céin nombetis inna saigtea tuidmithi inna feuil `as long as the arrows were fixed in his flesh', Ml. 58a9 . órobatar ind liss dúntai, Imr. Brain 1 . co ra-bi in uli demnaigecht fomamaigthi dó, PH 2796 .

(d) In sentences where the vb. stands in a nasalising rel. clause and refers to a pred. expressed in the principal clause: is faittech rond-boi som, Ml. 21d4 . ni ba cian mbias in pecthach, 56c22 . fer . . . nadip romar bed a sommæ a man . . . whose wealth should not be too great, Thes. ii 241.9 . is-gáibthech atátur i-sin-magh sin, RC xxiv 378.12 . is trog robas isin chotlad sin, Ériu v 34.z . ní cás duid madh diomdhach raibh / grása Dé . . ., Dán Dé xix 22 . [is] slán do bhaoi an brat-sain, xii 22 .

(e) In the type of sentence where the description constitutes an independent sentence with copula: ego sum uermis et non homo .i. atāim-si conad cruim mē ┐ nāch duine, Corm. Y 211 . ro boi Victor co mbo ḟortachtaigthid do Pátraic, ACL iii 10 § 8 = Trip.² 217 . unus non est . . . .i. nochon fhil int aen co mbad airim, acht ata conidh fotha airim, Auraic. 689 . dom dóigh . . . robadhuis uair ecin ┐ roba díl anora tú `it seems to me . . . that there was once a time when thou wert worthy of honour', ZCP vi 99.5 .

? baitsid(e), ? baitse

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ? baitsid(e), ? baitse or dil.ie/5274

 

n (? baithis, baithsid): cislir togarmand techtaide miadlechta ? . . . triath, ri, rig tuaithi . . ., aithech baitse (the 20th in a list of 26), Laws iv 344.5 , .i. fer na sáera dan na trebad, 352.24 Comm. is é aithech baitside (baitsid, v.l.) inso dia mbé in[n]a enncai cen gait . . ., Críth G. 142 (see note, ` baptismal vassal ', Mac Neill, PRIA (C) xxxvi 289 n.3 ). baitsidhe .i. nemcumscaighthi, ut est ailid breith berda baitsidhe .i. is é beraid in lucht agata na bretha nemcumscaigthi, no is nemcum[s]gai[gh]thi in breth brithemnaigther sunn, O'Dav. 271.

bél

Cite this: eDIL s.v. bél or dil.ie/5607
Last Revised: 2013

 

Forms: beoil, beóil, beolu, beula, beulu, belu, bélib, i mbeolu

n o, m. g s. beoil, Sg. 14a16 . n p. beóil, Wb. 7d9 . a p. beolu, Wb. 3b11 , beula (gl. ora), Ml. 19c9 . beulu, 35d22 . belu, Thes. ii 251. 16 . d p. bélib, Wb. 7d10 . b.¤ m., IGT Decl. § 61.

I

(a) In some exx. explicitly lip , in pl. lips, but here usually mouth: don b.¤ gl. labio, Ir. Gl. 107. Gild. Lor. 139 § 40. tri beulu dlútai gl. fixis labris (17), Sg. 6a18 . ni radi ní trí thalmaidchi, amal dundchuirethar inna beulu as it rises to his lips (`as he takes it into his lips'), Ml. 35d22 . anasberaid hó bélib `what ye utter with (your) lips', Wb. 7d10 . anasbérat mo beiúil, 12d12 . (of a hag) tacmaicced a b.¤ íchtarach coa glún, LU 6828 (BDD). i socraidi labrait biuil (: Iúil), 3875 ( SCC 38 ). niamdai a beóil partardeirg (partuingdeirg, v.l.) her crimson lips, IT i 69.8 . ( LMU 4 ). co ṅditned a srona ┐ a beolu `so that it protected his nostrils and his lips' (but perh. transl. nose . . . mouth), CCath. 5265. folcuit a n-aighti uile lena mbélaib úachtair upper lips, Maund. 176. beoil lethna thick lips, Marco P. 187. cúiseach bind asa bēalaibh `sweet piping from her lips', Ériu iv 174.15 . maille siabhradh beóil ( = labium . . . pervertatur), 23 K 42 , 54.14 . do scoltad an croimbeoil ┐ in béil iocht[a]ir of chapping of the upper and lower lip, O'Gr. Cat. 191.z . baile .i. maith . . . digbail dubha baile bel .i. is maith í o belaib no i mbel `from lips or in mouth', O'Dav. 224. (in application of an incantation) imbir in da mér . . . it bélaib, Thes. ii 249.11 . doberar in salann i mbelu `the salt is put into the mouth', 251.16 . asoilgg a bēolu . . . combo ecna a [g]inchrāes, TBC-I¹ 396. (of a witch) a beóil for leith a cind her mouth in the side of her head, BDD² 540 . gebid dano cenn in tarra ina béolu, Sc.M² 17.6 . do-lleblaing int éicne ara chend, ┐ gabsus inna béulu took it in its mouth, TBFr. 209. an tan immoro no berid an leg laun ina beolu `when he used to put the ladle full into his mouth', RC xii 86 § 91. nicon acca beolu eich / amal beolu ín liathainigh, IT iii 68.2 . inbat budig do bēoil do shainól ┐ do shainait, MacCongl. 77.4 . secht traigid eter a ó ┐ a beolo . . . ┐ secht n-artim inna bélaib, Ériu iv 26.9 , 10 . acht nad neibre dod belaib nama `although thou hast not said so by word of mouth', Laws iv 108.1 Comm. cuit mo b.¤ (term of endearment), LL 18576.

(b) mouth in sg.: sróin súil b.¤ , Ardm. 434a marg. (220va). i cinaid do laime, do sula, do thengad, do beil, Laws i 156.32 . issin ṁb. tacras sin in the mouth that asserts that, MU² 369. laech . . . belmar . . ., meit a beil beolu eich, TBC-LL¹ 5400 n.4 . fuil rochuiread tara bel ┐ dara sroin, TTebe 2414 . beiris i n-a bheōl . . . ar lampa airgit seized a silver lamp in its mouth, Fl. Earls 138.1 . Note also: na beula gl. ora, the mouths (?), Ml. 19c9 . Fig. gá tarbha an béal do bheith lais / 's an intinn in-a éagmhais, Dán Dé xxii 20 . an b.¤ dúnta as eadh budh ḟearr better be silent, IGT Decl. ex. 1285. Prov. is binn beál ó bheith iadhta, Dánfhocail 55 . By metonymy person : cerd cach ṁb. .i. eladu cech duni do ḟoglaim ar dáig forcitail caich (`art for every mouth', RC xxvi 22 § 62 ), LL 24410. crochadh ar bh.¤ na bréige! `perdition (lit. a hanging) to him who tells the lie' (Gloss.), LBranach 1072 . b.¤ na psalm (nickname of St. Fintan), Mart. Don. Mar. 27. Grigoir Béil óir `Gregory the golden-mouthed', BNnÉ 172 § 16 .

(c) In phrases: derg-mír i mbélaib lit. red (raw) morsel in (the) mouth apparently of property illegally acquired or attached: atait tri deirg-mireanda naidet usa a mbelaib cacha hecalsa (glossed: is indligthech do'n eclais a ngabail cuichi o belaib, 432.3 Comm. ), Laws v 430.22. at-ballat, ¤bailet (a) béoil with poss. or foll. subj. gen., see at-bail(l): co n-aplat a beoil i mmbron (leg. mbrōn ?) ┐ toirrsi `they perish', Ériu ii 114 § 38. Note also: bás fort béolu, Fing. R. 72 `death on your head!' RC xiii 378.11 .

(d) Of the mouth as the source of speech: iss ed bói i mbēlaib cáich this was the common talk, ZCP viii 317.26 . go rabhadar na lán béil ┐ buanteanga ag gach aon that they were a continual subject of conversation to everyone, RC xiv 28 § 6. lán beóil don ríoghfhuil Bhranoigh, LBranach 3581 . budh lán beoil an Brianachsoin, Studies 1925, 253 § 6 .

By extension word(s) ; subject of talk : fer na ropeccaig o bel na o gnim `in word or deed', Ériu v 20.2 . idna beoil integrity of speech, LL 3901. roiarfaided o Fiachroig Muillethan . . . dia belaib his advice was asked by F., ZCP xiv 156.14 . gurab mó do theagascdaois . . . ó theagasc beoil ioná ó scríbhinn by traditional instruction, Keat. ii 976. (explanation of the name of Eogan B.) b.¤ cach tuaithi ina thimchell `the mouth [i.e. the acclamation] of every country round about', SG 64.z . b.¤ cach flatha ina lenub / ar ó Fiachrach foltlebur, 65.2 . In phr. breth a b.¤ féin self-judgment, -doom: atetha breth do b.¤ (sic leg.) féin duit, RC xiv 430.8 . co tucsat Gaill breth a beoil fein d'O Neill, AU ii 270.8 . In adv. phrase ó óen-b.¤ unanimously: o aen bel, PH 7233. dh'aoinbheul, Luc. Fid. 2856. Legal. cor b.¤ , see 1 cor 12.

II Applied to various things resembling lips or mouth .

(a) edge, rim ; mouth of cavity, orifice, opening : b.¤ gaili, a mbél an gaile ( = orificium stomachi), RSláinte 3698. do fínégra ar b.¤ an gaile `on the pit of the stomach', O'Gr. Cat. 193.25 . b.¤ cridi (used as term of endearment): a bél mo chraidi, ACL iii 243 § 24. edge, opening of wounds: bador beoil na ccneth ag claoi a cheile, ZCP x 292.9 . a lomma cro ic teprisin dar belaib na n-alad batar fair, Grail 685 . rucc b.¤ na cneidhe chum a chéile ┐ ticc sele fuirre, ITS xvi 42.13 . Other applications: co fil āit a beōil isin c[h]loich fóss ann `the mark of its rim (i.e. of a bell) is still there in the stone', BColm. 64.9 . sileadh deór rúadh ar ruisgne / mur uisge a beól (mbéol v.l.) úar eisci like water out of a vessel (?), IGT Decl. ex. 1081. mé is b.¤ na cróine ar mo chind, ex. 81 . lase foruillecta beóil in chalich di mil, Wb. 7d9 . īadais indala sūil . . . asoilg alaile comba mor bēolu fidchōich as large as the orifice of a wooden bowl (?), TBC-I¹ 395. b.¤ dabcha ele 'na b.-si anúas (of one vat turned over another), BColm. 72.6 . (of a bag for chess-men) a ferbolc, is amra sceúil / de ór imdernta a beúil opening (`rim'), Fianaig. 14.22 . go bhfuilti claoidthe . . . a mbeul an tsaic (of opponents silenced in controversy), Luc. Fid. 4127. béil a ngunnadh `the muzzles of their guns', Rel. Celt. ii 194.11 . (of prongs of pincers) do briseadh teanncuir an ghobhann, ┐ an t-īarann dearg 'na beal `with the red-hot iron in its jaws', ZCP ii 562.30 . beola crot ┐ bolg ┐ buinne `mouths of harps and bags and pipes', RC xii 108 § 163. the eye of the upper millstone (Studies on Early Ireland 16 ) : iss e sin doberimsi a mbel in muilinn si, RC xiv 52 § 62. upper of shoe: bróg tar teach do teilgeadh leam . . . nar bhean tall a b.¤ fa a bonn `a shoe whose upper was detached from its sole was thrown at me' (Notes), Bard. Synt. Tr. 2.z.

(b) Further extended applications: mén mara .i. bel na mara, O'Cl. ( mēn .i. bēl, Corm. Y 948 ). fri beolu mara, Trip.² 1581 ( = in sinu maris, Lat. Lives 33 § 25 ). dá thraigid .x. lethet a b.¤ the width of its opening (an earthwork), Críth G. 571. (of Tara) deis fri Banba, b.¤ fri Bóin `her front towards the Boyne', Ériu iv 92 § 3. tir cen beula without entry, Corm. Y 674 ( Corm. 22 ). tir cin toin cin beolu bis itir da ferunn cin conair `ingress', Laws iv 158.14 Comm. cuiris comla dar a b.¤ (a well), Metr. Dinds. iii 326.19 . triall istech tar beolu na hecuilsi `threshold of the church', Marco P. 173. léigthear suas beoil na bruighne `portcullis', Aithd. D. 3.19 . siar go b.¤ na sráide `the entrance of the street', AFM ii 900.2. Of gunwale of a ship: chuir iad am beòil mhòr re chèile, SGS xviii 107.1 .

III In phrases with prepp.

(a) prepositional. With A: crithre sin a beól (mb. v.l.) bhruithne sparks from boiling heat (?), IGT Decl. ex. 1296.

With AR (FOR): huare romboi ar belaib tempuil `in front of the Temple', Ml. 48d8 . ar beolu diabuil `before the Devil', Wb. 3b11 . gontai Cūchulaind, co tabrad a marb ara (ar, LU) bēolu a brāthar, TBC-I¹ 1637. ar belaib ind ríg ( = in conspectu regis), Lat. Lives 10.8 . arbelaib (.i. a fiadnaise) fer nErenn, ACL iii 14 § 31. finta cia as toisech fodla ┐ ar a ndentar bélaib `before whom it is made', RC xiii 446 § 26. cathair . . . for bel ḟasaigh dhimhoir `at the edge of a great desert', Marco P. 20. dán bog ar bh.¤ na slighiodh `on the open road', Studies 1918, 617 § 5 .

Freq. of replacing in kingship, headship, etc. one who had the normal claim, before, in preference to, in place of : rogab F. righe ara belaib, RC xvii 233.32 (Tig.). gabais C. flaith ar belaib a athar, Ériu iii 142.4 . an crioch do ghabail for a belaibh `to snatch . . . the country away from him', Leb. Gab.(i) 226.5 . mar tugadh ceannas na slógh / ar bhéal Éibhir d'Éireamhón `to Ê. rather than to Ê.', Content. xvi 33. With verbs of coming, etc. do-tét indḟine ar beolu de(i)rbḟine `the ` indḟine' comes in front of (i.e. is preferred to) the `derbḟine', Ériu xvii 64 § 3 ( Laws iv 206.7 ). D. . . . do beith ag dol ar bélaibh a athar `attempted to depose', AFM vi 1891.1 . an tánaiste do theacht ar beulaibh mic tighearna an fhuinn `that the tanist takes precedence of', Keat. i 66.6 . dul fora mbelaibhsiomh `to anticipate them', Hugh Roe² 172.2 .

With FRI (RE) before, at, close to; on the point of : fri beolu báis on the point of death, Fél. 74.19 . cen bith ria mbeolu oc airiuc thuili dóib not to be close to them, Fing. R. 432. ag so anois an bás rem bhéal close to me, Dánta Gr. 63.15 . re béal a theachta don toigh `before its reception' (of the Blessed Eucharist), Dán Dé xviii 2 . cosg fiabhrasa re b.¤ mbáis, Studies 1919, 613 § 12 .

With I N- i mbeolu, i mbeól, i mb.¤ before : in bo boi 'na beola sin `that was in front of her', Dinds. 142.10 . a mbeol an dunaidh `in front of the fort', BNnÉ 187 § 27 . do-chífe bárc a mbeól chúain `in the harbour's mouth', Ériu ix 168 § 46. towards, to : do-bhir im béal teachtaire `He sends a messenger to fetch me', Aithd. D. 83.3 . sgath dealg 'na beol muna bheath `had not the thorn-points been in the way', 95.20 . over, across : seolais iarsin Brenainn . . . i mbéolu (a mbhél, v.l. , = for beluibh, Lism. L. 3590 ) in aiccéin iongantaigh, BNnÉ 97 § 5. Note also: ro herbad da oclach lais da chur i mbeolu na tuinne to cast it (an infant) upon the sea (?), LL 14623 ( ZCP xii 273.17 ). do chur a mb.¤ mara ┐ mor-fhairrge set adrift on the open sea, KMMisc. 313.13 . a mbēl na h-oibre at the beginning, ML² 1.15 . i mbeol airechtais at the very beginning of sovereignty (?), Ann. Conn. 1410.2 . ni ḟuil amuigh gidh seól síth / crích nach fuil a mbeól a bláith, IGT Decl. ex. 992 . i mbéal a tharbha do thoigheacht, Aithd. D. 25.4 .

With TAR: tar béolu out of : adre amach dar beolu in duin, Marco P. 23.

(b) Adverbial. With FOR (always with possessive) on the face, face downwards : for a mbeulu gl. prone, Ml. 131b6 . tairniud form béolu bend face downwards, LL 36766 = Goid. 180.10 = Fél.² cv 8. an corp bis ina rogad ar in talmain for a beolu, RC xv 491 § 31. tolduid iarum taurtaim fair fora beolu `a trance fell upon him, as he lay on his face', Mon. Tall. 155.15 . (of a collapsing house) amal ro clóenad a thech conda tarla for a lethbeólu uli, LU 8382 ( FB 25 ). (of a cup) rohimpa iarum Patraic in copan fora beolu upside down (?), Anecd. iii 35.9 . b.¤ ar b.¤ , ó bé(o)l go b.¤ face to face : truagh gan sinne bel ar bel, TTebe xv 7 (scribe's note). (of a bird-decoration) ealta 's a mbeoil béal ar bhéal, Aithd. D. 9.7 . ag labhairt libh beul ar bheul (os ad os, 3 Joh. 14 ), Eochairsg. 15.30 . go labradh se riss ó b.¤ go b.¤ `face to face', ZCP xi 118.2 ( BCC 236 ). meic ollamhan Innsi Fáil / . . . / god choimhreic ó bheól go b.¤ `repeating thee from mouth to mouth' (i.e. the contents of a manuscript Gaelic Miscellany), Studies 1919, 440 § 12 . adeirid o bheol go beul they say so currently, Luc. Fid. 4088.

With IAR N- iar mbélaib (contrasted with iar cúlaib): i ngilfine iar mbelaib, amuil atá athair ┐ mac ┐ ua ┐ iarmua ┐ innua co cuicer; ┐ geilfini iar culaib .i. brathair thathar, ┐ mac co cuicer beos `in the direct line', Laws ii 160.z Comm.

(c) In fig. phrase do-ní a b.¤ re turns to, seeks help from : do-ghén . . . mo bh.¤ ré seabhcaibh Saxan `I will turn my face to', Studies 1924, 242 § 11 .

Note also: muna thí dhíom bas rem béal unless I can keep a guard on my lips, Dán Dé ix 4 . a-tá 'gan chol bas rem béal `raises its hand against me', xxiii 31 . In nn. loc. see Hog. Onom.

Compds. With nouns. ¤braise: feib atféd mo bhélbraisi `eloquence', Leb. Cert.² 164 § 9. ¤deirge: beildeirge redness of lips, Prolegomena 43 § 26 . ¤étan: (of a charioteer) dara béletan mouth and forehead (?), LL 24905. ¤mod manner of speaking (?): caistidh ria bēlmod, ACL iii 307 § 28 ( Measgra Uí Chl. 153 ). ¤proicept traditional teaching, tradition : bēalphroceapta nó teagusg bheōil na n-absttal, Mac Aingil 5949 . béulphroicheapta asbaltha ┐ eagalsa, Desid. 4942. With vnn. ¤chengal: ar mbélcengal a mbeochréchtadh when their fresh wounds had been sewn up, Caithr. Thoirdh. 124.7 . ¤tuidme: fiacuil .i. fia figo . . . fiacuil didiu bēl-t. fastening for the mouth, O'Mulc. 507.

With adjj. ¤balb: do piastaibh bel-balba `dumb-mouthed', Ériu iii 164 § 20. ¤binn: longphort . . . bíthe bēilbhinn melodious (?), Butler Poems 556 and n. ¤blasta of excellent sound : (of `Gaedelg,' the language) in berla b.¤ bind, LL 17716. B. blaith belblasta well-spoken (of a hand-maid), BB 237a2 . ¤buide yellow-lipped : (of a famine-stricken appearance) ina n-ímágib b.¤ nochtḟiaclacha, LB 154b61 . In n. pr.: Eochaid Bēlbuidi, ZCP viii 274.1 . ¤chamm crooked-mouthed : la hUnchi mbrúachda mb.¤(-mall, v.l.), Metr. Dinds. iii 98.6 . ¤cherr: in senBodb Barchi b.¤ `wry-mouthed', Metr. Dinds. iv 338.20 . ¤chert: mo dhaltán búilid béilchert `right-spoken', SG 190.7 . ¤chorcra crimson, red-lipped : belchorcra banamla detgela, TTebe 730 . ¤chráibhthech hypocritical : Content. vi 270. ¤chumang narrow-mouthed, having a narrow opening, entry : a crocan (leg. corcán ?) belchumang narrow-necked, Lia Fáil iii 122.20 ( 23 P 10 ³, 11b7 ). ar na bernadhaibh bélchumhgaibh, AFM v 164.22 . ¤derg red-lipped, red-mouthed (in good and bad sense): buriud berna Baidbi béldergi, LL 10872 ( = TBC-LL¹ 4024 ). na brithemain bēilderga `red-mouthed brehons' ( = severe in judgement ?), Ériu iii 30 § 7. cáinead in barrchais béilderg `the curly-headed red-lipped fellow', iv 216.20 . F. file m. Oengusa Bēlde[i]rg, ZCP viii 326.1 . ¤dub black-mouthed : comairge b.¤ becenech `a black-mouthed guarantor of small honour', Tec. Corm. § 33.2 . a curaig blaithe belduba `black-prowed', Ériu viii 10.36 . sgéala libh go báirc mbéalduibh `tidings to your black-decked barque', RC xlix 173 § 32. ¤ḟairsi(u)ng wide-mouthed, having a wide entrance : .l. bléide buabaill belḟairsiuṅg, LL 7292. ro cóirged bruidin brotla bélfairsing `wide-doored', Fianaig. 70.31 . ¤ḟota long-lipped : D. b.¤ , LL 354c64 . a mbíala belfhoda `wide-edged', Hugh Roe² 174.24 . ¤ginach: na trī badhbha bēl-ginacha three witches with gaping mouths, ML² 1585. ¤glicc: mo bhreath bheilghlic gan bhine `my skilled oral judgement', Keat. ii 1287. ¤lethan broad-doored : ós bruidin béllethoin, SG 230.24 . ¤lúath hasty of speech : 'ná bheith baoth beul-luath aig teagasg cách, De Imit. 13.24 . ¤maith: C. b.¤ `C. Fair-lips', Metr. Dinds. iii 324.11 . ¤mall slow of speech : la hU. mbruachdha mbelmhall, BB 365b37 . ¤remor thick-lipped, big-mouthed : belremur bolcsuilech, LU 8516 ( FB 37 ). badhbh béil-reamhar, TSh. 6623. ¤ṡalach foul-mouthed : Badb birach belsalach, RC xxiv 52.1 . ¤scaílte wide open; split open ; scattered : i mbrudin bronnḟarsing bélscailti, RC xiv 414 § 28. ina mbuidhnib bega bélsgāilte, Fianaig. 54.4 . (of a cast-up ship) go ndéantar blogha béal-sgaoilte dhi, TSh. 735. ¤tais with soft, moist lips : an chuideachta chuanna bhuadhach bheóltais (of fair women), Hackett xxvi 57 . ¤tana: go mbiailibh blathsnaoighte b.¤ `thin-edged battle-axes', AFM vi 2126.25 . ¤tirim: bérla breganta beoiltirm (spoken) with a dry mouth, O'Gr. Cat. 518.30. ¤trúag: na bid fri baisi ṁbeltrúaig poor-mouthed (?), SR 3890.

See béillic, bélaites, bélscál, bélscálán, bélscáth.

1 bile

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 bile or dil.ie/5885

 

Forms: Bili

n io

(a) (large) tree; tree-trunk (?): b.¤ ` mast or tree ', P. O'C. fo b.¤ = sub arbore, Lat. Lives 30.12 . b.¤ n-orda, ZCP xx 219 § 6 . óen na primbili bís for faidchi primdúni one of the chief trees, LL 9122 (TBC). re hén ic ergi ós carr b.¤ , MR 300.11 . guth eoin bhinn do bhilibh, Ériu v 54.23 . tuitfit caora in bh.¤ bharrghlain (of the Yew of the Saints), SG 24.27 . b.¤ díghainn doislethan, SG 68.28 . gaithi burbi . . . ic brissiud barr ┐ biled, LL 32194 ( TTr. 1383 ). b.¤ feada `ancient tree' (as landmark), Laws iv 142.19 Comm. is bilida itad isan fhaicthi sea, 196.3 Comm. i bParrthas na mbileadh dtoirtheach, DDána 31.7 . b.¤ do thabhairt ar an gcrann mhór bhíos ar an mágh, Eochairsg. 8.34 . da chenel .lxx. do ceolaib concanad a b.¤ ┐ a blaith `its leaves' (perh. tree i.e. trunk and branches, as opposed to foliage and blossoms, but cf. bileóc), Ériu ii 118 § 54 . 'na bili trī ngablān ngeal (of the Trinity), ACL iii 242 § 13. (of Temair) ba dind n-ordnide . . . / ba borg-b.¤ `a castle like a trunk', Metr. Dinds. i 28.14 . (to the Cross) a bh. suairc dosghlan dlúith, DDána 2.11 . b.¤ barr-úr na beatha, TSh. 588. (of a family tree) as tú fréamha is bláth an bh.¤ `thou art the roots and flower of the tree', SGS iv 60 § 1.

Esp. ancient and venerated tree (see V.SS.Hib. clii-clv and O'Don. Suppl. s.v. bile): Eó Rossa. ┐ Eó Mugna ┐ Bili Da Thi ┐ Craeb Uisnig ┐ Bili Tortan. coic crand sin, LL 27646 ( Dinds. 160 ). unnius im Craeb Belaig Da Thi . . . in filid . . . . . . ┐ is uad ainmnigther Fir B., 27685 . Bili Tortan . . . ┐ Bili hUissnig, Ériu iv 150 § 29. (of the three famous trees of Ireland) ba hinmain na biledha / le claind comramaigh caem-C., ZCP v 22 § 4. ag bualadh b.¤ Themhrach, SG 68.38 . B. Aonaigh Maighe hAdhar, AFM ii 714.3 . co rothescsat a biledha (i.e. inauguration trees), AU ii 84.21 . B. Nathaben i tirib Ebrae (from its branches the shaft of the Cross was made), Ériu ii 118 § 53. fo bun in bili būadha magical tree (?), sacred tree (?), ZCP v 22 § 7. ar barr in b.¤ buada, MR 234.12 . na tri fiaich . . . cor'turrnsatar in ṁb. ṁbúada do bói ar in faichthe, Acall. 7059.

With defining gen. of trees of difft. genera: bili cuill hazel tree, Lism. L. 2387. bili giuis, Aen. 173.

(b) Transfd. scion, hero: na se bh.¤ , LL 394.10 . bíth in find-b.¤ `noble warrior', Metr. Dinds. iii 94.23 . Mael-Sechlainn . . . / bili Banba, barr Gaedhel `prop of B.', MacCarthy 424.14 . brass b.¤ , Auraic. 5158. ō b.¤ lāomdha Lemhna `hero', Ériu ix 177 § 6. (of Christ) a b.¤ an betha, Hib. Min. 43.10 . a bhean cheinnbhileadh Chrúachan `chief scions' (Notes), O'R. Poems 2700. ar mbuili (: uile), SR 150. in b.¤ buada bisig, SG 388.7 . righ Connacht . . . / ni b.¤ cen bithbuada, BB 268a2 . As n.pr. m. Bili, Corp. Gen. 199 note 6.

In nn. loc.: B. Methes, Corp. Gen. 89.26 . Fothairt B., 82.25 . Findbarr Maige Bili, Fél. Sept. 10. sech bun Baile in B., LL 10307. ? tar firu bile, BColm. 30.21 .

1 cara

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 cara or dil.ie/8205

 

Forms: carae, chare, c., carae, carit, carit, charait, cairde, chardde, charaid, charaid, caruit, charuid, cairde, cháirde, chardiu, cardiu, caraid, cairde, cairdeadh

n nt, m. GOI 207 . Earlier carae. n s. chare, Ml. 29c16 . c.¤ , Sg. 12b7 . carae, Blathm. 142 . a s. carit, Wb. 30b27 . n p. carit, Wb. 5c7 . Ml. 44c1 . mo charait , 6 . a p. cairde, Laws ii 380.14 . a chardde , LL 32598 (TTr.). Later forms: n s. mo charaid , Párl. na mB. 210 . v s. a charaid , TSh. 8887 . d s. with f. adj. (see O'Brien, Celtica ii 346-8 ) ha caruit cumachtaig, TTebe 3673 . am charuid mhóir, Desid. 5782 . n p. cairde, Ériu xiii 44.25 (proscribed, IGT Decl. § 6 ). v p. a cháirde , TSh. 958 . a p. im chardiu , LU 3493 ( SCC 26 ). cardiu, 2432 . ZCP iii 27.21 . PH 5797 . caraid, TTebe 2322 . Stair Erc. 2272 . TSh. 7129 . g p. cairde, Párl. na mB. 152 . cairdeadh, DDána 108.12 . m. only, IGT Decl. § 6 , but later also f. (see above and Desid. p. 249 ); bhudh í an ch.¤ (: thí), O'Hara 1272 (see n.). an ch.¤ chéibhfhionn, Ó Bruad. ii 28.7 (taken by Ed. to refer to female).

Friend : coscc carat `a friend's advice', Wb. 5b32 . manum gaibi ar charit `if thou takest me as a friend', 32a16 . is and asgniintar in charait intan mbither in periculis , Ml. 108b4 . c.¤ gl. amícus, Ir. Gl. 413 . diammad ch.¤ dam, LU 3320 ( SCC 11 ). lín a chomairce ┐ a charat, Críth G. 366 . a charaid claechmodha `Freunde des Wechselns', Ir. Recht 41.23 (see cláechlód). bid caro sochuidi, IT i 142.20 . mac Muire mo ch.¤ , 40.35 . ní diultach mo charae (: barae), Fél. Ep. 371 . mástat carait, LU 9091 ( FB 84 ). comainm carat (of the yew-tree), Auraic. 5656 . c.¤ ceathra (of the elm-tree), 5619 . da thigerrna carad companaig .i. don easpug, Ériu x 68 § 1 . is tigerna ┐ is c.¤ bunaid A. `original friend', TTebe 2324 . c.¤ an tí do ordaigh é `love be to Him', PBocht 8.12 . a gc.¤ anma confessor, O'R. Poems 2072 . rogha [cairdis] c.¤ maoir `the best of friendships is the steward-friend', A. Ó Dálaigh xxxii 1 . mo charaid ┐ mo chomharsain, TSh. 4243 . rena ccáirdibh spioradálta, RSClára 105a .

Less freq. relative (cf. Celtica i 369 ): huam chairtib gl. domesticis `from my kinsmen', Ml. 86d6 . ? ar id carut a ngenelaighe `their tribe relations are friendly', Laws ii 160.23 . E. ro marbh a caraid ┐ comgael, Stair Erc. 2272 . favith rogoidis voin ott caroid Críst gossip, Aisl. Tond. 100 § 3 . ? Cf. do ghaeltuibh ┐ cairdib na naidhiun `gossips of the babe', Marco P. 21 . gurob mó is c.¤ don nádur fuil derg naid leanda ele `red blood is more akin to the nature (of man)', Reg. San. 26.19 . comtar carait ┐ ind ingen he and the maiden were lovers, RC viii 150 § 2 . mairg . . . / . . . dian c.¤ Colco, Anecd. i 7.11 ( SCano 209 ). ní fhuighbhe an bhaintreabhach bhog / leannán ná céile carad (of Ireland), Keat. Poems 1146 .

Compds. (cf. GOI 208 ). With nouns: etir maccu rígan ┐ caratban concubines , LL 31643 (TTr.). iar s eter caratnáimta ataaid `false friends', Wb. 23c28 . In n. pr. Gúbretha Caratniad Tesct[h]i (title of tract), ZCP xv 306.1 . With adjj.: craibdig . . . .i. caradbethadaig .i. caraid cách a mbethaid, Fél.² xxxi gl. 16 (1) . imrad Cainnig caratchoem ` friendly-dear ', RC xx 148.1 .

1 cenn

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 cenn or dil.ie/8622
Last Revised: 2020

 

Forms: cend, ch., cenna, ciunn, cinn, cenda, cinnu, cind, cind, cinnu, cionn, ceann, cionn, cionn, ceinn

n o, n., later m. n p. cend, LU 9385 . ? a p. ch.¤ , Sg. 54a11 . n a p. usually cenna. On d s. ciunn, cinn see GOI 177 . For masc. infl. in pl. cf. a p. cenda, TBC-I¹ 483 = cinnu, LU 4970 . n p. cind, FA 22 LB. cind `chiefs', Laws v 440.23 . a p. cinnu, LL 8132 . In later lang. both cionn (O. Ir. ciunn) and ceann occur in d s. (see Donl., Párl. na mB.), the former mainly in fixed prepositional expressions (ós cionn , etc.). a s. cionn, Beatha S. F. 2567 . g s. ceinn, Párl. na mB. 535 , n p. Keat. i 196.15 . IGT Decl. § 65 .

Note also: for ar ceinn, Vita Br. 24 . in ch.¤ cleasach . . . Tesifóne, MR 168.6 . iar ndenamh creiche chinne maghair (n. loc.), AFM iv 1356.6 .

I The human head, head of an animal .

1 cend a uerbo graeco .i. gennome (γίνομαι) .i. nascor, O'Mulc. 217 . donchind gl. capiti, Gild. Lor. 102 . du-uic in foiltne i ndiad in chínn, Ml. 84c24 . mani roima fora c.¤ ní mema forsna bullu, 89c11 . beim a cinn fri cloich, 139c3 . ammi corp do Crist et is c.¤ som duunni, Wb. 5d2 . airmitiu féid in chinn, 7d14 . cen chaille fora ciunn, 11c9 . in boill dó ass ón chiunn, 22a17 . adart foch., Sg. 198a10 . dim chinn, Blathm. 95 § 17 . oc folcad chinn a athar, Vita Br. 15 . airecc cinn Iohannis, Fél. Feb. 27 . contt cēill ciunn curp in sense, reason, head and body , ZCP vi 258.10 . rochromsat a ccinnu, ZCP xiv 234.5 . imruidbed mo tenga as mo chind, Ériu ii 102 § 9 . madit a shuili inna cinn, 122 § 61 . amhuil chinn ina bhalluibh, Luc. Fid. 3454 . Of a head of hair: ceinn-fhionna (sic) do bhíodh ar fhearaibh Éireann re n-a linn `white heads', Keat. i 196.15 (see cenann).

2 In phrase with follg. gen. forming n. pr.: Coirpri Cind cait Cathead , Cóir Anm. 241 . C.¤ Fáelad Wolfhead , see Corp. Gen. 541 - 2 . Cend Ghegain, IT iii 101 § 183 . Finguine mac Laeghaire Cenngégain, Cog. 18 (see also s.v. cinnchucán). Eochaidh cendmhairc Horsehead , Miscell. Celt. Soc. 6.8 . da ingin dec ailella cind nathrach Snakehead , Rawl. 134b18 .

3 Of the head cut off in battle: fris-cithsead far cenna díb, BDD² 869 . tri laíchcind . . . im chend do chétmeic, LL 13149 (Sc.M2). co fargaibhset xl c.¤ lais, AFM i 498.2 . So in phr. ár c.¤ = ár: co fargaibset ár cend aicce, LL 2536 . cor' ben a ngabala dib ┐ ár cend leo, RC xvii 354.4 .

4 Attrib. g s.: na heónu / cosna ceólu cinn-sin (sic leg.) shrill notes, Metr. Dinds. iv 214.68 . Cf. gotha cinn . . . ag báinealtoin, Ir. Syll. Poetry 71 § 5 . See Études Celt. iv 397 . iter chosa cinn ┐ cos[a] tóna front legs , Thr. Ir. Gl. 26 . nocha bán-bhéim acht cneadh chinn head-wound, serious wound , Miscell. Celt. Soc. 162.9 . ? secht ccumala cinn, Ériu xiii 22.24 . gilla cinn eich gl. auriga, Ir. Gl. 17 . laicce chinn, RSClára 4a . go mbeith rith chinn ré fānaidh aco ar gach n-aon eile would completely outdistance, would utterly rout(?), Párl. na mB. 99 .

Vendryes, Études Celt. iv 397 , cites BDD² 886 and We. parallels in support of a meaning mouth.

5 In various idiomatic phrases: ro héige in ben nert a cind at the top of her voice, SR 3215 . conā fāgad inad a chind for bith that he might find no abiding-place, TBC-I¹ 2214 . o cionn co fonn from tip to toe, Blathm. 152 . nom-loiscc eter chend is choiss completely , Ériu vii 223 § 34 . dia cennaib ┐ cosaib utterly, entirely , LB 115b42 . bein cinn fri hald `striking a head against a cliff' (of wasted labour), RC xii 96 § 127 . co ro benad a tech dia chind `unroofed his house', RC xxiv 46 § 4 . roloiscedh . . . a ndúin . . . ina cendaibh, Ériu v 158.215 . a ndiaidh a gcinn headlong , Donlevy xviii 25 . an ceann fá dhruim head first (coffin lowered into grave), Dán Dé xxix 7 . co mbiat cend ar díb cendaib (of a fierce battle), TTr.² 907 . ar ba `c.¤ i mbolg' . . . do ṡil Adhuimh were in complete ignorance, Ériu ii 98 § 1 = ba-c.¤ a-coim, RC xxiv 369.6 , cf. Études Celt. vi 201 . cend i cotlud a peaceful death(?), Ériu ii 118 § 54 . ? ní bheinn teann ar chlíabh a cill / sní bhíadh mo cheann a cuigind, IGT Decl. ex. 1400 . c.¤ a ngabal `head in fork' (bad behaviour in a horse), Laws iii 180.18 Comm. c.¤ i láp see láp. c.¤ i, fo muine see 1 muine. ? fír, ol Óengus, Fergas cend fo raithin, Trip.² 1495 .

6 Of a single animal, etc.: do mac Loigsiu pa mōr ngō / ar in āincend an cēt mbō, ACL iii 2.12 . Note also: aon bhuaidhreadh amháin . . . an dara ceann, De Imit. 29.23 . ? robii cosnom im oenchend `there may be strife about one head' (Faraday), TBC-I¹ 1730 .

7 Various: ceann cait owl , Párl. na mB. 1452 . go dul tar ceannaibh cuan, Measgra D. 48.8 ` billow, breaker ', Gloss.

8 In various idioms with prec. vb.: ni mo tarrthus cend furre no forin gaeth `it was no more possible to get hold of her than of the wind', Aen. 649 . do-fócaib c.¤ appears see do-fócaib (D 269.36 ff.). ? immicurtis iarum cenna sechaiseom darsi ṅGairb sair ┐ siar eter Laigniu ┐ Ossairge, LL 36728 . tug a ch.¤ a n-inisle iomagallaimhe orra `entered into converse', ITS v 112.17 . no indsaiged in Troianda . . . congebead cend in Grecdai ┐ no indsaiged in Grecda . . . co ngebid cend in Tr. ┐ combdis cind ar cind, BB 435b22 .

9 Of buildings roof: ni rabi cenn for tempul Fidnacha in tan-sin, Ann. Conn. 1244.5 . c.¤ co claradh oir for tor dibh, Marco P. 117 . c.¤ Frangcach `a ribbed vault, a groined roof ' (Meyer Contribb.), AU iii 161.8 . don chend luaidhe boí for tempall an bhaile, AFM vi 1956.16 . Note also: roclúdadh na lestra fóa ccennuibh covers, tops , Ériu xiii 24.22 .

II End, end-point, termination.

10 In concrete applications: c.¤ cridi gl. uiscus, uisceris, Sg. 111b5 . nóe cend nine tips(?), LU 9835 . achind dochnama, IT iii 103.19 . a-cinn a-cruibh, RC xxiv 377.1 , .3 . cennæ na ngái, Liad. and Cuir. 12.9 . ceand muilind `the head of a mill', Ériu xvii 70 § 12 gl. 3 ( Laws iv 214.29 Comm. ). laim re ceand in droichid, Ériu xvii 72 § 13 gl. 10 . comrad chindcherchailli, TBC-LL¹ 3 . mó ná cliab co cendaib dés ` sheaves ', Metr. Dinds. iv 138.81 . do bhalad cinn én coinnle, RC xxiv 383.33 . dealg do chennaib óigsgech, IGT Decl. ex. 1082 . Metr. aisde cind tṡinte, IGT Metr. Faults §§ 48 , 49 . co casbairn chinn truim, Decl.ex. 623 (see cenntromm).

11 Of territories: a tá isin chionnsa thes (of a hill), SG 118.10 . isin c.¤ ba nesa dó don tír, AFM vi 2056.19 . i cind Maige Dála at the end of Magh Dala, Ériu i 132.74 . Of journeys: a gceann uidhe their objective, O'Hara 1241 . ceann bhar gcoimhleanga, DDána 74.56 . is iomdha slighe . . . / 's a ceann go magh nimh a-nonn, Dán Dé xxiii 4 .

12 Abstract applications: ceann m'aradhna ná léig lim let me not hold mine own bridle, IGT Decl. ex. 311 . sa chionn cunntuis in the account, Fl. Earls 90.13 . ní ricfa c.¤ scéoil úainne tar tech not a whisper of it will get out of this house, TTr.² 1796 . Of time: ar c.¤ fri c.¤ Enair `our end against the head of January' (i.e. 31 Dec. and 1 Jan.), Fél. Ep. 8 . c.¤ do shaoghail, BNnÉ 293 § 12 v.l. For sa cheann cháol etc. see cáel. do cheann don dáil `what you shall get in this affair', Content. xxvii 15 .

13 Of the end or completion of an affair, etc.: foruirmed c.¤ forsnaib cotarsnaib gl. aduersa nostra . . . constant inpleta, Ml. 74c20 . ni tucthar c.¤ essib gl. genelogís interminatís, Wb. 27d22 . oc tabairt chind for airimmeirt sluaigh ┐ shochaidhi, TTr.² 310 ( LL 400b10 ). cend ┐ forcenn air sin that's enough of that(?), Acall. 5361 . ní bia cend for th'ermitin `there shall be no limit to thy dignity', Celtica iv 16.180 .

III Of persons, chief, head person, leader.

14 Legal: nad cennaib coirib comallat, ZCP xiv 379 § 43 `cond . . . den voll Geschäftsfähigen. Die andern haben einen cond als c. `Haupt' über sich, der sie `unterstüzt', für sie in ihren Sachen spricht, etc. ', 380 . rí bunaid cach cinn, Críth G. 447 `caput, head of family, individual', Vocab. fortét cech c.¤ ba tressa(i) inní bes étressa, 474 . c.¤ caich iar nduinib i fine besid sruithe, ZCP xiv 369 § 31 ( Laws ii 278.21 ). cend cartus a memar a chief who rejects his tenant, Laws v 164.19 Comm. dlegaid cind cuindreach `the chiefs are bound to rectify', 440.23 . cach cind (sic MS) a chonrach, ACL iii 227.31 .

15 In non-legal contexts: cend do ḟeraib Herenn Patraic, Thes. ii 326.32 (Hy. iv gl.). for bélaib a cind ┐ a tigernad, Alex. 274 . M. . . . fa chend ar clēirchib, ZCP viii 120.5 . na cinn clāena cin crābud `the wicked, impious chiefs', Ériu iii 30 § 8 . a cheann féin `his Master', PBocht 11.20 .

16 With follg. noun in gen. indicating category of persons: c.¤ bocht almoner (?), AU ii 32.4 . c.¤ cáid caillech n-Érenn, Fél. Feb. 1 . cend degban is deorad, SG 64.35 . c.¤ fedna see fedan. c.¤ fine head of family or clan: lochdach an Róisdeach achd ón chionn fhine, IGT Decl. 7.14 . da ch.¤ fhine ina ionad, AFM iv 1146.16 . i ndioghail a ccind ḟine, iii 404.z . i ndegaid in chinn manach the abbot, Ériu iii 100 § 25c . c.¤ in réclessa, Ríocht na Midhe viii 15 . c.¤ sluag fer Fáil, Trip.² 1793 v.l. Cf. also: is cend daim for dartoid [.i.] mōrpersan for becphopul, O'Mulc. 753 .

17 With follg. gen. of abstr.: c.¤ athchomairc see athchomarc. ar gceann bāidhei-ne an bhean our chief love (of Mary), Dán Dé ii 29 . cend cathaigthe as chalma ro bai do Leith Mogha battle-leader , RC xviii 11.24 . a Chind, coisc na crích (a chind coisc ?), Ériu vii 221 § 22 . c.¤ comairle cuindrig muintire fri comairle comneirt, ‘a “head of counsel” who controls the household with advice of equal strength’, CL 240.3 . nach ben forsa-mbe c.¤ comuirle, ZCP xiv 375 § 38 . cenn comuirle ┐ adchomairc fer mBregh n-uile, 'chief counsellor and consultant of the men of all Brega', AU² 374.6 . in fer ba húasle ┐ ba mó rath issin túaith iss e ba cend comairle do chách, LL 118 . co tech ar cind comairle, ‘to our counsellor’s house’, Éigse vii 77 §11 . cend crabaid ermoir Erenn paragon of piety, RC xxvi 362.2 . gan chend cundraid na comairle rempo, LL 12344 (TBC). uair robesin cend gaili . . . sluaig, Cog. 194. 29 . c.¤ ecna . . . iartair domain, CS 320.9 . c.¤ cech erais, Fél. Apr. 23 . in bandea ingen Terrae cend scaílti scél in betha chief disseminator of news, LL 31001 (TTr.). a chend sochair slúaig Ulad chief benefactor, MU² 58 . In follg. perh. headquarters, centre : uail (= bhail) itā ceand in cogaidh, ZCP viii 115.18 . baili i mbai cend ídlachta ┐ druídechta na Héirenn, Trip.² 431 . flaitheas Dé is ceann chomhsanta dhúinne, Eochairsg. 98.25 ( end, goal ?).

IV Used in a wide variety of adverbial and prepositional phrases.

18 cinn at the end of (see 33, 40, 52) (ciunn, cinn, dative without preposition, GOI 537 ): cinn rehe gl. secundum hoc tempus, Wb. 4c11 . cinn blíadnae at the end of a year, Fél. Sept. 17 . cind .ix. mís, LU 1662 . cind in tres laí, 7977 (BDD). cind cethri ndíni `at the end of four genera- tions', Arch. Hib. ii 48 § 1 . cind mile bliadan, Ériu ii 132 § 109 .

19 In phr. cinn chomair: nó huachiunn chomair gl. e rigione `or, from before', Ml. 119a9 (`von dem Anfang der Richtung', Ped. KZ xxxv 435 ). fri re mis cind comar, AU ii 88.x . Usually of place (see 28, 31): cinn chomair gl. contra (solem), BCr. 33c17 . for in phurt cind chomair dó `opposite to him', RC xiv 406.1 ( LL 12675 ). cind comair frissin ṁbeist n-amnais, LL 398b18 = cinnchomair, TTr.² 148 . i cinncomair friu opposite them, CCath. 5561 . ro badhusa cind comraic riusom, Acall. 6795 . Cf. i comair chind airtherthuascertaig, LL 3865 = hi comardus cind, etc., RC xv 283 § 29 .

Usually with prec. prep. In the follg. sections the arrangement is according to the preceding preposition, with which an adverbial in addition to a prepositional phrase is frequently formed. In a number of cases meanings under various prepositions coincide.

With A.

20 In sense of ós ciunn (60): asa chind guarding him, Metr. Dinds. iv 358.94 . ata M. . . . asa mo chind-sa oc fúr m'anma, PH 806 . batar a cind na cathrach who were over the city, 2488 . In diff. sense: as a cheann féin `of his own Head' (of his own accord), Donlevy 330.16 . The follg. are obscure (leg. ar for as in one or more of the exx. ?): cen ascur sáitha asa chiunn `without remission of tribulation from His presence(?)' (in store for him ?), Wb. 25d16 . conid ari rogabad al-lam a pardus dochum gortæ ┐ bochtæ . . . ┐ bais ┐ hifirn asa cind `thenceforth', Ériu vii 164 § 8 . ? gidh bé do cuir asa chionn `it matters not whom he drove from his head' (Notes), Duan. F. i 32.20 . Perh. in literal sense: in t-ēolus-[s]a rádi rimm, / ferr duit nā cloisti as do chínn, ZCP xiii 3 § 2 .

With AR (see also 42).

21 ar chenn with vbs. of motion towards, in the direction of, to meet (see 39, 45): ceni esǽrsitis in choirp ara c.¤ `to meet them', Ml. 15c8 . condaáerset do failti ar ch.¤ a rríg to welcome their King, 46a12 . ara cénn gl. occurrentes, 60d5 . do-luid in biail arithissi ar ch.¤ inna samthige came back to the handle, Tur. 131 . techt ar ch.¤ Crist, Wb. 25d25 . co toracht Emain Macha ar cend Conchobair, LU 8073 ( FB 4 ). ní-s-cuirfind techta ar dho chend-sa, PH 450 . canat biet in alltair / ar ch.¤ clocáin don phroindtig at the sound of the refectory bell, Ériu iii 102 § 28 . gearr go dtiocfa teachtaire / . . . / ar do cheann, DDána 56.1 . docuaidh . . . arcinn na conuire a ticcidh aran sliabh `went to the road', ZCP vi 56.8 . Cf. airg ┐ áird-leasdair . . . do chomdhlúthúghadh ar cheann na céd aimsire do thairrngir D. . . . dhóib `against', ML 6.25 .

22 Of going to meet in battle: ara chend dait a Fergus, LU 6698 . rotbīa F. . . . ar ndul ar c[h]end ind ḟir ucut, TBC-I¹ 1247 (LU).

23 In sense of going or coming for, to fetch someth.: is ar ch.¤ focheda dodechommar `to meet suffering', Wb. 25a12 . tecat ar ch.¤ in chon co sochruid to fetch the hound, Sc.M² 4 . dula uaimm ar do chend-su to fetch you, PH 446 . teacht ar ceand cind duine isinn ārmuig, RC xxiv 58 § 18 . in lind ara tánac c.¤ the water for which thou camest, Ériu iv 106.7 . ? ochd bhféinnidhe as ḟearr a n-ágh / ar ceann t'éindighi d'fúarán, IGT Decl. ex. 1333 . socraiti do dol . . . ar cend artraige dochum Domnaill, Ann. Conn. 1248.5 . Note also: do lleblaing int écne ara chend (ref. to ordnasc f.), TBFr. 208 , cf. Meyer Contribb., Fraech p. 35 .

24 In meanings of tar c.¤ (66-70) (confusion of prepp.): cuirtha cumtaige ara cend `buildings were overthrown', KMMisc. 152.62 . ar cinn a chesta ┐ a caingne, Anecd. i 42.9 . tagra . . . do thagras ar cheann Mumhan on behalf of, Content. xviii 12 .

25 ar chiunn of time in the future, afterwards, later : frisnaccai archiunn gl. ad aliquam rem, Ml. 53b23 . artha ciúnn són gl. in posteram, 132a3 (see note). ar chinn gl. adhuc, Wb. 2a9 . archiunn . . . diéis gl. siue ante seu retro, BCr. 31b4 - 5 . ar oman imtormaich ina pecad ar chiund future sins, Ériu xix 58 § 6 . in maith iar cind future good, LU 9889 (for ar ch.¤ ?). rogabsat flaith ar chiund from then on, ZCP viii 313.21 . doairchaintis . . . anno bíth ar chind dóib, Trip.² 327 . ? mod airchiund di lubair a disposition ready for work(?), Rawl. B 512, 40c (Plummer MS. notes).

26 ar chiunn as quasi-adj. of points of time next, following, ensuing (in later lang. somet. with (i)ar in this use): san aidhchi ar chínd, BB 39b6 . co belltaine ar cind, BColm. 92.2 . an bliadhain ar ccionn, Leb. Gab.(i) 56.4 . isin laithe ar ccind, 146.2 . In later lang. also as prep. with poss. in this sense: go medhōn oidhche buī ar a gcionn, Fl. Earls 8.20 . go Bealltaine ar a gcionn till the following May, Keat. ii 3137 . See 38 .

27 ar chiunn in textual reff. below, in what follows; later, following : forsin canoin ar chiunn `on the following Scripture passage', Ml. 54c34 . trachtad . . . forsa nouit ar chiunn `on nouit that follows', 64a7 . in testimin ar chiunn `the following text', 104b3 . titul in dligid ar chinn, Wb. 10a12 . ata ní ar chiunn, Sg. 39b10 .

28 ar chiunn in front of, before (see 19): córus dúne ríg . . . ar chi[u]nn a thúaithe, Críth G. 566 `vis-à-vis', Vocab. bui siom oc huamim ara cind `before her', Mon. Tall. 149.18 . co nacca ara chind in fer, TBC-I¹ 448 . Cf. muir ara cendaib, in nem huasa ṁbennaib, 3006 . amail nobeith beo ar a chind as if he were alive in front of him, ACL iii 5.5 .

29 ar chiunn awaiting, ready for, in anticipation of (someone or someth. arriving): biid ersoilcthi ar chiunn for ríg gl. eliuamini, portae aeternales, Ml. 46a7 . ni farnic-sede nach maid ara chiun isin domun, Wb. 2a21 . ar ar ciunn-[n]i `against our coming', 25a33 . anais ar cionn antsluaigh `waited for', Blathm. 102 § 41 . co fuaratar a cele isind apdaine ara cind `on their arrival', Mon. Tall. 162.30 . aínínbuidh na fuair acht triur ar a chinn thall isin fíne (of a man who has joined or rejoined the tribe from outside), Laws iv 294.26 Comm. ar cinn ṡamraid at the arrival of summer, ZCP vii 310 § 8 . dá rabh a Rí na glóire / . . . / do mhaor ar chionn na coinnmhe / liom if Thy steward receive the company, Dán Dé xiv 11 . ar cinn chamhárach before daybreak, IGT Decl. ex. 1195 . ar cinn in lae, Fier. 135 . With petrified masc. poss.: arna beith ar a chind `in her way', RC xi 452.2 , cf. Meyer Contribb.

30 ar chiunn of time in store for (see 51): a fil ar mo chiunn gl. ad destinatum, Wb. 24a15 . cén bes fine ar a cinn as long as he has descendants, Laws iv 240.19 Comm. a n-airchend fil ar ar cinn the destiny which awaits us, Ériu i 68.12 . fuair Poimp bas ┐ fuair cidh Cesair ara cind afterwards, CCath. 8308 .

31 ci(u)nn ar chi(u)nn face to face, at grips (see 19, 54): atraig cach fer di alailiu . . . co m-bátar cind ar chind is taig, IT i 67 (LMU). fíal tened ┐ fíal d'aigriud . . . cind ar cind, LU 2067 ( FA 14 , cf. RC xxvi 148 § 27 ). inn-uair dobímmis cind ar chind, RC vii 302.1 . as and baoi Laogh ┐ a brathoir ciond ar ciond, ZCP x 295.27 . cind ar cind fri Dunchad, Ériu v 242.153 .

With co.

32 co c.¤ to the end, to completion (see 43): berthi leiss co c.¤ gl. perficiet, Wb. 23a19 . ní dernad in cnocc co c.¤ , Metr. Dinds. iii 44.79 . is co cend in cuidbiud the mockery has come to a head, Ériu i 118 § 10 . Cheville: céim co cend, Metr. Dinds. iv 26.9 .

33 co c.¤ with nouns indicating periods of time till the end of, for the duration of (see 18, 40, 52): co c.¤ blīadne, Thes. ii 319 ( Hy. ii 56 ). co c.¤ cairdi, Críth G. 366 . co cend trédenuis, PH 1859 . go ceann cóig n-aimsear, DDána 6.9 . go ceatra ceand[a] raithi `for four quarter-years', Magauran 804 . Note also: in fer co cind a chéli, MU² 991 `against', Gloss.

With DI and/or DO.

34 di chennaib of poetical composition appar. extemporaneously (see however Thurn. cited below and compare aisnēis do c[h]ennaib a chnāmae, Corm. Y 756 , which may point to a ritualistic procedure of some kind): canad do chennaibh, Ériu xiii 17.5 . ailges do ceanduibh, O'D. 2208 (Nero A vii, 144a). dligedh do feghar saor daor do chennaibh, Ériu xiii 25.30 = fedhair .i. dorenar, ut est dliged dofedhar sóer, dóer dochennaib .i. continuo , O'Dav. 828 . do . . . suid filed for-can di c[h]ennaib `von (seinen Knochen-) Enden', ZCP xvi 175 § 4 ( Laws i 40 , co ndenand rand can smuainedh, 42 Comm. ). is dochennaib . . . ro trial Dallán a duain do denum `extempore', RC xx 122.z (ACC). Also in phr. díchetal di chennaib, see díchetal. cetal do chendaib (a metre), IT iii 61 § 123 . See Ériu xlviii 45 .

35 intan tét a laithe di chiunn `passes away', Ml. 21c3 .

36 di and/or do chiunn in return for, for the sake of, instead of, on condition of, because of, for , etc. (see 68): do chinn a mbíd, SR 3406 . do c[h]inn loghaidh `in return for remission of tribute', Ériu xvii 22 § 16 . dúais do chionn chomáoine a quid pro quo , KMMisc. 346.28 . sgēl do chinn chummaéine, Anecd. i 36.3 . dia chind an tsréin in return for the bridle, BColm. 38 § 40 . nech . . . do cathugud di chend Crist for, PH 789 . do tairgeadh bó aile dí da cind, Imr. Brain 58.30 . berair-siu mac díachinn in its place, Cóir Anm. 133 . do chinn mo claidhem fen instead of my own sword, Fier. 60 . ragtais dia chind i comrac on his behalf, Metr. Dinds. iii 446.88 . do chionn a seachna `on condition of' (notes), Dán Dé x 12 . ró-mhór fuaramar d'a chionn too much we have got from it, Ériu i 96 § 52 . do chionn ubhaill, DDána 26.6 . do chionn an tshaoghail do thréigean through abandoning, Beatha S. F. 748 . dá chionn on that account, TSh. 1942 . do cind ced cennaighechta do denum in order to get leave, ZCP vi 90.15 . ar ngellad a marbtha d'Ulliam Burc do chind luaigi in consideration of, Ann. Conn. 1310.5 .

37 Of soliciting or having intercourse with a woman in spite of or unknown to her husband, etc. (see 70): comrac frim dot chind-so, Fing. R. 114 `in disregard of', Vocab. ben-side Ch. . . . co rustoirrchestar E. do chind a cēile, Corp. Gen. 139.x . a breth di-a chind (another man's wife), PH 833 . luid . . . F. . . . do thochmarc a mnā do chind Oilella, Fianaig. 6.16 . docomraiced-som fria mnaib aili dia cind si in disregard of her, ZCP i 104.10 .

38 Various: cia ruslā dia c[h]ind . . . T. . . . is he rosla(n) dar a chend, ZCP xiii 7.24 . conom thí de chind chúarda till it is my turn(?), LU 6699 ( TBC-I¹ 2158 ). ar chuir dá ceann all he added to it(?) (cf. 48), DDána 91.14 . ó Inid go Cáisg dá gcionn till the following Easter (see 26), Aithd. D. 75.18 . ? nior cuir dha chionn do bhí ag Fionn, Duan. F. i 32.20 .

With FO.

39 fo ch.¤ towards, against, for (see 21, 45): teacht fam cheann `(to) attack me', Content. xviii 1 . éirghid fo cend mo c[h]reiche they go for my booty, ZCP viii 226.22 . Note also: gabh fád cheann mo chonmharccsa `take upon thee my quarrel(?)', Studies 1924, 243 § 12 .

40 Of time within, during (see 18, 33, 52): fo ch.¤ aimsire giorra at the end of a short time, Ériu v 188.456 . fo c.¤ begain aimsiri, Stair Erc. 258 . fo chionn dā lō go n-oidhche, Fl. Earls 10.16 .

41 fo ch.¤ (less freq. chiunn) about, concerning, with regard to, for the sake of, etc. (see 59): ? craed aderum focheann, YBL 149a4 . fuaire a chách a-taoi fám chionn towards me, Dánta Gr. 86.8 . fa a gcionn because of them, DDána 25a1 . déna . . . fá ch.¤ oirbire t'filedh `to thy poet's objurgation make concession', O'Gr. Cat. 402.20 . mar go bhfuair duadh ┐ doghruing fá a ceann `on her account', Keat. ii 2342 . ? alaind a dath / fa ceand na cuach, IGT Metr. Faults§ 68 .

With FOR.

42 for c.¤ , ciunn. Usually = ar ch.¤ , chiunn (21 ff.): an do lotar for cend conaire, Vita Br. 40 `as they were proceeding on their way', Ir. Hist. Stud. i 132 . dochuaid fóncaillid forcend chonnaid for firewood, RC ii 396 § 33 . ro-fhóidestar P. . . . gilla turusa for cend Ísu, PH 2602 . for bar cind, LU 8388 ( FB 26 ). doluid D. for cuinn (leg. ciunn) a sethar do ḟailte frie, Rawl. 134b1 . co tarrla in muir ina clár comréidh . . . for cinn in catha, CCath. 1927 . for a g-ceann awaiting them, ML 44.22 . gusin dia dardaoin buī dō for cionn `until the Thursday following', Fl. Earls 258.4 . Perh. for orig. tar c.¤ (68 ff.) in: du gabail rigi for ch.¤ á athar `in his father's stead', Ml. 44d29 . cach adaltrach do-t[h]et for ceand cetmuintire, Stud. in E. Ir. Law 49 (`in spite of', note p. 50) ( Laws ii 384.1 ). do accallaim Grigair for cend uird ┐ riagla, LU 3095 (fo ch.¤ ?).

With I.

43 beirid, do-beir i cinn finishes, completes (see 32): doberar opair i cind and sain, LL 32264 ( TTr. 1452 ). maine berthar i cinn, 400b18 . ? focal nāchar thuill a gciond (: rinn), ZCP viii 223.x .

44 do-tuit etc. ina ch.¤ falls down, topples (see 67): a toitim ina chend dorisi, TTebe 1669 . ag tuitim ina ccenduibh do bhedis colamhuin . . . na cathrach, Ériu iv 56.18 .

45 i c.¤ in contexts implying motion (us. with prec. vb.) to, in the direction of, towards, against (see 21, 39): na torcair nemh inna ccent `on them', Blathm. 68 . lotir remib hi cend in Brogo, LU 10575 . co torracht C. i c.¤ in droichit cucu, CCath. 1283 . ben sund i cend for máthar, Metr. Dinds. iii 6.55 . dorat . . . / Conall i cend Chonculaind matched C. against C., Metr. Dinds. iii 446.96 . ro cuired cach i ceann araili dona Romanchaib, CCath. 3159 . an uair chuirid i n-a chionn when they oppose him, DDána 96.33 . connsuine . . . do rachadh na cheann, mur atá so: slat ┐ dearg, slaitearg sin which would be assimilated to it, IGT Introd. 10.2 . do tuit an torc a cend a choss fell forward, BCC 324.30 .

46 i c.¤ with prec. vb. of motion and follg. Vn. etc. in g s. implying beginning or undertaking of an action: o dochotar . . . i c.¤ taispenta ind immuin do G., Lib. Hymn. 63.40 . do chuadar i cend a retha took to their heels, MR 318.4 . notheiged-som ┐ a gilla a cend bleogain na bo, Ériu v 34.22 . ná ragaind i ceand catha ina agaid, FDG² 465 . dochuaid i cend in sceoil (d'innisin, v.l.) `she went ahead with the tale', TTebe 1833 . T. . . . do dol a c.¤ oilithri, Ann. Conn. 1307.18 . lotar . . . i cend séta, TBC-LL¹ 451 . Note also: ra érig in fili ┐ do chúaid i n-a cend ┐ issed ro ráid, LL 39018 ( SG 385.34 `went to work'; `came to them', Stokes, RC xiii 107 ).

47 i c.¤, ciunn in addition to (see 63): foghellta ┐ bleth do dul ina ceand `shall be added', Laws iv 130.27 Comm. Matha a cind Crist ro scrib a shoscéla together with, LB 153a64 . ag flaith Li do chím 'na cheann / ní do gach tír 'na thimcheall also, Ériu v 64.15 . a cc.¤ gach sgéil eile dar innis doibh, Rel. Celt. ii 196.32 . a c.¤ a roibhi aigi, ZCP vi 51.10 . na c.¤ sin in addition, Maund. 15 . hi cc.¤ a chéle together, Hugh Roe² 40.13 .

48 cuirid i c.¤ adds to (see 38): cindus do-chuirfed tuilled i n-a chend, PH 7730 . cuir 'na ceand, O'Gr. Cat. 311.9 . teine do cur a ceann teineadh making bad worse, 23 P 10 ³, 15a30 . Note also: ni fuair Fergus ríam ni do cuirfe a cend Modha do marbadh do Dubthach `anything to compare with the slaughter of M. by D.', Celt. Rev. ii 116.x .

49 i c.¤ in preference to: am cheann do chomóradh 'was given preferential treatment over me', Ériu lxiv 162 § 1.7​​​ . S. . . . do chor i tticcernus . . . hi ccend Ch., AFM iii 360.16 . taisech do denam doib do mac M. . . . ina c.¤ , Ann. Conn. 1262.9 .

50 i ciunn at the head of for purpose of leading: m'anam-sa a Dhé mar budh dall / sé 's an chalann-sa 'n-a cionn, Dán Dé xxiii 13 . bi 'n-a cinn = ducas eum, Smaointe B. Chr. 1050 .

51 i ciunn in store for, destined (see 30): a-tá lá cúirte 'n-ar gcionn, DDána 23.29 . a uilc i gcionn gach chiontaigh his wrongdoings await every sinner (for punishment), Dán Dé vii 15 . i gc.¤ gach baíth a baegul, MR 286.21 . go bhfuil an bás . . . i gcionn gach aoin, TSh. 99 .

52 i ciunn of time at the end of (see 18, 33, 40): a cínd da bliadna onaímsir-si two years ago, RC x 186.1 . hi cind tredenais, ACL iii 309.10 . a cc.¤ a fhichet bliadhna da aois in the twentieth year of his age, Rel. Celt. ii 196.7 . a ccionn trí lá, Desid. 6345 .

53 Various: i mbun na gabla ro boí hi ciund tened over against, LU 9194 ( FB 92 ). a cheann i cind tened, ZCP i 464.33 . gach aon a gceann a dhíre ┐ a dhúthchasa féin in possession of, ML 102.14 . mac S. a cind arrad at the head of nobles, Ériu v 244.194 . in cís d'ícc a cind chruid, LB 133b56 `in respect of', Todd Lect. vi 40.6 .

c.¤ i c.¤ (ceann a cceann is an exception to the rule that the same word may not be used more than once in a line, Bard. Synt. Tr. 24.36 ). ? ceann a ceann, .c. o an doilgheas, 55.24 . Also cionn a ccionn (: fionn), 25.1 .

54 c.¤ i c.¤ = ci(u)nn ar chi(u)nn (31): misi do cur c.¤ i cc.¤ / as Cuchulainn, TBC-LL¹ 3151 . cuirid c.¤ hi c.¤ , Fianaig. 60.27 . is and sin . . . do rancadar Leth Cuind ┐ Laigin ceand i cend, RC xxiv 50 § 10 . go g-cómhraiceam ceann a g-ceann, ML 82.25 .

55 c.¤ i c.¤ together; simultaneously : Conchabor, Aedh cend a cend `head to head' (of kings buried together), Ériu ii 166.47 . cia leitir sin c.¤ a c.¤ / dognīad lethfod is lethtenn, ZCP xii 295.8 . nocor thathaigh ceann i c.¤ / na cuic cuicidh na hEirenn, xi 43 § 31 . cred dorad tu c.¤ a c.¤ / a comhaitreab na catcend?, KMMisc. 315.16 . trí Cormaic theas ceann i gceann / im an seang, DDána 91.33 . do dortsed fair cend i cend (of attackers), Ann. Conn. 1405.15 .

56 c.¤ i c.¤ successively (see Aithd. D. Vocab.): gan a ccloistecht cend i ccend / gabhāla airdrīogh [n]Ērenn, ZCP viii 218.30 . fiss gach catha c.¤ a ceand, Anecd. i 29 § 35 . rob ionchuir é, ceann a cceann / is inghean airdrīgh Éireand point by point, KMMisc. 356.7 .

With IMM.

57 is fachain dá gcar um cheann to make them change their attitude(?), DDána 67.4 . (taken by Ed. as i and mo).

58 imm ch.¤ about, around : tarrassaid inn irgal im chend Connacht, LL 12308 (TBC). doiri crannrabhan mad cheann round thee, Magauran 436 . ní ráidhte um cheann gcomhóla during a drinking-bout, O'Hara 146 . radharc um cheann a calaidh `the sight of its shores' (Gloss.), Measgra D. 52.35 .

59 imm ch.¤ about, concerning, with regard to (see 41): rola B. . . . / ilach im cheand Feargaile (perh. in semi-literal sense), RC xxiv 54 § 14 . imcheand cach formaid bai etarru `for all the ill-feeling', Ériu ii 178.16 . an-scél . . . im-c.¤ deilbe . . . in-domain, RC xxiv 369.5 . t'fhearg . . . um cheann do chloinne, DDána 10.22 . um cheann craos-óil in the matter of, TSh. 7446 .

With ós (see 20).

60 ós chiunn (on as cionn beside ós chionn see Desid. p. xxxv ). In more or less literal sense: in tituil robói huas ciunn Crist isin chroich over Christ's head, Ml. 74b1 . ōs chinn sanct-Brigte, Thes. ii 329.2 ( Hy. v 15 ). Over, above: baí . . . ben . . . oc airiuc dont ṡluág os a cind, LL 259b15 . Cuncha cnoc os cind Life, ZCP xi 41 § 1 . nochtais . . . in claidheab os cind na hingeine, RC vi 175.30 . ós chionn mo leabhráin studying, Content. ii 14 . ōs a ch.¤ , Fl. Earls 66.15 .

61 With prec. vb. of motion: tānic . . . ōs ceann N. made for, Celtica i 116.118 . téighim ós chionn a chosnaimh I undertake to defend it, Content. xxi 12 .

62 in control of, in charge of: os chionn Bhanbha, Content. xxx 26 . sdiobhard ós ceann mhórāin maoine, Mac Aingil 568 . ōs cionn in cholāiste, Fl. Earls 68.25 .

63 over and above, in addition to (see 47): ós c.¤ fhichit each, AFM iv 1134.28 . faoi nó ós a chionn `or thereabouts', Corp. Astron. 4.12 . ōs a ch.¤ sin `besides', Fl. Earls 90.15 .

64 Note also: bun ós cionn `upside down', Psalms cxlvi 9 . más bun os cionn atá sé `if he haue any auersion', RSClára 155a . For fuller treatment see 1 bun.

65 With ré: ria cind tri trath in three days, RC xvii 386.2 .

With TAR (see also 24, 42).

66 fo-ceird etc. tar c.¤ (somet. with possess. before c.¤ ) overthrows, upsets, turns upside down : in cor tar c.¤ gl. euersio, Ml. 36d23 . gl. euertando, 72b12 . tochur tar c.¤ , Críth G. 233 . ro lá in slúag . . . tara cend, LU 9760 . fochichret in Trói dar cend, TTr.² 389 . ro-chuir cend dar cend . . . miassa na monotóri, PH 4392 . is e ro-lá dar cend ar forcetul-ne subverted, 1686 . See fo-ceird. Cf. dos-curedar tara cend 'she collapses', CMMucr. 50 § 43 .

67 With do-tuit (see 44): co torchratar . . . dara c.¤ hi suan, ZCP iii 6 § 20 .

68 tar c.¤ on behalf of, for the sake of, in return for, in lieu of, because of, for, etc. (see 36): dufiastar tara c.¤-som `punishment will be inflicted for them', Ml. 27c4 . deich tarm ch.¤ `take vengeance for me', 72d11 . no oircthe . . . tar c.¤ a p[ecthae] ind aile `for its sins', Tur. 110c . taiccéra cách dará chen fessin gl. pro sé, Wb. 6b28 . oc irbáig dar far c.¤-si gl. de uobis, 16d8 . ? mo ort do gabál darm ch.¤ `that my rank should be taken for me', 23b18 . a setig . . . do pennait tar a cend fadesin ┐ dara cendsom on her own behalf and his, Mon. Tall. 163.18 . dar cend na cāna in return for, Cáin Ad. 25 . ciata glinni con-daigi dar cend frithaisceda?, MU² 65 . do foglaim na Tāna rucc in sái rōmānach a hArdmacha dar cend in cuilmin, ACL iii 5.31 . na feicheamna dara tecait cend, Laws iv 60.18 Comm. tarc.¤ gabhála aigi ┐ tacra tar a ch.¤ pleading in his behalf, CCath. 535 . díol tar ceann a chomaoineadh, Content. ix 25 . tar ceann do chloinne, Dán Dé xxviii 29 .

69 in spite of, in violation of; notwithstanding : ba holc lais dith Fergail darceand a shida, RC xxiv 64 § 25 . tar c.¤ Conoill, Duan. F. i 84.8 . tar a cheann sin nevertheless , Desid. 3220 .

70 Of begetting offspring by a woman in spite of or unknown to her husband (see 37): trī meic Medba fri Fergus dar c.¤ nAilella, Corp. Gen. 279.1933 . mac ruc don Dagda . . . / dar cend ḟir na síde, Metr. Dinds. iii 30.75 . is e doroine in toirrcis sin fria dar c.¤ Cathbaid, RC vi 175.51 .

71 As conj. tar c.¤ go notwithstanding the fact that, although : tar ceann go n-abair an Chóir Anmann gur . . . ní mheasaim gurab . . . , Keat. ii 2344 . tar cheann go n-anann tú feadh do bheathadh san olc, Mac Aingil 1040 . tar ceann gur shaoil . . . notwithstanding the fact that, TSh. 541 . tar cheann go bhfuil mórán etc. even though there are . . . , Párl. na mB. 461 .

Compds. (general composition-form in early lang. cenn-. Later also cinn- and ceinn- before palatals).

With nouns.

72 In dvandva-compds. (see Wortk. 130 ): bidh suī lēigind co cendanim head and soul, ACL iii 231.22 . cend-chossach head and feet (of cooked animal), Ériu iv 124 § 2 .

73 With c.¤ qualifying second member: cu nach fácbadh claidem ar cennadairt, Acall. 1632 = SG 129. 29 `pillow' ( -adart, BLism. 212 rb13) . Fig. cennadart fona fertaib inso, Thes. ii 332.27 ( Hy. v 23 gl .). Of a person: O'M. a cceann adhart, Top. Poems 58.18 . oenball dia curp nó da cendagaid `countenance', CCath. 4700 . gráin catha ar mo cheannaghaidh (sic leg.), Content. xxiii 15 . tria cendairde no tria cendísli doníther in taidbhriudh anuasan, O'D. 908 (H. 3.17, 649) = O'Curry 2164 ( Eg. 88, 4(5)d ) (see O'Gr. Cat. 139 ). cennait muilind `the head (site) of a mill', Ériu xvii 76.10 . cennáit `head residence', AFM v 2082.2 . ? Cf. an chríoch nó an cionnaidh is dúthaigh dhó, TSh. 1775 (chianáit, v.l., Gloss.). ar Chrīst ar cennabaid chief lord, ZCP viii 214.6 . do ghabh clogat . . . fa n-a cheann-bhaithios `head', MR xiv 21 . ¤barr see cen(n)barr. ¤bécc see cennbécc. ¤bert see ceinnbeirt. cennbhile oir na n-ardriog (a prince), LL 394.8 . bheith dheit ad chinnbhile ós coill, O'Gr. Cat. 381.22 . súdh ceannbhracha `malt liquor', O'Hara 4076 . in Cennc[h]at[h]ach ina laimh .i. a bachall, Lism. L. 3103 . ¤chléithe = cenn: scothais a chenn clēithi de, ZCP viii 117 § 12 . ní chuirthear ceannchnaipe óir ar phaidrín mhaide, Mac Aingil 1041 `Pater Noster bead(?)', Gloss. lom[r]aid a cendchongraim din mnái headdress, Hib. Min. 77.9 . ceann cosnamach comegin C. `violent groans', MR 260.6 (leg. ¤osnadach ?). for cenn-cumhdach a choroine ` head-covering ', Misc. Hag. Hib. 43 § 62 . capitolauium .i. cenddīunach, Corm. Y 296 . cend-drong filed fó fírda, Metr. Dinds. i 36.93 . inceindetan gl. gigram, Gild. Lor. 82 . donchendfiacail gl. capitali, 134 . ¤ḟochrus see cennḟochrus. cenngalor (in marg. dolor capitis), Wb. 17b25 . Vita Br. 28 . dia ro h-icad don cheann-galar, YBL 174b23 . ? ni tormaig ni fora notrus . . . a cendgelt, Ériu xii 40 § 51 ; 'tonsure' ZCP xlii 48 . caeca echlosc orda co cendimlaib airgid, IT ii2 191.14 (cennpairtib, v.l.) `end knobs'? Plummer MS notes. ¤ísle see cendairde. ¤lá see cennlá. ¤liter capital letter. Usually metaph. of persons and things: cinn-litre ceall `the capitals of the churches', Content. xv 30 , cf. xviii 73 . dún iona cáir cinnlitre, Ériu v 60.4 . ceinnlitir siodha ┐ coccaidh `arbiter', AFM iv 976.3 . snímcha cendmaisse `head- dress', Tec. Corm. xvi 84 . cendmaisse laime glove, Acall. 5971 v.l. ¤míl name of an ornament: coíca acrann . . . co cendmílaib, TBFr. 31 . fuath . . . [na] cendmila tucsat a coscar catha, Aen. 1563 . Of persons: Ísa Críst . . . in cennmíl cumdachta, ZCP viii 204.34 . ní ba cendmíl muinntiri / nech nach fulaing a hécnach, iv 468 § 17 . a fírchlethe a chendmullaig, LU 6475 . brat tlachtgorm corcarrda hi cennfait impe (i.e. thrown over her head?) (cennḟait, MS), TBC-I¹ 2791 . cendpaite imma cenna `fillets', RC ix 484 n.5 . cinnréallna `stars of first magnitude', Ó Bruad. iii 14.7 . cend-róit `highway', CRR 28 . (Auricula Muris) ceinn-sgethrach do ghenam dhe, ┐ glanaidh an inchinn o na salcar, 23 K 42, 367.5 (see sceithrech). fá cheannsmacht, Oss. iv 274.24 . ` paitric' cennsrián, Metr. Gl. 19 `headstall', Plummer MS notes. dotuit ar a cenntruime topheaviness, O'Dav. 200 . cenntruime .i. gin collad, O'Curry 2598 ( Eg. 88, 50(51)d ). cend-urra a slánaigthe `Captain', Heb. ii 10 .

With adjectives.

74 C. chendalaind, ZCP xi 41 § 5 . cendard cassetnach, IT iii 246.80 . dá ech . . . cendbeca, LU 9257 . na dá chendbricc 'the two piebald-headed ones' TBC-LL² 1086 . cnā ceand-buidhi, ZCP v 22 § 16 . tre cnoccuibh corra cenncæla, ZCP vi 290.22 . ic imbirt fidchilli .i. na Cendchaeme (as subst.), LL 8350 (TBC). ingena cendálli cendchassa curly-headed, 31382 (TTr.). do innsaighi cnuic cennchuirr, ZCP vi 60.12 . cendchrom torsech, LL 12064 (TBC). ¤étig freq. as n. pr., see Corp. Gen. etc. trian a scéith chendfhada comdhualaig, ZCP xiii 211.11 . ar coiciud cendḟind Connacht, LL 3224 . See cenann. cheillínill / ceandfolaim, IT iii 92 § 139 . an fer cendgarb, i 273.29 ( FB 40 Eg.). cairrge ceann-gharbha, ML 34.4 . cranngal cheinngér, IGT Decl. ex. 905 . Eoghan an airm cheannghlais, DDána 99.40 . ar taisbenad a craisigi cenn-guirme catha, MR 196.5 . ¤grúcánach see grúcánach. a muinter . . . cendísel Corccaige `hang-head', MacCongl. 29.22 . arocul becc . . . cendisel low-pitched, Todd Lect. vi 42.2 ( LB 134a35 ). laech caem cendlethan, LL 11824 (TBC). cofacca . . . in deilb . . . cennléith, Ériu iv 102.12 . ocbud . . . chendmas, Anecd. i 60.88 . a dhá chraoisigh ceann-reamhra, ML 112.21 . ar ná ba cennscoilte `lest you get your head broken', Tec. Corm. 38.26 . Cuirrín Cheannsholuis, ML 32.18 . dia sephaind céis cenntoll céol, ZCP iii 7.2 . ¤tromm see cenntromm.

Rarely with verbs:

75 ceannlasfaidh a cró coirrshleagh (of warriors), Aithd. D. 16.28 . gu cennlúbdais na clocha na caolsoighdi the stones turned the points of the arrows, Caithr. Thoirdh. 113.6 .

Freq. as second element in compds.

76 See GOI 219 (nochtchenn, ardchenn). Freq. in this use in form -genn, see GOI 87 , O'Rahilly, Ériu xiii 140 . See cloicenn, cromcenn, corrcenn, 1 dícenn, táilgenn, tollcend (1 toll). Note further: crothid conchend catha ceirp, LU 3629 ( SCC 31 , see note in SC2). teiti tair fo thalmain trell / i nEgiptacthaib láncend (the Nile), LL 16325 . m. Fiachach Uanchind, Corp. Gen. 88.7 . Baccan mac Brain meic Eircc hUbulchind, Rawl. 126b43 .

77 Very freq. in nn. loc., see Hog. Onom.

? conroithi

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ? conroithi or dil.ie/12275

 

n ni fuband conroithi de, LU 3647 = conroí thí , SCC² 447 ` dog-fight ', n. Cf. cú-.

cráeb

Cite this: eDIL s.v. cráeb or dil.ie/12707
Last Revised: 2013

 

n ā, f.

(a) branch, bough; sprig; rod, wand; post : ni cech cnú fociṅg dia croíb, LL 19134 . etir moin céir ┐ craib, 34903 ( MU² 463 ). co tuca chroíb dam din chaírthend, Fraech 194 . aithsceinm craibi tar ais, Laws v 156.14 . colpach ína ngablaib, dairt ina craebaib, iv 146.23 (see gabul). craeb . . . olachraind, TTebe 2007 . crāeb ola, ACL iii 238 § 8 . as craobh ria na bláth écc ind ḟir hisin (prov. of untimely death), AFM ii 1114.13 . Cf. ni coilte cra[eb] r[ian]a bláth, Éigse ii 184 § 5 ( LL 374c28 ). léiccis cráobha . . . lécciss coilcthi (? branches strewn for bedding. Poss. w.r.t. bracken or heather branches or perhaps a wooden (or wickerwork) bed-frame , Ériu xxvi 95 ), ZCP viii 198 §§ 16 , 17 . fo chiamhair chraobh `among the gloom of branches', BS 24.13 . craeb sidha a laim gach aeinfir dibh olive-branch , ZCP vi 48.9 . atait 5 craoba ar in luibh so springs, ACL i 332.60 . an té do-ní craoibh don chnaoi (viz. God), DDána 42.30 . is amlaid documlai in mac ┐ craeb airgdide uaso . . . Craeb óir . . . uasna ollamnaib. Craeb umai úasna filedaib archena a golden wand, LL 24227 . Cf. bun(n)sach. craobh conaire signpost , LBranach 1004 . craobh eóluis ar oinigh Aodh, 361 . mithidh damhsa . . . / . . . do chuir ar chraoibh, a chompáin to put away, to put aside (to an old cloak), Hackett² 31.26 , 29 . c.¤ luirg see 1 lorg . rod on which ogam was written: cairechtaire Gaoidhelge . . . sgríobhtha 'na bhfleasga ar chraobhaibh, Celtica i 97.309 . Hence: an carachtaire ele . . . goirthear ogham-chraobh (leg. ogham craobh ?) dhe, 306 .

(b) tree, bush : in chróeb i Cind Febrat, Metr. Dinds. iii 230.68 (? ref. to in t-ibar (sic leg.) of 49, 53). unnius i (? Í) Tortain . . . / unnius Uisnig . . . / tuitset na craiba, LL 27698 . teg mór ffer, ┐ ech, docum craoibhe Fert Luighdheach, Ériu xiii 44.10 . ealta minén ar fud craíbhe éigin, CF² 883 . táinic . . . amach as lár craóibhe = out of the midst of a bush, Exodus iii 2 . In phr. fo chráeib out of doors, in the open(?): encorach dicitur duine fossad fo craeph, O'Mulc. 398 (`or fochraib ?' ed.). codlaim fa chraoibh 'san ess, BS 136.16 . Of particular trees: C. Da Thi / . . . crand na sluag, LL 27692 . unnius im̄ Craeb Belaig Da Thi , 27683 . Craeb Uisnig, 27647 . For mod. le (ar na) craobhachaibh ` mad, crazy ', see Ó Cuív, Éigse viii 104 - 5 .

(c) In a wide variety of transfd. meanings.

Of persons: in chróib co mbláthib (of Brigit), Thes. ii 325.20 (Hy. iv). Áed . . . c.¤ chomlán do thennad túath, LL 17038 . in chrōib chāin chumra (a warrior), Bruchst. 122 . a chraobh bhíthe bhanda, DDána 80.28 (to a lady). craobh na rosg ruadh (of Conn), ML 122.11 .

Of locks of hair: a bháirr . . . na gcraob gcam, O'Gr. Cat. 456.7 . le hearla na gcraobh gcumhraidhe, DDána 109.8 . cíoradh na gcraobh, Magauran 976 .

Of weapons: crōib glec lāich ina lāmaib (description of Cú Chulainn in his chariot), TBC-I¹ 2571 . in C.¤ Glasach .i. claidem . . . F., Acall. 2192 .

Of a branched wand or staff from which bells were suspended: craebh sidhamhail . . . co tri hublaibh dergoir fuirre, Manners and Customs iii 317 n. 313 f. Cf. i. dxxxvii. eistecht risin ceol dogníd in cræbh, IT iii 193.22 . ro croith in craib Sencha ┐ contoíset Ulaid uli fris, LU 8421 ( FB 29 , H). c.¤ chréduma ra haird a gúaland (of Sencha), LL 35114 ( MU² 749 ). craeb ṡída ┐ forṡidaigthi Fian Érenn, Acall. p. 329.22 . Note further: ar mbreith bhúaidhe cheóil chraoibhe music of the harp(?), IGT Decl. ex. 1165 . ná déin dearmod don chraoibh chiuil, Bard. P. 46.8 . ó ṡeinm na gcraobh gciúil, TD 14.7 . glór bhar síodhchraobh seanma, DDána 68.21 .

Of branching decorative work, arabesque : cráeba cailce for a cliu (of a shield), Eg. 88, 19a cited Contribb. 503 . feilm óir na gcraobh gcorcra, DDána 75.40 . tre chraobhoibh do chuach n-órtha, O'Hara 4363 . craísech chráebh n-úaine, IGT Decl. ex. 1205 .

Of waves: ar chorp mar chraobha tonn, Magauran 1004 .

In sense of pedigree, genealogy, descent, branch of a family tree; scion : do fremaib ┐ do bunud ┐ do craébaib, BB 411a33 . ar bhfréamh chraobhei-ne ime, DDána 70.17 . cráobh do chin óna Collaibh, IGT Decl. ex. 1330 . Freq. c.¤ choibnesa, c.¤ geinelaig: cade a craeb choibniusa? pedigree , Metr. Dinds. iv 346.7 . a c.¤ choibniusa (sic leg.) fri Grécaib common descent (of the Trojans), LL 30859 ( TTr. 41 ). triúr anuas . . . / d'Anna sa chraoibh choibhneasa, Dán Dé xi 12 . craobha geinealaigh Gaoidheal, DDána 72.21 . See coibnius.

Note also: hi trūaill . . . findarcait ūas chrōebaib(?) a chnis, TBC-I¹ 2342 . deisme neómain im chét c.¤ (dees imomain im chet croeb, YBL), TBC-LL¹ 4958 ( LL 11620 ). ? cionnus lat tré chraoibh na cána / mac an tsaoir do rádha ris (of Christ), DDána 26.6 . cuanna arna threaghdadh a thaobh / ag cealgadh craobh uadha d'fhíon, Dán Dé xxvi 21 . gach craobh chorr, O'Hara 2444 (`each rounded limb'). craobh uaine ad shuil mar shamfhrais, Celtic Scotland iii 424 , xlii (`beam'). craobh barr-dheigh-ṡleagh a barr sin `whose glory is pre-eminence in sharp good lances', Content. xxix 17 . ? cach sathe díib rogab crúib, ZCP viii 308.20 .

Freq. in nn. loc.., see Hog. Onom .

Compds. General sense branching, spreading , but freq. merely for alliterative or other metrical purposes. With nouns and vns. 'san gcraobh-bhanna phéacach, Keat. Poems 304 (`flowing riband, branching band', Gloss.). fás a craobhchall, DDána 64.21 . craebcoroin . . . do nat[h]rac[h]aiph neimde, CCath. 4119 . craebdearca Conaill, MR 116.21 . atbath craobhdhos bhile mhóir, Aonghus, Keat. iii 707 (quotation). i torchair cain craebdus / Oengus ┐ Eithne (cheville), LL 23505 (c.¤ + dos ?). ós chionn do cheathra gcraobh-fhabhra branching lashes and eyebrows , DDána 114.14 . in chliat[h]sa ni craebhḟál `fence of branches', Gorm. 9 . tré chroeb[ḟ]odail, ZCP viii 307.1 (rhet.). craebhfhoghla . . . caibniusa tuath `genealogical ramifications', MR 98.14 . techtughudh . . . cu cruibh ime temporary fence(?), O'D. 2272 ( Rawl. B 506, 23cd ). arm áigh craoibhlíne ` engraved ', O'Hara 683 . tre Mhagh gC. na gcraoibhleas, DDána 74.50 . atād trī caoga craobh-ogham aguinn ogham written on staves, Celtica i 97.306 . Conall . . . uaind ro geinedh in craebh-shlat, MR 310.20 . laoch … craobhshūileach bushy-eyed Celtica xiii 42.103 . craebhthonna spreading waves(?), CF 926 .

With adjj. a Caiseal craebchorr, BB 60b40 . tré ghéarlasair chraobh-dheirg, Keat. Poems 351 . clanna . . . craeb-gasta, MR 118.18 . mar bhláth éadtrom chraobhghlas, Keat. Poems 288 . dreach craobhghoirthe `bright-curved', O'Hara 1907 . go Cliaigh gcr[a]oibhiodhain, DDána 109.3 . a ghruaidh chraobhnár mar chrithre, Aithd. D. 34.6 (`o'erspread with fiery blush'). in t-abhra réidh craobhnocht, O'Hara 4457 (`curving'). um chlár gcraobhsholus gCobhthaigh, Aithd. D. 16.25 . fuairshreabha an chalaidh chraobhshona, 4.8 (`tree-rich'). cuingeda . . . craeb-uaisli `free-born', MR 246.3 .

With adjj. derived from nouns: craibdig .i. . . . craeb-bethadaig (etymol. gl.), Fél.² xxxi 16 . go Cruachain gcraobhchollaigh, Aithd. D. 4.13 . clar-sceimelta . . . craeb-dathacha cath-sciath, MR 224.5 . in Craebhghlasach, claidem F., Acall. 2244 . dh'éis luit do chuilg cráoibhlitrigh, O'R. Poems 109 . na cromsróna . . . craebhshilteacha, CF² 288 . D. . . . / na sul ngormall craebhsuirgeach, IGT Met. Faults § 149 . gu Céis cráebthorthuigh Coruinn, Anecd. i 31 § 49 .

See cruibe.

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