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2 aithne

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 aithne or dil.ie/2754
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: aithgne, aichinte, aithennta

O. Ir. aithgne. io, n. Later f., and g s. also aichinte, PH 2910 . aithennta, ZCP vi 276.32 (infl. by 3 aithnid). Vn. of ad-gnin, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 546 . IGT Verbs § 54 .

(a) act of knowing, recognising, perceiving; knowledge, recognition, perception: do aithgniu ┐ etarcnu dǽ treu, Ml. 42b13 . ar is hé as eola fri aidgne ind athar (gl. missit Deus Spiritum Filii sui in corda uestra), Wb. 19d9 . do thudidin do menman do aidgniu gl. quoniam benignitas Dei ad penitentiam te adducit, 1c15 . aithgne et adrad, 1b13 . cin sula, di aithniu no foircsiu (leg. -in?) mignima, Laws i 238.14 . as ionad anma d'a.¤ , Anecd. ii 22 § 4 . ┐ iat ic aichne a n-inaid catha do congbail for they knew that their place of battle was being kept, CCath. 6143 . cen aithgne a litri có sin without knowing his letters, Trip.² 97 . a.¤ reanna ┐ úaithne ┐ úama, IGT Introd. 2.19 . robo dibreite aichne . . . in Baibiloin da togail it was inconceivable that B. should be destroyed, BB 6b53 . lucht aichinte Isu those who knew Jesus, PH 2910 . gin gur ghabhuis a.¤ uaim-si as reil dait though you weren't told by me, RC xliii 42 § 39 . do thaobh eólais is aithni, O'R. Poems 1202 . triur as lia iul is a.¤ (of the Trinity). DDána 25.6 . a.¤ thoile Dé, Parrth. Anma 3306 . aos aitheanta ar gceirdi-ni, Content. xxii 17 note . dom a.¤ to my knowledge, Aithd. D. 16.38 . Content. xviii 67 .

Less commonly with follg. AR: beas is mísí is olc aichní ar Isac perhaps it is I who do not know I. properly, BB 236b21 , do reir ar n-aithni-ne ar Conn as far as we know C., ML² 1426 . Cf. a.¤ ar chur ┐ ar chosg réime knowing about, IGT Introd. 2.6 . dlighidh a.¤ iomurbhádha . . . ┐ ar bhráithribh . . . dísbeaguidh, 2.30 .

Used like 3 aithnid: nī ha.¤ dhamh dhīobh díogha I know no refuse among them, O'R. Poems 3161 . a.¤ dhamh go bhfaghair . . . I know that you find . . ., Luc. Fid. 301.7 .

Transfd. of persons: an tú m'a.¤ `are you my acquaintance?' Ir. Review 1912, 378 § 1 . ní mé bhur n-a.¤ `he whom you know', Studies 1922, 245 § 1 = Dánta Gr. 47.1 . bhur na.¤ ┐ bhur neamha.¤ those of you who are known etc., CRR² 13 . cabair . . . a carat na a lan-a.¤ , `intimate acquaintances', MR 238.16 . Cf. mo dhaoine aitheanta acquaintances , TSh. 4252 (3 aithnid?).

Transfd. meaning that by which something may be recognized; characteristic: caide ém aichne rinnairde? Fél. 4.26 . is si a.¤ na tunataide, Laws iii 98.2 Comm. cair caide airceand? .i. comaircim caiti a.¤ na aircinde itir, iv 138.y Comm.

(b) In more active sense of coming to recognise or getting to know: cloc focain cethra .i. . . . fo braigit dia n-a.¤ , Laws i 142.15 Comm. secht ndoirsi fora thichthe / ind laich nar hannsa d'aichne, Rawl. 87a11 . coná baí aithgne neich sech alaile díb, TBFr. 271 . ní ermadair . . . aichne adnacail a maicc she was unable to recognise, Trip.² 1441 . báttar iaramh ag a.¤ ┐ ag adhnacal a ccaomh ┐ a ccarat, AFM v 1646.27 . doním tar muir d'a.¤ uaim / a ghruaidh, Rel. Celt. ii 242.23 . ar eagla h'aithennta for fear of being recognized, ZCP vi 276.32 . ar n-a.¤ Donnchaidh dhóibh, IGT Decl. ex. 670 . With vb. and AR, FOR: saig aithgne forru try to recognise them, IT i 144.24 . atnaigh in ingen aichne fair conar bé Ailill the girl recognized that he was not A., IT i 126.9 ( TE § 12 Eg.). sáilim a.¤ ar an guth nglan / gan cruth a aighte d'ḟégadh I think I recognize (him) by his clear voice, Prolegomena 44 § 16 . míorbhuile máthar Íosa / iomdha fear fhuair a n-a.¤ got to know them, DDána 10.39 .

In phr. beirid (somet. do-beir) aithniu (d s.) with follg. accus. or clause recognizes, realizes, gets to know: ni beram achni (= achniu) aní sin we know nothing of that, LU 10100 ( Imr. Brain 64 ). aralégda (leg. araléga edd.) inda libra ar a mbelaib combo moude ronduca athgnu `let him read the books before them, so that he may gain the more knowledge of them(?)', Mon. Tall. 160.z (§ 79) . tresaní nad rucis aithgnu since thou didst not recognize him, Ériu ii 222.15 . na ber aichne, ar bid fír recognize it, for it will be true, Alex. 835 (with inf. pron. 3 s. n., no bera, v.l.). tuc an ingin a.¤ gurbh'e righ Erenn do bí ann, Ériu iii 152 § 6 . tucsad Gaill aichne cur' fír sin `perceived', RC xviii 299.4 (Tig.) du-s-rad a.¤ gur `he knew that', Fl. Earls 52.18 . Note also: aenoclach . . . m'a.¤ doberudh go becht, Prolegomena 44 § 15 .

Do-beir a.¤ for recognizes (of persons and things only): dobéra imorro cach duine thall aich[ne] for araile iar n-esergi, LU 2661 . sí sin aichni do-biur-sa forru that is what I recognize them for, TBC-LL¹ 1247 . as é sin do ber a.¤ ar galar in duine, 5508 . ní tucsatt . . . na manaig aichne for Colmán, BColm. 80.25 . ní thuc . . . a ech a.¤ ar a hechlais, IGT Decl. ex. 555 . léicid aithne co reveals one's identity to: ro léacceas m'aithne chuicce, Acall. (Leabh. ó Laimhsgr.) iii 71.17. do leig a aithne chuca, Smaointe B. Chr. 5219 (seipsum eis revelat).

(c) recognition (in sense of recognition of a poet by his patron), generosity: an dáonnacht 's an deagha.¤ , O'R. Poems 71 . fear a.¤ na healadhna / urradh is fhearr le a cheathra, 1075 . nár dhamh . . . / gan mh'a.¤ dod ghruaidh ghairthe (of a poet), Aithd. D. 46.1 . benacht chugaibh . . . ar son na ha.¤ do-rin[n] sibh ar an dan so, Mackinnon Cat. 117.14 . tug séala athanta ar shleachtaibh . . . `recognition's seal', Ó Bruad. i 204 xvii .

(d) With subj. gen.: ba maith . . . enech ┐ aichne na mná generosity(?), LB 129a29 . Cf. as é . . . bud ferr i[n] aichni 'na einech (.i. bud fer ri aichni .i. ingne inntlechta) `whose wit was clearest in his countenance', RC xxiv 46 § 3 . fear h' a.¤ si a man with your knowledge, Oss. v 26.7 .

? athlaig

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ? athlaig or dil.ie/4803

 

v acci ra h-a.¤ iar togail / i cathraig Codail ro bóe, LL 16795 ( RC xlvii 299 ). Feidlem derg ra atlaig tiachra / mathair tri mac Fiachna, 16833 (ro tlathaig, v.l., RC xlvii 300 ).

attá

Cite this: eDIL s.v. attá or dil.ie/4927
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: attá, Fil, fil, faeilfit, fil, fil, atóo, attó, attóo, ató, -táu, -ttóo, -tó, atái, atái, -tái, adta, ata, at, atáa, attáa, ataa, att, -tá, -ta, -táa, -dathar, ataam, attaam, ataid, ataaith, ataaid, ataad, -taid, ataat, ataat, -tat, -taat, tathum, tathut, táithi, táthus, táthunn, taithiunn, tathuib, tás, fil, fil, feil, fel, fail, fil, file, fel, fele, feil, fail, biuu, -bíu, -bí, biith, biid, bíid, -bii, -bí, robīi, -rubi, -rubai, -ruba, bíis, biís, bis, bís, bithir, bither, -bither, -rubthar, bímmi, -biam, bimme, biit, bíit, robiat, -biat, -bíat, -rubat, bíte, -bíinn, -biinn, -bíid, -bíth, -bid, -bith, bithe, -bímmis, -bitis, -bítis, b, bíth, bíith, bíid, biid, bíd, bithom, biid, bith, biat, beo, beu, -béo, bee, b, -bee, robhe, beith, beid, bed, beth, -b, -bée, bethum-sa, rob, robe, rubé, rob, robbé, -roib, bess, bes, bethir, bether, -bether, bemmi, beimmi, -bem, -robam, beithe, bethe, -beith, -beid, -robith, beit, rubet, be(i)t, -bet, -robat, bete, -beind, -beinn, -betha, nobed, nobeth, -bed, -beth, -robad, -rabad, -bethe, -bemmis, -beimmis, -bemis, -bethe, -betis, -[ro]ibtis, bia, bie, bieid, bied, -bia, -bia, -bia, -bía, bethiumm, bethib, bias, bies, beithir, -bether, bemmi, beimmi, -biam, -piam, bethe, bethi, -bied, -bieid, biet, bieit, biet, -biat, -bíet, bete, beite, nombeinn, nobiad, -bíad, nobemmis, nobetis, b, -bá, bói, bái, -bói, boie, boithius, boíthi, baísu, both(a)e, botha, -both(a), bamar, bámar, -baid, bātir, -batar, batar, rob, -roba, -raba, rob, robói, rambái, robui, -robae, -robe, -rabae, romboth, rombod, -rabad, robámmar, -robammar, rubaid, -robaid, robatar, robbátar, -rabatar, -robatar, -rabtar, buith, buithi, atáu, atú, itu, it, atú, ataim, -t, -tái, -toi, taoi, -t, atá, attá, ata, at, atáthar, dáthar, atass, -das, itám, tám, ataum, ataim, atamaoit, atámaoid, atám, -taum, -dtám, atathai, atathi, atáithi, -táithi, -dathai, -taidh, itāt, atáit, ataut, táid, -táit, itat, atat, fil, -fhile, -fhuile, -fuili, -ḟoili, -ḟuile, fail, fail, fuil, -fail, -fuil, -uil, -ḟil, -ḟuil, -ḟoil, fil, fail, fail, filter, -fuiltear, fuilemm, -failmet, -ḟuilmíd, -ḟuilmíd, -ḟoilmíd, -ḟuileam, -ḟoileam, -bhḟuilti, failet, filet, fuilet, -failet, -filet, -fileat, -fuilet, -fuilid, failet, failet, fuilet, filet, bim, bím, -bím, -ruibim, -bi, bíd, bíd, -bí, -bíonn, -bind, bídh, -b, bither, -bithar, bímit, bídmaid, bímíd, -bímíd, -bíom, bíth, bīd, -bíat, -bít, -bíd, bit, bít, bhínn, nobīth, robíth, bhíodh, bhíoth, bithi, -bithi, bithea, naboitis, nobīdis, beitis, bitis, bhítís, bhídís, bír, b, bīdh, bíodh, bíoth, bíom, bíthe, bídh, bidhí, bíod, ber, uér, beor, bheith, bur, -rabor, -rabhus, rabasa, bear, rabhar, -bear, -rabhar, bé, beir, -rab(a)i, -rabha, -rabhair, -mbéis, -beis(se), -rabais, beis, rabais, -beis, -rabais, beth, -b, -raib, -rab, -raibhe, rabh, raibh, -bé, -raibh, -rabh, bess, beas, bethur, beme, bemmit, bemait, -bém, -beam, -ruibem, -rabum, bheam, rabham, bethi, rabthai, beit, -bet, -beat, -rabat, -rabut, -rabhait, -rabhaid, -rabheid, beinn, rabainn, beithi, beithe, bethe, beitheá, beith, nobith, mbeadh, -mbeath, -rabad, -bethe, -bette, rabtha, mbiadh, nobeitis, nobeidis, mbeith, bíat, biat, biad, bhead, bed, bét, bett, -biu, -bhiú, biad, -bi, bía, biae, biaidh, bía, -bía, bethair, bied, biaid, biáid, -bia, bíes, bés, bes, bess, bhias, biass, beither, beithir, bemit, bemait, -bem(ni, beimíd, -biam, -biaim(ne), -ben, bethi, beitte, bete, -bed, biait, biat, beit, beiti, beti, betit, beidid, -bīat, beidíd, beid, -bíad, no-béind, dobeind, do beinn, -beinn, bheitheá, biadh, -bied, bífad, rot-fiadh, biath, bhiadh, bethe, bheidīs, ro-bádus, bhádhus, bhí, -rabus, -rabhas, -rabadhus, bá, -raba, bádhus, -rabadhas, basa, bhádhuis, bhí, -rabadais, -rabhais, bhádhuis, -rabhadhuis, bae, bóe, baei, búi, -bae, -buí, robai, robae, robói, bí, robuidh, bí, bhói, bhaoi, -rubai, -roibe, -roibi, -roba, -raba, -raibhe, -rabha, -robha, bí, -raibi, baí, -rabha, -rabhustair, boí, bāi, būi, bae, buí, baí, boí, both, rombatha, robās, rombas, robás, -rabus, rabas, -bádus, -bás, bás, bas, -rabas, bas, bhás, bāmur, bámar, bhámair, -rabamar, robabair, -babhair, robadbair, bhábhair, -rabhuir, -rabhabhair, bādar, -bátir, badar, bádar, bídur, -rabadar, -rabhadair, baisit, -rabhsad, bátar, bátar, bheith, beitte

(ad-tá) subst. vb. is . The distinction betw. subst. vb. and copula is in the first place syntactical, and cases are found where there is no distinction of form. Cf. the type, common in ACC: boe sab he was a leader, ACC 26 . See further below, and the discussion by Bergin, Ériu xii 208 - 211 (cia taísiu, cia bé, etc.), who refers to cases like: is uera pictura ro bai sin, Thes. ii 6.32 as emphatic. See also Ériu xvi 46 , GOI 475 . For nimtha laám, Wb. 12a21 , nímptha fírion, 8d24 (copula ?) see GOI 487 . Note also the form of the pron. in (later): matait tall iat, Laws iv 86.8 Comm. , atá ar conair é, ACL iii 216.z . bí N. eices cecinit, RC xvii 175.14 is perh. a mistake. In follg. use of subst. vb. perh. due to infl. of Latin: mar nobéind athair doib = pater eram pauperum, PH 6107 . ata in innsci ordugud etc. = oratio est. . ., Auraic. 591 .

Apart from the ordinary indic. pres. all forms of subst. vb. are from a root beginning with b-. In indic. pres. the stem tá (in absol. position attá) is used in non-rel. sentences without conj. particle, after conj. particles with inf. pron. dat. and when the conj. particle consists of a preposition and rel. (s)a n-. Absolute inflexion of tá- is found in oldaas, indaas, etc. than (is), in meaning is angry, and with follg. suff. pron. The uninflected form fil (with accus.) is used after conj. particles where no dat. inf. pron. is present, in leniting rel. clauses and often in answers to questions containing subst. vb., and in archaic texts in absol. position in meaning there is . For fuller details see GOI 476 - 483 and exx. below. See also Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 419 ff. , Strachan, Phil. Soc. Trans. 1899, 1 - 82 , Ó Máille, Ériu vi 1 ff. , Études Celt. xxxiv 143-44 . Forms of gaibid, do-coissin, díchsnigidir and 1 ad-cumaing also have the force of the subst. vb. in certain uses, see separate entries.

Note further that attá is usual after hóre (see Wb. 19a19 , 22d14 and compare GOI § 781 ) and occurs later after amal ( LU 7072 , Laws iii 90.18 ). Fil is somet. found in sense there is in mid. Ir.: fail crois d'ór in cach dorus, SR 361 . TBC-I¹ 2561 . Note also: fil derg it is red, Marco P. 173 .

The use of accus. after fil continues into the classical period, see IGT Introd. § 129 , Bard. Synt. Tr. 92 - 93 . A few exx. of forms other than fil with accus. occur: ni raibi deilb, TTr.² 1664 , ní raibi . . . mhnái, 370 , ní bhiadh mnaoi, Ó Bruad. ii 252.z (with assonance). Note also with inf. pron. rosṁbai inna tass, SR 5107 . ? nim tha maith . . . do chath fri firu, LU 3343 ( SCC 13 ). From the mid. Ir. period on fil takes personal endings except in 3 s., and occurs occasionally as an independent verb: faeilfit (fut. 3 pl. absol.), Caithr. Thoirdh. 120.26 . In rel. function attá is found side by side with fil from an early period: is heiside attá hi S., Trip.² 534 , a lucht atá istig, RC vii 298.131 , the form fil finally disappearing in this use.

In mid. Ir. fil occurs for earlier -tá with dat. inf. pron.: nichar fail tlacht, SR 1560 , ni-s-fil biad, PH 1310 . Also in rel. clause after prep.: bale hi fail, LU 7516 , fors fil, Imr. Brain 43 (see also Strachan, Stories fr. Táin 3rd ed. p. 1 note).

The consuet. pres. 1 s. conj. -bíu has in classical Ir. the force of a future: biad ní biú, IGT Verbs § 7 , see also TBC-LL¹ 882 , Acall. 6179 , Duan. F. i 43.4 .

Early forms (for fuller lists see Strachan loc. cit.). Indic. pres. 1 s. atóo, Wb. 12a21 . attó, 21c19 . attóo, 26d8 . ató, 26d17 . -táu, 32a10 , -ttóo, 17d24 , -tó, Ml. 92b8 . 2 s. atái, Wb. 5b27 . atái, Ml. 110d15 (sic MS, see Ériu xiv 30 ). -tái, 5b38 . 3 s. adta, Laws v 390.10 (see ZCP xxv 247 ). ata, Wb. 13c26 , at, 27a11 , atáa, 6a19 , attáa, 32a6 , ataa, 26b31 , att, 4b11 . -tá, 31c7 , -ta, 2b12 , -táa, 13a35 . Impers. -dathar (see GOI 477 - 478 ), Wb. 21c9 . 1 pl. ataam, Wb. 15a13 , attaam, 32a28 . 2 pl. ataid, Wb. 4a4 , ataaith, 20b16 , ataaid, 23c28 , ataad, 22d14 . -taid, 19d26 . 3 pl. ataat (trisyll.), Blathm. 471 . ataat, Ml. 55d11 , 37a10 . -tat, 42b10 . -taat, Sg. 71b3 .

With suff. pron. tathum, Metr. Dinds. iv 284.3 . tathut, Fél. July 24 . táithi (tathai, v.l.), Críth G. 197 . táthus, Fél. Feb. 5 . táthunn, Prol. 217. taithiunn, Thes. ii 293.19 . tathuib, Rawl. 88b51 .

For rel. s. without preverb (taas, tás) see atás, indaas, 4 ol.

The form fil, etc. As conj. form: fil, Wb. 16b9 , Ml. 92a8 , Sg. 193b7 . feil, Wb. 24c4 . Ml. 60b2 . fel, Wb. 3c38 , Ml. 27d10 . fail, 44b10-11 , Sg. 32a1 . As rel.: fil, Ml. 121c8 , file Wb. 23a5 , Ml. 51d11 , Sg. 151b7 . fel, Wb. 4c1 , fele, Ml. 93c7 . feil, Wb. 33b18 . fail, BCr. 18c4 .

Consuet. pres. 1 s. biuu, Wb. 16d8 . -bíu, 20a3 . 2 s. -bí, Ml. 135d1 . ACL iii 312 § 4 . 3 s. biith, Wb. 29a26 . biid, 4d33 . bíid, Sg. 150b4 . -bii, Wb. 28b25 , -bí, Ml. 103c3 . With ro: robīi, TBC-I¹ 1730 . -rubi, Wb. 11c17 , -rubai, Ml. 20d4 , Sg. 7b3 . -ruba, 3b28 . Rel. bíis, Wb. 13a12 . biís, 28b28 . bis, Ml. 61a33 . bís, Sg. 140b2 . Impers. bithir, Ml. 56b15 . rel. bither, 108b4 , -bither, 100c21 . -rubthar, cited GOI § 784 . OIPG 69 . 1 pl. bímmi, Ml. 15a4 . -biam, Wb. 16a8 . Rel. bimme, Wb. 12c11 . 3 pl. biit, Wb. 29a28 . bíit, Sg. 217a1 . robiat, 138a5 . -biat, Ml. 59d7 . -bíat, Sg. 148a4 . -rubat, 138a5 . Rel. bíte, Wb. 9d28 .

Indic. impf. 1 s. -bíinn, Ml. 108b1 , -biinn, 58d9 . 3 s. -bíid, LU 5080 (see Ériu xvii 121 ), -bíth, Sg. 148b6 . -bid, Ml. 33a5 . -bith, Vita Br. 12 . Impers. no bithe , CCath. 3971 . 1 pl. -bímmis, cited GOI § 785 . 3 pl. -bitis, Ml. 86d6 . -bítis, Sg. 5a15 .

Ipv. 2 s. b, TBC-I¹ 2391 . 3 s. bíth, Wb. 10a8 , 25 , bíith, 8d9 , bíid, 5d33 , biid, Ml. 74d3 . bíd, Wb. 3a14 . With suff. pron. bithom, Fél. Ep. 404 n.17 . 2 pl. biid, Wb. 23c11a . bith, 22b26 . 3 pl. biat, Ml. 51d13 .

Subj. pres. 1 s. beo, Wb. 23b41 . beu, Ml. 53b8 . -béo, Fél. Prol. 273 . 2 s. bee, cited OIPG 70 and see GOI 482 . b, ZCP viii 311.z (see xxiv 122 ). -bee (perh. absol.), ZCP vii 494 (Enchir. Aug.). -bē, Fing. R. 82 . With ro: robhe (restored as ro-bé), Blathm. 92 § 9 . 3 s. beith, Ml. 108a11 . beid, Wb. 14c23 . bed, 3c10 . beth, Thes. ii 245.34 (Cambr. Hom.). -bǽ, Wb. 22b14 . -b, Sg. 29b14 . -bée, Wb. 12c43 . With suff. pron. bethum-sa, Fél. Ep. 384 n.14 . With ro: rob, Wb. 5d30 , robe, 18c4 , rubé, Ml. 20d4 , rob, Wb. 28a23 , robbé, Sg. 169a1 . -roib, Wb. 16c24 , Ml. 118c5 . Rel. bess, Wb. 5d14 . bes, Ml. 77d3 . Impers. bethir, Wb. 5d33 . rel. bether, Ml. 107d8 . -bether, Wb. 10a18 . 1 pl. bemmi, Wb. 31c11 . beimmi, 19a16 . -bem, 24a10 . -robam, 26c10 . 2 pl. beithe, Wb. 18b16 . bethe, 24b13 . -beith, Ml. 46a10 . -beid, Wb. 27c9 . With ro: -robith, Wb. 26a28 . 3 pl. beit, Wb. 10b5 . rubet, 26a23 . ro be(i)t , Vita Br. 35 . -bet, Wb. 9d27 . -robat, 11d9 . Rel. bete, Wb. 10c22 .

Subj. impf. 1 s. -beind, TBC-I¹ 1856 . -beinn cited GOI § 787 . 2 s. -betha, Wb. 4c24 . 3 s. nobed, Wb. 3b10 . nobeth, Ml. 27b1 . -bed, Wb. 9d1 . -beth, Ml. 88b15 . -robad, Wb. 17a13 . -rabad, 34a4 . Impers. -bethe, Trip.² 2828 . 1 pl. -bemmis, Wb. 9a3 . -beimmis, 29d23 . -bemis, Vita Br. 23 . 2 pl. -bethe, Wb. 9c20 . 3 pl. -betis, Sg. 138a9 . -[ro]ibtis, Wb. 28a1 .

Fut. 1 s. bia, Ml. 137b7 . 2 s. bie, cited GOI § 788 , OIPG 70 . 3 s. bieid, Wb. 4d6 . bied, 14c1 . -bia, 5d35 . -bia (disyll.), Blathm. 572 . -bia and -bía, GOI § 788 . With suff. pron. bethiumm. Ériu xiii 20.6 . bethib, ZCP viii 316.5 (see xxix 174 ). Rel. bias, Wb. 23b38 . bies, Ériu iii 102 § 32 . Impers. beithir, TBFr. 248 . -bether, MacCongl. 61.4 . 1 pl. bemmi, Wb. 9c10 . beimmi, 21b7 . -biam, 15a1 . -piam, 30b17 . 2 pl. bethe, cited GOI § 788 . bethi, Trip.² 1589 . -bied, Wb. 9a21 . -bieid, 26d26 . 3 pl. biet (disyll.), Blathm. 472 . bieit, Wb. 4c40 . biet, 9d27 , Sg. 198b6 (also bíet, GOI § 788 ). -biat, 9c28 . -bíet, 40b14 . Rel. bete, Wb. 13c26 . beite, 4c40 .

Condit. 1 s. nombeinn, Ml. 59a22 . 3 s. nobiad, Ml. 32d5 . -bíad, Wb. 9d1 . 1 pl. nobemmis, Ml. 134b3 . 3 pl. nobetis, Ml. 100c7 .

Pret. 1 s. b, LU 9407 . 2 s. -bá, cited GOI § 789 , OIPG 71 , see perf. 2 s. below. 3 s. bói, Wb. 31c18 . bái, 27a16 . -bói, 17d17 , Ml. 78a4 . Rel. boie, Thes. ii 242.11 (Ardm.). boīe (MS. ba), Ériu xvi 46.10 (see n. 0 and Celtica vi 223 ). boíë (MS. baoí), Ériu xxvi 67, 85 . Cf. cech nóeb bói, fil, bías, Fél. Ep. 289 (where six sylls. required). With suff. pron. boithus, IT i 137.8 = boithius, 21 . boíthi, Sc.M² 3 . ? baísu, Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. i 37.5 . Impers. *both(a)e, postulated GOI § 789 , botha, TBC-I¹ 1572 . -both(a), Vita Br. 33 . 1 pl. bamar, SR 1558 . bámar, 3286 , Imr. Brain i 48.5 . 2 pl. -baid (baïd ?), cited GOI § 789 , OIPG 71 . 3 pl. bātir, TBC-I¹ 217 . -batar, Ml. 55c2 . Rel. batar, Ml. 123b5 . See GOI § 789 .

Perf. 1 s. rob, Wb. 28a9 . -roba, Ml. 44c4 . -raba, TBC-I¹ 3068 . 2 s. rob, LL 14442 . 3 s. robói, Wb. 5c10 . rambái, 2c13 . robui, Ml. 93c3 . -robae, Ml. 41a5 , -robe, Wb. 18d7 , -rabae, Ml. 28d3 . Impers. romboth, Wb. 19a9 . rombod, 5b31 . -rabad, Ériu iv 146.4 . 1 pl. robámmar, Wb. 20d12 . -robammar, Ml. 105b16 . 2 pl. rubaid, Wb. 3b19 . -robaid, Ml. 46a8 . 3 pl. robatar, Wb. 24c5 . robbátar, Sg. 57b1 . -rabatar, Ml. 100c11 . -robatar, Sg. 45b1 . -rabtar, Ml. 37a16 .

Vn. buith.

Vbl. of necess. buithi.

Later forms (see also Ó Máille, Verbs of Existence in Irish, Ériu vi 1 ff. ; Mulchrone, Verbalformen der Vita Tripartita, ZCP xvi 440 ; Falconer, Verbal System of LU Táin, Ériu xvii 116 ; Strachan, Verbal System of SR, Phil. Soc. Trans. 1895, 1 - 76 ; O Daly, Verbal System of LL Táin, Ériu xiv 80 ; Mac Eoin, Verbalsystem von Togail Troi, ZCP xxviii 125 ; Sommerfelt, Le système verbal dans In Cath Catharda, RC xxxviii 41 ; Nuner, Verbal System of the Agallamh na Senórach, ZCP xxvii 272 ; PH Glossary; Lloyd, Impersonal passive forms of the Irish substantive verb, Ériu i 49 ff. ; TD Introd. lxxv ; IGT Verbs § 7 ).

Indic. pres. 1 s. atáu, Trip.² 1412 . atú, 2578 . itu, SR 1187 . it, TBC-LL¹ 434 . atú, IGT Verbs § 7 . ataim, Fier. 14 . -t, Acall. 4516 . 2 s. -tái, SR 3102 . -toi, TBC-I¹ 937 . taoi, TD 15.48 . cia doaisiu mac?, RC xxvi 30 § 128 . 3 s. -t, Trip.² 744 . atá, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. attá, Trip.² 534 , ata, SR 7708 etc., at, Acall. 429 . Impers. atáthar, TBC-LL¹ 3316 . dáthar (: máthar), IGT Verbs ex. 99 . atass, Ériu iv 114 § 17 (:as). -das (: as), IGT Verbs ex. 104 . 1 pl. itám, SR 1727 . tám, 3493 . ataum, PH 1556 . ataim, TBC-LL¹ 874 . atamaoit, TBC St. 121 . atámaoid, atám, IGT Verbs § 7 . -taum, PH 1506 . -dtám (: ár), IGT Verbs ex. 111 . 2 pl. atathai, PH 2734 . atathi, 597 . atáithi (: fáithi), IGT Verbs ex. 105 . -táithi (: sáithi), ex. 96 . -dathai, Alex. 190 . -taidh, Ériu ii 118 § 53 . 3 pl. itāt, TBC-I¹ 3132 . atáit, CCath. 1215 . ataut, PH 1064 . táid, TD 8.5 . -táit, CCath. 1701 . Rel. itat, Trip.² 882 , atat, SR 7949 . For later forms in meaning than (is) see atás, indaas, 4 ol. See also II (d) below and daas.

The form fil. 1 s. ni ḟuilim, ni ḟoilim, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. -fhile, PH 8116 . -fhuile, 3335 , -fuili, Acall. 3217 . -ḟoili, -ḟuile, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. fail, TBC-I¹ 60 , SR 353 etc. ro fail , TBC-LL¹ 263 , fuil, 3072 . -fail, Trip.² 2764 , -fuil, 872 , -uil, PH 3181 , -ḟil, Acall. 3709 . -ḟuil, -ḟoil, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. fil, Trip.² 842 , fail, SR 392 , no fail , 933 . With impers. ending: filter, MacCongl. 31.25 . -fuiltear, TD 2.42 . 1 pl. ra fuilemm , TBC-LL¹ 2971 . -failmet, SR 6320 , -ḟuilmíd, Acall. 5101 . -ḟuilmíd, -ḟoilmíd, -ḟuileam, -ḟoileam, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 pl. -bhḟuilti, Acall. 962 . 3 pl. failet, SR 345 . filet, 477 . fuilet, TBC-LL¹ 4739 . -failet, Trip.² 1119 . -filet, TBC-I¹ 1848 , -fileat, CCath. 1270 . -fuilet, 427 . -fuilid, TD 7.23 . Rel. failet, SR 400 . ra failet , TBC-LL¹ 5225 . fuilet, 4709 . filet, PH 435 . See also do-fil.

Consuet. pres. 1 s. bim, PH 6393 . bím, -bím, IGT Verbs § 7 . ? -ruibim, SG 373.29 . 2 s. -bi, SR 2035 . bí, ní bí, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. bíd, TBC-I¹ 1453 (LU). biid, SR 4537 . bíd, 4588 . -bí, TBC-I¹ 472 . -bíonn, TD 22.12 . -bind, RC xlix 37.13 . bídh, -b, IGT Verbs § 7 . Impers. bither, PH 7441 . -bithar, Laws iv 234.2 Comm. 1 pl. bímit, Acall. 886 . bídmaid, 5481 . bímíd, -bímíd, -bíom, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 pl. bíth, Acall. 6139 . 3 pl. bīd, TBC-I¹ 1075 (bít, LU). -bíat, TTr.² 330 . -bít, PH 4189 , -bíd, TD 5.5 . Rel. bit (= bíït), SR 7259 . bít, TBC-LL¹ 1320 .

Indic. impf. 1 s. do bhínn , TD 23.7 . 3 s. nobīth, TBC-I¹ 593 (nobíid, LU cited above). robíth, TBC-I¹ 1903 (LU). do bhíodh , TD 14.23 . do bhíoth , 26.12 . Impers. bithi, Auraic. 5286 = -bithi, RC xx 150.y (ACC Pref.). no bithea , Acall. 156 . 3 pl. naboitis, TBC-I¹ 855 LU (nobitís, Y). nobīdis, 3621 (Y). bítís, 1898 (LU). no beitis , LL 407a27 . ro bitis , PH 1957 . do bhítís , Acall. 830 . do bhídís , TD 15.18 . Rel. tri cnuasa bítís ann, Acall. 455 .

Ipv. 1 s. bír (: gním), IGT Verbs ex. 94 . 2 s. b, Parrth. Anma 3871 . 3 s. bīdh, ZCP vi 271.z . bíodh, TD 16.2 . bíoth, 17.1 . 1 pl. bíom, Dán Dé xiv 17 . 2 pl. bíthe (: -chíthe), IGT Verbs ex. 95 . bídh, ex. 109 . bidhí, Luc. Fid. 3430 . 3 pl. bíod, TD 16.19 .

Subj. pres. 1 s. ber, SG 172.15 . uér, Ériu ii 92.9 . beor, v 222.46 . bheith mé, TD 8.9 . -ra bur , TBC-LL¹ 1112 . -rabor, ZCP xii 401.30 . ? -rabhus, ZCP v 523.27 = rabasa, Ériu xii 144.12 (TE). -rabar, ZCP iii 32.37 . bear, rabhar, -bear, -rabhar, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. bé, SR 1607 . beir, BNnÉ 288.29 . Acall. 592 . -rab(a)i, BDD² p. 80 . -rabha, Irish Texts iv 75 § 16 . -rabhair, Fing. R. p. 13 note 86 . -mbéis (: Céis), IGT Verbs ex. 100 . -beis(se) (: meise), Dán Dé xiv 20 . -rabais, Fing. R. 86 , BDD² 363 (see ZCP xxvii 75-8 ). beis, rabais, -beis, -rabais, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. beth, TBC-I¹ 270 (beith, v.l.), IGT Verbs ex. 101 . -b, TBC-I¹ 1671 . -raib, Trip.² 2753 . -rab, TBC-I¹ 1430 . -raibhe, Parrth. Anma 2616 . rabh, raibh, -bé, -raibh, -rabh, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. bess, TBC-I¹ 1104 (beis, Y). beas, IGT Verbs § 7 . Impers. bethur, Laws ii 36.20 Comm. 1 pl. beme, Snedg. u. Mac R 9.14 . bemmit, TBC-LL¹ 2137 . bemait, Acall. 5478 . -bém, CCath. 1124 . -beam (: leam), Dán Dé xii 10 . -ruibem, SR 5540 . -rabum, PH 7899 . bheam, rabham, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 pl. bethi, SR 1233 . rabthai, PH 1977 . 3 pl. beit, Trip.² 1653 . -bet, TBC-I¹ 1053 . -beat, Lism. L. 4702 . -rabat, Laws iv 42.29 Comm. -rabut, PH 994 . -rabhait, BNnÉ 269.4 . -rabhaid, Parrth. Anma 2836 . -rabheid, RC xxix 136 § 51 .

Subj. impf. 1 s. do beinn , do rabainn , IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. no beithi , Trip.² 2972 . no beithe , 2983 = no bethe , Trip. 252.21 . do beitheá , TD 1.44 . 3 s. no beith , Trip.² 2967 . nobith, TBC-I¹ 3543 . dá mbeadh , TD 29.6 . -mbeath, IGT Verbs ex. 97 . -rabad, RC iii 184.24 . Impers. -bethe, Trip.² 2828 . -bette, Metr. Dinds. iii 382.19 . rabtha, TBC-LL¹ (C) 1675 . 1 pl. dá mbiadh sinn, TD 28.25 . 3 pl. nobeitis, SR 7855 . nobeidis, TBC-I¹ 3557 . dá mbeith siad, TD 26.36 .

Fut. (see Bergin, Ériu ii 46-8 ) 1 s. bíat, TTr.² 89 . biat, PH 1244 . biad (bíatt v.l.), CCath. 5137 . bhead, Parrth. Anma 6378 . bed, ZCP vi 41.10 . bét, 69.2 . bett, BNnÉ 52 § 42 . -biu, TBC-LL¹ 882 . -bhiú, Dán Dé xiv 20 . biad, -bi, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. bía, Trip.² 1593 . biae, SR 1599 . -bíai, BNnÉ 291 § 2 . biaidh tú, TD 1.26 . bía, -bía, IGT Verbs § 7 . bethair, ZCP ii 225.4 . 3 s. bied, LU 10362 . biaid, Trip.² 1071 . biáid, TBC-I¹ 169 (LU). biaidh, -bia, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. bíes, Trip.² 2671 . bés, CCath. 300 , bes, 657 . bess, PH 4666 . bhias, TD 3.50 . do biass , L. Chl. S. 1 . Impers. beither, Acall. 5259 . beithir, ZCP x 415.11 . 1 pl. bemit, LU 9753 , PH 1501 . bemait, CCath. 1467 . -bem(ni, LU 9753 . beimíd, -biam, IGT Verbs § 7 . -biaim(ne) (: siairni), ex. 108 . ? -ben, BCC 396.19 . 2 pl. bethi, SR 3083 . beitte (: eiti) (beththi, bete v.l.), IGT Verbs ex. 102 . -bed, Trip.² 1590 . 3 pl. biait, Trip.² 2665 , TBC-I¹ 2057 (beite, LU). biat, Trip.² 1288 . beit, TBC-I¹ 80 . beiti, TBC-I¹ 2078 . beti, SR 8157 . betit, SR 853 . TBC-LL¹ 246 , TTr.² 760 . beidid, ZCP x 338 § 1 . -bīat, TBC-I¹ 1132 . beidíd síad, BCC 290.12 . beid, -bíad, IGT Verbs § 7 .

Condit. 1 s. no-béind, PH 6107 . dobeind, 7489 . do beinn, -beinn, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. do bheitheá , TD 19.13 . 3 s. no biadh , CCath. 3754 . -bied, TBC-I¹ 504 . ro bífad , TBC-LL¹ 5112 . rot-fiadh, IT iii 320.4 ( Cóir Anm. 70 ). do biath (: sgiath), IGT Verbs ex. 97 . do bhiadh , TD 2.54 . Impers. no bethe , TTr.² 533 . 3 pl. do bheidīs , Parrth. Anma 5227 .

Pret. and perf. 1 s. ro-bádus, PH 699 . do bhádhus , TD 23.6 . do bhí mé, 5 . -rabus, Acall. 7913 . -rabhas, 1584 . -rabadhus, 356 . do bá , -raba; do bádhus , -rabadhas, IGT Verbs § 7 . do basa ( : bádusa; proscribed form), ex. 103 . 2 s. ro bhádhuis , CCath. 553 . do bhí tú, TD 28.6 . -rabadais, PH 3725. 8121 . -rabhais, Acall. 123 . do bhádhuis , -rabhadhuis, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. bae, SR 7608 . bóe, 6265 . baei, BDD² 127 . búi, CCath. 95 . -bae, SR 4975 . -buí, Trip.² 1505 . robai, SR 2229 , robae, 2262 . robói, PH 2572 . ro bí , CCath. 1302 . robuidh, Ériu iii 198 § 22 . do bí , CCath. 278 . do bhói , Acall. 58 . do bhaoi (: draoi), Dán Dé xii 22 . -rubai, SR 1241 . -roibe, BDD² 498 , -roibi, 1393 . -roba, 251 . -raba, 1533 . -raibhe, TD 2.25 . -rabha, 8.36 . -robha, 1 . do bí , -raibi, do baí , -rabha, IGT Verbs § 7 . With depon. ending -rabhustair, BNnÉ 322 § 31 . Rel. boí, Trip.² 626 . bāi, TBC-I¹ 1277 . būi, 630 . ro bae , Trip.² 288 . ro buí , BDD² 287 . ro baí , 1451 . ro boí , 1517 . Impers. both, Trip.² 2264 . rombatha, Ériu ii 20 § 3 (-a added later). -rabad, iv 146.4. robās, TBC-I¹ 2147 . rombas, SR 7564 , robás, TTr.² 151 . -rabus, Trip.² 54 . rabas, Laws iv 212.22 Comm. , -bádus, MacCongl. 43.22 . -bás, 61.3 . do bás , do bas , -rabas, IGT Verbs § 7 . do bas (: as), ex. 98 . do bhás (: fhás), Dán Dé xxvi 9 . 1 pl. bāmur, TBC-I¹ 399 . do bámar , Acall. 1283 . do bhámair (: Ádhaimh), Dán Dé xv 17 . -rabamar, TBC-I¹ 2495 . 2 pl. robabair, Anecd. ii 14.9 . -babhair, Blathm. 23 (see notes ). robadbair, TBC-I¹ 2502 . do bhábhair , TD 22a.1 . -rabhuir, Acall. 114 . -rabhabhair, TD 22a.2 . 3 pl. bādar, TBC-I¹ 472 . -bátir, TTr.² 1308 . ro badar , CCath. 573 n. ro bádar , Acall. 75 . do bídur , 5942 . -rabadar, TBC-I¹ 3108 . -rabhadair, TD 26.10 . ro baisit , O'Dav. 728 . -rabhsad, TD 16.21 . Rel. bátar, Trip.² 591 . BDD² 505 . ro bátar , 543 . Vn. an bheith , IGT Verbs § 7 . Vbl. of necess. beitte, TD 28.30 .

Cf. cenmothá, íarmothá, óthá.

Used in meaning is in a large variety of contexts. Normally replaced by copula (see 1 is) in certain fixed syntactical patterns (classification, identification, etc.), and when used in these cases exceptional (see above and II below).

I Expressing existence.

(a) Used absolutely is, exists, there is, etc.: ata in coimdiu gl. Dominus in cælo sedis eius, Ml. 30b27 . nabad hed a méit nádmbǽ `let it not be only that it is not' gl. nec nominetur in uobís, Wb. 22b14 . ní fil aimsir nad mbed ref. to fuit et est semper, Ml. 17a15 . ní torménmar-ni ara mbetis in gnimai sin gl. præter spem nostram, etc., 115b1 . ni fil chumtubairt gl. indubitabilia, etc., Sg. 154b2 . ma nubed `if it existed', 31b21 . ro baoi siomh re tuisdinsiú `he existed', Blathm. 632 . as e as soithcerndomh fil, 773 . ma rombe is maith if it is, it is well, Laws iv 2.14 Comm. ni rabi uair . . . nad ro bai `there was no hour . . . that He existed not', Ériu ii 106 § 16 . a cin for athair .i. uair na bí mac, Laws iv 240.16 Comm. Columb [ro]baoi, Columb bīaas, ZCP viii 198 § 20 . tar ēis a mic . . . / nī raba acht dā aenbliadain `was alive only two years', Ériu iii 198 § 24 . as a rad ata a nadmaim cin co be by saying there is a covenant though there is not, Laws iv 52.30 Comm. ni tha . . . ní a ngeimre in winter there is nothing, 90.1 (with petrified inf. pron. 3 s. n. in dat. sense?). ní bía terca bíd there will not be a scarcity of food, BColm. 52.5 . bid dno maith, ┐ ni bi derrscugud de `yet there is good, and nothing to surpass it', Auraic. 703 . is tré ómun bíid serc, Ériu i 195.1 . céin beti neóil im gréin ngil, Metr. Dinds. ii 38.z . i céin raibh nemh is talamh as long as . . . endure, BNnÉ 314 § 8 . bai cocad mor etarro, RC xxiv 186 § 19 . In phrase (acht) atá ní (chena) but, moreover, see 1 ní (e).

In periphrasis when emphasis on some element other than the verb is required: bieid nach dréct diib hícfider, Wb. 4d6 . bieid bes ferr de, 32a13 . do budh cusmail rit co robuis uair ecin, ┐ co n[d]ingenta rét feramail `that thou wert once such an one that thou couldst . . .', ZCP vi 87.13 . ba-sa tan / nī folabrainn ilach gamh, Ériu ii 95 § 3 . ata[a]t .iii. cáini nad chumgat comarbai do chumscuchud, Ériu xvii 68 § 9 ( Laws iv 210 ). Note further: atāit teora brīathra / ata lōgmaire for nim, ZCP vii 312 § 25 .

With words expressing time: bieid aimser nad creitfider, Wb. 28c14 . aidchi robuī `one night', Ériu ii 222.25 . fecht robai `once', Mon. Tall. 147.2 (§ 52) . biaidh uair 's . . . a time will come when, Dán Dé vii 31 .

Introducing a statement: cia beith ara rogba bóairechas riasíu ropo chúairddulchach though it be that he assume, Críth G. 67 . dá mbeith fós go mbiadh an Fhraingc comh líonmhar ┐ adeir seisean `granted that', Keat. ii 933 . má tá go seachnoid síol Éibhir . . ., TD 29.7 . ci(d), gi(d) bé whatever, whoever (see Ériu xii 210 ): ria flaithaib, .i. rias na flaithib, cibe flaithe iat `whatever chieftains they be', Laws iv 154.17 . gidh bé lá cheannghar an chairt, Dán Dé xiv 17 . cidh bé do bhean díbh an dúthaigh, DDána 26.1 . bíd (ipv. 3 s.) co n- although: admhuim . . . mo pheactha . . . bīodh gomadh é mo mhīan a bhfolach though I should wish to hide them, Parrth. Anma 4625 . bīodh nach gcaoifithea go spesialta fá gach peacadh though you might not weep specially for each sin, Mac Aingil 235 . bíth gur gheallas . . . though I promised, Ó Bruad. ii 212 § xiv . In constr. manibed x ní bíad y were it not for x y would not be, see má II (b).

(b) The subst. vb. is usual with predicates consisting of adverbial phrases of all kinds (prep. and noun, adjj. and nouns used adverbially, etc.) and thus enters into a large and varied corpus of idioms. A select list follows. Reference should in all cases also be made to the nouns, adjj., adverbs and prepositions concerned.

With CO: atáthar sund chucut your adversary is approaching, LL 10300 ( TBC-LL¹ 3316 ).

With CO N-: atúsa com thegluch there is myself and my household troop, TBC-LL¹ 437 .

With DI: im chaingin robui de muintir Tamlachti friss `about a business that arose between the monastery of Tallaght and him', Mon. Tall. 157.7 (§ 72) . masu de chlaind Echdach aird / atāi, ZCP xi 108 § 1 . ní bia debaid . . . de, Ériu iv 108 § 69 . Of materials: an crann dobí na sesam ... dobí sé do cepresus was a (lit. of) cupressus, Maund. 9 . In phrase a.¤ di such is: roboi du meit a pecthae `so great were their sins', Ml. 98c6 . má beth tra do hūaite ind āessa gráid `if the ordained folk be too few', Ériu i 220 § 13 .

With DO: biid do anmmaim cathrach `(Samnis) is as the name of the city', Sg. 104b5 . nád robatar suin do ṡlund in dúildetad inchoisget `there were not words (enough) to signify . . .', 45b1 . manusbeth tenga dia relad `if (the sun) had a tongue', Ériu ii 126 § 81 . ata eric a fogla do dul a ruradh o duine, Laws iv 50.5 Comm. Expressing possession, etc.: con roib core dúib fri cách so that you may be at peace with all men, Wb. 26b30 . in fochricc file do i nnim, 29b29 . cach ngrád asid n-ísliu bíid dó i céilsini, Críth G. 374 . robi timna in ríg don Comdhe, RC xviii 182.5 . nico mbái dó acht bás there was nothing for him but death, Vita Br. 32 . fecht robúi damsae domchaomnacuir `once it happened to me', Mon. Tall. 144.7 (§ 45) . atá damhsa ris an dáimh / gan ísliughadh neith dá gcáil it is my duty in regard to the sages not to belittle . . ., Content. xiv 8 .

With FOR (later AR): as ṅdath glas roboi forsind sl[é]ib the mountain was green, Ml. 84d4 . cech dath is maith ré neach bid forro, RC vi 183.9 . cēin beó ar in mbith mbuide, Ériu ii 92.16 . nocha cuinnghim bethaid mbí / ōtú ar sīth mo Rīgh amuigh since I am outside the palace of my king(?), ZCP vii 301 § 10 . scríbend menmman .i. robbói for a inndṡliucht-som `it had been in his mind', Sg. 178b4 . in sét atá form aire on which I am intent, Ériu vi 115 § 6 . a mhacnas orm gidh eadh raibh though I greatly desire to do so, Dán Dé xix 6 .

With FRI: nobiad fri femen `it would be (used) with the feminine', Sg. 207b2 . ní biat remsuidigthi friu `there are no prepositions with them', 215a5 . ni humhal robabair rim cen erghe rónn you were not submissive to me, Anecd. ii 14.9 . ba [mait]h ro mboth friu they were well treated, TBFr. 145 . is throit ra bass risin fer út that man was quickly dispatched, TBC-LL¹ 2986 ( LL 10035 ).

With I: is hi tuaisciurt slebe sióin ata in chathir, Ml. 67d8 . ataam ar ndiis i cuimriug, Wb. 32a28 . is and . . . bieid finis, 13b29 . is sunt bia-sa i n-eilithri, Ml. 137b7 . nach dú i mbí isnaib salmaib iustitia, 109a2 . bēti a scēla illāidib, ZCP iii 37.32 . dēna torba airm i mbī, vii 311 § 9 . ro-bas i lurg an madma la clannaibh Néill the Clanna N. pursued the rout, xiv 234.16 . adh bes fiu da trian na samuisce atá isín focreic, issed ata isin fogail doníther ris na ferandaib cétna i fuacht an geimridh `a calf which is worth two thirds of the `samhaisc'-heifer which is paid for the rent, it is it that is paid for the trespass', Laws iv 92.16 Comm. cínta do niad na cethra . . . leth a mbia ina nairlim isedh bias ina tairsci `half of that fine which lies for their `airlim'-trespass . . .', 74.8 Comm. cod a midídar ruire trachta ┐ raite? Nin; co rabadar ocht nurcora dec and do fhleascach, 138.4 Comm. ní bhíadh na ghoin é d'oighedh / toil Dé muna deónaighedh His wound would not be enough to cause His death, IGT Decl. ex. 378 . Common in form with suff. pron. 3 s. n. ma beith nech and tra labrathar ilbélre if there be anyone, etc., Wb. 13a4 . ar atá brithem and cenut-su `a judge is there apart from thee', 6b25 . ataat alaaili interiecta and it coitchena do cach ceniul, Sg. 10a1 . attaad teora bliadna and. Niconcomracamar díoblíonaib `it is three years since we two had intercourse', Mon. Tall. 134.26 (§ 21) . For phr. cid fil and trá see trá. In idiom tá sé i n-a fhear he is a man (see Dillon, ZCP xvii 307 ff. ): is amlaid . . . atá in rigsudi sin inna chathaír chumtachta, LU 2005 ( FA 7 ). cidead bes ina bibdaid `even though he be a caitiff', Ériu v 22.20 . gu raibhe 'na cholum ghel, Acall. 1080 . ce raib se i n-a fhír, PH 7324 . do bí 'n-a mnaí grádaig ac Find, Acall. 2018 . do rígh gion go rabhthá id mhac, DDána 91.15 . Note also: tuc . . . aithne gurbh e righ Eirenn do bí ann that it was in fact the king, Ériu iii 152 § 6 . ro innis do gur 'uo he Isu ro ui ann, RC xii 344.15 .

With IMM: ni baitir, ni loisctir cein beit immo `he is not drowned or burnt as long as they are on him', RC vi 183.8 .

With LA: gan bheith le Dia is ann bhus aithreach if we are not on God's side, Dán Dé x 27 . Expressing possession and related ideas: is lib atá a rogu, Wb. 9a23 . is derb lium attá latsu gl. certus sum autem quod et in té, 29d14 . ainmm ninchoisc cenéuil issed file la laitnóri, Sg. 30b8 . is airi nobíth digaimm leo ante ρ. sin, 9b10 . ni fil bríg laisiom hisind accobar sin `he considers that such desire is no great matter,' Mon. Tall. 151.13 (§ 62) . is dé atá lem, fobíth, etc. this is why I think so (of an assertion), TTr.² 343 . itá a rīgan la cach ríg sund, TBC-I¹ 190 . fail leis secht nimi, SR 629 . ar ní ḟil acht oenlám lim, LL 14150 .

With ó: báoi alaile anchoire antuaid o sláne `there was a certain anchorite from Slane in the North', Mon. Tall. 159.8 (§ 77) . cech lennánacht fil isin domvn is úadhi atá originates with her, TTr.² 370 . Bressal Ó Tressaig ō' tāit / Hī Tressaig `. . . from whom are sprung', Ériu ii 50 § 7 . ni fil[et] o neoch ┐ ni filter uaidibh `they are not derived from anything, and nothing is derived from them', Auraic. 1507 .

With OC: ar notéighed dīa sathairn init co mbídh oc Cnocc Droma Coblai, ZCP viii 106.29 = Trip.² 2858 . ma no bith . . . mo c[h]laideb acom if I had my sword, TBC-I¹ 3543 . co rabat aidmi oc cech altōir . . ., Ériu i 219 § 9 . in ti ac na biat ba, Laws iv 36.10 Comm. in fhil biad ocaib sund? PH 6709 . ná raibh agad ar n-éra `refuse me not', Studies 1918, 99 § 16 . In impers. constr. cindas atathar occat? how are affairs with thee? RC xxvi 368.9 . a.¤ y oc x x has the power to do y: ní bhía . . . ag boigṡín / mo chor tar creich Phádraigín, Ériu ix 163 § 7 .

With adverbs and adv. phrases: céin bett abus `while they are here below', BColm. 98.28 . ní rubai nach cruth ailiu `it cannot be otherwise', Sg. 7b3 . ataat ám in chrut sin, 140b1 . hóre nád robe Tit ar mo chiunn, Wb. 14d29 . na muindtire bís id choimidecht `of the monks that live with thee', Mon. Tall. 128.8 (§ 3) . dá rabh mé ar éanmhagh is í, Dán Dé ix 12 . is bether go hīsiul de, ZCP x 51.6 . bidh co mín michuir ret c[h]airdibh, vi 272 § 3 . is samlaid insin robói a flaithemnacht indibsi, Ml. 18a8 . nī hamlaid beitid na nāimh . . ., ZCP xiii 9.26 . dobadus co subhach rompa, KMMisc. 319.27 . léig mar atāit tall, ZCP viii 202.4 . trath atusa sund, TBC-LL¹ 2379 . ionmhuin uan nar fhás ó mhnaoi / do bhás go truagh ar a thí, Dán Dé xxvi 9 . Note also: dá mbem a-moigh `if we win forth', Ériu ix 162 § 2 . With interrogatives: ceth leth atā E., TBC-I¹ 376 . can ata? whence is it? Hib. Min. 8.270 . cāit atā do t[h]igerna?, TBC-I¹ 789 . ciatā inso?, ZCP viii 311.13 . a Findtain, arse, ┐ Éri cía gabad ca rabad inde? `where have things been therein?' Ériu iv 146 § 23 .

(c) Used with inf. and suff. pron. to express possession. With inf. pron.: rosmbia a lóg `they shall have payment for it', Wb. 5d35 . ind indocbál no-b-tá in futuro, 14c16 . ro-n-da-biad cech maith, Ml. 33b13 . rombia-sa la dia . . . a day will come for me when, Vita Br. 12 . roborbē (roburbe v.l.) which is yours, Cáin Ad. 27 . nīmthat asnai I have no ribs, TBC-I¹ 2871 . gell cóic sét di neoch rodmbí `of whatever he has', Críth G. 283 and n. uair nach tá tír dia fhulung fri re napuidh because he has no land to support him (?), Laws iv 30.19 Comm. rom be nem may I have heaven, Snedg. u. Mac R 14 § 76 . Femen intan rombai rí . . . when it had a king, RC xvii 148.19 . cia luag nomtha?, SR 1165 . rombí lethbairgen, Anecd. i 73 § 211 . atbert Cathair nimthasa ní dhuit I have nothing to give you, LL 386b22 . Note also: nintha do imtecht liumm `I have (lit. we have) no news', RC xiii 222.20 . With cumang (or similar word) and prep. DO has the power to: nímtha cumachtæ ṅdo, Ml. 140b7 . ní-s-ta som . . . cumang domm orcuin-se, 60d3 . nísmbói didiu do chumacc a mmbo do imain they hadn't the strength to, Vita Br. 24 . sáerthar lat in domnach cech cumang rotbé (rodbe, rotbia, v.ll.) dó `with all your might', Ériu ii 204 § 22 . nícom thása cumang dia tabair[t], TBFr. 302 . apraind nachimbai-si nert do theacht cucu alas that I had not strength . . ., TBC-I¹ 3439 . Used independently is able: nīmt[h]a a dechmad d'indisin / nech doní do maith `I cannot tell a tithe of all the good he does', BColm. 70.6 . nimta-sa sin . . . uair da caithius mo dan re sciathaib Ulad I cannot do that . . ., Ériu v 72.8 . Note also: ango dano for Ingcél adfía basa lecht bas briscium `peradventure I shall be the frailest corpse', BDD 102h ( RC xxii 211 ) = at-mbia basa lecht bas brisceam, BDD² 716 (leg. ro-t-bia?).

With suffixed pron. taithiunn . . . / ni fris tarddam ar n-áthius `we have . . . something to which to apply our acuteness', Thes. ii 293.19 . táithi caire umai he has a bronze cauldron, Críth G. 197 . tathum rūn, TBC-I¹ 848 . bethib sūirsi lim-sa dano ye will enjoy freedom with me, ZCP viii 316.5 . tathat lim logh do áes, logh do sinnsire thou hast with me = I accord thee, xii 365.13 . baíthium anfud mílach mend, LU 3018 . tathuib comram, Rawl. 88b51 . tathum o día praind, Anecd. i 64 § 120 . tāthud ochtar la suidiu / airm hi fail a crōlighe `thou wilt find eight men . . .', Fianaig. 12 § 16 . tathai eolus maith, ZCP vii 310 § 1 . tatos subhae `they have happiness', Blathm. 82 . Pleonastically: tathai erouidh . . . bithbron `Herod . . . has eternal sorrow', 83 .

(d) In nasalising rel. clauses to denote has something the matter, is ailing: ced das in ben maith? `what ails the good woman?', Thes. ii 329.48 . cidh tás do sūil, a clērich? what is the matter with your eye? RC xxvii 280 § 35 . Oengus mac in Dagdai hisiurcc di bliadan. Cid tas or Bodb, RC iii 345.9 . ra[fh]etur sa . . . an daas ind ingen what is wrong with the girl, Vita Br. 5 . ni fetarsa cid no-tó I do not know what is the matter with me, ZCP viii 176.5 . cid no-taí? Sc.M² 3 . roḟetarsa a n-attath[a]i. Ni taam ni or Cano, Anecd. i 9.25 ( SCano 293 ). cid tāthaí, a maccu? . . . oc imresain atām . . ., Ériu viii 157.16 . ni confetatarsin cid rombui hissennath, RC iii 344.10 . dia ḟis cid robái (rombui, v.l.) grían to find out what was the matter with the sun, Ériu iv 140.13 .

With prep. DO feels (inimically) towards, is angry with, worries: propter incredulitatem fracti sunt .i. cani airi .i. badochu lem són is [hed] romboth doib that is the fault found with them, Wb. 5b31 . cren dímsa m'ingin . . . Cid dathir di? . . . Is dichmarcach what cause of annoyance has she given? Vita Br. 13 . fiarfaig Conchobar scēla dō. —Cidh tāi di ṡodain? ol Bricriu why do you bother with it? ZCP v 502.15 . cadai-siu duind?, TTebe 424 . In good sense treats in a special manner: ca tāthar dúin do domnach des / sech gach laithi lāndiles? `why do we hold Sunday above . . .?' Ériu iii 143 § 7 . With added prep.: cidh 'ma bfuile dam? ZCP x 10.11 . ná bí réd chathrachaibh dhúinn `talk not to us of your forts', Content. vi 31 . See further s.v. daas. Frequ. in class. verse in phrase gá dtá, dás (acht) what is the use? in short. Either gá dtá or gá tá may be used to suit alliteration, see Ir. Syll. Poetry 86 . fogus orchra don éigsi / gá ttás cur ré coiméidsi `how can she be saved?' Studies 1923, 421 § 1 . gá dás luadh imdheachta an ḟir? `what need to recount', TD 13.40 . gá dás mé dá mīrbuile / acht sé d'fás ó ÓghMuire, IGT Decl. ex. 200 . gá dtám? —acht torchuir bu dheas in short, TD 3.10 . With follg. prep.: gá dtám ris . . . / acht meise féin foidhidneach, TD 3.41 . ga dtú ris, a rí L.? / ort chuirim mo chomuirghe, 30.12 . ní bhiú ris acht, Dán Dé vi 31 . ní fhuilim dó, xi 30 .

(e) With words indicating number, quantity in sense of accompanied by, having: bí[i]th a th[a]urchreicc cóic ṡétaib, Críth G. 71 . baei Conairi a ceithri cairpthig il-Lifiu, BDD 12 (a cethror cairpdech, v.l.). itó-sa lín do gona, TBC-LL¹ 434 . denam d'ḟiadach na muice in lín Feinde atámait, Acall. 2223 . atáthaoi líon a n-ithte, Keat. iii 4439 . atú-sa caegait fer, MR 248.17 . Later: bed-sa ┐ mili ridiri maraen rium ad diaig, ZCP vi 41.9 .

II Expressing state, condition, kind, etc. with pred. consisting of noun, pron. or adj. (usage more usual with copula, see introd. section above).

(a) With noun pred.: boe sab suithe cech dind, ACC 26 ( RC xx 168 ). boe saegul sneid, 24 . boe dind oc libur leigdocht, 27 . biait betha airchind they will be chieftains of the world, Rawl. 125b9 . With subj. standing between the vb. and pred.: atá dia atach ṅ-dún-ni ais dethrebo God is a refuge to us the people of the two tribes, Ml. 66d1 . bói Fíachnae Lurga athair Mongáin, Imr. Brain 42.1 . Cf. Sg. 20b3 .

(b) With adj. pred.: boe seim sáth, ACC 25 . biat slana, SR 4167 (copula?). feib atam nocht, 1347 (copula?). bía slan, LU 3344 ( SCC 13 ). Cf. habe . . . (.i. sana sis .i. slán bee), Enchir. Aug. 82a ( ZCP vii 484 ). dlegar doibsium na be lobtaigh cor ( ar dlegar doibsium na bed lobthaig cor, O'Dav. 1191 ) (Atk. in Glossary emends to be[t]), Laws iv 54.10. atámait ainmfesach, RC xxiv 371.7 . bítíss meth (leg. methi, ed.) occ tinntúd, IT iii 235.z . co filim garbliath i rricht, LU 1272 . ro boísium imnedach i tossuch a bethad, LL 7305 . ro-bádus-[s]a dronnach, PH 2788 . céin beorsa beó as long as I am alive, Ériu v 222.46 . is follus co fuilti eaclach, Fier. 69 . maith dīghōltar ant andlocht / bethar taoblom tarrnocht trūagh folk will be, ZCP xii 395.23 . With subj. betw. vb. and pred.: is trissa ndede sin biid duine slán et fírian, Wb. 4d33 . amal mbís tegdís fás [amm]edón ┐ scópthe gl. sicut domus uacans et scopata, Tur. 14 ( Thes. i 485.23 ). arrobói a rígthech lán de rígaib, Imr. Brain 1 . amal no beithi féin béo and, Trip.² 2972 . co mbatar na hádnaicti óbéla, PH 676 . bis an puls tonnmur lethan, Rosa Angl. 272.8 . oir dobi se crodha do laim ┐ mor do mét, Fier. 2 .

(c) With part. as pred. Immediately follg. vb. (see GOI 475-6 ; OIPG 147 ): amal nombemmis érchóilti gl. tanquam morti destinatos, Wb. 9a3 . biid ersoilcthi ar chiunn for ríg `be ye opened before your king' (of doors), Ml. 46a7 . co rabais (rabhdais, v.l.) marbtha mudaigthi, TTebe 854 . With subj. standing between vb. and pred.: ataat mesai Dǽ nephchomtetarrachti the judgements of God are incomprehensible, Ml. 55d11 . céin nombetis inna saigtea tuidmithi inna feuil `as long as the arrows were fixed in his flesh', Ml. 58a9 . órobatar ind liss dúntai, Imr. Brain 1 . co ra-bi in uli demnaigecht fomamaigthi dó, PH 2796 .

(d) In sentences where the vb. stands in a nasalising rel. clause and refers to a pred. expressed in the principal clause: is faittech rond-boi som, Ml. 21d4 . ni ba cian mbias in pecthach, 56c22 . fer . . . nadip romar bed a sommæ a man . . . whose wealth should not be too great, Thes. ii 241.9 . is-gáibthech atátur i-sin-magh sin, RC xxiv 378.12 . is trog robas isin chotlad sin, Ériu v 34.z . ní cás duid madh diomdhach raibh / grása Dé . . ., Dán Dé xix 22 . [is] slán do bhaoi an brat-sain, xii 22 .

(e) In the type of sentence where the description constitutes an independent sentence with copula: ego sum uermis et non homo .i. atāim-si conad cruim mē ┐ nāch duine, Corm. Y 211 . ro boi Victor co mbo ḟortachtaigthid do Pátraic, ACL iii 10 § 8 = Trip.² 217 . unus non est . . . .i. nochon fhil int aen co mbad airim, acht ata conidh fotha airim, Auraic. 689 . dom dóigh . . . robadhuis uair ecin ┐ roba díl anora tú `it seems to me . . . that there was once a time when thou wert worthy of honour', ZCP vi 99.5 .

berg

Cite this: eDIL s.v. berg or dil.ie/5705

 

Forms: berga

n [ā, f.]g s. berga, ACL iii 297 § 55.

(a) robbery, plunder, plundering: noí ṁbliadna Bressi na mb.¤ (mbedg v.l.), / rapo mór tressi (sic leg.) a thrénredg B. of the rapine (?), MacCarthy 172.1 . rogní cach n-oll-beirg n-ágmair `all war-like deeds of rapine', Metr. Dinds. iii 404.8 . bleachtán na mbérg `harmful sow-thistle' (of a wretched pig), Hermathena ci 31 § 18 .

(b) robber, plunderer, brigand: ro láithe for biastaib / la berga (berca, v.l.) cen eineach `robbers', Fél.² Prol. 42 (see O'Dav. 254 ). truaga dini domblassa, / bergga conbenfat bassa (blows of) fists will smite robbers, SR 8070. ar bradaibh na mbercc / rom-ain Íosa ard `against the ravages of the plunderers', Ériu iv 236.7 . bearg .i. díbheargach, O'Cl. tathig in mbeirg dia bronnud `the soldier', Metr. Dinds. ii 62.10 . bergg .i. bē ┐ arg .i. fer banuagrag (? leg. -augrach), O'Mulc. 139. bearg .i. laoch, O'Cl. ruire lulgach (.i. laoch) sceo b.¤ (.i. bangaisgedach) mborb (B. na f.), ZCP v 487 § 12.

? bearg .i. sruth, ut est: lingidh eó a bruinne bearg, Ériu xiii 66 § 57. ilar ṁbrothlach na mbled ṁb.¤ , SR 897.

In title Togail Bruidne Da Berga = T. B. D. Derga, expld. by O'Rahilly, Early Ir. Hist. and Myth. as due to desire for alliteration. Cf. laoch mear a Bruighin Dá Bhearg (: dhearg), Aithd. D. 5.10 .

In compd. Bróin Bhearg (house of wounded in Eamhain), Keat. ii 3088. See Éigse xv 107.

1 bruiden

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 bruiden or dil.ie/7093
Last Revised: 2013

 

Forms: bruidhean

n ā, f. bruidhean (rit ┐ ón tigh) (o dha chéill, v.l.) f., IGT Decl. § 54 (see 2 bruiden).

hostel, large banqueting-hall; house, mansion (also of similar hall in otherworld, O'Rahilly, EIHM 121 f .): bithobéle trá in b.¤ is aire asberthea bruden di ar is cosmail fri beólu fir oc cor bruidne. no bruden .i. bruthen .i. en bruthe inte, LU 6997 ( BDD 64 ). is [s]í sin (i.e. B. Meic Dathó) in chōiced bruiden ro-boī i nHērinn . . . ┐ bruden Da-Derg . . . ┐ bruden Ḟorgaill Manaich ┐ bruden Me[i]c Da-Rēo . . . ┐ bruden Da-Choca, Sc.M² 1. se Bruidni Erenn . . . / Bruidin Da Berga . . . / Bruden Mic da tho . . . / Bruden Da Coga . . . / Bruden mic Cecht da reo n-ard . . . / Bruden Blai briughaidh . . . / Bruden Forgaill Mhanach, RC xxi 396 § 31 (see O'Rahilly loc. cit.). Maicne nAlim arme aichirburi bruid[n]e Deirgg, O'Mulc. 606. luid C. . . . isin mBruidin, BDD² 524. dorus na Bruidhne, 536 . co fintaís a n-esbada oc brudin, LU 7035 ( BDD 67 ). drumne d'ór milib molta bruidni berga, LL 6447 ( RC xxxvi 262 § 1 ). Dardain bruidne Daberga, YBL 125b21 . bás ríg na llaech 'sin Brudin / la Iṅcél caech, MacCarthy 196 § 1 . i n-iarthar Midi im Bruidin Da Choca .i. brugaidh, Geneal. Tracts 163 § 124. co B. mc. Dareo, 123 § 3 . buaile donn narodluigheadh / bruighean donn ┐ tenedh, IT iii 85 § 81. amal chíaig do rigbrudin, LU 6476 (TBC). for coi ceithre sliged no bid nach b.¤ , RC xxi 314 § 31 (B. Da Chocae). secht ndoruis isin bruidin, Sc.M² 1 . ós blai bruidhne, Acall. 454. SG 104.8 . d'ionnsaighidh ná bruighne `to attack the court', ML 52.33 . ba b.¤ ban ndérach ndocht `thou shalt be a lodging of tearful . . . women', Metr. Dinds. iii 96.19 . san bhruidhin ós Bhreaghmhuigh `in the castle', PBocht 10.15 . bruidhean ḟuar na ndrithleann ndearg (Ifreann), DDána 31.3 . 'san mbruidhin sin, Keat. Poems 1484. bruidhean bíatuigh, IGT Decl. ex. 814. tiad do bhruidhin . . . M. make submission to M., DDána 85.49 (see tech). ? cobrath ṁbrudin, SR 931 (2 bruiden ?).

In `togla' group of tales (see Heldensage 21f.): na toghla . . . Togail Bruidne Da Derga, Togail Bruidne Da Choga, Togail Bruidne Belcon Breifne, Togail Bruidne Dáthi, Anecd. ii 44 § 5. B. da Cocæ in scel sin anuas, RC xxi 394 § 72. See also 2 bruiden

Common in nn. loc., see Hog. Onom. B. (grouped under Dinnogam), Auraic. 5688.

comairet

Cite this: eDIL s.v. comairet or dil.ie/10653

 

n (airet) length of time, period of time : re iarsa loimera a tairgille, gurab a c.¤ cedna lomras a eneclann, O'Curry 1673 ( 23 Q 6, 25 b ). As conjunction: in comairead beas i fail ríg Érind as long as he is, Leb. Cert.² 1235 . in comaireat robadar ic togail na Troi, BB 445a19 .

cumtach

Cite this: eDIL s.v. cumtach or dil.ie/13903

 

Forms: cumtach, -aige

o, n. vn. of con-utaing (see GOI 356 ). n p. cumtach, Ml. 84a11 . Usu. -aige.

(a) act of building; constructing, composing; building, construction : onaib tollaidib bite o[c]cumtuch `building', Ml. 131c8 . c.¤ innacathrach, 133c11 . du chumtuch latir gl. in figendis lateribus, 102d12 . epert in chumtaig forsnaib drummaib `building', 135d5 . conrotacht . . . in gríanan sin do imdenmaib ┐ cumtaigib sainamraib, LU 8064 ( FB 3 ). o togail Trae co cumdach Tempoill Solman, MacCarthy 280.4 . cumdach na Rómha ic Romuil, CCath. 149 . aimser chumtaigh in tuir, Auraic. 38 . cumdach na long, ZCP xxx 55.436 . prīmh-eaclus . . . ar n-a comdach, Fl. Earls 178.16 . c.¤ na n-Iudaide n-ard `architecture', ZCP i 112 § 1 . cuit duine . . . nō con . . . nō cumtaigh `building', Cáin Ad. 41 . in dingnaib .i. hi cumtaigib De Athar, Rawl. 106b31 . do chumhdaighibh uiscce ┐ tire `houses . . . on water and land', AFM iv 1108.y . hi cumhdaighthibh cloch, Hugh Roe² 180.26 . co cumtuch a chuirp chest(?), LL 24888 . In moral sense edification : c.¤ nirisse gl. aedificationem . . . quae est in fide, Wb. 27d24 . is c.¤ caritatis dilectio proximi , 6c26 . do ch.¤ popuil De gl. ad aedificandum Dei . . . populum, Lib. Hymn. 12.86 n. Gramm. a c.¤ gl. constructionem, Sg. 139a4 . issed ac .i. taibsiu gnímo nó chesta gl. huiuscemodi . . . structura, 209b28 . iss ed a cumdach leiss accomol indarann oc slund imperatiui gl. constructio, 148a3 . In wider sense: lucht cumhdaigh na ccaithréimionn `those who compose the battle-rolls', Ériu v 56.64 . tengta in domain . . . ni-fétfadais a-cumdach mét mhaithisa in-dúileman give an account of, RC xxiv 384.25 .

(b) act of protecting, covering, supporting, helping , etc.: is techtta . . a ndinsed oldas a cumdac `protect them' (viz. a druid, a reaver, a satirist), BCrólige 51 . cumdach no coimét, Trip. lii 6 . ri doraiga teglach ṅdil / dia chumtuch eter dóinib to escort him, SR 7582 . a coimded do cumdach, Laws iii 22.7 . bi[d] c.¤ do díbergaib, LU 6614 = TBC-I¹ 2078 . bid tesbaidh do cumtuch in tirese mo dula-sa as `will lessen this land's covert', Dinds. 127 . óenach . . . / co cumtuch cuirp is anma, Metr. Dinds. iv 150.55 . is innte-side ata coilech in Choimded iarna ch.¤ , ZCP xvii 228.y . a trian fri cumdach a mind `to enshrine his relics', RC xxvii 284 § 40 . an ben easlan do cumdach, O'Curry 2307 ( Eg. 88, 23 (24)b ). fear do chumhdaigh your protector, DDána 4.8 . Canoin Pháttraicc do chumhdach lá D., AFM ii 638.3 . iad féin do chumhdach nó do dhíon orra, Keat. ii 6086 . dom chumhdach ar an ccorōin, ZCP xii 380.13 . ar ccumhdach . . . ó pheacadh, Parrth. Anma 559 . cothughadh, cosnadh, cumhdach, Eg. Gl. 137 . ag cumhdach C.C. do chur a n-Albain `helped', BCC 452.10 . ar laoidh féin ní faghthar dath / gan leabhar glan dá chumhdach `to support it', Content. vi 13 . ní fhédaid anós baistidh . . . do chumhdach lé Scriobhtuir diadha = support .. . from Holy Scripture, Carswell 232.9 . a ccomtach a dha ciocch ccorr / do bhiodh naom-cloch na nemhond, Ériu iv 55.17 . cumhdach fallsa feóil mo bhall, TSh. 3313 . Coimheud an Chroidhe, ┐ . . . Cumhdach na Ccēdfadh, Desid. 3049 . do dhealuigh a ccumhdacho riú, Numbers xiv 9 . aer ata ar na cumdach etorra enclosed between them, Ir. Astr. Tr. 18.7 . do urail corp Rolanduis do chumhdach do bhalsaimm ┐ do mirra `to preserve', ITS xix 96.30 .

(c) cover, case, shrine : dubbert P. c.¤ dufíacc idon clocc ┐ menstir `a case (containing) . . . ', Thes. ii 241.16 ( Ardm. 18a ). dianda sera i c.¤ (of valuables), Críth G. 294 . do rig hE. lasandernad acumddachso (of case for book), Ir. Gl. 57.2 . do chuir a chruit ina cumdach, Stair Erc. 659 . ben a cumhdach do chenn na cráisighi, Acall. 1718 . droichet . . . go gcomhdach . . . ōs a chionn `roof', Fl. Earls 86.5 .

Of clothes, apparel, etc.: cumtuch .i. cum thoga bīs .i. co lend, Corm. Y 329 . ? cumthach (leg. c.¤ ?) brunni `a cover for the breast' (of a `lumman'), Metr. Dinds. iv 332.43 . corp ┐ cumthach (comdach, v.l.) a cæmcheili `dress', TTebe 4699 . cumhdach a chuisleann `covering', Aithd. D. 78.25 . cumhdach a cinn `head-dress', TFrag. 66.1 . in cumdach . . . robui fura cenn, ZCP vi 276.25 . cumdach mor d'édach uime, BNnÉ 34.10 . seolbrat . . . impe ┐ cumtaige isind imdæ bed-coverings(?), LU 7354 ( BDD 99 ).

(d) act of adorning, ornamenting; ornament : dia cumtuch `to their adornment', Ml. 36c17 . tre sóinmigi ┐ ch.¤ Sión gl. ut restituas ei ueteris felicitatis ornatum, 72a5 . c.¤ basuisse fri hiriss gl. ornantes se, Wb. 28b9 . gach lí, gach cumhdach, Ériu xiii 39.17 . cumdach mic righ, Laws ii 158.24 .i. c.¤ a netaigh, Laws ii 158.26 Comm. lenid corcra . . . cona cumtuch oir ┐ argait, LL 24233 . do chumtuch ingantach tíri Arabiae, LL 24890 . c.¤ alaind orda ima bragait, TTebe 754 . blatha ┐ cumdaige na so-gnim `adornments', Ir. Lit. 50.4 . c.¤ baindsidhi `wedding ornament', CCath. 1166 .

Of speech, writing etc. embellishing, heightening: trop cucumtuch ┐ chonimbiud briathar gl. propter pompam, Ml. 94b11 . ar thucait cumtaich no molta ho duinib `for the sake of pomp or praise', Ériu vii 174.1 . gur chuirestair . . . glósnaithe filedh fuithe da . . . cumhdach (of poetic composition), BNnÉ 265.26 . C.¤ fír Fircertni (in mock list of treasurers), Anecd. ii 53.10 . cumdach na Paitri commentary, RC xi 400.25 . sluag na sacart, cach díb ┐ a druim fria chlár ic cumtuch na claisse `composing'(?), Celtica iv 34.476 .

(e) Attrib. and predic. g s. in various meanings: a scrin cumtaig protective, Ann. Conn. 1293.7 . leabhar cumhdaigh an illuminated book, ITS xvi 52.16 . dorinde cūpa cumduig da cloicenn, ZCP xiii 181.17 . cloidem cumdaigh ` decorated ', vi 93.2 . coróin . . . cumdaigh, 52.7 . cnú chumhdaigh dar gcrobhuing (of Christ), Aithd. D. 75.40 . clár cumdoigh, IGT Decl. ex. 524 . fri gnim cumtaig cóir cech gráid proper, fitting (?), SR 7131 . etig didiu nī cumtaig cruth well-formed (?), O'Mulc. 462 . In chevilles: clar cóir, cobsaid, c.¤ dind, SR 981 . cumtaig arg, 4757 . cumtaig rath, 7042 . cumtaig grád, 4225 .

Compd. With adj.: ásna cathbarraib . . . cumtachglana, TBC-LL² 4221 .

See cumtacht.

Dathí

Cite this: eDIL s.v. Dathí or dil.ie/14753
Last Revised: 2013

 

Forms: Nathíi, Nahii, Nahi, Nathí, Nathi, Nati, Dathíi, Dathí, Dathi, Dahí, Dahi, Dáthí, Dáthi, Athi, Daithe, Daithem, Daithen, Dathi, Daithi

indecl. npr. m. interchanging with Nathí.

FORMS:—

A Nathíi n s. Trip. 446. 8 ; 448. 8 .

Nahii n s. Fél. Aug. 9 LB.

Nahi g s. BB 199 b 1 . LB 17 e 16 .

Nathí n s. LU 38 a 7 . CS 20. 16 . LL 313 a 9 f.b. 313 a 18 , 32 . 314 b 2 , 22 . Fél. Aug. 9 (MSS B, L). a s. LL 132 b 4 . g s. LU 38 a 1 , 8 , Rawl. 86 b 12 . MacCarthy 212. 2 (LL). LL 314 b 15 , 50 . 313 b 4 f.b.

Nathi n s. AU i 10. 11(A.D. 445). CS 18. 1 f.b. Mart. Don. Aug. 1 , Aug. 9 , Oct. 28 . AFM i 128. 7(A.D. 430). LU 38 a 2 , 14 (margin). YBL 192 b 25 , 32 , 42 . Fél. Aug. 9 (MS R1). Trip. 32. 12 ; 30. 18 . Nati, BB 197 b 5 . a s. YBL 191 b 42 . g s. AU i 20. 9(A.D. 463). YBL 192 b 43 , 48 . Trip. 136. 14 . BB 137 a 22 . MacCarthy 396. 17 (BB). Lism. L. 4637 . d s. LU 38 a 15 margin .

Nathe n s. Gorm. Oct. 28 . Mart. Don. Oct. 28 . — Comp. further Nahie ACMN 70 .

B Dathíi no instance.

Dathí n s. LU 38 a 26 , 28 . Cóir Anm. § 146 (twice). g s. LU 38 a 10 , 17 . Lism. L. xv 12 . d s. AFM i 128. 2 (A.D. 428).

Dathi the common Mid.-Ir. spelling. n s. LU 38 a 22 . 38 a 10 margin . YBL 191 b 13 , 20 , 21 , 23 . 192 a 4 . 192 b 22 . Lism. L. 2706. 2710 . g s. AU i 22. 6 (but only in the MS marked as A). Mart. Don. 62. 20 ; 54. 11 , 13 ; 130. 23 , 25 ; 350. 2 f.b. Dinds. §§ 133 , 160 (twice). YBL 191 b 35 . 192 b 48 . Rawl. 86 b 35 . RC ii 86. 1 f.b. (LU); 88. 1 . MacCarthy 212. 2 (BB); 426. 4 f.b. (BB). d s. YBL 191 b 29 .

Dahí phonet. = Dathí. n s. YBL 191 b 49 . g s. Dahi, BB 57 b 22 . 58 a 40 . Cf. Dahye ACMN 64 .

Dáthí n s. Cóir Anm. § 176 .

Dáthi g s. ALC ii 448. 22 . LL 139 a 47 .

C Athi in late MSS, wrongly abstracted from Nathi (understood as n-Athi) and such phrases as bidathí a ainm, Cóir Anm. § 146 = bid Dathí, &c.

Already in the 11th century the meaning and origin of the name had become obscure to the Irish grammarians. It was associated with daith, daithe, swift, swiftness (and the npr. Daithe, Daithem, Daithen) as is clear from the marginal note LU 38 a : is de atberthea a nainm sin fris conid Dathi a ainm óndní is dathi gabálaid ( ó daithi a gabáltais, YBL 191 b 20 , where the note has been adopted in the text), cf. Cóir Anm. § 146 . The length of the final -í is attested by the archaic spelling Nathíi and the rhyme with trí, MacCarthy 212. 2 (LL). Dathí as the later form originated from the confusion of the N- of Nathí with the eclipsing n- after a preceding accusative or neuter noun: tech Nathí (understood as t. nDathi), babtizauit Echaich mac Nathí (mac nDathi) &c. MacCarthy 212. 2 (LL): cethri cóic bliadna 's a trí: rogiallad do niurt Nathí (v.l. Dathi, BB): i Sléib Elpa na narm nán, &c. I have no example of Dathí alliterating with d- from old poetry. The accent falls on the ultimate, cf. the alliteration Na-thí: tolchar, LL 150 b 30 , 31 b 45 . Nathí trenṡeng, LL iii 15779 (Flann Mainistrech) . Dathī cen tathāer, Rawl. 86 b 34 , Gorm. Aug. 1 . With Nathíi should be compared the npr. f. Daríi, the authoress of the Cáin Daríi; -íi seems the g s. of a npr. m. the nom. of which would be Old-Ir. Eo, identical with the tree-name (cf. the npr. given by Meyer, Sitzungsb. Pr. Akad. 1912 xxxviii 798 ). This name actually occurs TBC-LL¹ 4870 : co hEo mac Oircne. LL 94 b 7 f.b. : co hEo mac Forne. The genitive Íi, Í occurs in the npr. Mac Híí in the Oir. text Anecd. iii 61. 6 , Mac Hí (the name of a deacon) LL 366 e 11 . Compare the ivo- of Ogh. IVOCATTOS (Eochad), IVODACCA (†Eodach, not Uadag, as Macalister thinks, Epigr. iii 180 ), Gaul. IVORIX in a memorial inscription from Bordeaux. Nathíi `the nephew of Eo,' then, would be (†) in Ogh. NETTA IVI (NIOTTA IVI) of the nephew of Eo, and in the book of Armagh †Nioth Íi, Niath Íi (cf. Nioth Fráich, Ardm. 15 b 2 , Niath Taloirc, 25 b ). For dar of Dar-Íi cf. dar and der; the parallelism between Nath-Fráich and Der-Fráich (niece of Fraech ?) is noteworthy.

Nathí mac Ailello, BB 130 a 22 .

Nathí mac Bresail Einecglais, BB 131 a 37 . 138 a 3 .

Nathí mac Brocáin grandfather of the Druid Nuadu mac Achi RC ii 86 1 f.b. : Dathi LU, Daithi, YBL 175 b 32 . After him or one of his ancestors probably was named the Tuath Dathi in Brega, RC ib.

Nathí mac Bróin, BB 112 b 26 .

Nathí mac Caille, BB 177 d 28 .

Nathí mac Caithri, BB 143 b 24 .

Nathí mac Caur, BB 145 c 49 .

Nathí mac Conaill Gulbain, Fen. p. 433 b .

Nathí mac Crimthainn, LL 45 b 32 . BB 136 a 11 . 137 a 18 . 138 d 5 .

Nathí mac Daigri, BB 144 e 28 , f 4 .

Nathí mac Dolbaig, BB 131 b 23 .

Nathí mac Echach, BB 131 a 26 .

Nathí mac Fiachrach = Feradach mac Fiachrach (his first name according to Cóir Anm. § 146 ). The last pagan king of Ireland, nephew ( ACMN 66 ) and successor of Niall of the Nine Hostages and father of Ailill Molt; killed by lightning at the Alps A.D. 445 (AU), 427 (ACMN), 428 (AFM , CS). (a) Annals and chronicles: AU i 10. 11 (A.D. 445); i 20. 9 (A.D. 463: inicium regni Ailella Muilt mic Nathi); i 22. 6 . ALC ii 448. 22 (A.D. 1582) (Cathal Dubh mac Conchobair of his race). AFM i 128. 2 (A.D. 428). CS 18. 1 f.b. (A.D. 412), 20. 16 (A.D. 428). Mart. Don. 54. 11 , 13 (Colga Naem and Cronán mac Aongussa of his race); 62. 20 ; 130. 23 ; 350. 2 f.b. (Lochan from Cell na Manach of his race). (b) Cóir Anm. § 146 (etym. explanation of his name, see above). Aided Nathí, LU 38 a 1 ( YBL 191 b 13 sq.), 2 , 7 , 8 , 10 , 17 , 22 , 26 , 28 . YBL 191 b 13 , 20 , 21 , 23 , 29 , 35 , 42 , 49 ; 192 a 4 ; 192 b 22 (where buried), 32 , 42 . Nathi mac Fiachrach gabais flaith nÉrend i ndíaid Néill, ib. 192 b 25 . Ailill Molt mac Nathi, ib. 192 b 43 ( Dathi, 48 ). LL 132 b 4 (death of N.). BB 108 a 12 , 53 ( Nathi = Dathi, ib. 38 , 107 a 17 ). 216 a 28 . Trip. 136. 14 . Dinds. § 133 MacCarthy 212. 2 ; 396. 17 ; 426. 4 f.b. Rawl. 86 b 35 .

Nathí mac Garrchon of Leinster (grandson of Fothad), the opposer of Patrick at Inber Deæ. Trip. 30. 18 ; 32. 12 ; 446. 8 ; 448. 8 . .vii. meic Garrchon...Nathí, &c. LL 313 a 18 . BB 124 a 39 . AFM i 128. 7 (A.D. 430).

Nathí mac Luigdech son of Lugaid mac Dalann and father of Barr mac N. Lism. L. 4637 . Mochua Balla, whose life is told BLism. 40 a 1 sq., was a great-grandson of his; he died A.D. 637. The death of Nathí mac L., then, took place probably in the middle of the 6th century.

Nathí mac Maeláin, BB 143 b 9 .

Nathí mac Meldae, LL 316 c 39 .

Nathí mac Rossa Failge: sé meic Rosa Falge .i. Nathí, &c. LL 314 b 22 . BB 130 a 7 .

Nathí mac Sechnaig bishop of Cúil Futhirbe, Mart. Don. Oct. 28 , cf. Gorm. Oct. 28 . Nathi epscop C. F., Gorm. Aug. 1 . Mart. Don. 208. 3 sq. Nathí Cúile Fothirbe, LL 313 a 9 f.b.

Nathí mac Trichim son of Erc Dáire, Fél. 56. 3 . BB 220 c 12 .

Cruimther Nathí of Achad Conairi in Leinster, a contemporary of Colum Cille, Fél. Oeng. &. Gorm. Aug. 9 . Mart. Don. Aug. 9 . Lism. L. xv 12 ; 2706 , 2710 .

Nathí a deacon LL 336 e 6 .

Hui Nathí: Bríon mac Echach mic Dáire...is dia chlaind ind Echach sa húi Nathí a quo húi Connachtaig LL 313 b 4 f.b.

Bile Dathi one of the six wondrous trees of Ireland: bili Dathi, Dinds. § 160 . LL 199 b 61 ; unnius immorro Craeb Belaig Dathi, Dinds. § 160 . Hardly here, cf. the parallel form Bile (Craeb) Daithin (Daithen). Vide 1 and 2 Daithen.

LOC. Belach Dathi, LL 200 a 10 . Dinds. § 160 . Tulach Dathi, MR 152. 8 ; 254. 11 . Togail Bruidne Dathī, Anecd. ii 44 § 5 .

díbrethe

Cite this: eDIL s.v. díbrethe or dil.ie/16051

 

Forms: dibrithi

adj (dí neg. + vbl. of necess. of beirid) not to be borne: dibrithi gl. importabilia, Ml. 58a16 . d.¤ aichne inconceivable, incomprehensible: robo dibreithe aichne la feraib in domain in Baibilóin do togail air rocumdaigedh gu treabar, BB 6b53 . bo dibrithi aichne . . ., Rawl. 74a44 . ro chuala Alaxandir scela a comairberta bith ┐ robo díbrethi aichne lais, Alex. 804 .

Dio

Cite this: eDIL s.v. Dio or dil.ie/16667

 

n.loc. Togail D.¤ (title of a story), Anecd. ii 44 .

díthogail

Cite this: eDIL s.v. díthogail or dil.ie/16889

 

adj ( togail ) indestructible, impregnable: dún d.¤ , IT iii 53 . tor daingin díthoghail, Cóir Anm. 146 .

díthoglaide

Cite this: eDIL s.v. díthoglaide or dil.ie/16891

 

Forms: d.

adj = prec. múr d.¤ re togail , RC xii 438 . ba daingean ditoglaide an tinad, CCath. 2608 . coróin dlúith dithoghlaidhi a dense impregnable circle, 1722 , cf. 4756 . léibend dlúith dithoghlaidi do sciathaib, Fianaig. 88 . Cf. CCath. 5349 . dún dithoghlaighi ar daingne, Acall. 3014 v.l. amail is d.¤ iside (i.e. a cave) is amlaid is d.¤ in t-ollam im cethra rennaib fesa, Laws v 28.17 Comm. glend daingen diothoghlaighi, AFM vi 1916 . glass d.¤ , PH 940 . do thoraib dithoglaigib, LB 157b37 . secht mūir daingni ditḟoglaigi, BB 244b2 . Compar. cona raibhe . . . inadh budh daingne ná budh díthoghlaidhi inás, CCath. 1715 .

do-eclainn

Cite this: eDIL s.v. do-eclainn or dil.ie/17521
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: doeclannat, du-n-eclan[nar], doreclamsa, derglastar, tecailse

v (* to-ess-glenn-, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 539 ) picks out, selects. Indic. pres. 3 pl. doeclannat gl. allegant (understood as ēligunt?), BCr. 34b3 ( Thes. ii 23 ). ? Pres. subj. 3 sg. ad-mestar húir asa tindremaib hi torath tecail 'let him estimate the soil by its services where people may seek out produce', AM 12.97 . Fut. 3 s. rel. (Mid. Ir.) mo Eoc[h]o . . . ní tír teclannfas, BB 278a19 (? = ní rath tíri teclumus, LL 386a42 ). Perf. 3 s. ba din tuaith sin terglainn uaig 'it was from that people that he chose a virgin', Blathm. 385​ . 1 pl. (Mid. Ir.) nicon-terglansam-ni céli diar n-ingen we have not selected a spouse, ZCP iii 6 ( LL 269b30 ). Pass. pres. s. doeclannar im cach solam sonaisc .i. teclamthar cach so-innsce (the notion of selecting passing into that of compiling?), Rawl. 114b17 ( Cóic Con. 22 § 18 ). admestar cáercha asa cottuge do thlachtaib túath teclannar (teglamor, teclanathar, v.l.) whose covering (fleece) is selected for the garments (?), ZCP xi 95 . Perf. s. amal du-n-eclan[nar] etach nderscaigthe hi tig cennaig[i] . . . is s[amlaid] duérglas soilse sainriud asnaib dūlib gl. scrutari, Ml. 120d2 . nonbur doerglas do ordughadh in liubair-si `were appointed', Laws i 16 . ar na térglas aithech tige dí i nHérind, ZCP iii 5 § 13R = uair na frith céili dingbala di, LL. dias . . . forroeglass o Ailill ┐ o Meidb ar dāig do gona-su a couple who were chosen by A. and M. to slay thee, TBC-LL¹ 4389 . pl. doreclamsa (leg. -classa) ara n-amainsi dot guin, TBC-I¹ 2827 . Cf. further BB 492b28 : doreglastair (.i. togail) carraig ndermair foremestair Ercail do thogail = rothogail `destroyed', Alex. 527 (a formation fr. pret. pass.?) cid dogēn friu? A ngabail dara n-anmi, cip si chruth bete . . ., ar noco derglastar etir díb mani gabtar dara n-ainme for no choice is ever made among them unless they are taken regardless of their defects (of women), Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. i 20 (cf. ZCP viii 113 ) (intended as fut. pass.?).

Part. tecailse. Vn. 1 teclaim.

2 do-fich

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 do-fich or dil.ie/17638

 

Forms: dudfich, dofechat, dofec[h]air, dondafius, dofias, toissed, dufesed, nachatoirsitis, toachtae, togail

v (* to-fich-, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 521 ) attacks, fights; conquers, takes by storm. Indic. pres. 3 s. fochairt allaili mbeasti amail leoman dudfich ┐ nad dingne erchoad do, RC xi 446.2 . dofechat a ndún ar écin, IT ii2 214.61 . Pass. dofec[h]air cath amnas etorro, ib. Fut. 1 s. lase dondafius gl. bellando, when I shall vanquish them, Ml. 126c19 . dofias, LL 122b45 . Subj. impf. 3 s. mani toissed gl. nisi debellasset, unless he had conquered, Ml. 40d13 . dufesed gl. (Hirusalem volens) oppugnare, 33b12 . 3 pl. ar nachatoirsitis that they might not take it, 48d27 . Pret. 3 pl. it é dofhichsedar (dofithsedar, MS.) Indsi nDerglacha for Rudraige mac mB., ZCP viii 561.12 . Part. toachtae. Vn. togail . IGT Verbs § 47 .

dún

Cite this: eDIL s.v. dún or dil.ie/19227

 

Forms: Dún, ndún, dúin, dúne, dune, dúne, duine, dúni, duini, dúin, dúine, dúna, dún, dúini, dún, dhúin, dúine, dunu, dúine, dune, primdún, ndun, dúine, duinib, dúinte, -dúine, dúinte, dúintibh, dhúintedh

n o, later s, n. (see GOI 178 ) n s. Dún nGalion, LL 311a27 . a s. a ndún , LU 1524 , 8381 . g s. As o-stem: dúin, LL 311a27 ; Laws i 122.19 ; AU 680 , 685 , 697 , 844 , 864 , 872 . Fél. Jan. 3 . As s-stem: dúne, FB § 44 , dune, Laws iv 220.8 . dúne, Trip.² 2166 . duine, FB § 89 ; AU 866 , 964 , 1174 . dúni, TBC-LL¹ 1816 , duini, Laws iv 154.21 . Both forms current in later lang.: dúin, TSh. 909 ; Oss. vi 198.6 . dúine, AFM i 26 , iii 4 , vi 2014 ( dúini, ii 1114 ); Oss. iv 294 . Note also: dúna, Laws v 302.33 ; SG 269.12 ; Oss. vi 198.27 . dún occurs with follg. n.pr. in gen., Fél. Jan. 3 v.l.; MacCarthy 416.19 ( BB 50a ), BS 98.13 . d s. tri coiri bíte in cach dúini , Triads 127 (prob. due to confusion with constr. tri coiri cech(a) dúine). v s. dún, AFM i 308 (poem). a dhúin , TSh. 10990 . n p. dúine, LU 10713 ; Fél. Prol. 68 . a p. dunu (: múru), Lec. 45b1 . dúine, LU 1889 . dune, TBC-I¹ 622 = TBC-LL¹ 1213 , AU 836 . g p. na primdún , SR 7342 . Cermna na ndun , Lec. 51a40 . dúine, LB 208a23 ( Alex. 382 ); Corm. s.v. aurduine . d p. duinib, LU 10714 ; SR. Later as dental stem in pl.: rig-dúinte , Corm. s.v. Mogheime = -dúine, YBL; dúinte, ML 78 , Keat. iii 4119 ; dúintibh, BB 30a40 , AFM v 1666 . g p. dhúintedh, Marco P. 123 . m., IGT Decl. § 46 .

Fort (see ZCP xiii 164 - 5 , KZ l 155 - 6 ); in O.Ir. usually applied to residence of a chief or dignitary, consisting of an earthen (more rarely stone) rampart, inside which the house (`tech') or houses were erected; oft. of considerable extent and in case of a royal residence having two (or even three) circumvallations with a moat between (hence O'Dav. 695 ; d.¤ .i. dá cladh im uisci, ut est du-en .i. dá usque im cladh); such fort being generally called after the builder or owner, e.g. Dún Cermna, D.¤ Sobairche, etc. Cf. Aodh Ó Domhnaill dhúin na bhfionn (= Dún na nGall?), 3 C 12, 245.15 . Freq. used as Ir. equivalent for fortress or city; in Norman period of any strongly enclosed or fortified place (whether a single residence or a burgh or town ).

Gl. castrum, Sg. 57a10 ; arx, 60b21 . i ndorus in dúine = ad portam civitatis, Lat. Lives 81 . a dhúin Dé (= civitas Dei, Psalms lxxxvi 3 ), TSh. 10990 . isin digas .i. isin dun daingen, Ml. 32a16 . dorala B. do dun ríg Breg, Hy. v 73 Comm. claide cluid dune Alinne .i. in tres primdun rig Lagen, 68 Comm. dun tigerna . . . d.¤ breitheaman na tuaiti, Laws iv 106 Comm. trí dúine hÉrenn: Dún Sobairche, D.¤ Cermna, Cathair Conrai, Triads 36 . déntar dúine . . . lib damsa ┐ tigi móra, RC xxvi 132 . corbo leór do d.¤ . . feib dollotar rotha in charpait hi talmain (i.e. the wheels displaced enough earth to build a `d.¤'), TBC-I¹ 1986 . Artt Imlech las-roclassa | a cōic dūine domgnassa, Lec. 51a32 . lar duna no treibe cach airech, Laws v 302 . nochotulsat flathi fiann, fās a ndūine, ZCP xi 110 . etir cealla ┐ dune ┐ treba, AU 836 . for faidchi primdúni, TBC-LL¹ 1816 . sonnach dergdharach a timchioll a dhúine, SG 66 . berthar a fir maithi ina dun co hEogan ┐ biathtar a ndaescursluag a nduntib feachtair, Lec. 409a25 . suidigud na mūr im-maig | immon dun, immon cathraig (of Celestial City), SR 426 . ic togail na primd.¤ (of cities of Canaan), 7342 . aitcidh ardnaom órduinte, SG 21 . mor dúine ndaingen roscroithset, Alex. 382 . co nac raibhe . . . d.¤ no daingen no dingna . . . gan loingeas, Cog. 40 . do cumhduigheadh dúinte ┐ daingne leis, Keat. iii 4119 . do daingne a dhúintedh ┐ a cathrach, Marco P. 123 . i ndúintibh ┐ i ndaghbhailtibh fher Mumhan fortresses, AFM v 1666 . Encampment (= 1 dúnad), TBC-LL¹ 1765 ; 1829 (= longport, St., dunadh, H 2.17 ). Dwelling, residence in general: tréigean dúin deagh-athar (i.e. heaven), Keat. Poems 372 . bunaidh, dún, a habitation , Eg. Gl. 81 .

Compds., see dúnárus, -chaire, -chlad, -lis, -phort.

Common in place-names, see Hog. Onom.

éolach, éulach

Cite this: eDIL s.v. éolach, éulach or dil.ie/20156

 

Forms: eolig, eulach, eulaig, heolaig, eulachaib, éolcho, éolchu, eolcha, n-eólach

adj o-ā (the n s. is not found in the earlier O. Ir. Glosses; acc. to Thurn., Thurn. Hdb. § 360 ; Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 99 , the O. Ir. n s. is éola (q.v.), n p. eolig, to which in Ml a new n s. eulach is formed). knowing, learned, skilled (in), acquainted with; absol. or with gen. or prep.

n (a) in general sense (absol.): is eulach (gl. expertus) Ml. 49a28 . eolach inti asidfet wise is he who recounts it IT i 217.6 . ícaid cach n-eolach every wise man is a healer (?) ACL iii 228.83 . aineolach i n-agaid eoluig, Laws v 252x Comm. In pl. the learned: eulaig (gl. experti) Ml. 134a7 . amal adfiadat ind eolaigh = periti Todd Lect. v 45.4 . na heolaig , PH 7794.7300 . éolaig in tsenchassa BDD 68 . ba mé in t-éolach aneólach (said by a survivor of the flood, on emerging after its subsidence) LL 376b42 . d p. donaib eulachaib (gl. expertis) Ml. 131c15 . is uathadh dona heolchuibh aga bfuil fios, RC xxix 116.11 . v p. abraid, a éolcho , Todd Lect. vi 10.14 . a éolchu Elga ZCP xiii 131 § 1 . a eolcha Erenn, ii 357.26 . g p. genelach Lége...do réir na n-eólach according to the men of learning Metr. Dinds. iv 248.23 . As attrib.: in liaig eolach, PH 4222 . aisneis cach ugdair eolaig, MR 166.10 . na forcetlaide eolcha, PH 6816 . co máigistrib eolchaib, 3462 . With gen.: armbat eolig forcitil that they may be versed in teaching Wb. 31d15 . ba heolach goibnechta he, Three Hom. 108.32 = LB 32a45 . éolaige rebraid, aneolaige réire (women are) skilled in pleasure-seeking, unskilled in obedience Tec. Corm. § 16.79 .

Compar.: rig bus ecnaide ┐ bus eolchu indai, PH 3969 . ar cend neich bid éolchu ┐ bid síne andás, Ériu iv 126.15 . cia as eolcha anaid ? who is more learned than thou ? ix 176 § 1 .

With i n-: ammin éulig and (gl. non ignoramus cogitationes eius) Wb. 14d28 . adib éolig and (gl. scitis) 26b12 . 33c19 (eolaig). condan éolich ir-rúnaib deachte, 15b19 . Metr. Dinds. iv 56.210 . ro búi i farrad Echach corbo eolach i n-écsi, RC xxvi 8.4 . eolach i ndligedh mara skilled in the law of the sea (i.e. in seamanship) Laws iii 210.25 . am éolach in cech breithemnos...dorónad, Ériu iv 134.24 . am é.¤ ina fesaib ┐ ina táintib ┐ ina toglaib, 128.23 . Duan. F. i 25.5 . nech bus eólchu 'na n-aisneis `better versed in the account thereof' Metr. Dinds. iii 304.8 . fer roeolach a mberla ┐ a filidecht, Auraic. 5470 . eólach hi Laidin, AFM v 1630.5 . bat eoluigh-sium i togail cathrach skilled in destroying cities Marco P. 132 . C. do bhí eolach san Bhreitheamhnas Tuaithe, Keat. iii 115 .

With for: eolach...for a modhuibh, Marco P. 116 .

(b) esp. knowing, acquainted with a locality (way, place, person, etc.), absol. or with gen. or prep.: nidat eolach thou knowest not the way TBC-LL¹ 993 . amm eolach, 1751 . 1699 . ua uathad eolaig inn usci si few knew of TTebe 1753 . isim eolach-sa co dunad Euaindir `I know the way to the fortress of E.' Aen. 2084 . With i n-: nim eolach-sa i crích mo phopa Conchobair etir, TBC-LL¹ 1210 . AFM vi 1922.3 . piloit fessach no eolach sa chuan sin, Fl. Earls 12.8 . am éolach isin Gréic. atchonnarc a láechu, TTr.² 409 . rop eolach i nErinn eiside, AFM vi 2088.1 . Transf., of things: na longa budh éolchu acco the ships that best knew the way (i.e. whose commanders best knew) CCath. 1413 .

gan beim orrtha 'gá n-eolchaib those who knew them YBL 389b3 = Ir. Monthly 1921, 160 .

(c) Hence as subst. a guide: in carpat cen araid cen eolach o Ard Machai co Sleibti, Trip. 248.21 . mani dig [ind anim] le heolchu aingel with angels as guides FA 15 (= RC xxvi 148.17 ). BNnÉ 149.12 . maith tra, or I. frisna héolchu, cid as nesam dún sund ?, BDD 70 . teid...eolac re cach cetirn...dib sechnoin na cathrach, BB 442a37 . a túsigh conaire ┐ a eolaigh sligedh, CCath. 4761 . badar drocheolaig ria F. ┐ tucsad i n-aimréidib hé, RC xxiv 46.7 . a n-eolaig robatar remib, Alex. 692 . frisna heolchu batar oc imthús dóib, 683 . noch dho bhí na éolach ag an muinntir do chuir lámha a Níosa, Acts i 16 . ó's é is treóraighe ┐ is eólach dhúinn...go neamh, TSh. 10035 .

(d) known, familiar: cf. air ni bi eulach (gl. non talis est qualis articulatae vocis oratio) `it is not knowledgeable' (Thes.) Ml. 42c9 . aithris dó...bás na bhfear óir dob eolach dhó féin iad, Maguires of F. § 33 . dob eolach dhuinn cuiger mac an R. Mhoirsin we were acquainted with Rel. Celt. ii 216.26 . Cf. ni fríoth tuath gan dudhchusach do chlannuiph E...acht an tuath eolach aitheachda sin .i. Tuath Ruisen a hainm well-known (?) Hy Fiach. 156 = Lec. 168a27 .

(e) of things requiring skill, cunning, curious (rare) : do dhénamh gach aon ghné oibre eóluigh, Exodus xxxv 33 .

Cf. eólgach.

3 féth

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 3 féth or dil.ie/21821

 

Forms: féth, féith, feid, féith, f.

n m.? (see Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 628 . O'Rahilly, Measgra D. ii 251 , would identify it with 5 féth) n s. féth, Ml. 125d11 . féith 126a2 ; 4 . feid, 108d5 . d s. féith, 126a4 . calm, stillness, esp. at sea (cf. 3 féith): gl. quies Ml. 126a2 . tranquillitas 108d5 . féith .i. cíunas, O'Cl. arna té .i. féith forsna muire, Ml. 125a4 . int imram isind féith, 126a1 . is trummu foraib som imram isind féith quam techt la reith choir gaithe ib. 5 . ní assu ... imra[m] isind roféith (ro eeth MS.; leg. drochféith?) dia combuch oc ind imram quam tempestas saeua , 126a7 . f.¤ (oppd. to `anfud') Hy iv pref . for anfuth ... no for feth, Laws iii 212.6 . co n-acind ... feth na fairrge, ZCP v 496 § 1 . tic feith ciuin forsin fairgi, Aen. 266 . tic feth forsin fairge ┐ do íslig in muir, SG 346.9 . iar fegad in mara im ḟ.¤ ┐ im ḟostacht, LL 230b12 ( TTr. 982 ). (as pred.) ba feth dam in muir, RC x 84.9 . In moral sense quietness, tranquillity ; here perhaps: foirbthi, feidli, feth cen chel, SR 4857 . dorigset sét ... dar cach fich fri feth (: Amaléch), 4075 (= without disturbance?). in tan tra tainic feth mar do Grecaib iar togail na Troi, BB 445a13 . Cf. for A. ... | mo bennacht co meth | a clanna ... | nir scarait re feth, Anecd. ii 32 (cf. 5 féth). Compds. ¤chiúin calm and still: ba feith-chiuin an oidhche, Fl. Earls 8.14 . ¤chiúine , f. a dead calm: do bertis ... ainuthen aran occian ar lar na feit[h]ciuine, CCath. 3925 . ¤fairrge a calm sea: meidightir ... fri seol primh-luingi uas fhethfhairrgi, Lism. L. 3184 .

1 for

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 for or dil.ie/23272
Last Revised: 2013

 

Forms: for, far, bar, fuir, AR, FOR, AR, forsa, fora, fara, forsin[d], forsa, forsna, farsin, barsin, barsan, forin[d], forna, fornaib, forsn, forin, forna, formu, form, fort, fort, bard, fora, forar, forar, f., forar, f., form, fórm, formsa, fórmsa, forom, foromm, forumsa, foromsa, forum, ḟorum, orum, orum, orumsa, formm, ormm, fort, ort, fortsu, foir, fair, ḟair, foirsom, foirsem, fairseom, fairsem, foir, for, foir, fair, ḟair, ḟairside, faride, forrae, furri, ḟurthi, uirre, fuiri, furi, fuiri, furri, fuirri, fora, forra, fuirri, fuirre, uirre, fornn, fornd, ornn, fornni, forunni, forni, forund, forond, foirn, foirnn, foirnd, oirn, oirnd, foraindi, foraind, forainde, oraind, orainne, forn, forinn, orainde, foirib, forib, fuirib, furib, fuiribsi, furibsi, foraib, foraibh, foraibse, foirb, foirbsi, oraib, forru, forrusom, forro, forra, orru, forthu, fortho, forta, forib, foraib, forib, foraib, forroib, forru, forthu, foraib, for, ar, fair, air, AR, FOR, orat, orad, airiut, erut, AR, AR, f.

prep. with acc. and dat. See Thurn., Gr., and Fraser, ZCP viii 34 ff . Lenition of the obj. occurs once in the Glosses: for chenn, Ml. 44d29 , possibly a scribal error. Even in the modern period non-lenition is regular in some expressions after AR representing FOR, cf. the alliterations: feall ar filidh IGT, 24 P 8, 190.5 ; nā bí ar filidh go fortuil ib. (= Studies 1924, 245 ).

Forms: for (in Mid. Ir. MSS usually denoted by f surmounted by horizontal stroke) Glosses, pass. and later; occasionally far: Wb. 5b3 . Ml. 82d10 . Sg. 90b1 , 2 . Thes. ii 39.28 , 29 . TBC-LL¹ 3782 . LL 176a7 ( CRR 34 ), LL 268b20 ( MU² 860 ). bar, LL 265a39 ( MU² 452 ). TBC-LL¹ 2820 . 3613 , etc. fuir, Thes. ii 39.22 .

In later MSS. gradually replaced by AR. This appears occasionally in LU, more frequently in LL. In Maund. FOR still appears though AR is commoner.

With rel. part. forsa n-, fora n-: fara n-: forsa taith, Wb. 20b6 . forsa robae, Ml. 82d10 . forsa n-airisedar, Sg. 139b1 . forsmbeth, SR 1364 . forstā, 1839 . forsnaicci, Imr. Brain § 38 . forsmbí, § 43 . forsmbīd, Metr. Dinds. ii 42.2 . fora sernte Wb. 18c8 . fora taibre, 29a23 . fora n-idparar, 5b6 . fora mboí, Tur. 60 . fora ṁbi, Thes. ii 41.27 . forá mbí ib. 17 . fora mbiat, LU 2639 . fora taí, SR 3096 . farsa n-immér TBC-LL¹ 5961 . barsa mbatar, 3738 . fara mbí, Thes. ii 40.32 .

See Strachan, ZCP iv 63 ; 488 - 9 .

With article: forsin[d], forsa (n-), forsna, etc., Wb. 1d2 , 9d5 , 32d2 ; Ml. 22c12 , 46c3 , 48a21 , 84d4 ; Sg. 8a13 , 207a6 ; LU pass. farsin, Trip.² 1948 , barsin, TBC-LL¹ 4553 . barsan 3387 . Without -s-: forin[d], Ml. 60b14 , 94b11 , 120d7 . forna Ml. 51d19 . 69a11 . 138a6 . fornaib, Wb. 5a5 . Ml. 27d22 . See Strachan l.c.

Rarely with elision in sg., as in: forsn uscisin, SR 4632 .

In Mid. Ir. MSS. maintenance of -s- is the rule, though it is occasionally dropped by some scribes, e.g. forin, PH 3594 . forna, LU 2552 (H). CCath. 2574 . Marco P. 64 .

With poss. pron. 1 s. formu naimtea, Ml. 86c10 . for mo namtea, 88a8 . for mu mud, Thes. ii 294 . for mo menmuin ZCP x 338 ( Laud 615, 104 ). for mo thir ┐ for mo thalam YBL 113b47 (= form ... form, LL 270b46 . for mo chuit ..., Rawl. 134a4 ). form ḟuil, SR 1542 . form thigerna, 3188 . form laim ┐ form gail, LL 121a12 . See KZ xlviii 55 . 2 s. fort athair, Trip.² 1759 (= fort ha., Trip. 150 ). fort cheniul, Trip.² 1760 . bard, TBC-LL¹ 3230 . 3 s. and pl. fora. 1 pl. forar ndail, SR 3633 forar morsluag, 3974 . (cf. fer ruc breith for fis ... | for ndís bámar i cumriuch, SR 3286 , where f. is possibly a contraction of forar). 2 pl. f.¤ far naimtib, TTr.² 1775 .

With pron. suff.: 1 s. form, Wb. 8d26 . Ml. 2a6 . 59a18 . 104d2 . SR 1584 . fórm, LU 5669 . formsa, LL 224a28 ( TTr. 513 ). fórmsa, LU 4507 . forom, SR 1404 . foromm, TBC-LL¹ 3752 . forumsa, Ml. 44b29 . 89a2 . TBC-LL¹ 3750 . LL 234a34 ( TTr. 1278 ). foromsa, LL 223by ( TTr. 488 ). forum, Acall. 3357 . ḟorum, LL 234a13 ( TTr. 1261 = orum, BB 426a47 ). orum, Acall. 304c . 6994 . orumsa, 7696 . formm, LB 8a52 . ormm, LB 246b55 ( PH 7807 ).

2 s. fort, Wb. 6a14 . 28d9 . SR 6258 . LU 4789 . 6252 . ort LU 6097 . fortsu, Ml. 113d11 . LU 6593 .

3 s., m. n., acc. foir, Wb. 4d15 . 28b30 . Tur. 85 . 110c0 . Ml. 2a6 . 41a5 . 53a19 . 54c16 . Sg. 209b12 . fair, Wb. 7c4 . LU 6299 . LL 227b30 ( TTr. 777 ). ḟair, LL 220b ( TTr. 262 ). PH. CCath. pass. foirsom, Wb. 8c1 . foirsem, Sg. 209b12 . fairseom, LU 6239 . fairsem, CCath. 1803 .

dat. foir, Wb. 6d6 . 10b9 . Tur. 123 . for (older form, GOI 275 ) LL 49b19 ( Hail Brigit § 4 ). YBL 12a10 (cf. foir Ériu ii 55 § 3 = i 138 where rime with tol is required). fair LU 2051. 7554 . LL 98a34 . 99a40 . Acall. 89 . ḟair, LL 224b5 ( TTr. 533 ). ḟairside, LL 235b13 ( TTr. 375 ). cf. faride TBC-LL¹ 5173 .

cf. acc. forrae, Tur. 79 . furri, Acall. 6437 . furri, LL 224b39 ( TTr. 556 ). ḟurthi, LL 230a41 ( TTr. 968 ). uirre, Acall. 1253 .

dat. fuiri, Wb. 3d34 . Sg. 4b9 . Ml. 95b6 . furi, 45c9 . 118d6 . fuiri sidi, Sg. 199a5 . furri, LU 3918. 4512 . 7993 . LL 218a32 ; 221b19 ( TTr. 90 ; 323 ). LL 66a39 . LB 7a40 . fuirri, LU 4517 , SR 3108 . Marco P. 10 . fora (v.l. forra, fuirri), Imr. Brain § 3 . fuirre, Marco P. 12 . uirre, CCath. 1947 .

1 pl. fornn, Wb. 2a13 . 8d18 . 30b2 . Ml. 46b26 . 119d6 . fornd LU 3254 . 5220 . 6780 . 9244 . ornn, PH 6865 . fornni, Wb. 14b15 . Ml. 77c6 . 88a4 . 90d17 . forunni, 111c13 . forni, LU 1674. 8554 . forund, TBC-LL¹ 2974 . forond, LU 8620 . foirn, TBC-LL¹ 617 . PH 2060 . 7848 . foirnn, 1502 . foirnd, CCath. 648 . oirn, PH 6863 . oirnd, 8063 . CCath. 652 . foraindi, TBC-I¹ 3578 . LB 162a62 . foraind, Acall. 4867. 6165 . forainde, LB 34b56 . 162a53 . oraind, Acall. 2996 . CCath. 1679 . orainne (v.l. forn. forinn) 1659 . orainde, Acall. 5074. 7655 .

2 pl. foirib, Wb. 14c40 . 21d5 . Ml. 46a14 . forib, Wb. 6a17 ( ZCP xvii 223 ), 27c11 . fuirib, 14d17 . 20b2 . furib, Ml. 115b8 . fuiribsi, Wb. 7a4 . furibsi, 18a18 . foraib, Trip.² 1589 . LU 7233. 7755 . LL 239a15 . CCath. 3569 . foraibh, 610 . foraibse, TTr.² 119 . foirb, SR 5534 . Trip.² 1651 . foirbsi, SR 3116 . oraib, Acall. 7539 , YBL 376b42 ( Aithd. D. p. 158 ).

3 pl. acc. forru, Wb. 1d3 . 10c5 . 28c3 . Ml. 53d13 . 73b17 . 127b6 . LU 4784 . 5309 . LL 66b10 . 241b88 ( TTr. 1859 ). CCath. 3738 (Fr.). ḟorru, LL 223d27 ; 242b2 ( TTr. 438 ; 1908 ). forrusom, Wb. 9c10 . forro, LU 5796 (M). 5836 (H). Acall. 5317 . 7117 . CCath. 1237 (S) (in dat. meaning Acall. 2458 . 3501 . 3745 . LL 223b21 ). forra, CCath. 1640 (H). 3754 (Fr.). fortha, CCath. 3599 (Fr.). orra, CCath. 1237 . 1488 . orru, Acall. 3299 . forthu, SR 3942 . fortho, LU 2556 (H). fortha, CCath. 3599 (Fr.). fortu, forta, 1488 (v.l.).

dat. forib, Wb. 4d2 . 29b20 . foraib, Ml. 121a5 .

dat. for acc. forib, Wb. 28c4 . foraib, 4c35 . Ml. 49b6 . 54a4 . 54b30 . 90a25 . 118d19 . forroib, LU .5608 .

Cf. fortus.

In Mid.Ir. MSS forru (forro, forthu, etc.) and foraib are often found without distinction of case. In the Laud-Lismore text of Acall. pretonic for is very rare; it is regularly replaced by ar. But with suff. pron. 3 s. m. n. fair is predominant; there are very few instances of air. In the other pronominal forms those with and without f- seem to share the field equally.

In classical verse the pretonic form is AR, but the pronominal forms are regularly those of FOR without f. an exception is orat, orad (beside ort). Cf. O. Ir. airiut, erut from AR. See 24 P 8 (McKenna, Tracts).

Synopsis of meanings:

I Of local relations:

(a) on, upon , expressing both contact and relative position ( over, above ) also of mere external contact or position.

(b) of approximate position juxtaposition. on, at, by .

(c) in sense upheld, supported by; being worn or carried by .

(d) after verbs of placing, hoisting, over, up .

(e) of things attached to or forming part of the body, etc.

(f) in, amongst; forming a portion of .

(g) with acc. after verb or verbal noun implying motion on, over, to, towards .

II Of quasi-local relations, and in abstract and fig. expressions:

(a) of form, appearance, hue, etc.

(b) of arrangement, state, process; division, classification, naming .

(c) of point of time; coincidence of occurrence .

(d) on (of that by which something is evident, known, recognized, etc.).

(e) with words expressing quality, talent, success, etc. , indicating the possessor of these.

(f) over, of rule, sway, superior might .

(g) upon, in addition to; in succession to, after .

(h) on i.e. affecting, afflicting (of emotions, physical or mental states or conditions).

(i) governing object of blessing, cursing, punishing, etc.

(j) (existing) on, by means of (a food, diet); relying on; depending on .

(k) with abstr. or verbal noun, also with adj. in (a state or condition).

(l) at (an occupation or task).

(m) to express the dativus incommodi, the person adversely affected by the action.

(n) expressing constraint, compulsion: ata f.¤ is incumbent on; owing from (see 1 fíach).

(o) expressing worth, value .

(p) phrases.

(q) after adj.

III In verbal construction.

IV Replacing AR.

I Of local relations: on, upon , expressing both contact and relative position ( over, above ); also of mere external contact or position.

(a) on, over, above: buith f.¤ ochtrach, Ml. 129c2 . a mbís f.¤ altoir ind idil, Wb. 10a6 . ind altóir fora n-idparar, 5b6 . cen chaille f.¤ a ciunn (gl. non uelato capite) Wb. 11c9 . den chamull fora mbói, Tur. 60 . Conall ... forsin Deirg mounted on LL 122a34 . bretha ind óic ... f.¤ fúataib immach were carried out on biers LU 1595 . contuletsom f.¤ a ndergodaib 1829 . suidfid ... f.¤ a chathair, 2319 . luid ... co raba f.¤ a úaitni, 1723 . is fota a chubat f.¤ lár his measurement is long (when he is stretched) on the ground 1605 . fochartatar grith imme co mbátar f.¤ lár in tige, 7560 ( BDD 109 ). See also s.v. lár. Often = in: co mboí f.¤ medon ind lis, LU 1608 . cach óen creitfes ... f.¤ nim ní bá tróg, LU 9495 . cid f.¤ tír cid f.¤ usci cid f.¤ fidchill cotrisam whether it be on land or on water we contend, or over a chessboard 1674 . dia ḟagbáil i fid no i fidbaid, f.¤ tír no usci, LL 220ax ( TTr. 237 = ar muir na ar tir, BB 414a37 ). co forcongrad lais ... | na beth f.¤ crích n Israhél, SR 6216 (cf. atat cinedhaigh ar an fásach sin dianad ainm B., Maund. 49 ). co ra churet cath forsinn [ḟ]aithchi sin co torsed fuil formna fer furri, LL 221b18 ( TTr. 323 ). Cf. coro airet ... lá n-air ar inn [ḟ]aigthisea, LL 221b15 ( TTr. 320 = ... isin f.¤ , BB 415a23 ). atchiu fer ... for sin maig, LU 4564 . cid fó cid for ... beme whether we be above or beneath YBL 12a10 . in fú talam no f.¤ talam?, Trip.² 1118 . iarna bádhadh forsan abhainn `after she had been drowned in the river' Cóir Anm. 255 . ind uisci f.¤ ind nim anúas (gl. super caelum) Ml. 120d7 . domarfás and ... mothur ... ḟairside anúas, LL 235b14 ( TTr. 1375 ). cíid f.¤ in mac weeps over the child ZCP viii 311.14 . ro chí f.¤ a muime, Trip.² 115 . No chanta ór fírindi fair used to be chanted over him BDD 11 . banchuiri f.¤ colaind Fraích, LU 5236 . a fuini f.¤ grís to bake it on the embers SR 3903 . a scéith f.¤ a cennaib dia sáerad, LU 5888 . f.¤ bith, f.¤ domun, f.¤ talmain, freq. in sense above ground, anywhere on earth, in existence: in dia as dech f.¤ bith buan, SR 3973 . in t-én as luaithiu luamain f.¤ bith, LU 2477 (cf. ní boí isin bith ..., 3377 ). cenco beind acht óenlá f.¤ domun alive 5060 . ni raibi forsin domun ingen bid chaime ..., YBL 189b3 ( RC xxiv 198 ). (cf. ni fuil ní ar doman ina esbaid acht fín, Maund. 159 . ni fuighbither ... ar bith ná ar doman, CCath. 262 ). cech mil beo baí f.¤ talmain, SR 1930 . See also s.v. fot, 2 fúait, 2 ed.

Of wounds, bruises, etc. cned f.¤ corp, Laws ii 156.20 . facbait .l. cned fairseom, LU 4967 . co lín crechta f.¤ a chnis 4547 .

(b) Of approximate position, juxtaposition, on, at, by: ... file cuimrecha formsa, Wb. 23a5 . ata árchú lemsa ..., tri slabrada fair, LU 5001 . buithe f.¤ dese Dé on God's right hand Ml. 128a3 . ani f.¤ laim deis `that on the right hand' [side] Thes. ii 255.8 . Fergus ... f.¤ láim Ailello isin phupull ... M. f.¤ a láim aili do Alill, LU 4619 . Cf. O. ar a láim clí, ┐ M. f.¤ a láimsein, ┐ E. ara láimhsein, Acall. 2256 . (but: bachla f.¤ láim, SR 3915 corresponds to tenentes baculos in manibus Exodus xii 11 . See lám). dún ..., dorus umaide fair, LU 1793 . batar ... da dorus forsin uaim, PH 6316 . dorus ... as nesu ille is fair ro sudiged M., LU 2084 . ra sudigit ... secht ṅdorais furri, LL 227a ( TTr. 737 ). conéracht Glaiss C. fríu ... féotár fuirri (.i. f.¤ a bru), LU 5363 . cath f.¤ brú Derguist, 224 . f.¤ brú puirt G., LL 219b marg. inf. ( TTr. 142 ). f.¤ a mbeulu (gl. prone cadentium) Ml. 131b6 . form dreich sea facing me LU 3892 (see 1 drech). dofessid f.¤ gualaind C. seated himself beside C. 8076 (but in 5293 , 5294 , 5295 the literal meaning `on the shoulder' is probably intended). See 1 gúala. sléchtaid ... f.¤ díb traigthib ind noeb, Ériu ii 204.9 . Cf. is ar bordaibh cuirid iat they put them (sitting) at tables Maund. 39 . fon domun f.¤ cech leth (gl. longe lateque) Ml. 53b9 . tho ḟolt scailti ... f.¤ cach n-óenleth, SR 1602 . biait ar mná ... f.¤ bróntib at the querns (i.e. grinding corn, cf. II l) LU 5610 . nírb áelid dóib ar buí in slúag forro for cech leth, LU 1441 .

Cf. the fig. expressions: f.¤ belib (gl. in caritate non ficta) Wb. 15a37 . f.¤ bréthir (oppd. to in corde) 15d5 . indí forsa n-airisedar in gním (gl. in quem fit actus) Sg. 139b1 . is mithig forchenn fair, Ml. 118b6 .

Of pregnancy: in tan robtar lán a n-noí mís f.¤ Cormac when she had carried C. for nine months ZCP viii 310.31 . Cf. ba torrach f.¤ C. ib. 29 . See torrach. Possibly this use belongs rather to II.

(c) Freq. in sense upheld, supported by, also being worn (esp. of weapons, ornaments; IMM is regularly used of clothes) or carried by: Crist co crunn a cruche foir fesin (i.e. carrying it) Tur. 123 . acht robed arma Dae foirib, Wb. 22d15 . gaibid armma Dae foirib, 22d11 . día mbeth gaisced foraib if they carried arms LU 7296 ( BDD 94 ). fotalsceith foraib, LU 4491 . sciath f.¤ a chliu, LL 241b34 ( TTr. 1856 ). scíath ... f.¤ a muin, LU 10664 . claideb f.¤ a ṡliastaib, 9269 . claideb ...f.¤ a chris, 6561 . dulend f.¤ a bruinnib, 9267 . ticfat da dam ... ┐ tabraidsi in carpat foraib (= harness them to it) 3124 . ro inled a carpatt forna echu, Trip.² 2852 . ro loisc ... in cherdcha forro `set fire to the forge in which they were' (cf. II (m)) RC xxiv 194 ( YBL 188b ). f.¤ óenchoiss (standing) on one leg LU 6983 . atchiat insi ... f.¤ óenchois on a single pillar LU 1936 (cf. II j, 2).

(d) after vb. of placing, hoisting, over, up: focress a phupall f.¤ Ailill, LU 4618 . Claitir in fert fair, ZCP viii 560.33 . tuargabsat T. idnaid catha forru, LL 225a37 ( TTr. 552 ). toccbaid for mergedha foraibh, CCath. 610 . ro toccbait a fainbreiti siuil forta, 2870 . ra tocbait a eoin gaithi ... ḟurri `its vanes were uplifted' (of a ship) TTr. 140 ( LL 219a8 ). (fig.) tuárgabad fornn aire fochide, Wb. 14b22 .

Cf. la turcbail a mátan fair, LU 6560 , where the prep. evidently refers to the performer of the action. Similarly: tócbaid in derba fair ┐ dobeir bulli in [sic] cend na mná 4357 .

(e) Of things attached to, or forming part of a body, etc., as, parts of weapons; hair, limbs; leaves of trees, etc.: manais f.¤ crúnd midsing, LU 4491 . folt buidi furri 4512 . mong ... fair, 10795 . in folt ... ro asair furri 4231 . tri cruindberrtha foraib, 7139 . ni lugu bís finn fo a dernaind oldās fuirri anúas (of a hare), Bodl. Corm. s.v. pattu. a chend féin f.¤ ind ir út, LU 460 . cēt muinēl furri ┐ cét cend f.¤ cach muineol, 2430 . cét bass ... cét n-ingen f.¤ cach oenbaiss, 888 . .l. torc ... co cruib eich foraib = having the hooves of a horse Ériu xii 176.9 ( TE III 9 ). rethi co n-olaind ordai fair, LL 218a36 ( TTr. 93 ). lia nat luibi f.¤ maigaib, SR 935 . nach crann fors mbeth duilirath, 1364 . ásfaid ind oland forsnaib cairib, LL 291b26 ( RC xiii 462 . Cf. olann ... mar bis ar caerchaib ..., Maund. 181 ). di lus bís forsnaib caircib, Tur. 115 . lir ... fér f.¤ faichthi, LU 7233 ( BDD 89 ). lir ... dulli f.¤ fidbaid, LL 120b33 . Cf. dorigni cúach cera da gnúis ┐ da agid fair, LU 6453 . brisfed mo chend formsa, 5275 . co mmebaid a chend fair, 5300 where the prep. apparently imparts precision or emphasis, but cf. II (m). co tarla a di bond bána fair (= he became a corpse) LU 1497 ( MU² 987 ). a mbuind banai forra iarna trascrad RC xii 90 (see 1 bonn). Cf. techtaid delba ... fair, LU 2701 , cited II (a) below.

(f) In, amongst; forming a part of, mixed with: Colman diata Clann Colmáin f.¤ Feraib Li (i.e. belonging to F.L.) ZCP viii 293.31 (= a quo Cl.C. hi F.L., Rawl. 140a18 ). Mail D. a quo sil M.D. f.¤ Huib Echdach, Rawl. 140a21 = ZCP viii 294.4 . bátar Cristaidi forna cathaib sin diblínaib in both those battalions Marco P. 64 .

(g) With acc. After verb or vn. implying motion on, to, towards: intí do thuit foir, Wb. 4d15 . for a mbeulu (gl. prone cadentium) Ml. 131b6 . dosfuit f.¤ lar, SR 1719 . techt f.¤ nem, Wb. 15c22 . lotair f.¤ muir, LU 1697 . amal no théigtis suas forin drochet, 1794 . dofutitis écne ... anúas f.¤ talmain, 1916 . berthair uaimse f.¤ altóir A., 1932 . ro díbairgsi certli forsin luiṅg, LL 221b46 ( TTr. 344 ). ní cían ro saig mu suil forsa muir not far doth mine eye reach over the sea Trip.² 1312 (114) . na taít f.¤ culu, Wb. 25c14 . in grían do thecht ... f.¤ culu, Ml. 61a13 (see cúl). cingid ... di cach biur f.¤ araili, LU 5733 . téit ara chend forsin taulaig, 5759 . saidsíus f.¤ medón na glassi, 4797 . timachtatár taris ... la crand f.¤ scíathu by (beating) shafts against shields 5828 . do theged fian ... do seilg fairsium, 6138 . benaim beimend ... f.¤ slóg, 6171 . Cf. nicon tetarraid béim ... fair, 5977 . ní lamar fuligud forrosom, 4960 . Also fig.: léim ... dind tinchosc ... f.¤ aisndiis di thuiste dúile, Wb. 5c16 . ni tāinig cride neich fair no one had pity on him RC xxiv 48 (see do-icc).

In late MSS. the dat. pl. is common here: guro tuitseat f.¤ fanglenntaibh na tiri, CCath. 866 .

Across, by way of: nachab ticfed for rí ... do imthecht foirib a doirsea, Ml. 46a14 . f.¤ sligi M. dochoidsi, LU 5788 . issed dollotar ... .i. f.¤ Muicc C. ... f.¤ Crond, hi Cualngi across Muicc C. ... across Crond, into Cualnge 4593 - 4608 . tiat A. ... f.¤ Midlúachrae. ragmaine ┐ F. f.¤ Bernas nU., 5396 . comergit ... ara ammus, araill dib f.¤ less, araill f.¤ doras liss 5017 . fócoislé f.¤ forlés in tige, 10910 (cf. con-acca in n-én forsin forléss a ddochum, BDD 7 ). co tánic a inchind f.¤ a chlúasa, LU 5286 . co ndeochaid f.¤ a béolo sair, 6026 . docoised ferchend fora beolu, 5919 . maidid a loim fola f.¤ a beolu LL 273az .

See also under the verbs of motion referred to in III below, and such words as leth, 1 lorg, 1 selg, slicht, etc.

In follg. ex. the meaning is not clear: ro túaslaicthe f.¤ aicned na ndūl dia ndernta, LU 2518 (`according to the nature' Stokes, RC xxv 237 ). Cf. ro tuaislaiced fo aicned na ndula `was resolved into the original nature of the elements' PH 6980 .

II Of quasi-local relations, and in abstract and fig. expressions:

(a) of form, appearance, hue, flavour: delb a bais som form, Wb. 24a8 . delb anmandae foraib, Ml. 130a3 . ecosc n-abstal forib, Wb. 24a25 . condarbastar gné fírinne fuiri Ml. 95b6 (cf. delb domárfas fair, LU 4576 ). atá comarde fuirib, Wb. 21a5 . (Cf. the lit.: bíth comardae f.¤ a mbudin LU 5540 ). techtaid delba ┐ gnei écsamla fair, LU 2701 , cf. I (e), end. is follus ... gné mbróin fairseom, 2279 . datha na flesc ... hed nobid forsna huanaib, SR 2964 . na treoit ┐ dath óir f.¤ a n-alaind, LL 218a45 ( TTr. 99 ). sruth ... co rath somailse foir, Ml. 89d3 . bieid rath somailse f.¤ a belru 89c15 . secip blas bá mellach ... fogebed fair, LU 1788 . tintud Septin ... is he fil forna psalmaib (= the psalms are translated from the Septuagint version) Hib. Min. 10.334 .

(b) of arrangement, state, process; division, classification; naming: inna imthanad .i. fele [ = file] forsnaib ráthib, Ml. 93c7 . ataat .uii. ngne forsin chombug `the confraction is of seven kinds' Thes. ii 254.7 . oengles foraib huile, SR 92 . ataat deora erndaili forsin canoin, Hib. Min. 3.63 . atat cetri gnuse forsin canoin ib. 78 . cis lir rann fil f.¤ crū? Ériu i 214.12 . atat tri altai leusom f.¤ ind gabail (of singing the Canticles), Mon. Tall. § 33 (= atad dá mhodh ara n-abairthear íad, Rule of Tallaght 102 ). cia ord bias forru, LU 2575 . is diall femin file fair it is of the feminine declension Sg. 93b2 . doralsat óenclár catha foraib dia tobairt, LU 1478 ( MU² 955 ; `formed themselves into a solid phalanx' SGS v 30 ). daringsetar comraind slúaig forru, LL 224b30 ( TTr. 550 ). ni rabi cumsanad forsin chathugud sin ... the fighting did not cease LL 242a3 ( TTr. 1873 ). conach bui nach tairisimh f.¤ a n-urcoraib occo, CCath. 5660 . ro tṡeindestar C. a timpan ┐ tuc nuallorgan sidhe fuirri, Acall. 4620 . ro dercsat na moli ... for fogluasacht, ┐ ni facadar seoladh no iomramh fortó they saw the ... masses in movement yet they did not see them being sailed or rowed CCath. 2655 . Of names: nipa far n-ainmsi bias forib, Wb. 4d2 . da n-ainm fuirri, ZCP viii 106 § 5 . roboí ... oc iarraid a anma do bith forsin cnuc, LU 3150 . combad de sin nobeth Almu furri 3145 . Mane f.¤ cach fir díb ┐ forainm f.¤ cach Mani, 6847 . a ainm do bith forsin luing ┐ f.¤ a fairind, LL 219a30 ( TTr. 158 ). atá Dún tri liacc d'ainm fair, Acall. 1178 . See also s.v. for-tá.

(c) Of point of time; coincidence of occurrence: fēli ... do curither for dardain no mairt, Rule of Céli D. 9 ( LB 9b ). do toscelad aiss aesci far caisc `to ascertain the moon's age on Easter' Thes. ii 39.24 ; 27 . cid lae sechtmaine fora mbí Kl. Ian., Thes. ii 41.17 . calainn Enair for dardaín, ZCP viii 111.6 . Ann. Conn. 1226 , etc. Kl. enair for Domnuch ┐ xuiii furri New Year's day on a Sunday and the 18th of the moon on it [lit. her, calann, f.] Ann. Inisf. 43c (1206) = ALC i 234 . in la forsmbi bisex, Fél. 78.11 . ind naob asa feil bís for ind láo, Mon. Tall. § 8 (= sa feil do biodh ar an la sin, Rule of Tallaght 42 ). for cach ló every day CCath. 358 .

(d) on (of that by which something is evident, known, recognized, etc.): rēil f.¤ a mbrēthir ōn a n-andach imme ro[r]daisset `is clear from their word' Ml. 90d16 . is reil fornn ... condrancamar fria morolcc, SR 1347 . follus f.¤ th'erlabra fén do pheccad, PH 5169 . ni ro airigsium fort ... .i. f.¤ do gnímrad ... ailcius dula dochúm nime ocut, 8213 . is follus f.¤ suidhichthibh na Roma conad docra ... congbail in cadusa ina fogbail in ratha, CCath. 803 . Cf. ba follus a n-anádh [sic leg.] fein f.¤ na Romanchaib the ill-luck of the Romans was manifest 810 (cf. e). Cf. ba mor in galur di, dael oca diul ... ni fitir nech sin furri, Fél. 44.1 (possibly = she showed no sign of it, though also it might = no one knew she was so afflicted). Cf. also: ni fitir nech dib f.¤ araile a n-imchossait do B., LU 8251 . Cf. (m) last cit., and see 1 ráthaigid.

(e) With words expressing quality, talent, success, etc. indicating the possessor of these: is foraib bíaid búaid in tslóig, LU 4631 (`it is to their credit the victory of the hosts will be' Faraday, Cattleraid of C.). ní fair bías a nós nách a allud nach a irdarcus acht is fortso, LU 6376 (cf. is oraibsi bias a nós ┐ a allud ┐ a urdarcus, Acall. 3575 Fr; R). itát tri búada formsa .i. búaid roisc, etc. I have three talents, i.e. the talent of sight, etc. LU 4791 . rath fortsu ... ina lōg sin, 3114 . bátár teóra búada aradnachta forin n-araid in lá sin, 6407 (cf. buaid lamaig ort!, Acall. 4809 ). ba ferr leo a mudhughudh innas a somain f.¤ a naimdib `they preferred to destroy them than to benefit their enemies there with' CCath. 2484 . Cf. ni fil do chonāch formsa in fer sin im fiednaisi, 3576 (testem hunc fortuna negavit Luc. Phars. vi 159 ).

(f) over (of rule, sway; superior might): a cumacte f.¤ a mogaib, Wb. 27c16 . mu chumachtae forna doini, Ml. 56b2 . bit flathi f.¤ cāch, 85b2 . a cumachta f.¤ dúlib, LL 218b6 ( TTr. 106 ). doratsat rīgi ... | do Dauid ... | f.¤ túathaib, SR 6620 . i n-aimsir Cinaeda ... f.¤ Albain, 2350 . Temair ... cen rechtgi ríg furri, LU 3440 . mairg forsa mbía do thigernu demon, 2225 . ro gab tra nert Saxan f.¤ Bretnu ... ┐ rogab O. rige forru, 277 . bui rí amra f.¤ Érinn, BDD 1 . bai rí f.¤ Ultaib, YBL 114b6 . co raghbhaitis oénrig forru, TTr.² 1339 . (cf. rí ar gach tír, Maund. 243 . Eogan mac M. ... ar tsil nA., 6 . Magidoin ... is uirri sin da bí Alaxander na ríg 21 ). tussu ... do giallud forni, LU 1674 . ropada[t] trēn f.¤ ōcaib, 6720 . ni fríth fornert nacha fini foraib cosindiu `never until to-day did any tribe oppress you' TTr. 1645 ( LL 239a13 ).

(g) upon, in addition to (see do-formaig): fair anuas in addition to it Cáin Ad. 25 . cach ae f.¤ alaill (gl. cumularentur) Ml. 96b4 . cumal f.¤ a secht eight cumals Laws iv 330.8 ( Críth G. 464 ). óen f.¤ trí secht twenty-two Metr. Dinds. iii 98 . sé scripuil f.¤ unga an ounce and six scruples Cáin Ad. 44 . mis f.¤ bliadain a year and a month ACL iii 3.9 . ro marbhadh fer f.¤ a deich diobh, BNnÉ 107 § 25 . fer f.¤ leth Connacht `more than half the C.' Cóir Anm. 251 (cf. treab ar leth Alpan, IT ii2 123.32 . duine ar leith fer nErenn, SG 20.36 ). tercda arro tuilled da forsin focul cert where `da' has been added to the right word LU 462 ( ACC 2 Comm. ). dobeir Dia traig cacha bliadna f.¤ a lethet adds a foot to its width LU 1843 . ind forcraid fil f.¤ aicniud what exceeds nature 2559 . a nduesta día aīs som co ndigsed f.¤ áes a maicc, Trip.² 1268 . Cf. da beind f.¤ tri fichtib rend, LU 1271 (`Two antlers with three score points' Imr. Brain ii 297 ).

forib nó sech na huili predicta (gl. super omnia autem haec) Colloss. iii 14 ) Wb. 27b20 .

From this use arises the sense in succession to, after , the development is plain in the earlier exx. quoted below: du fuairthed ní leu f.¤ a sāith din main = some of the manna used to remain over when they had had their fill Ml. 97d10 . a canar ... for sen `what is chanted ... thereafter' Thes. ii 253.14 (Stowe Miss.). loim f.¤ sāith, LU 3610 ( SCC 30 ). cleirech ... lasmbí ní f.¤ a leortu who has more than suffices him Ériu vii 156 § 10 . doformagar a dligid ... forsanní doruirmisem over and above what we have enumerated Ériu i 220 § 15 . in biat forsa canar immon Muiri `the Beati after which the Hymn to Mary is sung' Mon. Tall. § 30 (corresp. to: don bhiaid le n-abradh I.M., Rule of Tallaght 90 ). ind bi[a]t forsa ndene ind crosfigild `the Beati after which he performs the cross-vigil' ib. (corresp. to: le ndeunamh an chr., Rule of Tallaght 90 ). canair magnificat furri ib. (= Cantar M. uirre, Rule of Tallaght 90 ). cétbliada[i]n f.¤ bisex ... bliada[i]n tanaiste f.¤ bisex the first year following leap-year ... the second year ... RC xviii 296 - 300 . cf. it bliadni fuir bissext, Thes. ii 39.22 (cf. Ann. Inisf. 1101 ). ind ráithe dothét foir .i. samrad ZCP viii 175z . forsind ochtmugait bliadnae són `over the eighty years' (gl. supra uotum uiuendi) Ml. 111b22 .

In the follg. exx. we have a slightly different development of meaning; in addition to, along with: oc ool usci ... do dig forsna glasluibib, SR 1894 = ... fér in talman do chaithem ... ┐ usce do dhig fair, LB 113a26 (cf. superbibere). Cf. further: o duillib in crainn sin d'ól ar uisque , Maund. 160 .

(h)

(1) on, i.e., affecting, afflicting (of emotions, physical or mental states or conditions, joy, sorrow, fear, anxiety, sickness, pain, hunger, etc.; see also under words expressive of these): comadas lobre et immomon forsin mug, Wb. 8b1 . ni bi nach dethiden foir, 10b9 . ata dethiden fuiri cene, 3d34 . sním fora menmain, Ml. 89b7 . is e for snimsa fil formsa `it is care for you that I feel' CCath. 5148 . dond imniud roboí forsin popul, Ml. 103b9 . ni baí imneth foraib, LU 5832 . nicon robae ni form acht failte, Ml. 104d2 . biith galar ... fortsu, Wb. 29a26 (cf. mina roibh cosachtach air, Rosa Angl. 288.10 ). cia rodbatar tirbithi aili fornn, Wb. 14d13 . boí toirrsi f.¤ a muime, Trip.² 156 (cf. ni do thabirt toirse fuiribsi anísiu, Wb. 14a14 ). atā ēcen mōr fornd, LU 1562 . in machdad ... roboí forsnaib doirsib, Ml. 46a19 . in cóe ... boí f.¤ sluagaib I., SR 5806 . intí forsa mbeith ítu mór, Mon. Tall. § 48 (= damadh mor an ita do bhiadh ar neach, Rule of Tallaght § 98 ). bo geis don filidh anfis do beith fair, ACL iii 4.20 . Cf. i n-ítaid, i ngalur, etc. LU 2350 - 51 . cen ainbthini foraib (gl. fluctus ... in stationes suas rediunt) Ml. 121a5 .

With adjectives: arnap trom fuirib for n-oínur Wb. 14d17 . trummu foraib som imram ... quam techt ..., Ml. 126a4 . ní réid fort you do not find it easy LU 4789 (cf. ro étrummaigset doíri forna cenela, Ml. 113c8 ). ni ba mór forumsa sain, LL 234a34 ( TTr. 1278 = BB 426b42 ). ni mó formsa ... cid fiala a flaithe, ACL iii 296.38 . See also s.v. bec (beg). Some exx. with 1 esbaid, esbud may be mentioned here although in O.Ir. it takes 1 ar of person deprived : na raib form esbaid, SR 1584 . cen essbaid nacha maithiusa foraib, LU 2042 ( FA 12 ).

(2) of purpose, attention: scríbend menmman .i. robboí f.¤ a inndṡliucht som `it had been in his mind' Sg. 178b4 . in sét atá form aire on which I am intent Ériu vi 115 . Cf. nicon fil f.¤ menmain damsa sin, Ériu viii 156.22 .

(i) governing object of blessing, cursing, punishing, etc.: mallacht ... for a n-apaid, LU 2436 . mallacht fort beolu, LL 272b2 . dígal ... forru, Wb. 1d3 . conicc dígail forib, 6a17 . ni dechudsa cucuib ... do aidbiur foirib, Wb. 14c40 . bendacht Dé f.¤ Díchuin, Trip.² 387 . bendecht f.¤ Firu Cúle, 2157 . bennacht dé ┐ ande fort, LU 6852 . bai a mbennacht f.¤ Iosiaph, SR 3552 . ní ó gothaib ... dogénat ... in molad sa f.¤ Dia, LU 2676 .

(j)

(1) existing on, by means of (a food, diet): ros altatar f.¤ carnaib mac ṁbec reared her on Rawl. 132a5 ( Expuls. 8 ). adbert nad ebalta lee hē f.¤ lacht, BB 497a17 (= Dinds. 142 ). teora bliadnai f.¤ usciu ┐ bargin, Ériu vii 140.5 . secht mís ... f.¤ usce ┐ bargin, RC xv 489z ( ar usci ┐ b., 491.1 ). rosáeth linni do bithsiu f.¤ uisciu, LU 6051 . Cf. xl dies f.¤ doborfiit forty days on water-diet Thes. ii 38.29 (see PIT, and Thes., p. 67 ). roboi si f.¤ suidiu co cend mbliadna she was on that ration for a year Mon. Tall. § 60 . dā cēd bliadhain doib f.¤ iascc, f.¤ enlaith, Leb. Gab.(i) i 30 . conid furri [ = forsin chloich] buí sásad dó etir biadh ┐ digh (of a stone placed in his cheek), Cáin Ad. 12 . Cf. coro rosind mo ṡáith f.¤ t'acaldaimsiu, Mon. Tall. § 25 (= mo shaith cainnte d'fhaghail riotsa, Rule of Tallaght § 81 ).

(2) a similar use is relying on, depending on; sometimes = content with (some of the citations however seem to approach the meaning under k): do berar mac an righ ... f.¤ aoncois ┐ aonlaim ┐ aonshuil (i.e. having the use of these only, cf. the corresp. passage: Rex ... habebat filium qui erat c[a]ecus, claudus et surdus V. SS. Hib. ii 146 ) BNnÉ 185.14 . Cf. .ccc. fear f.¤ aencossaib ┐ f.¤ aenlamaib ┐ aensuilib, BB 372a45 ( Dinds. 41 ). See also I (c), end. cethri coicid E. form laim ┐ form gail ┐ form gaisced do aurscartad di Maig M. `on my hand and my valour and my weapons it rests to sweep the four-fifths of E. from M. M.' RC iii 179 ( LL 121a12 ). Ni horum ata, acht forma tuismidhtoraib (= it is not for me to decide), Stair Erc. 932 . mád día loga bemitni f.¤ a breith mani loga ... ni bemni forsind recht sin if he forgives we will abide by his judgment ... if he does not forgive we will not abide by that law LU 9753 . foemuis ... oirisium f.¤ dliged a sen, Marco P. 25 . on tsaeibhdliged fora taithe, 24 . bid inund comairle f.¤ a mbiat, LU 2639 . ni bar óenscéol atát na druid the druids do not agree LL 265a39 ( MU² 452 ), a airm f.¤ congbail ina laim grasped in his hand CCath. 3546 . conimragba f.¤ greis. ┐ dītin ... dom imdegail ar demnaib, YBL 327a16 ( Ir. Lit. 34 ), see 1 greis(s). See also commairge, fáes(s)am, etc. Here probably: bid maith a ana f.¤ cethru his wealth in cattle ZCP x 225 § 2 . dogegaind | anad sunn f.¤ bicc ḟeraind, Trip.², 1273 (= content with ?). Cf. also Corm. Y 211 cited supra, col. 192.3. appraind ná bása f.¤ mo nirt would I had been in my strength ! LU 6370 . Cf. in tan roboí Mac C. f.¤ a áltaib isind ármaig when Mac C. lay wounded on the field LU 7964 ( BDD 162 ). Cf. far diall tanaisiu of the second declension. Sg. 106b20 . is fuire side daroine O. in Félire in this (metre) O. composed the F. Fél. 4 .

The uses illustrated, respectively, in the two sections following are not always easy to distinguish. The principal difference is that (k) usually expresses passivity rather than activity. Some of the exx. there might possibly be assigned to (j), while in (l) action, purpose is implied. For later exx. see 1 AR, where the absence of lenition in these uses betrays the original prep.

(k) With abstr. or vn. , also with adj. in (a state, condition) : amal mbīs rothmol ... f.¤ bithimpud, SR 200 . f.¤ tuili doib they were in flood 2523 . sruth ... f.¤ teibirsin, Marco P. 5 . sornd tentide f.¤ lassad blazing LU 2101 . ina lócharnaib f.¤ lassad, 2055 (but : secht míle ... oc lassad 2057 ). aithinni f.¤ derglassad, CCath. 903 . co togrennitis ... inna heonu f.¤ luamain, LU 5159 . co mbui f.¤ foluamain imma chend, LL 225aw ( TTr. 600 ). batar na Desi f.¤ fainnel as cach inud na chéli, LU 4433 . f.¤ fainiul a lluc i lluc, 249 . foendul ┐ sechrán, PH 1909 . co rabatar lestra ... in tige f.¤ snám, Trip.² 114 . co rabhadur na botha ... f.¤ snam `floating' CCath. 2347 . o ro linad ind arc ... robaí in digal f.¤ imluad SR 2510 . a mbatár ... f.¤ imluad forsna tonnaib, LU 1864 . Rí ... ro horddaig in nUan iarsin tsleib f.¤ a imluad, SR 594 ( Rev. xiv 1 ). Cf. na bi f.¤ snim th'aislinge, SR 3282 (= na tab- hi snim, LB 115b46 ; nacatabrad imsnim, BB 238a24 ). f. Cf. f.¤ othrus, f.¤ folach, BCrólige 26 ff . f.¤ longais in exile Ml. 93d3 . cia bemni f.¤ longais, LU 4861 (= f.¤ loinges riam TBC-I¹ 371 ). cach oen fil f.¤ loinges ┐ teched, PH 460 . Cf. ba hé a lín f.¤ a longais, SR 6276 . boí f.¤ merogod, LU 1642 . rabaí f.¤ merfaill ┐ merugud ic iarraid a aite, LL 220a41 ( TTr. 233 ). bith deitsiu f.¤ merogod tige oiged, LU 6757 ( BDD 27 ). f.¤ aig thaig, SR 3477 . forsin reim sin, LL 232b ( TTr. 1239 ). f.¤ comrorcain in error PH 6602 . f.¤ fírinne in the right 2671 . is fír forstā Lucifur, SR 1839 (j ?). anmanda ... bis f.¤ cennsacht ┐ pettacht `tamed and petted' CCath. 2453 . conacca dá ech f.¤ sgur unharnessed ZCP viii 106.23 . roboí F. f.¤ altram la hAni, LL 165az (= Dinds. 142 ). boí leis f.¤ cui LU 10941 (see cáe, fecht). dind riuth forsa taith, Wb. 20b6 .

connfaca na tri leogain ... f.¤ dasacht ina ndocum, Stair Erc. 389 . sccuiridh don dasacht fora taithi the madness which possesses you BNnÉ 7 § 23 .

Cf. dā fercoin ... fur an dath cētna of the same color ZCP vi 29.18 (rosg ar dath gloine guirme, GF. DDána 234 . ar chruth ┐ ar dheilbh Dé, TSh. 1329 ). With adj. f.¤ cloen inclined Thes. ii 254.19 . ni bia lamnad f.¤ cōir normal delivery ZCP viii 111.25 .

After verb of motion : docoid O. ... dochum Poil f.¤ longis `had gone to Paul into exile' Wb. 31d19 . di[a] luid D. f.¤ longais, Ml. 55c1 . tiagat f.¤ teiched, 54b12 . ar foít f.¤ techtairechta, Wb. 15a15 . téit f.¤ teched, LU 4917 ( tíagait ar teched, 4965 , both in hand of M). tigc ceo ann ... ┐ do luid an ri f.¤ merugud, BColm. 70.28 . ria ndula doib f.¤ a fecht, SR 3505 (see fecht). In : téit ina ndíaid ... f.¤ echlascad, LU 6786 ( BDD 32 ) the meaning is almost `by dint of' (cf. j). Cf. tainic ina dhochum ... f.¤ a tuitmennaigh `came ... stumbling' CCath. 2199 . ni far maid rosnuicc `it has not brought them to good' Wb. 5b3 . ní thaudchaid a brú f.¤ cóir LU 6078 . ní téighedh béim ... f.¤ dimaín `no blow was delivered in vain' CCath. 2012 .

See 1 téit, do-tét.

(l) At, engaged in (an occupation or task) : cach la sel dún f.¤ imrádud Dé, in sel aile f.¤ precept, Wb. 15d9 . f.¤ foigdi 25b11 . basa f.¤ a imcabail I was avoiding him LU 1244 . ma beith nech f.¤ a iarair if any one be inquiring about it Rawl. 70a44 . cia f.¤ a tai iarair ? whom art thou seeking ? SR 3096 ( co ndechos f.¤ iarair Etaine, LU 10644 ). frisin coais f.¤a robae som, Ml. 64a12 . ... inna ndrochgnímae f.¤sa robae, Tur. 60 . buid f.¤ tectairecht hó Isu, Wb. 13b5 .

This construction is widely extended : mí dhóibh forsin fleighsin they spent a month at that feast Marco P. 88 . go rabhattar f.¤ a bproind at their meal BNnÉ 9.10 (cf. similar use of Engl. `over'). airet batar ... f.¤ a trealmaibh diubraicti `so long as the hosts were discharging their missiles' CCath. 5662 . a mbatar ... f.¤ a mbriathraib `as they were speaking' Ériu xii 182 § 14 (= LU 10895 ). ro uhatar tra for [sna] himdigluib sin cēn romarsat `they kept up these mutual retaliations' ACL iii 2.15 .

(m) To express the dativus incommodi, the person adversely affected by the action, = in despite of, to the detriment of. (Cf. the apparently similar use of AR in : ducer airi airitech ind ríg `he let fall the king's drinking cup' Lism. L. p. 324 = Irish Texts i 10 § 32 ). cf. atbath airund, LU 593 ( ACC 14 ): fó'n missi ro briss recht ... | foirb ? or was it I that broke the law to your hurt ? SR 5533 . arna bristé fír fer f.¤ Coin C., LU 6259 . conbocht fír fer fairseom, 6239 . gabais B. ... in n-insi sea forsna cenela robátar inti, LU 1343 . atraigsetar ... L. do gabail in tiri sin forro di cach leith, LU 4390 (see gaibid). dobersa ferand duib ... la Osraige ... ┐ is cet duibsiu a forsingud foraib, 4439 . iar togail Duin S. furri, 5823 . congair ... immá tech dia gabáil f.¤ Ulto, 1506 ( MU² 1003 ). Tancatar a námait ... do gabáil tige fair, RC xiii 86 ( LL 304a17 ). luidh A. ... do irghabhail a chathrach fair, Marco P. 7 . do choll etha na hindsi sea fair to injure him by blighting the corn Dinds. 18 ( BB 360a15 ). tarraidh Hectoir baegul f.¤ Achíl, LL 244a16 ( TTr. 2029 ; see báegul). co tairsedh cach dib a mídúthracht ... f.¤ araili, CCath. 255 (see tárrachtain).

In some instances it is difficult to distinguish this use from the local meaning (I c), e.g. ro línad fair in sliab di énlaithib = graues aues fuerunt erga illum Trip.² 1300 .

Cf. also: ní tae dám i tech fort, BDD 16 . is aurgart ... corr colpdai do brisiud fair hi tig, Ériu vi 136.85 is taken in this sense by the editor (fair `in his despite' 141n .), but cf. I (e) end. In : ro foilghiusa sin ... ┐ ní fitir nech form cusaniu, RC xxvi 366 (= ní fitir nech in folach sin cusandiu LB 260a20 ) this sense seems implicit, though at first sight the ex. might seem to belong to (d).

Cf. use with 1 do-fich (togal), do-gní, fellaid (fell).

(n) expressing obligation, constraint, compulsion (see 1 fíach; do-beir) : nech forsa tabar a denum `one who is compelled to do it' Ml. 54a2 . folach f.¤ fer nad fuic `where a man who injures not has to maintain' BCrólige § 15 . aithgin fuirre i mbās in case of death she is liable for restitution Laws v 146.6 Comm.

(o) expressing worth, value (late and rare.Cf. IV a) : dá cét punt f.¤ cach n-eoch, Marco P. 9 .

(p) for phrases such as : f.¤ aird, f.¤ cel, f.¤ cúl (cúlu) f.¤ enech (inchaib), f.¤ fáesam (comairce), f.¤ son, etc., see these nouns.

(q) after adj. gov. obj. of emotion, faculty (rare) : ni pu f.¤ seotu santach, Hy v 7 ( Thes. ii 328 ). nirbat santach forsin bith | nach f.¤ innem cloen, LB 261a8 (= imman mbith, YBL 407a17 ). isam eolach sa f.¤ a muintir, Aisl. Tond. 113.2 .

III With a number of verbs in regular syntactical construction or in special expressions. It indicates the indirect (in some cases the direct) object (pers. or thing) after verbs of asking, entreating, seeking; tempting; discussing, meditating; fighting, attacking, routing, defeating, overthrowing; blessing, cursing, censuring; suing; enjoining, commanding; estimating, judging, punishing; giving, bestowing; binding, pledging; putting, placing, throwing, etc., etc. For exx. of use see especially : ad-cobra, ad-cota, ad-eirrig, ad-fét (as-indet), ad-slig, ad-suidi, aithnid (ad-noí), beirid, bris(s)id, 1 ceisid, con-dïeig, dáilid, 2 do-alla, do-beir, 1 do-cain (díchetal), do-cuirethar, do-éccai (1 dercaid, fégaid), 1 do-ella, 1 do-fich (dígal), do-gní, do-icc, do-indnaig, do-léci, do-scé(u)lai, do-sluindi (diúltad), do-soí, do-tét, do-tuit, dúnaid, feccaid, feraid (ferthain), foaid, fo-ceird, fo-coisle(a), fo-dáli, fo-luigi (see II above), for-congair, fo-ruimi, fothraicid, fúabair, fóbair, gaibid, guidid, íadaid, íarmi-foich (íarar, íarair), imm-beir, léicid, liïd, lingid (léimm), maidid, midithir (1 mes(s)), moídid, nascid (ar-naisc, fo-naisc), 2 nertaid, roínid (sroínid), saidid, 1 saigid, soïd, sreid, 1 téit, 1 tráchtaid.

Cf. IV below.

IV In Mid. Ir. MSS. sometimes misused for O.Ir. AR, especially in verbal constructions (see III) :

(a) on account of, because of, for the sake of: foracsabairsi foromsa cach maith, LU 2397 (H). císsi lóg conattaig f.¤ a eladain, LL 219a27 ( TTr. 156 ). tabuirsiu f.¤ do soīre give [it] for the sake of thy freedom Anecd. iii 30 = ar do sh., Lism. L. 190 . ni accatarsom cinnas boí ... a huachtur túas f.¤ a hairde, LU 1927 . ni f.¤ crabud léce do miltnidecht uait, acht ar omun in catha, LB 59b62 ( RC ii 388 ). in fath forar crochad Isu, PH 2877 . Cf. na huile noebnoidenu ro damatar marttra forut [ = erut] YBL 327a2 ( Ir. Lit. 34 ). combad f.¤ Martain dogneth Dia in mírbuil for M.'s sake LB 60a4 ( RC ii 388 ). dia n[d]erntasu formsa if you would do as I tell you TBC-LL¹ 1802 . ni dearnnsad fair they did not obey him Dinds. 79 (= BB 390a39 ). ni dernai E. ḟurri anisein, LL 222a6 ( TTr. 351 ). dorónadh fairsium sin, CCath. 2896 . See do-gní. ro oentuigset in ní sin f.¤ Chaillin according to C.'s advice Fen. 178.7 . ic attach in Choimded ... f.¤ animmib na ndoine on behalf of PH 6393 . ro guid M. in Coimdid forru, LB 61a5 ( RC ii 398y ).

(b) Freq. with indirect obj. of verbs of concealing, delivering, rescuing (e.g. ceilid, do-essuirg, fo-luigi, saeraid, q.v.). In : gan nert cobharta forra fein incapable of helping themselves BNnÉ 5 § 11 , FOR replaces FRI, or direct acc. (= gen. after vn.). (But cf. use of f.¤ with fortacht, and AR with the late formation foirid, fóirid) : cid ara n-anci in laech ḟorrum, LL 284a13 ( TTr. 1261 ).

(c) in some phrases : f.¤ bélaib (= ar b.) SR 4568 . f.¤ a n-inchaib, CCath. 2407.3633 . f.¤ cend, LU 5954 , 5958 (H). f.¤ cind, 5890 (H). f.¤ tús, LB 61a5 ( RC ii 396x ). FA 3 LB (= ar thús, LU 1967 ). Cf. f.¤ dus (v.l. f.¤ tus), CCath. 303 . See also under these nouns.

V ? Adverbial use of 3 s. neut.: na for aircella echdrund n-aircend 'nor in addition does it take away the definite property of another' Peritia iii 446 (Text II) .

fúabair, fóbair

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fúabair, fóbair or dil.ie/24587

 

Forms: fúaibr-, fóibr-, forrubart, fuabair, fuaiprem, foipremm, fobraid, fúabair, fofuabair, fon-uabair, fobair, fa n ópair, fon ópair, fuabre, -forbara, -foiberam, tusfúabart, foopurt, forobart, -barópairt, for ópair, foróbair, forḟopair, forḟobair, foruapratar, ruapartadar, forḟópartatar, barḟópartatar, barrobratar, forropartar, fuabairthe, fóbr-, fúabr-, fóibr-, fuapraid, foibrid, fuabbrait, fobret, foibéara, fuaibera, fúaberad, ḟóibérad, foibertais, fuapras, -foibres, fuabrais, ḟuabair, fobair, rodasfopair, fuabrabar, ḟuaipertar, ḟóbratar, fobairset, foibredar, opratar, orbsat, orbsadar, fuaprad, fuaprait, foroprait, forbairt, forbairt, fororbairt, forbraís, obraim, ro-opair, opredar, foropradar, forbairt, foróbairt, fuaprait

v (-ber- ; cf. do-fúabair) syncopated form fúaibr-, fóibr-. Not found in Glosses, with the doubtful exception of forrubart, gl. torsit Enchir. Aug. 75a ZCP vii 482.2 , see note, ib. p. 489 . Mid. Ir. forms :— Ipv. 2 s. fuabair LB 205b39 . pl. 1 fuaiprem, LL 250a9 = foipremm, ZCP iv 39 . 2 fobraid, BB 482b3 ( Aen. 2991 ).

pres. 3 s.

(a) fúabair, LU 3641 . fofuabair, fon-uabair, YBL 117a30 ( IT ii1 183.240 ) Ériu v 242.6 , ZCP x 343y .

(b) fobair, LU 4932 . fa n ópair 4950 . fon ópair, LL 276a19 .

pres. subj. 2 s. fuabre (fuabra v.l.), Ériu i 194.1 . perf. -forbara, LL 125bz . fut. pl. 1 -foiberam, Lism. L. 1977 .

pret. and perf. ind. 3 s.

(a) Cf. tusfúabart, LU 11037 .

(b) foopurt, H 3.18, 361b32 ( RC xxv 346.1 ). forobart, LU 10696 . -barópairt, TBC-LL¹ 2093 .

(b). s- pret. forms: for ópair, LU 3922 . LL 256a39 . foróbair, 108b40 . forḟopair, 257b10 . forḟobair, 254b48 .

pl. 3

(a) foruapratar, Anecd. ii 54.12 . fus ruapartadar , AU 916 (i 434.10) .

(b) forḟópartatar, TBC-LL¹ 5255 . barḟópartatar, 5038 (= torpartatar TBC-I¹ 5119 , see do-fúabair). barrobratar, 1564 . forropartar AU 869 .

Pass. pret. pl. da fuabairthe , LL 206a22 . For vn. see fópairt.

In later manuscripts commonly treated as a simple verb with stem fóbr- fúabr-, and later also fóibr- : pres. s. 3 fuapraid, LL 209a19 . foibrid, RC xiii 6.15 . pl. 3 fuabbrait LL 252a41 . nos fobret , LU 1595 . fut. s. 2 foibéara, Aithd. D. 7.22 . 3 fuaibera, Grail 1086 . sec. fut. s. 3 rar fúaberad ni, TBC-LL¹ 5115 . nó ḟóibérad , Hugh Roe 100.22 (f. 27a) . pl. no foibertais , 42.6 (11b) . pret. and perf. 1 s. ro fuapras , Grail 2313 . -foibres, ZCP vi 63.15 . 2 ro fuabrais , Grail 589 . 3 ro ḟuabair , LB 147b37 . Stair Erc. 1334 . ro fobair , LL 397a10 ( rofuabair, TTr.² 9 ). rodasfopair, TBC-LL¹ 2503 . pl. 2 ro fuabrabar , Grail 1036 , 3 ro ḟuaipertar , LL 304a31 . ro ḟóbratar , PH 2402 . fobairset, 2469 . ro foibredar (v.l. ro opratar ), TTebe 3167 . Cf. ro orbsat , ro orbsadar , cited s.v. for-fen (b). Pass. perf. ro fuaprad , LL 162b33 . ra fuaprait , 262b47 .

Occasionally spelled as though a compd. with for- : 3 pl. pres. foroprait, LL 254b45 . 3 s. pret. forbairt, LB 213b56 . do forbairt , AU 859 . fororbairt, LB 215a21 . Cf. ro forbraís (2 sg.) ZCP iii 33.3 .

Initial f is sometimes omitted in lenited forms : ní obraim , Keat. iii 1932 , cf. 1942 . ro-opair, TTebe 2523 , 3195 . ro opredar , 3507 .

Sometimes with to- (do, da) prefixed, cf. do-fúabair.

(a) falls upon, assails, attacks (a person or place) : dos-fúabart cassar mór, Imr. Brain i 56.12 (= tusfúabart, LU 11037 ). da fúabair galar, LU 10593 = do phuabbair, Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. 37 § 4 n. 24 . forsn-opair ┐ benaid a cenn di, Ériu xii 160.4 (= fosnobair .i. ro innsaigh, ZCP v 524 ). gabaidh bar n-armu ... ┐ fobraidh na firu, Aen. 2991 . fanópair som ... ┐ dobeir a chend ... lais, LU 4950 . dusn-icfa Flann ... is condae fonfuabair, ZCP x 343y . foruapratar ... in cathraig, Anecd. ii 54.12 . forropartar Laigin dunadh Cerbaill, AU 869 = foropradar, AFM i 512 . cionnus no foibertais a namhaitt, Hugh Roe 42.6 . Passing into sense attempts, essays: barropratar in nGlassi tried to cross TBC-LL¹ 1564 . See (d).

(b) in sense makes for, rushes (at), speeds, hurries (occasionally intrans.) : fon-uabair fesin sis isin cath, Ériu v 242 . co forbart Dauid ... co leomain na lonnbaga, SR 5721 . bes is cuice forobart in ben, LU 10696 (= Ériu xii 158z ). fofuabair amach rushes out IT ii1 183 . fóbair a n-armach speeds to the battle-field LU 4932 . fuaiprem inna degaid let us hurry after him LL 250a9 ( TBFr. § 15 ). tanic buiden ... isin tulaig ... is borrfadach forḟópartatar in tulaig, TBC-LL¹ 5255 (= is tailc dondechadar isin telaich, TBC-I¹ 3196 ). is tailc forrópartatar in tulaig, TBC-LL¹ 5294 (= is borrfadach dofarfobrit, TBC-I¹ 3220 ).

(c) intrans. folld. by oc or FOR (AR) and vn., falls to (doing something), begins, sets about: fobair .i. do thionnsgain, fóbair ag feughain na hinghine, O'Cl. forópair oc dogru, LU 3922 ( SCC 44 ). foróbair cach díb ic folmaisi gona araile, LL 108b40 ( RC xiv 408 ). fuabrais ic troscadh for Ciaran, ACL iii 5.1 . forḟopair ... ind ingen ic fegad gilla Connacht, TFerbe 585 ( LL 257b10 ). forfobair for a thaffond ib. TFerbe 224 ( LL 254bx ). gur fhobair [in sinnach] for ithe a liubair, Lism. L. 4051 . fuabraid for nemeli moir, Aen. 2599 . nos-fobret ... ind oic for togail in duni, LU 1595 . forópair C. ar gressacht a muntire, TFerbe 395 ( LL 256a39 ). fuabraid ar buain in ghuirt, Ériu v 116 .

(d) trans. with vn. or equivalent as obj., attempts (to do something), begins, proceeds to (usual later use) : fúaprait tochailt in talman, Metr. Dinds. iii 250 . ni forbara anfōt do rād, LL 125bz . fuaratar crand ... fuabrait a búain, Moling 34 . forbairt [ = foróbairt] cantain a shalm, MacCongl. 13.7 . ro ḟobbair imthecht, Ériu vii 2.4 . dá bhfóbrainn imtheacht, Aithd. D. 48.20 . ro fuabair M. lenamain dia coraib attempted to adhere to their agreements TTr.² 9 . dia ndernadh in gnim ro fhuapair, ZCP iv 383.12 . in tan ro ḟopairset mebuil for Samsón, LB 127a46 . fuabrais troscud ... for Brenaind, ACL iii 4.30 . forforbairt I. a bandail, ┐ ni forfaem D. dó, Dinds. 24 (= BB 364b ). ro fhōpair E. ... āra ┐ ilēchta ar gasradaib Grēc, TTebe 2856 . ro ōpair ... gleo garb, 3195 . Brian nar óbair ḟeall B. who never contemplated treachery DDána 80 § 37 ( IGT III ex. 412 ). do uabair na sluaigh do dhibhragadh, ZCP viii 544.15 . na saoithe ... nár ḟóbradar solus do thabhairt dóibh did not attempt to enlighten them Keat. i 74.7 . ro ḟóbairsiot ... an baile do bhardacht attempted to defend AFM vi 2008 . sé d'iomlaoid nár ḟóbrobhair `thou hast never attempted to barter' TD 27.24 . ro fhorbhair in a menmain é badhdein ┐ a chomhmaim ... do dol resolved that he himself and his wife would go Fl. Earls 222.14 . Pass. i n-oenlo ra fuaprait ┐ i n-oenlo rapsat irlama (the works were begun) LL 262b47 ( MU² 149 ). ro fúaprad a selg `the hunters set to chase them' Metr. Dinds. iii 384 .

Cf. nocha bēra lat an ētāil roforbrais (= fuarais, BNnÉ 311 ) ZCP iii 33.3 .

(e) in late Mid. Ir. and mod. language in past tense folld. by vn., or subj. (sec. fut.) was on the point of, was near (doing), all but (did), often in impers. construction : do fobair dul ar cuthach (v.l. do gab miri mōr hē) he nearly went mad Fier. 167 . Cf. dídean eón d'fóbair dul uaithe that would have flown away Hackett xxi 21 . do ḟóbair gu ndernaind dermad (neminnscne do ḟóbair in uair sin) I nearly forgot (f. is impersonal there) IGT III ex. 411 . ge tharla gur fhobair go tteigemadh sgiursad although there had nearly been a disaster Fl. Earls 68.13 . ní fár fhóbair éag dise a cause for which she was near dying Ó Bruad. ii 116 . Cf. mod. (ba) d'fhóbair (dhóbair) dó he nearly ...

In `do ḟóbair' the latter word can rime with itself : do ḟ., cóir do chomardadh ris féin, IGT III § 46 .

gressaid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. gressaid or dil.ie/26622

 

v (2 gres(s)) incites, urges, stimulates, provokes: (used of egging on a warrior) `grēsid in fer,' or Fergus fria muinter. `Roscāich do bruth,' or Bricriu, TBC-I¹ 1714 . trascraid Coinculaind fo thrí Mand. Conidgreis int ara, 2177 . ba hisa (leg. huisse) ... a bās ind ḟir rogresi ind rīg who had provoked the king, 2996 . With m. pron. aff.: grestai iarom gan a dighail | Briccriu briathrach, Anecd. i 52.3 . ro gabsat in conair ro greiss tiudfuabairt an techidh ... iad `they took the path to which the onset of the flight impelled them,' CCath. 778 . is i comairli ro greis in t-oman fair `... to which fear impelled him,' ib. 3893 . in lucht gusa ngresfet do stuic catha suin, 645 . in t-í ... is escaid, gresed in lesc, PH 5825 . ro-gresus in popul Iudaide o eut ... i n-a agaid, 3841 . ro-greis spirut he ... do dhul i ndíthrub, 4740 . cia ... nách greisfider im dénum maithiusa trias-na mírbulib-sea, 4657 . do greis a mic ... im calma (sic leg.) do denam, Celt. Rev. iv 10.14 . ro gresistar Eoip mor mac Saduirn cenn ... caich gasraid Greg do chum na Teibi do togail , TTebe 1263 . urges on, incites, spurs on (animals) : ro greseastair a eocha disciri, TTebe 1083 . rogreis a each dar muigib, 4351 . is hé rogrēss na gagru assin carput, ZCP viii 320.23 . rogres int ech co direch ar amus na ridiri, D IV 2, 72vb37 . greasais Maoilgheann draoi an laogh órdha go roling 'n-a bhfiadhnaise uile, Keat. ii 5396 . With fa sets on: co tanic Díchu co ngreis a choin fó na cléirchiu, Lat. Lives 51.3 . greasais daoscarshluagh an oireachta fúthaibh, Keat. iii 1428.

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