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attá

Cite this: eDIL s.v. attá or dil.ie/4927
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: attá, Fil, fil, faeilfit, fil, fil, atóo, attó, attóo, ató, -táu, -ttóo, -tó, atái, atái, -tái, adta, ata, at, atáa, attáa, ataa, att, -tá, -ta, -táa, -dathar, ataam, attaam, ataid, ataaith, ataaid, ataad, -taid, ataat, ataat, -tat, -taat, tathum, tathut, táithi, táthus, táthunn, taithiunn, tathuib, tás, fil, fil, feil, fel, fail, fil, file, fel, fele, feil, fail, biuu, -bíu, -bí, biith, biid, bíid, -bii, -bí, robīi, -rubi, -rubai, -ruba, bíis, biís, bis, bís, bithir, bither, -bither, -rubthar, bímmi, -biam, bimme, biit, bíit, robiat, -biat, -bíat, -rubat, bíte, -bíinn, -biinn, -bíid, -bíth, -bid, -bith, bithe, -bímmis, -bitis, -bítis, b, bíth, bíith, bíid, biid, bíd, bithom, biid, bith, biat, beo, beu, -béo, bee, b, -bee, robhe, beith, beid, bed, beth, -b, -bée, bethum-sa, rob, robe, rubé, rob, robbé, -roib, bess, bes, bethir, bether, -bether, bemmi, beimmi, -bem, -robam, beithe, bethe, -beith, -beid, -robith, beit, rubet, be(i)t, -bet, -robat, bete, -beind, -beinn, -betha, nobed, nobeth, -bed, -beth, -robad, -rabad, -bethe, -bemmis, -beimmis, -bemis, -bethe, -betis, -[ro]ibtis, bia, bie, bieid, bied, -bia, -bia, -bia, -bía, bethiumm, bethib, bias, bies, beithir, -bether, bemmi, beimmi, -biam, -piam, bethe, bethi, -bied, -bieid, biet, bieit, biet, -biat, -bíet, bete, beite, nombeinn, nobiad, -bíad, nobemmis, nobetis, b, -bá, bói, bái, -bói, boie, boithius, boíthi, baísu, both(a)e, botha, -both(a), bamar, bámar, -baid, bātir, -batar, batar, rob, -roba, -raba, rob, robói, rambái, robui, -robae, -robe, -rabae, romboth, rombod, -rabad, robámmar, -robammar, rubaid, -robaid, robatar, robbátar, -rabatar, -robatar, -rabtar, buith, buithi, atáu, atú, itu, it, atú, ataim, -t, -tái, -toi, taoi, -t, atá, attá, ata, at, atáthar, dáthar, atass, -das, itám, tám, ataum, ataim, atamaoit, atámaoid, atám, -taum, -dtám, atathai, atathi, atáithi, -táithi, -dathai, -taidh, itāt, atáit, ataut, táid, -táit, itat, atat, fil, -fhile, -fhuile, -fuili, -ḟoili, -ḟuile, fail, fail, fuil, -fail, -fuil, -uil, -ḟil, -ḟuil, -ḟoil, fil, fail, fail, filter, -fuiltear, fuilemm, -failmet, -ḟuilmíd, -ḟuilmíd, -ḟoilmíd, -ḟuileam, -ḟoileam, -bhḟuilti, failet, filet, fuilet, -failet, -filet, -fileat, -fuilet, -fuilid, failet, failet, fuilet, filet, bim, bím, -bím, -ruibim, -bi, bíd, bíd, -bí, -bíonn, -bind, bídh, -b, bither, -bithar, bímit, bídmaid, bímíd, -bímíd, -bíom, bíth, bīd, -bíat, -bít, -bíd, bit, bít, bhínn, nobīth, robíth, bhíodh, bhíoth, bithi, -bithi, bithea, naboitis, nobīdis, beitis, bitis, bhítís, bhídís, bír, b, bīdh, bíodh, bíoth, bíom, bíthe, bídh, bidhí, bíod, ber, uér, beor, bheith, bur, -rabor, -rabhus, rabasa, bear, rabhar, -bear, -rabhar, bé, beir, -rab(a)i, -rabha, -rabhair, -mbéis, -beis(se), -rabais, beis, rabais, -beis, -rabais, beth, -b, -raib, -rab, -raibhe, rabh, raibh, -bé, -raibh, -rabh, bess, beas, bethur, beme, bemmit, bemait, -bém, -beam, -ruibem, -rabum, bheam, rabham, bethi, rabthai, beit, -bet, -beat, -rabat, -rabut, -rabhait, -rabhaid, -rabheid, beinn, rabainn, beithi, beithe, bethe, beitheá, beith, nobith, mbeadh, -mbeath, -rabad, -bethe, -bette, rabtha, mbiadh, nobeitis, nobeidis, mbeith, bíat, biat, biad, bhead, bed, bét, bett, -biu, -bhiú, biad, -bi, bía, biae, biaidh, bía, -bía, bethair, bied, biaid, biáid, -bia, bíes, bés, bes, bess, bhias, biass, beither, beithir, bemit, bemait, -bem(ni, beimíd, -biam, -biaim(ne), -ben, bethi, beitte, bete, -bed, biait, biat, beit, beiti, beti, betit, beidid, -bīat, beidíd, beid, -bíad, no-béind, dobeind, do beinn, -beinn, bheitheá, biadh, -bied, bífad, rot-fiadh, biath, bhiadh, bethe, bheidīs, ro-bádus, bhádhus, bhí, -rabus, -rabhas, -rabadhus, bá, -raba, bádhus, -rabadhas, basa, bhádhuis, bhí, -rabadais, -rabhais, bhádhuis, -rabhadhuis, bae, bóe, baei, búi, -bae, -buí, robai, robae, robói, bí, robuidh, bí, bhói, bhaoi, -rubai, -roibe, -roibi, -roba, -raba, -raibhe, -rabha, -robha, bí, -raibi, baí, -rabha, -rabhustair, boí, bāi, būi, bae, buí, baí, boí, both, rombatha, robās, rombas, robás, -rabus, rabas, -bádus, -bás, bás, bas, -rabas, bas, bhás, bāmur, bámar, bhámair, -rabamar, robabair, -babhair, robadbair, bhábhair, -rabhuir, -rabhabhair, bādar, -bátir, badar, bádar, bídur, -rabadar, -rabhadair, baisit, -rabhsad, bátar, bátar, bheith, beitte

(ad-tá) subst. vb. is . The distinction betw. subst. vb. and copula is in the first place syntactical, and cases are found where there is no distinction of form. Cf. the type, common in ACC: boe sab he was a leader, ACC 26 . See further below, and the discussion by Bergin, Ériu xii 208 - 211 (cia taísiu, cia bé, etc.), who refers to cases like: is uera pictura ro bai sin, Thes. ii 6.32 as emphatic. See also Ériu xvi 46 , GOI 475 . For nimtha laám, Wb. 12a21 , nímptha fírion, 8d24 (copula ?) see GOI 487 . Note also the form of the pron. in (later): matait tall iat, Laws iv 86.8 Comm. , atá ar conair é, ACL iii 216.z . bí N. eices cecinit, RC xvii 175.14 is perh. a mistake. In follg. use of subst. vb. perh. due to infl. of Latin: mar nobéind athair doib = pater eram pauperum, PH 6107 . ata in innsci ordugud etc. = oratio est. . ., Auraic. 591 .

Apart from the ordinary indic. pres. all forms of subst. vb. are from a root beginning with b-. In indic. pres. the stem tá (in absol. position attá) is used in non-rel. sentences without conj. particle, after conj. particles with inf. pron. dat. and when the conj. particle consists of a preposition and rel. (s)a n-. Absolute inflexion of tá- is found in oldaas, indaas, etc. than (is), in meaning is angry, and with follg. suff. pron. The uninflected form fil (with accus.) is used after conj. particles where no dat. inf. pron. is present, in leniting rel. clauses and often in answers to questions containing subst. vb., and in archaic texts in absol. position in meaning there is . For fuller details see GOI 476 - 483 and exx. below. See also Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 419 ff. , Strachan, Phil. Soc. Trans. 1899, 1 - 82 , Ó Máille, Ériu vi 1 ff. , Études Celt. xxxiv 143-44 . Forms of gaibid, do-coissin, díchsnigidir and 1 ad-cumaing also have the force of the subst. vb. in certain uses, see separate entries.

Note further that attá is usual after hóre (see Wb. 19a19 , 22d14 and compare GOI § 781 ) and occurs later after amal ( LU 7072 , Laws iii 90.18 ). Fil is somet. found in sense there is in mid. Ir.: fail crois d'ór in cach dorus, SR 361 . TBC-I¹ 2561 . Note also: fil derg it is red, Marco P. 173 .

The use of accus. after fil continues into the classical period, see IGT Introd. § 129 , Bard. Synt. Tr. 92 - 93 . A few exx. of forms other than fil with accus. occur: ni raibi deilb, TTr.² 1664 , ní raibi . . . mhnái, 370 , ní bhiadh mnaoi, Ó Bruad. ii 252.z (with assonance). Note also with inf. pron. rosṁbai inna tass, SR 5107 . ? nim tha maith . . . do chath fri firu, LU 3343 ( SCC 13 ). From the mid. Ir. period on fil takes personal endings except in 3 s., and occurs occasionally as an independent verb: faeilfit (fut. 3 pl. absol.), Caithr. Thoirdh. 120.26 . In rel. function attá is found side by side with fil from an early period: is heiside attá hi S., Trip.² 534 , a lucht atá istig, RC vii 298.131 , the form fil finally disappearing in this use.

In mid. Ir. fil occurs for earlier -tá with dat. inf. pron.: nichar fail tlacht, SR 1560 , ni-s-fil biad, PH 1310 . Also in rel. clause after prep.: bale hi fail, LU 7516 , fors fil, Imr. Brain 43 (see also Strachan, Stories fr. Táin 3rd ed. p. 1 note).

The consuet. pres. 1 s. conj. -bíu has in classical Ir. the force of a future: biad ní biú, IGT Verbs § 7 , see also TBC-LL¹ 882 , Acall. 6179 , Duan. F. i 43.4 .

Early forms (for fuller lists see Strachan loc. cit.). Indic. pres. 1 s. atóo, Wb. 12a21 . attó, 21c19 . attóo, 26d8 . ató, 26d17 . -táu, 32a10 , -ttóo, 17d24 , -tó, Ml. 92b8 . 2 s. atái, Wb. 5b27 . atái, Ml. 110d15 (sic MS, see Ériu xiv 30 ). -tái, 5b38 . 3 s. adta, Laws v 390.10 (see ZCP xxv 247 ). ata, Wb. 13c26 , at, 27a11 , atáa, 6a19 , attáa, 32a6 , ataa, 26b31 , att, 4b11 . -tá, 31c7 , -ta, 2b12 , -táa, 13a35 . Impers. -dathar (see GOI 477 - 478 ), Wb. 21c9 . 1 pl. ataam, Wb. 15a13 , attaam, 32a28 . 2 pl. ataid, Wb. 4a4 , ataaith, 20b16 , ataaid, 23c28 , ataad, 22d14 . -taid, 19d26 . 3 pl. ataat (trisyll.), Blathm. 471 . ataat, Ml. 55d11 , 37a10 . -tat, 42b10 . -taat, Sg. 71b3 .

With suff. pron. tathum, Metr. Dinds. iv 284.3 . tathut, Fél. July 24 . táithi (tathai, v.l.), Críth G. 197 . táthus, Fél. Feb. 5 . táthunn, Prol. 217. taithiunn, Thes. ii 293.19 . tathuib, Rawl. 88b51 .

For rel. s. without preverb (taas, tás) see atás, indaas, 4 ol.

The form fil, etc. As conj. form: fil, Wb. 16b9 , Ml. 92a8 , Sg. 193b7 . feil, Wb. 24c4 . Ml. 60b2 . fel, Wb. 3c38 , Ml. 27d10 . fail, 44b10-11 , Sg. 32a1 . As rel.: fil, Ml. 121c8 , file Wb. 23a5 , Ml. 51d11 , Sg. 151b7 . fel, Wb. 4c1 , fele, Ml. 93c7 . feil, Wb. 33b18 . fail, BCr. 18c4 .

Consuet. pres. 1 s. biuu, Wb. 16d8 . -bíu, 20a3 . 2 s. -bí, Ml. 135d1 . ACL iii 312 § 4 . 3 s. biith, Wb. 29a26 . biid, 4d33 . bíid, Sg. 150b4 . -bii, Wb. 28b25 , -bí, Ml. 103c3 . With ro: robīi, TBC-I¹ 1730 . -rubi, Wb. 11c17 , -rubai, Ml. 20d4 , Sg. 7b3 . -ruba, 3b28 . Rel. bíis, Wb. 13a12 . biís, 28b28 . bis, Ml. 61a33 . bís, Sg. 140b2 . Impers. bithir, Ml. 56b15 . rel. bither, 108b4 , -bither, 100c21 . -rubthar, cited GOI § 784 . OIPG 69 . 1 pl. bímmi, Ml. 15a4 . -biam, Wb. 16a8 . Rel. bimme, Wb. 12c11 . 3 pl. biit, Wb. 29a28 . bíit, Sg. 217a1 . robiat, 138a5 . -biat, Ml. 59d7 . -bíat, Sg. 148a4 . -rubat, 138a5 . Rel. bíte, Wb. 9d28 .

Indic. impf. 1 s. -bíinn, Ml. 108b1 , -biinn, 58d9 . 3 s. -bíid, LU 5080 (see Ériu xvii 121 ), -bíth, Sg. 148b6 . -bid, Ml. 33a5 . -bith, Vita Br. 12 . Impers. no bithe , CCath. 3971 . 1 pl. -bímmis, cited GOI § 785 . 3 pl. -bitis, Ml. 86d6 . -bítis, Sg. 5a15 .

Ipv. 2 s. b, TBC-I¹ 2391 . 3 s. bíth, Wb. 10a8 , 25 , bíith, 8d9 , bíid, 5d33 , biid, Ml. 74d3 . bíd, Wb. 3a14 . With suff. pron. bithom, Fél. Ep. 404 n.17 . 2 pl. biid, Wb. 23c11a . bith, 22b26 . 3 pl. biat, Ml. 51d13 .

Subj. pres. 1 s. beo, Wb. 23b41 . beu, Ml. 53b8 . -béo, Fél. Prol. 273 . 2 s. bee, cited OIPG 70 and see GOI 482 . b, ZCP viii 311.z (see xxiv 122 ). -bee (perh. absol.), ZCP vii 494 (Enchir. Aug.). -bē, Fing. R. 82 . With ro: robhe (restored as ro-bé), Blathm. 92 § 9 . 3 s. beith, Ml. 108a11 . beid, Wb. 14c23 . bed, 3c10 . beth, Thes. ii 245.34 (Cambr. Hom.). -bǽ, Wb. 22b14 . -b, Sg. 29b14 . -bée, Wb. 12c43 . With suff. pron. bethum-sa, Fél. Ep. 384 n.14 . With ro: rob, Wb. 5d30 , robe, 18c4 , rubé, Ml. 20d4 , rob, Wb. 28a23 , robbé, Sg. 169a1 . -roib, Wb. 16c24 , Ml. 118c5 . Rel. bess, Wb. 5d14 . bes, Ml. 77d3 . Impers. bethir, Wb. 5d33 . rel. bether, Ml. 107d8 . -bether, Wb. 10a18 . 1 pl. bemmi, Wb. 31c11 . beimmi, 19a16 . -bem, 24a10 . -robam, 26c10 . 2 pl. beithe, Wb. 18b16 . bethe, 24b13 . -beith, Ml. 46a10 . -beid, Wb. 27c9 . With ro: -robith, Wb. 26a28 . 3 pl. beit, Wb. 10b5 . rubet, 26a23 . ro be(i)t , Vita Br. 35 . -bet, Wb. 9d27 . -robat, 11d9 . Rel. bete, Wb. 10c22 .

Subj. impf. 1 s. -beind, TBC-I¹ 1856 . -beinn cited GOI § 787 . 2 s. -betha, Wb. 4c24 . 3 s. nobed, Wb. 3b10 . nobeth, Ml. 27b1 . -bed, Wb. 9d1 . -beth, Ml. 88b15 . -robad, Wb. 17a13 . -rabad, 34a4 . Impers. -bethe, Trip.² 2828 . 1 pl. -bemmis, Wb. 9a3 . -beimmis, 29d23 . -bemis, Vita Br. 23 . 2 pl. -bethe, Wb. 9c20 . 3 pl. -betis, Sg. 138a9 . -[ro]ibtis, Wb. 28a1 .

Fut. 1 s. bia, Ml. 137b7 . 2 s. bie, cited GOI § 788 , OIPG 70 . 3 s. bieid, Wb. 4d6 . bied, 14c1 . -bia, 5d35 . -bia (disyll.), Blathm. 572 . -bia and -bía, GOI § 788 . With suff. pron. bethiumm. Ériu xiii 20.6 . bethib, ZCP viii 316.5 (see xxix 174 ). Rel. bias, Wb. 23b38 . bies, Ériu iii 102 § 32 . Impers. beithir, TBFr. 248 . -bether, MacCongl. 61.4 . 1 pl. bemmi, Wb. 9c10 . beimmi, 21b7 . -biam, 15a1 . -piam, 30b17 . 2 pl. bethe, cited GOI § 788 . bethi, Trip.² 1589 . -bied, Wb. 9a21 . -bieid, 26d26 . 3 pl. biet (disyll.), Blathm. 472 . bieit, Wb. 4c40 . biet, 9d27 , Sg. 198b6 (also bíet, GOI § 788 ). -biat, 9c28 . -bíet, 40b14 . Rel. bete, Wb. 13c26 . beite, 4c40 .

Condit. 1 s. nombeinn, Ml. 59a22 . 3 s. nobiad, Ml. 32d5 . -bíad, Wb. 9d1 . 1 pl. nobemmis, Ml. 134b3 . 3 pl. nobetis, Ml. 100c7 .

Pret. 1 s. b, LU 9407 . 2 s. -bá, cited GOI § 789 , OIPG 71 , see perf. 2 s. below. 3 s. bói, Wb. 31c18 . bái, 27a16 . -bói, 17d17 , Ml. 78a4 . Rel. boie, Thes. ii 242.11 (Ardm.). boīe (MS. ba), Ériu xvi 46.10 (see n. 0 and Celtica vi 223 ). boíë (MS. baoí), Ériu xxvi 67, 85 . Cf. cech nóeb bói, fil, bías, Fél. Ep. 289 (where six sylls. required). With suff. pron. boithus, IT i 137.8 = boithius, 21 . boíthi, Sc.M² 3 . ? baísu, Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. i 37.5 . Impers. *both(a)e, postulated GOI § 789 , botha, TBC-I¹ 1572 . -both(a), Vita Br. 33 . 1 pl. bamar, SR 1558 . bámar, 3286 , Imr. Brain i 48.5 . 2 pl. -baid (baïd ?), cited GOI § 789 , OIPG 71 . 3 pl. bātir, TBC-I¹ 217 . -batar, Ml. 55c2 . Rel. batar, Ml. 123b5 . See GOI § 789 .

Perf. 1 s. rob, Wb. 28a9 . -roba, Ml. 44c4 . -raba, TBC-I¹ 3068 . 2 s. rob, LL 14442 . 3 s. robói, Wb. 5c10 . rambái, 2c13 . robui, Ml. 93c3 . -robae, Ml. 41a5 , -robe, Wb. 18d7 , -rabae, Ml. 28d3 . Impers. romboth, Wb. 19a9 . rombod, 5b31 . -rabad, Ériu iv 146.4 . 1 pl. robámmar, Wb. 20d12 . -robammar, Ml. 105b16 . 2 pl. rubaid, Wb. 3b19 . -robaid, Ml. 46a8 . 3 pl. robatar, Wb. 24c5 . robbátar, Sg. 57b1 . -rabatar, Ml. 100c11 . -robatar, Sg. 45b1 . -rabtar, Ml. 37a16 .

Vn. buith.

Vbl. of necess. buithi.

Later forms (see also Ó Máille, Verbs of Existence in Irish, Ériu vi 1 ff. ; Mulchrone, Verbalformen der Vita Tripartita, ZCP xvi 440 ; Falconer, Verbal System of LU Táin, Ériu xvii 116 ; Strachan, Verbal System of SR, Phil. Soc. Trans. 1895, 1 - 76 ; O Daly, Verbal System of LL Táin, Ériu xiv 80 ; Mac Eoin, Verbalsystem von Togail Troi, ZCP xxviii 125 ; Sommerfelt, Le système verbal dans In Cath Catharda, RC xxxviii 41 ; Nuner, Verbal System of the Agallamh na Senórach, ZCP xxvii 272 ; PH Glossary; Lloyd, Impersonal passive forms of the Irish substantive verb, Ériu i 49 ff. ; TD Introd. lxxv ; IGT Verbs § 7 ).

Indic. pres. 1 s. atáu, Trip.² 1412 . atú, 2578 . itu, SR 1187 . it, TBC-LL¹ 434 . atú, IGT Verbs § 7 . ataim, Fier. 14 . -t, Acall. 4516 . 2 s. -tái, SR 3102 . -toi, TBC-I¹ 937 . taoi, TD 15.48 . cia doaisiu mac?, RC xxvi 30 § 128 . 3 s. -t, Trip.² 744 . atá, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. attá, Trip.² 534 , ata, SR 7708 etc., at, Acall. 429 . Impers. atáthar, TBC-LL¹ 3316 . dáthar (: máthar), IGT Verbs ex. 99 . atass, Ériu iv 114 § 17 (:as). -das (: as), IGT Verbs ex. 104 . 1 pl. itám, SR 1727 . tám, 3493 . ataum, PH 1556 . ataim, TBC-LL¹ 874 . atamaoit, TBC St. 121 . atámaoid, atám, IGT Verbs § 7 . -taum, PH 1506 . -dtám (: ár), IGT Verbs ex. 111 . 2 pl. atathai, PH 2734 . atathi, 597 . atáithi (: fáithi), IGT Verbs ex. 105 . -táithi (: sáithi), ex. 96 . -dathai, Alex. 190 . -taidh, Ériu ii 118 § 53 . 3 pl. itāt, TBC-I¹ 3132 . atáit, CCath. 1215 . ataut, PH 1064 . táid, TD 8.5 . -táit, CCath. 1701 . Rel. itat, Trip.² 882 , atat, SR 7949 . For later forms in meaning than (is) see atás, indaas, 4 ol. See also II (d) below and daas.

The form fil. 1 s. ni ḟuilim, ni ḟoilim, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. -fhile, PH 8116 . -fhuile, 3335 , -fuili, Acall. 3217 . -ḟoili, -ḟuile, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. fail, TBC-I¹ 60 , SR 353 etc. ro fail , TBC-LL¹ 263 , fuil, 3072 . -fail, Trip.² 2764 , -fuil, 872 , -uil, PH 3181 , -ḟil, Acall. 3709 . -ḟuil, -ḟoil, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. fil, Trip.² 842 , fail, SR 392 , no fail , 933 . With impers. ending: filter, MacCongl. 31.25 . -fuiltear, TD 2.42 . 1 pl. ra fuilemm , TBC-LL¹ 2971 . -failmet, SR 6320 , -ḟuilmíd, Acall. 5101 . -ḟuilmíd, -ḟoilmíd, -ḟuileam, -ḟoileam, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 pl. -bhḟuilti, Acall. 962 . 3 pl. failet, SR 345 . filet, 477 . fuilet, TBC-LL¹ 4739 . -failet, Trip.² 1119 . -filet, TBC-I¹ 1848 , -fileat, CCath. 1270 . -fuilet, 427 . -fuilid, TD 7.23 . Rel. failet, SR 400 . ra failet , TBC-LL¹ 5225 . fuilet, 4709 . filet, PH 435 . See also do-fil.

Consuet. pres. 1 s. bim, PH 6393 . bím, -bím, IGT Verbs § 7 . ? -ruibim, SG 373.29 . 2 s. -bi, SR 2035 . bí, ní bí, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. bíd, TBC-I¹ 1453 (LU). biid, SR 4537 . bíd, 4588 . -bí, TBC-I¹ 472 . -bíonn, TD 22.12 . -bind, RC xlix 37.13 . bídh, -b, IGT Verbs § 7 . Impers. bither, PH 7441 . -bithar, Laws iv 234.2 Comm. 1 pl. bímit, Acall. 886 . bídmaid, 5481 . bímíd, -bímíd, -bíom, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 pl. bíth, Acall. 6139 . 3 pl. bīd, TBC-I¹ 1075 (bít, LU). -bíat, TTr.² 330 . -bít, PH 4189 , -bíd, TD 5.5 . Rel. bit (= bíït), SR 7259 . bít, TBC-LL¹ 1320 .

Indic. impf. 1 s. do bhínn , TD 23.7 . 3 s. nobīth, TBC-I¹ 593 (nobíid, LU cited above). robíth, TBC-I¹ 1903 (LU). do bhíodh , TD 14.23 . do bhíoth , 26.12 . Impers. bithi, Auraic. 5286 = -bithi, RC xx 150.y (ACC Pref.). no bithea , Acall. 156 . 3 pl. naboitis, TBC-I¹ 855 LU (nobitís, Y). nobīdis, 3621 (Y). bítís, 1898 (LU). no beitis , LL 407a27 . ro bitis , PH 1957 . do bhítís , Acall. 830 . do bhídís , TD 15.18 . Rel. tri cnuasa bítís ann, Acall. 455 .

Ipv. 1 s. bír (: gním), IGT Verbs ex. 94 . 2 s. b, Parrth. Anma 3871 . 3 s. bīdh, ZCP vi 271.z . bíodh, TD 16.2 . bíoth, 17.1 . 1 pl. bíom, Dán Dé xiv 17 . 2 pl. bíthe (: -chíthe), IGT Verbs ex. 95 . bídh, ex. 109 . bidhí, Luc. Fid. 3430 . 3 pl. bíod, TD 16.19 .

Subj. pres. 1 s. ber, SG 172.15 . uér, Ériu ii 92.9 . beor, v 222.46 . bheith mé, TD 8.9 . -ra bur , TBC-LL¹ 1112 . -rabor, ZCP xii 401.30 . ? -rabhus, ZCP v 523.27 = rabasa, Ériu xii 144.12 (TE). -rabar, ZCP iii 32.37 . bear, rabhar, -bear, -rabhar, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. bé, SR 1607 . beir, BNnÉ 288.29 . Acall. 592 . -rab(a)i, BDD² p. 80 . -rabha, Irish Texts iv 75 § 16 . -rabhair, Fing. R. p. 13 note 86 . -mbéis (: Céis), IGT Verbs ex. 100 . -beis(se) (: meise), Dán Dé xiv 20 . -rabais, Fing. R. 86 , BDD² 363 (see ZCP xxvii 75-8 ). beis, rabais, -beis, -rabais, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. beth, TBC-I¹ 270 (beith, v.l.), IGT Verbs ex. 101 . -b, TBC-I¹ 1671 . -raib, Trip.² 2753 . -rab, TBC-I¹ 1430 . -raibhe, Parrth. Anma 2616 . rabh, raibh, -bé, -raibh, -rabh, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. bess, TBC-I¹ 1104 (beis, Y). beas, IGT Verbs § 7 . Impers. bethur, Laws ii 36.20 Comm. 1 pl. beme, Snedg. u. Mac R 9.14 . bemmit, TBC-LL¹ 2137 . bemait, Acall. 5478 . -bém, CCath. 1124 . -beam (: leam), Dán Dé xii 10 . -ruibem, SR 5540 . -rabum, PH 7899 . bheam, rabham, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 pl. bethi, SR 1233 . rabthai, PH 1977 . 3 pl. beit, Trip.² 1653 . -bet, TBC-I¹ 1053 . -beat, Lism. L. 4702 . -rabat, Laws iv 42.29 Comm. -rabut, PH 994 . -rabhait, BNnÉ 269.4 . -rabhaid, Parrth. Anma 2836 . -rabheid, RC xxix 136 § 51 .

Subj. impf. 1 s. do beinn , do rabainn , IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. no beithi , Trip.² 2972 . no beithe , 2983 = no bethe , Trip. 252.21 . do beitheá , TD 1.44 . 3 s. no beith , Trip.² 2967 . nobith, TBC-I¹ 3543 . dá mbeadh , TD 29.6 . -mbeath, IGT Verbs ex. 97 . -rabad, RC iii 184.24 . Impers. -bethe, Trip.² 2828 . -bette, Metr. Dinds. iii 382.19 . rabtha, TBC-LL¹ (C) 1675 . 1 pl. dá mbiadh sinn, TD 28.25 . 3 pl. nobeitis, SR 7855 . nobeidis, TBC-I¹ 3557 . dá mbeith siad, TD 26.36 .

Fut. (see Bergin, Ériu ii 46-8 ) 1 s. bíat, TTr.² 89 . biat, PH 1244 . biad (bíatt v.l.), CCath. 5137 . bhead, Parrth. Anma 6378 . bed, ZCP vi 41.10 . bét, 69.2 . bett, BNnÉ 52 § 42 . -biu, TBC-LL¹ 882 . -bhiú, Dán Dé xiv 20 . biad, -bi, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. bía, Trip.² 1593 . biae, SR 1599 . -bíai, BNnÉ 291 § 2 . biaidh tú, TD 1.26 . bía, -bía, IGT Verbs § 7 . bethair, ZCP ii 225.4 . 3 s. bied, LU 10362 . biaid, Trip.² 1071 . biáid, TBC-I¹ 169 (LU). biaidh, -bia, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. bíes, Trip.² 2671 . bés, CCath. 300 , bes, 657 . bess, PH 4666 . bhias, TD 3.50 . do biass , L. Chl. S. 1 . Impers. beither, Acall. 5259 . beithir, ZCP x 415.11 . 1 pl. bemit, LU 9753 , PH 1501 . bemait, CCath. 1467 . -bem(ni, LU 9753 . beimíd, -biam, IGT Verbs § 7 . -biaim(ne) (: siairni), ex. 108 . ? -ben, BCC 396.19 . 2 pl. bethi, SR 3083 . beitte (: eiti) (beththi, bete v.l.), IGT Verbs ex. 102 . -bed, Trip.² 1590 . 3 pl. biait, Trip.² 2665 , TBC-I¹ 2057 (beite, LU). biat, Trip.² 1288 . beit, TBC-I¹ 80 . beiti, TBC-I¹ 2078 . beti, SR 8157 . betit, SR 853 . TBC-LL¹ 246 , TTr.² 760 . beidid, ZCP x 338 § 1 . -bīat, TBC-I¹ 1132 . beidíd síad, BCC 290.12 . beid, -bíad, IGT Verbs § 7 .

Condit. 1 s. no-béind, PH 6107 . dobeind, 7489 . do beinn, -beinn, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. do bheitheá , TD 19.13 . 3 s. no biadh , CCath. 3754 . -bied, TBC-I¹ 504 . ro bífad , TBC-LL¹ 5112 . rot-fiadh, IT iii 320.4 ( Cóir Anm. 70 ). do biath (: sgiath), IGT Verbs ex. 97 . do bhiadh , TD 2.54 . Impers. no bethe , TTr.² 533 . 3 pl. do bheidīs , Parrth. Anma 5227 .

Pret. and perf. 1 s. ro-bádus, PH 699 . do bhádhus , TD 23.6 . do bhí mé, 5 . -rabus, Acall. 7913 . -rabhas, 1584 . -rabadhus, 356 . do bá , -raba; do bádhus , -rabadhas, IGT Verbs § 7 . do basa ( : bádusa; proscribed form), ex. 103 . 2 s. ro bhádhuis , CCath. 553 . do bhí tú, TD 28.6 . -rabadais, PH 3725. 8121 . -rabhais, Acall. 123 . do bhádhuis , -rabhadhuis, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. bae, SR 7608 . bóe, 6265 . baei, BDD² 127 . búi, CCath. 95 . -bae, SR 4975 . -buí, Trip.² 1505 . robai, SR 2229 , robae, 2262 . robói, PH 2572 . ro bí , CCath. 1302 . robuidh, Ériu iii 198 § 22 . do bí , CCath. 278 . do bhói , Acall. 58 . do bhaoi (: draoi), Dán Dé xii 22 . -rubai, SR 1241 . -roibe, BDD² 498 , -roibi, 1393 . -roba, 251 . -raba, 1533 . -raibhe, TD 2.25 . -rabha, 8.36 . -robha, 1 . do bí , -raibi, do baí , -rabha, IGT Verbs § 7 . With depon. ending -rabhustair, BNnÉ 322 § 31 . Rel. boí, Trip.² 626 . bāi, TBC-I¹ 1277 . būi, 630 . ro bae , Trip.² 288 . ro buí , BDD² 287 . ro baí , 1451 . ro boí , 1517 . Impers. both, Trip.² 2264 . rombatha, Ériu ii 20 § 3 (-a added later). -rabad, iv 146.4. robās, TBC-I¹ 2147 . rombas, SR 7564 , robás, TTr.² 151 . -rabus, Trip.² 54 . rabas, Laws iv 212.22 Comm. , -bádus, MacCongl. 43.22 . -bás, 61.3 . do bás , do bas , -rabas, IGT Verbs § 7 . do bas (: as), ex. 98 . do bhás (: fhás), Dán Dé xxvi 9 . 1 pl. bāmur, TBC-I¹ 399 . do bámar , Acall. 1283 . do bhámair (: Ádhaimh), Dán Dé xv 17 . -rabamar, TBC-I¹ 2495 . 2 pl. robabair, Anecd. ii 14.9 . -babhair, Blathm. 23 (see notes ). robadbair, TBC-I¹ 2502 . do bhábhair , TD 22a.1 . -rabhuir, Acall. 114 . -rabhabhair, TD 22a.2 . 3 pl. bādar, TBC-I¹ 472 . -bátir, TTr.² 1308 . ro badar , CCath. 573 n. ro bádar , Acall. 75 . do bídur , 5942 . -rabadar, TBC-I¹ 3108 . -rabhadair, TD 26.10 . ro baisit , O'Dav. 728 . -rabhsad, TD 16.21 . Rel. bátar, Trip.² 591 . BDD² 505 . ro bátar , 543 . Vn. an bheith , IGT Verbs § 7 . Vbl. of necess. beitte, TD 28.30 .

Cf. cenmothá, íarmothá, óthá.

Used in meaning is in a large variety of contexts. Normally replaced by copula (see 1 is) in certain fixed syntactical patterns (classification, identification, etc.), and when used in these cases exceptional (see above and II below).

I Expressing existence.

(a) Used absolutely is, exists, there is, etc.: ata in coimdiu gl. Dominus in cælo sedis eius, Ml. 30b27 . nabad hed a méit nádmbǽ `let it not be only that it is not' gl. nec nominetur in uobís, Wb. 22b14 . ní fil aimsir nad mbed ref. to fuit et est semper, Ml. 17a15 . ní torménmar-ni ara mbetis in gnimai sin gl. præter spem nostram, etc., 115b1 . ni fil chumtubairt gl. indubitabilia, etc., Sg. 154b2 . ma nubed `if it existed', 31b21 . ro baoi siomh re tuisdinsiú `he existed', Blathm. 632 . as e as soithcerndomh fil, 773 . ma rombe is maith if it is, it is well, Laws iv 2.14 Comm. ni rabi uair . . . nad ro bai `there was no hour . . . that He existed not', Ériu ii 106 § 16 . a cin for athair .i. uair na bí mac, Laws iv 240.16 Comm. Columb [ro]baoi, Columb bīaas, ZCP viii 198 § 20 . tar ēis a mic . . . / nī raba acht dā aenbliadain `was alive only two years', Ériu iii 198 § 24 . as a rad ata a nadmaim cin co be by saying there is a covenant though there is not, Laws iv 52.30 Comm. ni tha . . . ní a ngeimre in winter there is nothing, 90.1 (with petrified inf. pron. 3 s. n. in dat. sense?). ní bía terca bíd there will not be a scarcity of food, BColm. 52.5 . bid dno maith, ┐ ni bi derrscugud de `yet there is good, and nothing to surpass it', Auraic. 703 . is tré ómun bíid serc, Ériu i 195.1 . céin beti neóil im gréin ngil, Metr. Dinds. ii 38.z . i céin raibh nemh is talamh as long as . . . endure, BNnÉ 314 § 8 . bai cocad mor etarro, RC xxiv 186 § 19 . In phrase (acht) atá ní (chena) but, moreover, see 1 ní (e).

In periphrasis when emphasis on some element other than the verb is required: bieid nach dréct diib hícfider, Wb. 4d6 . bieid bes ferr de, 32a13 . do budh cusmail rit co robuis uair ecin, ┐ co n[d]ingenta rét feramail `that thou wert once such an one that thou couldst . . .', ZCP vi 87.13 . ba-sa tan / nī folabrainn ilach gamh, Ériu ii 95 § 3 . ata[a]t .iii. cáini nad chumgat comarbai do chumscuchud, Ériu xvii 68 § 9 ( Laws iv 210 ). Note further: atāit teora brīathra / ata lōgmaire for nim, ZCP vii 312 § 25 .

With words expressing time: bieid aimser nad creitfider, Wb. 28c14 . aidchi robuī `one night', Ériu ii 222.25 . fecht robai `once', Mon. Tall. 147.2 (§ 52) . biaidh uair 's . . . a time will come when, Dán Dé vii 31 .

Introducing a statement: cia beith ara rogba bóairechas riasíu ropo chúairddulchach though it be that he assume, Críth G. 67 . dá mbeith fós go mbiadh an Fhraingc comh líonmhar ┐ adeir seisean `granted that', Keat. ii 933 . má tá go seachnoid síol Éibhir . . ., TD 29.7 . ci(d), gi(d) bé whatever, whoever (see Ériu xii 210 ): ria flaithaib, .i. rias na flaithib, cibe flaithe iat `whatever chieftains they be', Laws iv 154.17 . gidh bé lá cheannghar an chairt, Dán Dé xiv 17 . cidh bé do bhean díbh an dúthaigh, DDána 26.1 . bíd (ipv. 3 s.) co n- although: admhuim . . . mo pheactha . . . bīodh gomadh é mo mhīan a bhfolach though I should wish to hide them, Parrth. Anma 4625 . bīodh nach gcaoifithea go spesialta fá gach peacadh though you might not weep specially for each sin, Mac Aingil 235 . bíth gur gheallas . . . though I promised, Ó Bruad. ii 212 § xiv . In constr. manibed x ní bíad y were it not for x y would not be, see má II (b).

(b) The subst. vb. is usual with predicates consisting of adverbial phrases of all kinds (prep. and noun, adjj. and nouns used adverbially, etc.) and thus enters into a large and varied corpus of idioms. A select list follows. Reference should in all cases also be made to the nouns, adjj., adverbs and prepositions concerned.

With CO: atáthar sund chucut your adversary is approaching, LL 10300 ( TBC-LL¹ 3316 ).

With CO N-: atúsa com thegluch there is myself and my household troop, TBC-LL¹ 437 .

With DI: im chaingin robui de muintir Tamlachti friss `about a business that arose between the monastery of Tallaght and him', Mon. Tall. 157.7 (§ 72) . masu de chlaind Echdach aird / atāi, ZCP xi 108 § 1 . ní bia debaid . . . de, Ériu iv 108 § 69 . Of materials: an crann dobí na sesam ... dobí sé do cepresus was a (lit. of) cupressus, Maund. 9 . In phrase a.¤ di such is: roboi du meit a pecthae `so great were their sins', Ml. 98c6 . má beth tra do hūaite ind āessa gráid `if the ordained folk be too few', Ériu i 220 § 13 .

With DO: biid do anmmaim cathrach `(Samnis) is as the name of the city', Sg. 104b5 . nád robatar suin do ṡlund in dúildetad inchoisget `there were not words (enough) to signify . . .', 45b1 . manusbeth tenga dia relad `if (the sun) had a tongue', Ériu ii 126 § 81 . ata eric a fogla do dul a ruradh o duine, Laws iv 50.5 Comm. Expressing possession, etc.: con roib core dúib fri cách so that you may be at peace with all men, Wb. 26b30 . in fochricc file do i nnim, 29b29 . cach ngrád asid n-ísliu bíid dó i céilsini, Críth G. 374 . robi timna in ríg don Comdhe, RC xviii 182.5 . nico mbái dó acht bás there was nothing for him but death, Vita Br. 32 . fecht robúi damsae domchaomnacuir `once it happened to me', Mon. Tall. 144.7 (§ 45) . atá damhsa ris an dáimh / gan ísliughadh neith dá gcáil it is my duty in regard to the sages not to belittle . . ., Content. xiv 8 .

With FOR (later AR): as ṅdath glas roboi forsind sl[é]ib the mountain was green, Ml. 84d4 . cech dath is maith ré neach bid forro, RC vi 183.9 . cēin beó ar in mbith mbuide, Ériu ii 92.16 . nocha cuinnghim bethaid mbí / ōtú ar sīth mo Rīgh amuigh since I am outside the palace of my king(?), ZCP vii 301 § 10 . scríbend menmman .i. robbói for a inndṡliucht-som `it had been in his mind', Sg. 178b4 . in sét atá form aire on which I am intent, Ériu vi 115 § 6 . a mhacnas orm gidh eadh raibh though I greatly desire to do so, Dán Dé xix 6 .

With FRI: nobiad fri femen `it would be (used) with the feminine', Sg. 207b2 . ní biat remsuidigthi friu `there are no prepositions with them', 215a5 . ni humhal robabair rim cen erghe rónn you were not submissive to me, Anecd. ii 14.9 . ba [mait]h ro mboth friu they were well treated, TBFr. 145 . is throit ra bass risin fer út that man was quickly dispatched, TBC-LL¹ 2986 ( LL 10035 ).

With I: is hi tuaisciurt slebe sióin ata in chathir, Ml. 67d8 . ataam ar ndiis i cuimriug, Wb. 32a28 . is and . . . bieid finis, 13b29 . is sunt bia-sa i n-eilithri, Ml. 137b7 . nach dú i mbí isnaib salmaib iustitia, 109a2 . bēti a scēla illāidib, ZCP iii 37.32 . dēna torba airm i mbī, vii 311 § 9 . ro-bas i lurg an madma la clannaibh Néill the Clanna N. pursued the rout, xiv 234.16 . adh bes fiu da trian na samuisce atá isín focreic, issed ata isin fogail doníther ris na ferandaib cétna i fuacht an geimridh `a calf which is worth two thirds of the `samhaisc'-heifer which is paid for the rent, it is it that is paid for the trespass', Laws iv 92.16 Comm. cínta do niad na cethra . . . leth a mbia ina nairlim isedh bias ina tairsci `half of that fine which lies for their `airlim'-trespass . . .', 74.8 Comm. cod a midídar ruire trachta ┐ raite? Nin; co rabadar ocht nurcora dec and do fhleascach, 138.4 Comm. ní bhíadh na ghoin é d'oighedh / toil Dé muna deónaighedh His wound would not be enough to cause His death, IGT Decl. ex. 378 . Common in form with suff. pron. 3 s. n. ma beith nech and tra labrathar ilbélre if there be anyone, etc., Wb. 13a4 . ar atá brithem and cenut-su `a judge is there apart from thee', 6b25 . ataat alaaili interiecta and it coitchena do cach ceniul, Sg. 10a1 . attaad teora bliadna and. Niconcomracamar díoblíonaib `it is three years since we two had intercourse', Mon. Tall. 134.26 (§ 21) . For phr. cid fil and trá see trá. In idiom tá sé i n-a fhear he is a man (see Dillon, ZCP xvii 307 ff. ): is amlaid . . . atá in rigsudi sin inna chathaír chumtachta, LU 2005 ( FA 7 ). cidead bes ina bibdaid `even though he be a caitiff', Ériu v 22.20 . gu raibhe 'na cholum ghel, Acall. 1080 . ce raib se i n-a fhír, PH 7324 . do bí 'n-a mnaí grádaig ac Find, Acall. 2018 . do rígh gion go rabhthá id mhac, DDána 91.15 . Note also: tuc . . . aithne gurbh e righ Eirenn do bí ann that it was in fact the king, Ériu iii 152 § 6 . ro innis do gur 'uo he Isu ro ui ann, RC xii 344.15 .

With IMM: ni baitir, ni loisctir cein beit immo `he is not drowned or burnt as long as they are on him', RC vi 183.8 .

With LA: gan bheith le Dia is ann bhus aithreach if we are not on God's side, Dán Dé x 27 . Expressing possession and related ideas: is lib atá a rogu, Wb. 9a23 . is derb lium attá latsu gl. certus sum autem quod et in té, 29d14 . ainmm ninchoisc cenéuil issed file la laitnóri, Sg. 30b8 . is airi nobíth digaimm leo ante ρ. sin, 9b10 . ni fil bríg laisiom hisind accobar sin `he considers that such desire is no great matter,' Mon. Tall. 151.13 (§ 62) . is dé atá lem, fobíth, etc. this is why I think so (of an assertion), TTr.² 343 . itá a rīgan la cach ríg sund, TBC-I¹ 190 . fail leis secht nimi, SR 629 . ar ní ḟil acht oenlám lim, LL 14150 .

With ó: báoi alaile anchoire antuaid o sláne `there was a certain anchorite from Slane in the North', Mon. Tall. 159.8 (§ 77) . cech lennánacht fil isin domvn is úadhi atá originates with her, TTr.² 370 . Bressal Ó Tressaig ō' tāit / Hī Tressaig `. . . from whom are sprung', Ériu ii 50 § 7 . ni fil[et] o neoch ┐ ni filter uaidibh `they are not derived from anything, and nothing is derived from them', Auraic. 1507 .

With OC: ar notéighed dīa sathairn init co mbídh oc Cnocc Droma Coblai, ZCP viii 106.29 = Trip.² 2858 . ma no bith . . . mo c[h]laideb acom if I had my sword, TBC-I¹ 3543 . co rabat aidmi oc cech altōir . . ., Ériu i 219 § 9 . in ti ac na biat ba, Laws iv 36.10 Comm. in fhil biad ocaib sund? PH 6709 . ná raibh agad ar n-éra `refuse me not', Studies 1918, 99 § 16 . In impers. constr. cindas atathar occat? how are affairs with thee? RC xxvi 368.9 . a.¤ y oc x x has the power to do y: ní bhía . . . ag boigṡín / mo chor tar creich Phádraigín, Ériu ix 163 § 7 .

With adverbs and adv. phrases: céin bett abus `while they are here below', BColm. 98.28 . ní rubai nach cruth ailiu `it cannot be otherwise', Sg. 7b3 . ataat ám in chrut sin, 140b1 . hóre nád robe Tit ar mo chiunn, Wb. 14d29 . na muindtire bís id choimidecht `of the monks that live with thee', Mon. Tall. 128.8 (§ 3) . dá rabh mé ar éanmhagh is í, Dán Dé ix 12 . is bether go hīsiul de, ZCP x 51.6 . bidh co mín michuir ret c[h]airdibh, vi 272 § 3 . is samlaid insin robói a flaithemnacht indibsi, Ml. 18a8 . nī hamlaid beitid na nāimh . . ., ZCP xiii 9.26 . dobadus co subhach rompa, KMMisc. 319.27 . léig mar atāit tall, ZCP viii 202.4 . trath atusa sund, TBC-LL¹ 2379 . ionmhuin uan nar fhás ó mhnaoi / do bhás go truagh ar a thí, Dán Dé xxvi 9 . Note also: dá mbem a-moigh `if we win forth', Ériu ix 162 § 2 . With interrogatives: ceth leth atā E., TBC-I¹ 376 . can ata? whence is it? Hib. Min. 8.270 . cāit atā do t[h]igerna?, TBC-I¹ 789 . ciatā inso?, ZCP viii 311.13 . a Findtain, arse, ┐ Éri cía gabad ca rabad inde? `where have things been therein?' Ériu iv 146 § 23 .

(c) Used with inf. and suff. pron. to express possession. With inf. pron.: rosmbia a lóg `they shall have payment for it', Wb. 5d35 . ind indocbál no-b-tá in futuro, 14c16 . ro-n-da-biad cech maith, Ml. 33b13 . rombia-sa la dia . . . a day will come for me when, Vita Br. 12 . roborbē (roburbe v.l.) which is yours, Cáin Ad. 27 . nīmthat asnai I have no ribs, TBC-I¹ 2871 . gell cóic sét di neoch rodmbí `of whatever he has', Críth G. 283 and n. uair nach tá tír dia fhulung fri re napuidh because he has no land to support him (?), Laws iv 30.19 Comm. rom be nem may I have heaven, Snedg. u. Mac R 14 § 76 . Femen intan rombai rí . . . when it had a king, RC xvii 148.19 . cia luag nomtha?, SR 1165 . rombí lethbairgen, Anecd. i 73 § 211 . atbert Cathair nimthasa ní dhuit I have nothing to give you, LL 386b22 . Note also: nintha do imtecht liumm `I have (lit. we have) no news', RC xiii 222.20 . With cumang (or similar word) and prep. DO has the power to: nímtha cumachtæ ṅdo, Ml. 140b7 . ní-s-ta som . . . cumang domm orcuin-se, 60d3 . nísmbói didiu do chumacc a mmbo do imain they hadn't the strength to, Vita Br. 24 . sáerthar lat in domnach cech cumang rotbé (rodbe, rotbia, v.ll.) dó `with all your might', Ériu ii 204 § 22 . nícom thása cumang dia tabair[t], TBFr. 302 . apraind nachimbai-si nert do theacht cucu alas that I had not strength . . ., TBC-I¹ 3439 . Used independently is able: nīmt[h]a a dechmad d'indisin / nech doní do maith `I cannot tell a tithe of all the good he does', BColm. 70.6 . nimta-sa sin . . . uair da caithius mo dan re sciathaib Ulad I cannot do that . . ., Ériu v 72.8 . Note also: ango dano for Ingcél adfía basa lecht bas briscium `peradventure I shall be the frailest corpse', BDD 102h ( RC xxii 211 ) = at-mbia basa lecht bas brisceam, BDD² 716 (leg. ro-t-bia?).

With suffixed pron. taithiunn . . . / ni fris tarddam ar n-áthius `we have . . . something to which to apply our acuteness', Thes. ii 293.19 . táithi caire umai he has a bronze cauldron, Críth G. 197 . tathum rūn, TBC-I¹ 848 . bethib sūirsi lim-sa dano ye will enjoy freedom with me, ZCP viii 316.5 . tathat lim logh do áes, logh do sinnsire thou hast with me = I accord thee, xii 365.13 . baíthium anfud mílach mend, LU 3018 . tathuib comram, Rawl. 88b51 . tathum o día praind, Anecd. i 64 § 120 . tāthud ochtar la suidiu / airm hi fail a crōlighe `thou wilt find eight men . . .', Fianaig. 12 § 16 . tathai eolus maith, ZCP vii 310 § 1 . tatos subhae `they have happiness', Blathm. 82 . Pleonastically: tathai erouidh . . . bithbron `Herod . . . has eternal sorrow', 83 .

(d) In nasalising rel. clauses to denote has something the matter, is ailing: ced das in ben maith? `what ails the good woman?', Thes. ii 329.48 . cidh tás do sūil, a clērich? what is the matter with your eye? RC xxvii 280 § 35 . Oengus mac in Dagdai hisiurcc di bliadan. Cid tas or Bodb, RC iii 345.9 . ra[fh]etur sa . . . an daas ind ingen what is wrong with the girl, Vita Br. 5 . ni fetarsa cid no-tó I do not know what is the matter with me, ZCP viii 176.5 . cid no-taí? Sc.M² 3 . roḟetarsa a n-attath[a]i. Ni taam ni or Cano, Anecd. i 9.25 ( SCano 293 ). cid tāthaí, a maccu? . . . oc imresain atām . . ., Ériu viii 157.16 . ni confetatarsin cid rombui hissennath, RC iii 344.10 . dia ḟis cid robái (rombui, v.l.) grían to find out what was the matter with the sun, Ériu iv 140.13 .

With prep. DO feels (inimically) towards, is angry with, worries: propter incredulitatem fracti sunt .i. cani airi .i. badochu lem són is [hed] romboth doib that is the fault found with them, Wb. 5b31 . cren dímsa m'ingin . . . Cid dathir di? . . . Is dichmarcach what cause of annoyance has she given? Vita Br. 13 . fiarfaig Conchobar scēla dō. —Cidh tāi di ṡodain? ol Bricriu why do you bother with it? ZCP v 502.15 . cadai-siu duind?, TTebe 424 . In good sense treats in a special manner: ca tāthar dúin do domnach des / sech gach laithi lāndiles? `why do we hold Sunday above . . .?' Ériu iii 143 § 7 . With added prep.: cidh 'ma bfuile dam? ZCP x 10.11 . ná bí réd chathrachaibh dhúinn `talk not to us of your forts', Content. vi 31 . See further s.v. daas. Frequ. in class. verse in phrase gá dtá, dás (acht) what is the use? in short. Either gá dtá or gá tá may be used to suit alliteration, see Ir. Syll. Poetry 86 . fogus orchra don éigsi / gá ttás cur ré coiméidsi `how can she be saved?' Studies 1923, 421 § 1 . gá dás luadh imdheachta an ḟir? `what need to recount', TD 13.40 . gá dás mé dá mīrbuile / acht sé d'fás ó ÓghMuire, IGT Decl. ex. 200 . gá dtám? —acht torchuir bu dheas in short, TD 3.10 . With follg. prep.: gá dtám ris . . . / acht meise féin foidhidneach, TD 3.41 . ga dtú ris, a rí L.? / ort chuirim mo chomuirghe, 30.12 . ní bhiú ris acht, Dán Dé vi 31 . ní fhuilim dó, xi 30 .

(e) With words indicating number, quantity in sense of accompanied by, having: bí[i]th a th[a]urchreicc cóic ṡétaib, Críth G. 71 . baei Conairi a ceithri cairpthig il-Lifiu, BDD 12 (a cethror cairpdech, v.l.). itó-sa lín do gona, TBC-LL¹ 434 . denam d'ḟiadach na muice in lín Feinde atámait, Acall. 2223 . atáthaoi líon a n-ithte, Keat. iii 4439 . atú-sa caegait fer, MR 248.17 . Later: bed-sa ┐ mili ridiri maraen rium ad diaig, ZCP vi 41.9 .

II Expressing state, condition, kind, etc. with pred. consisting of noun, pron. or adj. (usage more usual with copula, see introd. section above).

(a) With noun pred.: boe sab suithe cech dind, ACC 26 ( RC xx 168 ). boe saegul sneid, 24 . boe dind oc libur leigdocht, 27 . biait betha airchind they will be chieftains of the world, Rawl. 125b9 . With subj. standing between the vb. and pred.: atá dia atach ṅ-dún-ni ais dethrebo God is a refuge to us the people of the two tribes, Ml. 66d1 . bói Fíachnae Lurga athair Mongáin, Imr. Brain 42.1 . Cf. Sg. 20b3 .

(b) With adj. pred.: boe seim sáth, ACC 25 . biat slana, SR 4167 (copula?). feib atam nocht, 1347 (copula?). bía slan, LU 3344 ( SCC 13 ). Cf. habe . . . (.i. sana sis .i. slán bee), Enchir. Aug. 82a ( ZCP vii 484 ). dlegar doibsium na be lobtaigh cor ( ar dlegar doibsium na bed lobthaig cor, O'Dav. 1191 ) (Atk. in Glossary emends to be[t]), Laws iv 54.10. atámait ainmfesach, RC xxiv 371.7 . bítíss meth (leg. methi, ed.) occ tinntúd, IT iii 235.z . co filim garbliath i rricht, LU 1272 . ro boísium imnedach i tossuch a bethad, LL 7305 . ro-bádus-[s]a dronnach, PH 2788 . céin beorsa beó as long as I am alive, Ériu v 222.46 . is follus co fuilti eaclach, Fier. 69 . maith dīghōltar ant andlocht / bethar taoblom tarrnocht trūagh folk will be, ZCP xii 395.23 . With subj. betw. vb. and pred.: is trissa ndede sin biid duine slán et fírian, Wb. 4d33 . amal mbís tegdís fás [amm]edón ┐ scópthe gl. sicut domus uacans et scopata, Tur. 14 ( Thes. i 485.23 ). arrobói a rígthech lán de rígaib, Imr. Brain 1 . amal no beithi féin béo and, Trip.² 2972 . co mbatar na hádnaicti óbéla, PH 676 . bis an puls tonnmur lethan, Rosa Angl. 272.8 . oir dobi se crodha do laim ┐ mor do mét, Fier. 2 .

(c) With part. as pred. Immediately follg. vb. (see GOI 475-6 ; OIPG 147 ): amal nombemmis érchóilti gl. tanquam morti destinatos, Wb. 9a3 . biid ersoilcthi ar chiunn for ríg `be ye opened before your king' (of doors), Ml. 46a7 . co rabais (rabhdais, v.l.) marbtha mudaigthi, TTebe 854 . With subj. standing between vb. and pred.: ataat mesai Dǽ nephchomtetarrachti the judgements of God are incomprehensible, Ml. 55d11 . céin nombetis inna saigtea tuidmithi inna feuil `as long as the arrows were fixed in his flesh', Ml. 58a9 . órobatar ind liss dúntai, Imr. Brain 1 . co ra-bi in uli demnaigecht fomamaigthi dó, PH 2796 .

(d) In sentences where the vb. stands in a nasalising rel. clause and refers to a pred. expressed in the principal clause: is faittech rond-boi som, Ml. 21d4 . ni ba cian mbias in pecthach, 56c22 . fer . . . nadip romar bed a sommæ a man . . . whose wealth should not be too great, Thes. ii 241.9 . is-gáibthech atátur i-sin-magh sin, RC xxiv 378.12 . is trog robas isin chotlad sin, Ériu v 34.z . ní cás duid madh diomdhach raibh / grása Dé . . ., Dán Dé xix 22 . [is] slán do bhaoi an brat-sain, xii 22 .

(e) In the type of sentence where the description constitutes an independent sentence with copula: ego sum uermis et non homo .i. atāim-si conad cruim mē ┐ nāch duine, Corm. Y 211 . ro boi Victor co mbo ḟortachtaigthid do Pátraic, ACL iii 10 § 8 = Trip.² 217 . unus non est . . . .i. nochon fhil int aen co mbad airim, acht ata conidh fotha airim, Auraic. 689 . dom dóigh . . . robadhuis uair ecin ┐ roba díl anora tú `it seems to me . . . that there was once a time when thou wert worthy of honour', ZCP vi 99.5 .

cétamus

Cite this: eDIL s.v. cétamus or dil.ie/8889

Forms: cétmus, cétus, cétomus, cétmus, cétus, cētomus

conj (1 cét- + tomus. See Éigse vii 157 - 8 , CRR Gloss.). Earlier cétmus, whence cétus (-ús?). Also cétomus, -tumus. Freq. with len. ch-. GOI 248 .

(a) In phr. bad chotamus doṅ chetamus fair sin measure for measure, tit-for-tat , CRR 7 , 8 . ? Cf. ceadamus .i. in cetna ai for seis no in cetnai fis no in cétna amas forsa ḟaisnes, Lec. Gl. 180 . cetamus .i. cetna, Stowe Gl. 273 .

(b) Adv. firstly, to begin with, originally : ceadas .i. ar tús, O'Cl. cétmus `in the first place', Wb. 23b34 . ríi benn c.¤ (in list), Críth G. 448 . ropa cridiscel dam cedamus `my first wish was', Mon. Tall. 136.21 . cétus, Trip.² 635 . cētomus, Sc.M² 11 . itosuch chetumus, LL 13296 ( RC viii 48 ). cetar-cubaid garit dialtach cetomus (in list), IT iii 15 § 33 . cid ma tanic tu-su chidus . . . isin n-eclais?, YBL 146a15 . rob í ar gceardcha céadamhas (: solas), Ir. Review 1913, 594 § 5 . soil cédus, IGT Introd. § 23 .

(c) In wider sense however, moreover, indeed, even, etc.: ni aurtet ní laisim cetamus a tabirt `he does not hold it admissible, however, to give it', Mon. Tall. 143.14 . saer i suidiu ndair . . . daer i suide saeir cetamus on the other hand(?), Laws v 20.13 . nit athgénmár or E. Atotgénsa chetus ol in t-ócláech, LU 10801 (TE) `however', Ériu xii 175 . adfét dó . . . ainm cech prímdune . . . adfét dó chetumus a n-íathu ┐ a n-áthu moreover, LU 5106 = chetamus, TBC-I¹ 621 . con-aitchecht C. dig . . . Nís-fil and ch.¤ unfortunately there is none, BDD² 1432 . damad d'escairdibh cetamus noberad cosccur if only, CCath. 3700 . ni thuicemni cedus a raidhit we don't even understand what they say, IT iii 187.4 . chetus in ben sa is sí in glan genmnaid indeed(?), LU 3907 ( SCC 42 ). na hidail-sea citus, ni dat dee, PH 2353 `indeed', Gloss.

2 éis

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 éis or dil.ie/19846
Last Revised: 2013

n i, ī g s. perhaps in Traig Ési, Ériu i 118.35 . g p. perh. in: ainm don eclais-sin Aposania (no Appodonia) .i. costa, fo bith na folliucht (no na n-essi) batar inti, PH 6336 (here costa is an adj. from cos, and the reference is to the traces of the Archangel's feet, cf. 6330 - 1 ). Trace, track: es .i. integ...┐ slicht, O'Mulc. 437 . eiss...integ ┐ slicht, 442 . éis .i. lorg; do fhagbhadh éis a chos isin gcloich .i. lorg a chos, O'Cl. ACL iii 10.11 (= vestigia Trip. 19.3 ). forruim a choiss forsind leicc | maraith a és (a es, dia æs MSS.), Thes. ii 310 = Trip. 404.17 . nicon fess eng na eis dib track or trace of them IT i 143.27 . ata slicht a da chos and beos, is de ata Traig Ési la hUltu `the Strand of the Track' Ériu i 118.35 .

Most freq. in adverbial and prepositional phrases with ar, di, do, tar (dar):

ar é.¤

(1) after, in succession to; remaining after, waiting behind: (a) in bliadain ar eis na ronda sin the year after that division MacCarthy 304.3 ( BB 13a7 ). in bliadain ar eis rige do gabail do, 306.18 . bliadain ar es cesda Crist, 304 . 25 . ni himda aici fer a himcair...ara eis not many has [learning] to support her after him (i.e. after his death) AU 1345 . do anusdair E. ar eis Fergusa E. remained after F. had left ZCP viii 551.2 = dia éis, TBC-LL¹ 1845 . ro fhagaibh sé Sir H. ara eis, ZCP vi 42.16 . cia uand bias ar eis a chéli? (or D.) which of us will survive the other? YBL 126b7 . (b) bia-so ar m'eissi-sea .uii. mbliadain, or C., YBL 126b8 .

(2) for, instead of: (b) as-ren a fine aithgin ar a eisi, Laws iii 158.11 Comm.

co hé.¤ till the end of, till after (probably modelled on ar éis etc.): (a) gan longadh...go héis a saltrach till he had finished his psalter BNnÉ 279.32 .

di ¤ , do é.¤ As the two preps. fall together in unstressed position from an early period, it is usually difficult to decide which is intended. In similar contexts we find: dom héis-se, Wb. 29d9 and: dim(m)ǽs, Ml. 23d6 , 9 (see below).

(1) above, in the preceding context (see Celtica xviii 85-86 ): (a) di ess (gl. retro) Ml. 2c1 . di éis (gl. retro) BCr. 31b5 . in secunda coniugatione diar n-eis, Sg. 195a2 .

(2) after, later in time than, following, succeeding to; resulting from: (a) cen nech dimm æs dim chlaind frim foraithmet, Ml. 23d9 , cf. 23d6 . conid he as ardepscop L. o sein ille ┐ a chomarbba dia eis, Thes. ii 308.5 . RC xxiv 174.17 . ACL iii 5.12 . ni bí cland dia n-ǽs (gl. nullam successionem filiorum relinquentes) Ml. 57d6 . slucit ...cach anmain d'eis a céle one after another IT i 183.14 . a bhfuair mé | d'easláinte d'éis a chéile, Dán Dé xiii 3 = YBL 371a5 . ni raibh sinn...gan airdrígh d'éis a chéile without one high-king succeeding another TD 28.18 . tig tairsib d'éis aroile mentions them in turn 3.30 . regnauit ...di eis a athar reigned in succession to his father RC xvi 416.4 . in bliadain da es the following year BB 12a19 = MacCarthy 296.11 . d'éis chatha Chnúcha, ML 2.3 . d'éis tionnabhraidh, TD 24.22 . an choróin do-gheibh d'éis an bháis, TSh. 2785 . d'eis Meic Dé do chur docum báis, Maund. 10 . RC xxviii 310.10 . dá éis sin after that, afterwards TD 13.47 . TSh. 9448 . (b) ticfait dar timma... ┐ nis bia a ngrad oc Dia dia esi after that, thenceforth MacCarthy 50.22 . do imthigh sí úaidh da eisi sin thereupon Maund. 131 . Ériu ii 182.25 . After (the death, times of) a person: (a) dia n-éiss a cuirp chráibdig | i mmemraib óir, Fél. Prol. 79 . marait dia n-éis a scela, RC xxiii 304 § 2 . do thaoibh a chlú dá éis san tsaoghal, TSh. 4140 . go ndearnadh luaithreadh dhí...go nach fríoth a tuarasgbháil dá héis, 64 . (b) bid Mag da Gési co bráth | dia n-esi after them IT i 161.1 . dorat dia chloind dia éssi, MacCarthy 64.29 . PH 4246 . for ar clannaib diar n-éisi, 3285 .

(3) Of remaining after, left, waiting behind, surviving: (a) in tain ro n-anis-siu dom héis-se, Wb. 29d9 . dessid E. dia éis remained behind after him TBC-LL¹ 1845 . ni fedar cid ros fasto dom es, Aen. 621 . fosrácbus im thaig dim éis ZCP iv 44.7 . olc na druinge do bhí beó dá n-éis who survived them TSh. 5533 (= tar a n-éis, 5526 ).

(4) After the departure of, in the absence of: (a) assolgi A. iarum a bosān dia ēis A. opened his (Fraech's) purse when he had gone ZCP iv 39.25 (= RC xxiv 148.15 ). Thes. ii 340.27 . cach fidbad dara tictís...ba crích machairi da n-éis they left it a level country MU 14.29 = LL 264a1 . ni rabhat d'eis neirt may they never be without power Anecd. ii 33.12 . Duan. F. i 21.1 . Cend Febrat...atchíu... | d'éis na rígḟían, Metr. Dinds. iii 226.4 . corrach mh'intinn | d'éis na buidhne after (i.e. lacking) that company TD 25.34 . Cf. biaid Temair d'eis a fir, LL 149b37 , and: aighthe an tslúaigh mar gríos na gréine | an uair bhíos Eire da éis (v.l. héis) when (the sun) has left Ireland behind, i.e. is setting KMMisc. 172 § 22 . (b) dochuaid C... | do char T.... Aed dia éise T. gave her love to A. in his (C.'s) absence Metr. Dinds. iv. 110.28 . Hence instead of: (a) corragaibsi in cucnecht da hes took the churning in her stead Thes. ii 332.34 . Cf. (b) luid dia ésse | a ben... | do chomét búar, Metr. Dinds. iv 196.13 .

(5) in forming a participial phr.: (a) ealta...d'éis a n-ionnalta a hór flocks...bathed in gold TD 40.7 .

(6) occasionally after in the sense of notwithstanding, in spite of: (a) tiaghaid... | ...ar fhód mhearaighthe | d'éis a ndeimhnighthe dhoibh sain | sein-shlighthe Póil is Peadair, Dán Dé vi 4 = YBL 365b . d'éis ar chaitheadar riamh ruinn...cor lem anacal níor ál despite all they had lavished on me TD 3.17 .

tar (dar) é.¤

(1) behind: (a) fég...dar th'eis look behind thee IT i 222.29 . eirg a n-inad nderrit ┐ dún tar th'éis shut (the door) behind thee PH 7998 . ro hiadadh comhla an taiste tar a n-éis was shut behind them Hugh Roe² 5.4 (f. 2b) . geibis M. scíath díten dar éis fer nhErend covered their retreat TBC-LL¹ 6073 . CRR 52 . mar dubhart annso tar m'éis as I have said above Content. vi 57 . (b) Dia dam frim lorg (.i. dar m' ési), Thes. ii 350.30 . tú tar a n-éssi ocá n-imdegail, FB 10 . ní bendais na hurchuir re muintir C. acht is tar a n-eisi do tuitidis, CCath. 1870 .

(2) after, later in time than, succeeding to; resulting from: (a) bid hé N. bus rí tar eis a athar, RC xxiv 192 y ; 182.20 . aidchi ndomnaig ┐ dia domnaich tara heis on Saturday night and the Sunday following it Mon. Tall. § 45 . Tir Cannain...nis-tā dar éis a n-ecnaig, SR 4734 . naoi mbliadhna tar éis catha Sulcoide, Cog. 90.15 . tar éis gcodail (v.l. cho., co.), TD 11.6 . tar éis an bhaistidhe after baptism TSh. 3341 . tar éis áir...do tabairt ar M., RC xviii 164.9 . TD 8.31 . TSh. 2552 . tar eis mar = postquam: tar éis mar do iarr M. air after M. had asked him TSh. 1931 . (b) cách dar hési álaili, Wb. 13 a9 . ind aidchi dara heisi the following night Mon. Tall. § 9 . acht an rut bia tar éissi du airm ┐ do saigtige those that thou shalt have by virtue of thy weapons Trip. 152.4 . Hence according to (?): (b) dar eisi a cuinn do cech mnai follows her legal guardian, acts according to her reason? (cf. cond, Laws) Ériu ix 47.4 . After (the death, times of) a person: (a) ní maith lim ind áil (leg. ail) sin d'ácbail i nUltaib dar m'éis to leave that reproach behind me TBC-LL¹ 1761 (tar mh'és, St). (b) lécfet desmbirecht...calmachta dona moeth-oclachaib dar m'esi, PH 6560 . co fharcbatís dar a n-ési comartha suthain, 3236 .

(3) remaining after, surviving: (a) slán don fheadhain-sin tar mh'éis to that band (I leave) behind me Gleanings from Irish manuscripts 9.1 . m'fagbháil tar éis mo chompán that I should be left behind TD ii 248.32 . (b) bai ade and tar ési mBenigni tri fichtea bliadne, Thes. ii 238.17 ( Ardm. 17a2 ). noco bia na cein . . | sunn i pein dar m'ésse-se after I am gone SR 2044 .

(4) after the departure of, in the absence of: (a) cach sruth ┐ cach áth...dara tictís ba lecca lomma dar a n-éis they left them as dry stones MU 14.31 = LL 264a5 . robrisidh an baile tar eis na nGall after the foreigners (had quitted it) RC xviii 287x . co mbertais...corp Tit leo dar eis Ipomone when Hippomedon had gone TTebe 3468 . (b) dar a n-éssi ba cáep chró | in Lug ros gáet ac Ráith Chró L. was left all imbrued in gore after them Metr. Dinds. iv 216.15 . do chóidh...fó thuairim na nEtailleach tánaic dia thír dara ese who had come...in his absence AFM v 1750 w .

(5) for, instead of: (a) pars pro tota ....i. in rand dar eis na toiti, Auraic. 664 . co tici do chutrommæ do fácbáil dar th'éis, IT i 127.26 . Cf. techtugad indligtech do brith isin ferand .i. ba tar eis eochu cows instead of horses Laws iv 32. 10 Comm. , where the acc. may be due to confusion of the simple prep. tar with the phr. tar éis. (b) nipo accobor lassin feir suide et a cheile do thuidect dar a hési, Wb. 13a20 . olcc tar ési n-uilcc (gl. malum pro malo) Wb. 5d28 . du éric uilc tar ǽsi alaili, Ml. 127a1 . tar ǽsi (gl. pro) Ml. 47a3 . 60c1 . 88a1 , etc. ( tar æsi, 49d1 . 61d4 , etc.). tar essi, 109d8 . a thuidecht i cride tar ési Dǽ in place of God Wb. 22b5 . ma dudéll ní taibred ní tar a éssi do bochtaib, 22b7 . duberar tar ǽsi locht which is inflicted for faults Ml. 105d6 . a `speciosus' asrubartsom is dar esi indi as `gloriosus' `the word "speciosus" is for "gloriosus" ' Ml. 64d8 . ...indí as infimatis romboí apud veteres tar ési indí as infimas file hodie, Sg. 200b3 . dearb laiss is e A. nobertha i n-nem dar a éssi in his place MacCarthy 48.31 . ni fuil aisiuc na set...co tuctur seoit tar a n-esi in their stead Laws ii 304.7 Comm. da grad tar eise in aengraid bes airdiu two ranks in place of (i.e. equivalent to) one higher rank iii 142.1 . do-rónus doibh dua[i]n ...ni tardad dúas dara heisi in return for it ACL iii 296.45 . mad ech [rogata nech] da ech dara esi, Ériu vii 154.17 (cf. mad rogata nech cairich ceotheora cairich tar n-essi 154.16 . manibe ní aschomra [sic leg.] ind fognam dar essi, 154.20 .). occ eráil ghiall ┐ aittire oile dar a éisi in his stead Hugh Roe² 5.17 (f. 3a) . ní rochosna nech aile | ní dot anim tar t' ési no other can strive for aught for thy soul in thy stead Ériu i 201.9 .

imdibe

Cite this: eDIL s.v. imdibe or dil.ie/27472

Forms: n-imdibe, imdibe, n-imdibe, imdibe, imdibi, imdibe, himdibe, imdibiu, imdibu, n-imdibe

n io, n. , m. & f. in Mid. Ir. vn. of imm-díben. n s. a n-imdibe , Wb. 2a2 . ind imdibe , PH 5650. a s. a n-imdibe , Wb. 2c10 . triasind imdibe , PH 5758. g s. imdibi, Wb. 2a3 . ind imdibe , PH 5652. na himdibe , 5729 . d s. imdibiu, Wb. 2a3 . imdibu, 23d27 . iar n-imdibe , PH 5658.

(a) circumcision: i.¤ tit no a nebimdibe `Titus' circumcision or his non-circumcision,' Wb. 18d9 . ni i.¤ dualche robói la suidib act is i.¤ colno, 21b11 . ni dond imdibu colnidiu lessom inso, 10a14 . indí crettes cen i.¤ storide `he who believes without material circumcision,' 2b19 . intí téte fo recht nimdibi, 20a12 . massu i ssóiri et imdibu móiti nech `if anyone boasteth him in nobility and circumcision,' 23d29 . in tan arroét demin-forgell ind i.¤ o Dia, PH 5680. reacht uasal na imdibi, BB 243b45 .

(b) cutting, cutting round, cutting off, clipping, `curtailing' : atconnarc láechu co lli | co n-armmaib ic imdibí, LU 3762 (SC). luid in mac bec na n-díaid dia(n) n-i.¤ `um sie niederzuhauen,' TBC-LL¹ 923. i.¤ ball, brisiud cnama, LL 119b51 . imdibi a nite `clipping their wings' (of hens), Laws ii 118.15 Comm. i.¤ a nedaigh, iv 118. z Comm. imráidset a hi.¤ ina faithchi sin `they considered the curtailing of that green,' Ériu iv 124.6 .

2 in

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 in or dil.ie/28195

Forms: im-, in, in, in, in, an, in, in, in, in, in, in, in, imb, imp, in

interrogative particle. im- before b-forms of the copula and substantive vb. (but: in biam, Wb. 15a1 . in ba maten, in ba fuin, Murphy Metrics § 19. in budh geall re oirechus ..., ML² 1420 ). Causes eclipsis of following initial except when it contains the copula. n generally doubled before vowels (but not in Wb.), especially before pronouns é, í, ed: Folld. by dependent form of vb. and neg. particle and by Class C forms of infixed pron. Later Mid. and Mod. Ir.: an.

(i) In direct questions: in coscramni `do we destroy?,' Wb. 2b20 . in digén bullu mertrige diib, 9d4 . in cumgubsa .i. non gl. num ... potero, Ml. 49c5 . in intsamlammar-ni `do we imitate,' Wb. 11b16 . in intain rombói in circumcisione, 2c5 . in anfossigid, 8d5 . in ed fodera báas domsa ..., 3c33 . in dia in doichside do `is it God? is it likely of Him?,' 4b14 . uidesne .i. in n-aci, Sg. 15b6 . in n-íírr `wilt Thou slay?,' Ml. 77a10 . inned insin furuar dait `is it that that caused it to thee?,' 44b10 . in forcmaither áes sainrethach dond ḟi[u]r midboth ...?, Críth G. 32. ind (leg. in) hí lanamnus atái béus `art thou still in the married state?,' Mon. Tall. 134.24 . inn é so Muinremor?, ScM. § 12. ceist, in n-éláfa limm?, TBFr. 162. im bui (bia, v.l.) tesorcud na nDéisi innosa?, Ériu iii 140.179 . in creti Dia fodechtsa, LU 9281. inn ébairt-sium frit-su in chóma sain, TBC-LL¹ 1772. in anad dogníthi-si?, Mer. Uil. 187. an edh is áil lib ... imbualad oidhchi do dēnam?, ML² 1501. an faicend tu Tit , TTebe 4886 . in ro berbais in saill, IT i 41.12 .

(ii) In dependent questions in is used (a) alone meaning whether , or (b) preceded by duús (do ḟius) to know if, if perchance:

(a) nebmess for nech im maid fa olcc `whether he be good or evil,' Wb. 8d26 . asrubart sum fri mmaccu Israhel imbói di oinachdaib leu, Ml. 43d1 . ro ḟíarfuigh sceula dib, an fúaratar sgéulu Midir, IT i 129.30 . co finnad inn uaitsiu ro siacht fis dó, LU 3659. dóig innar tised Cúscraid, TBC-LL¹ 823. a innisin duind ... an mberam coscur dona Tiabandaib, TTebe 1214 . aitheantar ... an é flaitheas Dé is dúthaigh dhó, TSh. 1776. ní feas do neoch an díol grádha nó fuatha é féin, 1155 .

(b) duús in comalnid arru-pridchad dúib `if perchance ye fulfil what has been preached to you,' Wb. 14d23 . doairfenus doib dús imbed comrorcon and `if perchance there might be error therein,' 18d7 . iarmoracht M. do M. dus imbad lór whether it were enough, Mon. Tall. 133.8 . dús in faigbitis nech bad toga leo dia tibertis rígi nErend, LU 3438. With loss of n: rochindset dul co Teamhraigh dūs a ccaomtais fuaslugudh Fiachra to see if they could ..., ZCP xiv 256.17 . In Mod. Ir. an ro> ar by the assimilation of n with r: do fhiafruigh dhe ar choimhéid na miasa gan osgladh, TSh. 3592.

(iii) Double interrogation expressed by in ... in , more frequently by in ... fa (or ba), in ... fa in , and later by in ... no in ... (im, imb, imp=in+3 s. pres. subj. of copula): imb i nógi imb i lánamnas `whether in celibacy or in marriage,' Wb. 10a12 . imbem i mbethu imbem i mbaás bad lessom, 25c12 . sechip hé im do día im do pheccad, 3b15 . ceist in tre prois fa in tre metur roceta ..., Hib. Min. 175. cid dogēn fri firu Arddae? imba hāilgine ... bá 'ma (=imba) garge?, ACL iii 293.z . imb i céin fa i n-accus beo-sa, Wb. 23b41 . is inderb im mascul fá femen ..., Sg. 61a9 . imba bás ba bethu `whether it will be death or life,' Wb. 23b32 . cía de as sru[i]thiu, in ríi fa thúath?, Críth G. 492. is cumtabairt cia crocann in rúon nó in cethra, Trip.² 815. in oc urnaidi Con Culaind bía ł in limsa doraga, LU 4012. dus cid dodentais fri h-Iacop .i. inn e a marbad ... no inn e a phiannad, LB 151b40 . in sith no in debaid fuil agaib? Aen. 1838. 'ca imradh an cath rocomorfad no an sid ro-sirfead, TTebe 1184 . Triple interrogation: in i comsuidigud fa hi comasndís bíit fa a ndíis `whether they are in composition or in apposition or in both of them,' Sg. 217a1 . in ... fa nacc whether ... or not: in tree áem didiu fa nacc `is it through it then indeed or not?,' Wb. 2c4 . imb anacol dom fa nac `whether it be protection to me or no,' 23a6 .

(iv) Negative interrog.: innád cualaidsi `have ye not heard?,' Wb. 5a21 . inná tecta cumachte gl. an non habet potestatem?, 4c28 . innad n-accai dost thou not see?, Ml. 17b17 . dús innad n-utmaligetar, Thes. ii 4.34 (Acr.). cest ina raibi Gaedelg resiu rotobaidhe `did not G. exist ... ?,' Auraic. 13. In Ml. the neg. interrog. is frequently expressed by in ní nad is it that ... not: inní nad ṅdixnigedar is it a thing that it is not?, Ml. 55c9 . inní nadnimcai ate immaaccai is it a thing He does not consider? Yea, He considers it, 114a15 . inní nad roilgisid `have ye not read?,' 17b18 . inné nach foghnann duit duine ele, BNnÉ 179.4 .

(v) The object pronoun (indirect object in the case of sul st. verb and copula) is infixed between in and the verb, and in the case of the copula, between in and the predicate: in da hierr `wilt Thou slay them?,' Ml. 77a16 . inab-testa-si tesbuid a hEmuin?, IT i 144.19 . inn dathgnitae would you recognise them?, 21 . inum-biasa úair coibligi lat?, BDD² 48. innut tarfás ní? has anything appeared to thee?, LU 9233. indad fil slondud bas derbu?, 5602 . indat mebhair-siu?, TBC-LL¹ 3552. in dóig inar tísed C., 815 . in-dat sochenel no dochenel?, PH 695.

1 nem-

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 nem- or dil.ie/33072
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: neph-, neb-, neph-, neb-, neph-, neph-, neph-, nem-, neph-, nem-, nemth-, neamh-, neamh-, neimh-

(neb-, neph-) neg. prefix used in composition with nouns and adjectives in temporary formations, serving merely to negate the positive sense of the word or denote the absence of the object (action, quality, etc.) expressed thereby, without adding any new meaning as do the prefixes an-, é-, mí- (e.g. nebchretem = not believing; anchretem = unbelief). In O.Ir. the forms neb- and neph- are used; in Wb. neb- before a vowel or voiced consonant, neph- before a voiceless cons.; in Sg. and Ml. only neph- (often written as a distinct word). In early Mid.Ir. neph- (nef-) and nem- are used, before voiceless and voiced consonants respectively; during the Mid.Ir. period neph- is ousted by nem- (also written nemp-, nemth-). Before a palatal vowel in the follg. word the final consonant is affected (later expressed by the spelling neim-). Mod.Ir. neamh-, (before palatal vowel) neimh-. Lenites follg. consonant; occas. (in late texts) eclipses a follg. b: nemhmbith, Ériu ii 64 n. 31 ; neimmbind, ZCP iii 32.2 ; neimmbisid (leg. -mbisig), O'Gr. Cat. 289.32 ; neamhmbáidh, Keat. i 50.22 ; neambocht, Keat. Poems 30. nemtsomainech, ZCP x 306.34 is due to analogy of cases in which lenited s prefixes t after the article; cf. nemtsos.

In Glosses common esp. with verbal abstracts, participles and nomina agentis. With vn. commonly used in O. and Mid.Ir. in the sense not to (do someth.), to refrain from (doing someth.), where in Mod.Ir. the prep. gan would be used. With adj. in Glosses freq. renders Lat. in-.

With nouns and adjs. often used to express an alternative or contrast to a foregoing corresponding positive: imdibe Tít nó a nebimdibe Titus' circumcision or his non-circumcision, Wb. 18d9 . eter gess ┐ nemgess, BDD 59. ní ébairt riu a chathim ┐ ní ebairt a nemchathim to eat it . . . not to eat it, TBC-LL¹ 137. ni tharat aichne for charait nā for nemcharait, FDG 238. o na comarsannaib ┐ ó na nemchomarsannaib, PH 7576. náire fri maith, nemnáire fri holc, PH 8228. ara hingin do tabairt do Aenias ┐ ara nemtabairt do Thuirn, Aen. 1644. do ced Gall ┐ do neimhchet Chloinne Taidhg, AFM v 1708.7 . an laphuirt ┐ a[n] nemhlabhuirt speech and silence, Ériu v 130 § 47 . ri ro gni cach ṅdūil . . . aicseid ocus nemaicseid, SR 330. cia lasmad laind nō nemlaind in sluagad, TBC-LL¹ 413. longa na cenntur foicsi ┐ nemhfoicsi near and far, Marco P. 5.

In many cases compds. with nem- come to be stable and assume a more or less positive meaning; cf. marbum na nemcaraid ud Crist those foes of Christ (i.e. the Saracens), RC xix 164.2 , with FDG 238 quoted above.

In later Bardic poetry compds. of neamh-, neimh- somet. serve mainly to supply a rhyme.

In later Mid.Ir. occas. compounded with finite forms of verb.

The following lists are illustrative only:

(a) with subst. ¤acallam: ba himned la F. nempaccallam ina hingine not to converse with, ZCP iv 38.4 = cen acallaim na ingine, LL 249b 26 ( TBFr. 155 ). ¤accomol: dliged nephaccomoil inna teora liter of not joining the three letters, Sg. 7b9 . ¤ág ill luck: ZCP ii 354.24 (nemagh). neamhágh, Keat. Poems 1033. ¤airchóit harmlessness: istait na nemurchoite, PH 7773. ¤áirem: hó nephairim, gl. innumero, Ml. 17d6 . ¤airitiu: tri nebairitin lóge not accepting pay, Wb. 11a12 . nemfairitiu, Mon. Tall. 35. nephairmid a non-computer , Ml. 50d2 (gl. incompotem, connected by glossator with compoto = computo) ; cf. Sg. 67b16 . nephascnaidid, gl. impos, Sg. 106a1 . neimbiathad laech a tri corgusaib na bliadna no refection of laymen, Anecd. i 44.10 . ¤breth: fochund a facbála ┐ a nembrithi leis of not bringing her, TTr.² 15. ¤buith not being: n s. nebud, Wb. 24d11 . nébeth, 9b17 . i nepbuith dia réir in not being subject to his control, 14a16 . ón nepuid hi cumgaib from not being in straits, Ml. 122a11 . Ériu ii 64 § 6. nemhchaint holding one's tongue, Ériu v 130 § 50. nemchaithem, TBC-LL¹ 137 (see above). tre neamhchaitheamh bídh abstaining from food, Keat. iii 2096. ¤chara, FDG 238 (see above). O'Gr. Cat. 384.17. ¤cenél: hi nephchenéil, gl. in non gentem, Wb. 5a14 . neimhcert wrong (injustice), KMMisc. 174.9 . neimhchert gaoidhilghi incorrect Gaelic, Mac Aingil Pref. 8 . ¤chet, AFM v 1708.17 (see above). neimchin (< cin guilt) guiltlessness, ZCP vi 277.12 . neimchin (< cin regard, affection), BCC 304.4 . ¤comainsid: g s. ind nephchomainsedo of the non-trampler, Ml. 42b28 (gl. inculcatoris, in- taken as neg.). ¤comairle: rena nemcomhmairle do denamh by heeding not his counsel, BCC 246.34 . nebchomaitecht non-indulgence , Wb. 6c12 . as crād don cach . . . nemchomaitecht doib im caomclód praindi not to be indulged with a change of diet, Mon. Tall. 64. nemchomall non-fulfilment , PH 7951. nebchomalnad not fulfilling, Wb. 19c4 , cf. 14a15 . ónd nephchomḟogur, gl. inconsonantia, Sg. 152b3 . nebchongabthetu, gl. incontinentia, Wb. 9d24 . nemchotlud not sleeping, TBC-LL¹ 1703. nemcolladh insomnia, RC xlix 18.4 ; 23.9 ( ¤codladh). nebchretem a n-ad[f]iadar di Crist not believing, Wb. 27a10 . ¤crích: ar neachrích (= unsettled, aimless), Measgra D. 64.48 (neimhcrich v.l.). nemhchuimhne not remembering; an amnesty, AFM vi 2182.1 . nephcuimsighe incapacity, O'Gr. Cat. 222.9. nephchuindchid anmae Dáe not seeking, Ml. 104c1 . neamhchuid non-participation, indifference , TD 16.10 . nephchumsanad not resting, Ml. 33d20 . nephchumscugud immutability , Sg. 10a14 . LL 38b37 (nem-). ¤déicsiu not looking, g s. nephdéicsen, Ml. 50d11 . ¤déine lack of vigour , see CCath. 4417 ; Dán Dé xiii 8 . nephdéirge not deserting , Sg. 209b26 . Ériu iii 106 y . nephdēnum neich di ulc not doing any evil, Ml. 23c20 . nebdénum, Wb. 5c23 . fil ara nemdénam de | maíle is meth the penalty of not doing it is baldness, Metr. Dinds. iii 24.313 . nephdiall absence of declension, Sg. 75a1 . nemhdileghadh indigestion , O'Gr. Cat. 207.11. a leth an nemdileghtha, RC xlix 8.5 . nemduine, gl. nemo, Ir. Gl. 954. nephetarcnae inna timnae non-discernment, Ml. 58a20 . -fagbá(i)l not finding, PH 3699. ZCP viii 543.17 . nemagbail in measa, ACL iii 240 § 3. ¤faicsin (= O.Ir. aicsiu): fer a nemhfhaixena gusin tan sin one who had never seen it till then, Fl. Earls 188.12 . Cf. i nemfecsiu inda gnuis `without looking on their faces', Mon. Tall. 62. nemfheodaigecht unfadingness, LB 221b65 . ¤fis(s) ignorance: nephis, Ml. 58a20 . ¤ḟonn indifference : toirsi ┐ nemhfhonn fā neithibh diadha, Celtica i 192.1032 . nemhforbunn, Lism. L. 4617 (of the Law of Moses, oppd. to forbann = heathen law). némfreccra epistle not answering, Alex. 826. ¤fuigell: nemfugell do chiunn fria membru that the head should not pass judgement on the members, ZCP xv 331 § 23. ¤gabál: is ferr a nemgabail not to accept it, Mon. Tall. 35. nephgabaltaid, gl. incapax, Ml. 117a1 . ¤gess non-taboo, BDD 59. nemhghlóir ingloriousness, O'Gr. Cat. 466.19. nephícc non-salvation, Ml. 88b8 . neimhiocht lack of trust, suspicion , Keat. ii 2504. nebimdibe, Wb. 18d9 . nemimniche (.i. cen imnedh do beth air) freedom from care, Anecd. v 25.4 . nephinotacht non-entrance , Wb. 33b5 . ¤insce impersonal form ( Phil. Soc. Trans. lxiv (1965/66) 153 ): tigther, tegar as .c. ar a neminscne sin, IGT Verbs § 5 (174.19) . nephithe, gl. inedia, Ml. 127c18 . nemláthar `mean spirit', Metr. Dinds. iii 56 z (: derbráthar). ¤lécud: bui comairli . . . im nemlegodh Logai isin cath not to let L. into the battle, RC xii 88 § 95. neamhlón lack of support, Content. xxix 14 (: mearshlógh). ní lour in nebmaldachad mani bendachae it is not enough not to curse, Wb. 5d23 . ¤marbtacht, gl. immortalitatem, RC xxviii 320 § 47. ¤marbdacht immortality : nemmarbtach[t] gl. im[m]ortalitatem, RC xxviii 320 § 47 . tlacht na nemmarbdachta ┐ na nemtruaillnidechta, PH 3520 . nebmess for nech not judging any one, Wb. 8d26 . nebmoídem not boasting, ib. nephmolad Dáe not praising, Ml. 145c3 . nemnáire lack of diffidence, boldness , LL 400a22 . 187a24 ( ¤nári). PH 8228. nemnerte want of strength, Aen. 2889. ¤ní see neimní. ¤olc: o nach ulc nó nephulc, ZCP vii 481 ( Enchir. Aug. 74a ). ¤opair, O'Mulc. 446. ¤pecad, ib. 97 . hond nephpiandatu, gl. impunitate, Ml. 28a11 . ¤praind: g s. nepproinde la geinti of not dining, Wb. 19a10 . ¤ríar: dá neimhréir against his will, Dán Dé xxviii 13 . ¤sástid (lit. a non-satisfier): ind nephsastid, gl. inexplebiliter, Ml. 62a7 . nephscríbend omitting to write, Ml. 94a1 . Alex. 826 (nem-). nemhshén misfortune, ill luck, AFM iii 226.20 . nephthabart, Ml. 51d2 ; 54b22 . tre nebthabirt dígle fuirib, Wb. 18b13 . nephthairmthechtid an intransitive verb, Sg. 189a7 . ¤tathaige: o ro airigh sidhe a nemhtathaighe asa sccoraibh `that they were not in the habit of going outside their encampments', AFM vi 2192.21 . nemhthathaidhe deuosioin, Fl. Earls 120.1 . ¤techt: dogena nephthecht dia cungid thou shalt not go to look for them, LL 251b36 ( TBFr. 360 ). neimhtheacht ré chéile discrepancy, variance, Keat. i 86.65 . nebthobe non-circumcision, Wb. 1d18 . nephthoimtiu bed peccad són not supposing that it was sin, Ml. 43a15 . ¤tol: asa ndérnad nemthoil Dé ┐ toil ar máigistrech-ne, PH 8142. toil ┐ nemtoil na naturae, O'Gr. Cat. 235.33. do nemhthoil Rígh Saxan against the wishes of, AFM iii 200.11 . nemthomailt fheola abstention from eating meat, PH 6542. nebthórtrommad not pestering, Wb. 27c24 . ¤tráth: codla nemhthrátha `unseasonable sleep', Ériu i 32.4 . ¤trúaillidecht incorruptibility : tlacht na nemmarbdachta ┐ na nemtruaillnidechta, PH 3520 . ¤tuath: bid tuad dom-sa mo nebtuad (= non plebs mea), Wb. 4d1 . ¤tuidecht: nephtuidechd do Dia not coming, Mon. Tall. 21. PH 5462. ¤uall: a dhuine doní neamhuaill `who art humble', Dán Dé vii 31 .

(b) with adj. (in O.Ir. chiefly participial formations rendering Lat. compds. with in-): ¤acnatae unnatural: nephacnataib, gl. insolitis, Ml. 129d3 . nephadnachtae unburied , Sg. 20a4 . ¤aerda `non-aerial', material, gross, YBL 161a21 (of demon host). ¤aicside invisible: aicseid ocus nemaicseid, SR 330. i rétaib nebaicsidib, Wb. 4a24 . na huli dúli aicsidi ┐ nemaicsidi, Trip. 120.2 . iarndligud nemaicsidi, LU 2557 ( RC xxv 238 § 9). tuirsi inmhedónach nemhfhaicsidhe, Parrth. Anma 352.3 . slainte nemaidilcnech o legessaib not in need of medicines, Alex. 844. ¤airchóitech harmless, innocent: nepherchoitecha, gl. innocuos, Ml. 74c6 . fuil nemurcóidech, Maund. 86. i mbéalaibh na leanbh neamhurchóideach, Keat. iii 1596. ¤airchradach: cēt guth nemircradach never-failing, Cog. 50.17 . ¤airdirc: marbhta nemhoirderca `not illustrious', AFM vi 2230.7 . nephaithimfolṅgidi, gl. inefficaces, Ml. 80c12 . nephanmanaigthi, gl. nec spiritu viventium animati, 124c20 . nephanmandi, gl. inanimata (a p n.), 60b5 , cf. 130a3 . ¤arsaid not old: co nemarrsaid with fresh vigour, ZCP vi 41.27 . nephatdānaigthe, gl. inremuneratus, Ml. 138a5 , 116b7 . sluag . . . neambāid unloving, unkind, YBL 161a20 . ¤básaigthe(ch) immortal : Día do bhī nemmbāsuighthe, Celtica i 169.240 . a mbethaidh shuthain nembāsuighthe, 170.268 . nemmbāsuighthech, 170.258 . ¤bec: nephbic, Ml. 39d21 (gl. immodicae [laudis]; the glossator uses gend. of `molad'). ¤bind, ZCP iii 32.2 (neimmbind). ¤boc[h]t, Thes. ii 351.37 (gl. díbocht, Hy. vi 8 ). ¤bras(s): triath n. (of Christ), Anecd. i 39 y . Metr. Dinds. iii 360.2 (`mild'). ¤brisc infrangible , MacCongl. 105.17 . nephchainchomracacha, gl. impacata (neut. pl.), Ml. 26b13 . nephchathaigthe, gl. in bellum (taken as compd. adj.), 126c22 . ¤cetaigthech unallowed: mian nemhcedaighteach, ITS xvi 12.21 . go neamhcheaduightheach without leave, Keat. iii 3185. nephcētbatai, gl. inanimata (neut. pl.), Ml. 130a4 . ¤cintach guiltless , see ZCP vi 277.19 . AFM ii 1138.25 . ¤clóithe: nephchloithi, gl. invicti, Ml. 83b7 . is nemchlóti Dia, PH 799. cenél nemclaeti, Aen. 2752. ¤coiceltach unsparing : gleo neimnech nemchoigeltach, Caithr. Thoirdh. 8.26 . nemhchoigealtach, Fl. Earls 198.9, 18 . cineadh bhíos ... neamhchoigealtach ar a bheathaidh = prodiga, Keat. i 64.53 . ¤coimse(-ch) immeasurable, beyond reckoning: is nemchoimsi mét anóra na mainistrich, Maund. 183 , cf. 162 . nemchoimsigh, 78 . is nemchoimseach do mōrchomachta, Fl. Earls 138.18 . neamhchoimsigh ` incomprehensible ', Eg. Gl. 764. nephchomtetarrachti incomprehensible , Ml. 55d11 (n p.). nephchorpde (= incorporalis), Sg. 59b16 . nepchostae footless (gl. apes), 102b4 . ¤creitmech: isin tír ngentlighi neimchreitmidh unbelieving , Ériu v 156.3 . ¤chríchnuigthe infinite : mur chumhachta neimhchrīochnuighthe, Celtica i 165.80 . in mhaith nemhchrīochnuighthe, 167.169 . ¤chrín unwithered, unfading , CCath. 4717. craind nua nemchrína, LL 218b32 . ¤chrínda id., LL 295b7 = RC xiii 40 § 10 . ¤chumscaigthe immovable; unmoved, unchanged (?): nephchumscaigthe immovable, Ml. 40d23 . nemcumscaighthi (= immobiles), Trip. 4.24 . baitsidhe .i. nemsumscaighthi, ... is é beraid in lucht agata na bretha nemcumscaigthi, O'Dav. 271 . nephchutmaide, gl. illapsam, Ml. 89d4 . ind nephdeithbir, gl. immerito, Ml. 38d10 . 94a8 . ¤dermatach not forgetful, PH 8254. ¤desctha unleavened: arān n., SR 4352 , cf. PH 5073. hi cét-ló na némdescata (= azymorum), 5028 . nephdiachtae (= inultus), Ml. 111b6 . ¤diada: ar tír a ndéé nemṡuthain nemdiadai Neptúin not divine, LL 224b10 ( TTr. 535 ). duine neimhdhiadha ungodly , Proverbs xvi 27. co sollsi némdibaide inextinguishable , LB 138b5 . ¤dil not dear: nir bo n. la Dia hé acht robo dil, LU 1110 (gl. ni andil, ACC 116 ). arccain a n-eccrat ┐ a neimhdheala foes, Hugh Roe 188.18 (f. 50b) . ¤díles: in nephdílius, gl. improprie, Ml. 28d4 . duine neimhdhílios unfaithful , Proverbs xxv 19. nephdilledach indeclinable , Sg. 91b5 , cf. 35a13 . ¤dimde (< dim `thing') unreal: it nephdimdi .i. nidat ní, gl. nihil, Ml. 130d7 . ¤dingbala ( ¤bálta) unworthy: cidat nemdingbal-su [sic] do thabairt onora, LB 236a1 . nemdíngbala, 233b34 . airdeaspog neamhdhiongmhálta, Keat. iii 51. nephdíte, gl. indefensus, Ml. 103c5 , cf. 85d13 . ¤dligthech irrational , see Ml. 16b12 . ¤dorcha: neithe nuaidhe nemhdoirche clear, manifest , ZCP x 6.23 . nephdudrachtach (= ¤duth-) gl. indevotus, Ml. 49c1 . nephecailse, gl. indiscussum, 56c8 , cf. 114b4 . ¤élnide (élnigthe) undefiled , PH 2390 , 2391 . o'n ōig nemelnigthe, 176 . in t-Uan neimelnidi, Lism. L. 1119 . nephǽrnaidi (< ess-ro-snī-) not escaped, Ml. 134b9 (g s f.), gl. invasae (in- taken as neg.). neimheasbadhach without want, Ériu v 64.13 . nephéscide moonless , Ml. 29d14 , cf. 30a1 , 5 . neamhfhann not feeble , BS 26.19 . ¤féig not keen-sighted: n p m. nephfegi, Ml. 42d8 . nemfegtach unobservant, unheeding: co hanbḟaitech n.¤ , LB 234b23 . neimhfhealltach free from treachery, see Fl. Earls 92.22 . neimfhirindech untruthful , Acall. 3903. neimhfhírinneach unrighteous , Proverbs xiii 5. nephfodlaide indivisible , gl. impertitum (taken as = in-partitum), Ml. 26a9 . gl. insecabilem, Sg. 189b6 . nephḟodlaidi, gl. atoma, 28b23 . nephḟograigthi, gl. inconcinna (neut. pl.), Sg. 138a8 . ¤foirbthe imperfect , see Fl. Earls 126.22 . íodhbairt neamhfholamhail bloodless, Eochairsg. 24.9 . ¤forcennach boundless (of the ocean), Ériu iv 142.10 . murbrucht nemḟorcnedach, LL 168b10 . neph[ḟ]repthae, gl. immedicabile, Ml. 58a17 . neph[ḟ]rept[h]anaigthe, gl. immedicabilem, 76a17 . nepfrescastae unexpected ; gl. insperatus in Ml. 36b9 ( ¤frescestu), 56d1 ( ¤rescastu), 40b10 ( ¤rescastib). nephfrithgabthe, gl. ineffrenata (n s f.), Tur. 114. nephfrithortae, gl. inlaesum, Ml. 39a4 . ¤fhuirechair, gl. [im]provigil, Ir. Gl. 985. neamhfhuirithe unprepared , AFM v 1430.8 . neamhghann ample, unstinted , Dán Dé xxvii 21 . ¤gel not fair, swarthy: re cois nglúine neimhghil Néill, IGT Dec. ex. 1233 , cf. KMMisc. 170.7 . cathugud neimgēr can arm not keen, spiritless, BColm. 2.25 . nebglan, gl. inlustratus, Thes. ii 234.13 . an dá ghuthaidhe neamhghlana impure vowels (i.e. the semi-vowels u and i), IGT Introd. § 9. Nemglan, rí énlaithi, BDD 145 . neimhghlic unwise , A. Ó Dálaigh xxxii 8. nephglidi (part. of gelid), gl. intonsi, Thes. ii 46.21 (Philarg.). ¤glinne not secure (?), see Thes. ii 352.41 . ¤gnáth unusual, unwonted , LB 234b40 . nephgnatha, gl. insoliti, Ml. 40d15 . ceardacht neamhghnáth rare, Dán Dé vi 39 . ¤gnáthach id.; Fl. Earls 236.34 , AFM vi 2226.24 . neimhiarmartach regardless of consequences, reckless , CCath. 5904. nephícthe, gl. immedicabilem, Ml. 76a17 . nephimmaircide, gl. inconveniens, 17b6 . nephimfolngidi, gl. inefficaces, 17a5 . nephimgabthi unavoidable , 40b9 . neimhionann not the same, different , Fl. Earls 100.8 . go neimhionann unevenly, irregularly , TSh. 1655. nephindlachtae, gl. inscissus, Ml. 96a8 ( ¤indlachtu d s m.). nephinducbaide, gl. ingloriosus, 139d2 . neimhiongnadh not strange , Keat. ii 4878. cocad . . . nemlac not weak, Cog. 100.26 . ¤laind unenergetic , TBC-LL¹ 413. nephlesc, gl. impiger, Ml. 106c7 . nebleisc, gl. non pigri, Wb. 5d17 . go neimhlescc, AFM v 1658.13 . brúti nemliterdhai illiterate , MacCongl. 29.21 . ¤lochtach faultless , see LU 4250 , PH 2399. ¤lochtaigthe unblamed, blameless , SR 592. nem[m]aithmech unforgiving , Fianaig. 82.13 . cunntas nemmhaithfech inexorable , Ó Héodhusa 172.7 . ¤marbda not mortal , IT i 191.26 ( FA 30 LB). ní mhuirbfitis in nemhmarbdhai, LB 229a54 . ¤meirgide unrusting: d'uma nemergidi, Cog. 152.10 . nemergdi, 50.16 . nem[m]ertnech unflagging , Cog. 100.26 , cf. 160.7 . neimmertnech, LL 224b14 . nephmesse, gl. inexaminatum, Ml. 117a2 . ¤munnterdha unfriendly , RC xxviii 316 § 26. ¤nár unabashed, bold, shameless: LU 5253 = TBC-LL¹ 775 (neph-). co nefnar, LL 3b23 = co nemnár, Leb. Gab.(i) 212.2 . ¤nechtardae neutral, see nemnechtardae. ¤opthach non-refusing? n.¤ fri hernail cech uilc ` consenting to', PH 8181. ¤pecthach sinless , see BNnÉ 196.29 . ¤pudrach harmless , Alex. 837. neamsádhal ` ungentle ', Ériu iv 114.10 . AFM v 1314 y . nephsaithrach, gl. inlaborata, Ml. 103b4 . neamhsgaoilteach ` niggardly ', Ériu v 52.2 . ¤scélach not given to tattle, ZCP iii 29.14 . neimhsciamhach unsightly , Fl. Earls 36.22 . ¤scíth unwearied , LL 224b14 . ¤scíthach id., LB 137b1 . nephsētaigthi, gl. invias, Ml. 126a13 . ¤snímach unanxious , PH 5923. AFM v 1756.2 . ¤somaínech unprofitable , ZCP x 306.34 (nemts-), cf. 289.1 (nemhsh-). nephsuande, gl. insomnis, Ml. 95d12 . nephsūilig, gl. minus oculati, 42d8 . neamhshunnartha indefinite , IGT Introd. 7.20 . ¤suthain transitory, mortal , see ¤diada. ¤thairberta unsubdued , Alex. 524. nephthairismech (gl. instans. . . . quod vix stare potest), Sg. 147b1 . nephteipirsnechaib, gl. influidis, Ml. 129d4 . neimtim ` undaunted ', CCath. 3356. nemhtindisnech, gl. infestinosus, Ir. Gl. 617. ¤tláith, Ériu iv 222.10 . nephthoachtae, gl. inbellum, Ml. 126c22 (part. of to-fich-). nepht[h]oimtiu (d s m.), gl. insperatâ, 56d1 (< to-muin-). nephthort[h]ech unfruitful (?), Ériu iii 6.1 . nemhthonnach waveless , Ériu ii 112 § 34. ¤threbtha uncultivated , viii 8.13 . neimhthréith not weak, strong , BNnÉ 280.24 . ¤thremeta, gl. impenetrabilis, Gild. Lor. 66. ¤throeta unconquered , ib. ¤thrócar unmerciful , PH 7627. ¤tromm: hua Néill nemthruim, LL 182a8 = Arch. Hib. ii 49 § 27. ¤thrúailnide uncorrupted : isuisse intoichther andruailnitheso honnebdruailnithiu, Wb. 13d20 . cia n-dechsad hi curp nem-thruaillnide, PH 6750 . in tan taitnigfes amal gréin nemthrualnide a chuirp ┐ a anma, BCC² 243 § 65 . neamhthuitimeach not liable to fall. Luc. Fid. 333.16 . ? ¤uis bold, insolent: dochodar co nemuis niata namdemail . . . dar in mbadun, Ann. Conn. 1236 § 8. Cf. uiss .i. umhal, O'Cl. ¤ulach beardless: glabrio .i. moit ł nephulach, Études Celt. xi 115 (Paris Latin 10290 15 b 15) .

(c) in late Mid.Ir. occas. with verbs: croch Chríst . . . 'com dhín anois nemhcheilter be it not hidden, Miscell. Celt. Soc. 338. 14 . do neimchreit se do recht Dé believed not, PH 7770. do neimhmheirtnigh iad encouraged , ML 82.12 . neamhmúchaidh ghlóir na nGaoidheal quench not, Ir. Monthly 1919, 341.44 . dontí neamhonóruigheas a anam féin (= exhonorantem animam suam), TSh. 1385. ara nemrenar enechcland on which honour-price is not paid, O'Mulc. 403. nemhtaisigh [mo phectha] deal not gently with (?), Ir. Lit. 8 n. 14 . ? atat cóic dualiche co nemthiagat in aíne i nfhóimtin, PH 8386 ; leg. conimthiagat there are five vices which accompany fasting to be guarded against?

súaichnid, súaithnid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. súaichnid, súaithnid or dil.ie/39059

Forms: shúaithnidh

adj i (*su-aith-gnid, see GOI § 127 ). bean shúaithnidh , IGT Decl. § 170 .

I Used predicatively.

(a) In phr. is s.¤ (folld. by clause) it is well-known, clear, obvious (that): is suaichnid ní ruthórbasa `it is well-known', Ml. 44b29 . bid suaichnid a failti in popuil as ṅdia prithchibes doib `it will be manifest', 107a16 . is suaichnid sund tra as recht maid `obvious', Wb. 3d10 . ishuáichnid is in iudeam conrodastar som techt `it is well-known that it is in iudeam', 7a14 . is suáignid, 8c15 . is suaichnid tra cid dia tuiced in cosmuilius co sse, 12b12 . is suaícnid, 13a20 . isuáichnid tra cid dia ndechuith tit , 16c7 . 23d30 . isuaignid, 18c6 . is suáichnid, 10a15 . 13b19 . 28a12 . Note also: is suaichnid dún insin (of a fact), Ml. 63c11 . nate ni fil homun dǽ les is suaichnid, 55c10 . is suachnid ni rodchadh mo iccsa, Ériu xii 168.12 = isuachnid, LU 10761 (TE). as suaithnigh for raith Édain, | Aodh i n-éccaibh it is clear from Ráth E. that A. is dead, TFrag. 238.17 = suaithnidh, AFM 576.6 . is lán shuaithnigh the fact is quite clear, Leb. Cert. 62.19 . aniú is suaithnidh co prab | beg let brigh do shencharad it is obvious that you think little of your old friend, BS 46.11 . is sūaithneidh (.i. is soaithenta), ZCP v 489 § 10 (B. na f.).

(b) Of persons, things clear, distinct, unmistakable; conspicuous, distinguished : combad suaíchnid leosom gl. mea manu Pauli; quod est signum in omni epistola, Wb. 26b31 . s[u]aichnid duit-siu ind aband, TBC-LL¹ 1303 (is aithnidh, v.l.). ba suaichnid é sech ilur (a warrior), IT i 80.12 . bá suachnid a eirred nglan | eter fhiannaib fer n-Alban, 17 . is suaichne ina rus . . . .i. is forreill ar aghaidh, O'Curry 2490 ( Eg. 88, 40 (41)a ). nirba suaichnich soaichnid neach dib seach aroili, TTebe 2335 . bá súaithnigh a ndath sen (of standards), CCath. 486 . roba suaic[h]nid airerda corp inn oenocclaigh, 6047 . ba suaithnig tra (sic leg. suaichnid, v.l.) an rí . . . 'ma roibi an shochraidi sin, TTebe 4823 . Ara Céli as suaithnidh clú of distinguished reputation, PBocht 8.28 . is suaithnidh somholta aní do-rinne an feallsamh D. `illustrious' (Gloss.), TSh. 7695 .

II Used attributively distinct, conspicuous, illustrious, excellent : con fhacca in mnái . . . | segda, suaichnid, sochrutach (Eve), SR 1068 . comartha suachnid, LU 8982 ( FB 73 ). slicht suachnid, LU 8493 ( FB 34 ). Mael-tShechloind t-shuaichnigh, MacCarthy 430.6 . sed suaitnid dar dfagbail (sic) ar a lorg .i. arm no edach na gaidi distinctive personal possession, O'Curry 288 ( H 3.18, 158a ). in tú thuc in sét suachnid út dona hechlachaib .i. Dond Cualnge?, TBC-LL¹ 139 . Cf. 6160 . tempoll suaichnich, TTebe 2258 . cath suaithnidh Sléibhe Muire, TD 17.40 . cocadh suaichnid, Irish Texts ii 29 § 30 . crann suaithnidh na sleas ndonnchaomh (i.e. the Cross), DDána 54.1 . id chúirt shuaithnidh, Measgra D. 56.131 . fear . . . go ccraobhaibh suaithnidhe síodamhla iona lámhaibh, CRR² 24 (76.16) . guss in sreibh . . . suaichnig, MR 104.10 . lúirioch . . . suaithnigh, xiii z. srol suaithne, 226.13 . eolach mé an t-saltair shuaithnidh, Oss. iii 294.9 . issé sin an figradach suaichnid `the famous wood', L. Chl. S. 9 . a shanntach shuaichnidh notoriously greedy one (Ireland), Keat. Poems 1381 .

Superl. na doirrsi is súaithenta atá ar an cathraig sin `principal gates', Maund. 249 (or to súaichenta?).

Adv. cenco taidhbred Cesair co suaichnidh iat `should not behold them clearly', CCath. 5357 . dearbháchaidh sinn go suaithnidh, DDána 71.4 . go suaithnidh clearly, Content. v 92 .

talchar

Cite this: eDIL s.v. talchar or dil.ie/39938

Forms: talchair, tolchar, talchuraibh

adj o, ā Also talchair (i-stem ?). Earlier tolchar (tol+car).

(a) Originally loving one's own will, selfish, lustful: t.¤ .i. tolcharthanach .i. grádhaighidh a thoil féin, O'Cl. ní tabair Dia duit a connaigi, ol is trom leis ┐ is t.¤ ┐ it móra na itgi, Trip. 112.29 . mad poc tolchar co lanchartius feli `osculum illecebrosum,' Ériu vii 144 § 28.

(b) More usually in vaguer sense of wilful, obstinate, ruthless, violent, etc. Of persons: sé tailc t.¤ , LU 8518 ( FB 37 ). Nathí tolchar, RC xxiii 310 § 31 . na mborb tolchair, ACL iii 317 § 54 . Toax talchair, TTr. 1183 . fer ... talchair, CCath. 349 . Of battles, attacks, etc. : fobairt trén tolchar, LU 1607 . ropo thalchair a threnredg, MacCarthy 198.4 . torandcles ... t.¤ , Cog. 178.17 . tairgsi ... talcar, MR 256.6 .

Various: gnim talchair, ZCP xi 44 § 49 . lam treasa talc[h]air, viii 110 § 6 . ba t.¤ an timgaire, RC xxxvii 348 § 57 . co t.¤ tinnesnach, CF 692 . Compar. ger ua lugu Tit ... ua talchairi e `he was more resolute,' TTebe 2565 . As subst. : fian co talchuraibh , BS 94.x .

uiseóg, fuiseóg

Cite this: eDIL s.v. uiseóg, fuiseóg or dil.ie/43069
Last Revised: 2019

n f. a lark , P. O'C. : fuiseog (gl. alauda), Ir. Gl. 140 . curid i n-airdi uiret téid uiseog i lló ainle, TBC-LL¹ 5528 (St). scendit ... a suip sesca as a n-ardai eiret tēiti uiseōc, TBC-I¹ 3613 . febh as faide tiagaid uiseoga i laaibh ailne nac bi gaoth, TBC-LL¹ 6040 St (where LL has uiss). an uair sguiriss an uiseog da candtairecht ┐ da ceileabrad im nōin, Études Celt. i 78.2 . teichim riasna huiseóga | as é an trénrioth tenn, BS § 40.39 . ataitt na heóin re n-abar paipínseóighi ann sin amail mar bíd na fuiseógca accuindi, Maund. 241 . See also 2 uisín.

uiseóc móna a tit-lark, a bog-lark (?): dar leis an uisseōicc mōna, ... | as sí féin ar imell raith | as ferr innell don ēnlaith, ZCP viii 219 § 11 .

An ogam symbol for the letter u: ēn-ogam ... aicme ailme .i. aidhircleog, odoroscrach, uiseoc, ela, illait, Auraic. 5696 .