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antoiscthech

Cite this: eDIL s.v. antoiscthech or dil.ie/3814

 

adj (cf. toisc ): bochtacht antoisgtheach improvident(?), irresponsible(?), TSh. 5426 `extreme', Gloss. `deprived of necessities, destitute', Contribb.

arrthaisc

Cite this: eDIL s.v. arrthaisc or dil.ie/4281

 

prep in phr. i n-a.¤ towards, against: dochuaidh sé . . . a n-a.¤ sloigh na C., Stair Erc. 2099 . dul a prosesciam a n-a.¤ Sir Gyi, ZCP vi 52.3 . a n-a.¤ na Lumburdach, 42.15 . docuiredur in dā sdét a n-a.¤ a cheile, 32.22 . Cf. toisc ?

as-beir

Cite this: eDIL s.v. as-beir or dil.ie/4383
Last Revised: 2013

 

Forms: adeir, adubart, adebart, adébart, adobart, adóbart, -dubart, -ebert, -ebart, -ébart, -debart, -débart, -óbart, -dobart, -dóbart, adubart, adobart, adóbart, adébart, asbiur, -epiur, -epur, asbirsiu, asṁbirsiu, asbir, -apir, -epir, asbeir, asṁber, assidbeir, adbeir, atbeir, -epir, -epeir, -eiper, -eper, asberam, -eprem, asberid, asndonberat, asberar, asberr, asmberr, asber, -eperr, -aiperr, asbertar, -epertar, asrobair, asrobar, atrobair, asberinse, asberinn, asbered, asberad, atbeirmis, asbertis, asbeirtis, asberthe, asṅdanbertheni, epred, eprid, asber, -eper, asbere, asbera(su), asbera, atbera, asmberamni, asberaid, asberat, -epret, asberthar, -epert[h]ar, -erbora, -ǽrbara, -erbara, -érbarid, -érbarat, -ērbrat, asrobarthar, -érbarthar, asberin, asberinn, asbertha, -epertha, asberad, atberad, -epred, -epreid, -aipred, asbermis, -epertais, asberthe, asberthae, -eperthe, -erbartha, -erparta, asindrobrad, -ærbarad, -erbarad, asndarobartis, asbǽr, asbéer, asbér, -épéer, -epér, -eper, asbéra, asbéram, asbérat, asbérthar, asbertar, -erbǽra, -eperth, asbert, asmbert, -epert, asindbertatar, -epertatár, asbreth, asruburt, asidruburt, asidrubart, -ǽrburt, -erbort, asrubart, autrubert, asrubartmar, asrubartmmar, adrubartmar, arrubartait, asrubartatar, asinrubartat, -ærb[art]atar, asrobrad, asrobrath, -erbrad, -érbrath, -érbrad, atbiur, adbirsa, atberim, atiur, natiur-sa, tiur-sa, attear, atderim-sea, aderim, adearaim, adirim, -apur, -abbair, -apraim, -abraim, -dirim, at-beire, atberi, at-biri, natbere, ateri, adere, aderi, adir, -abbrai, -abra, atbeir, itbeir, atber, atbir, adbeir, adeir, ader, -abair, -abrann, atberam-ni, adearam, adireim-ne, adermait, idermaidne, adeirmíd, adearmuid, adirmid, -abramait, atberid, atberthe, atberthai-si, atberthi, itirid-si, -aparthi, -aparthai, -abraid, -aburth, atberat, adberuid, atberait, aderait, aderaid, adeirit, adeirid, -abraid, atberar, atberair, aderar, aderair, iderar, dearair, adirthir, adirthear, adeirthear, deirthear, -eperar, -ebarar, -apar, -abar, -aburar, -abairthear, -abarthar, atbered, adbered, atdeired, a-deireadh, conaprad, adeirdis, atberthea, adberta, atberte, aderthai, n-aburti, apursiu, apair, abbair, abair, aprad, abradh, apraid, abraid, aprit, abraid, abarthar, atber, -apror, -abra-sa, therar, ciadera, -eibre, -aprai, -apra, -abra, -erba, adbera, -epre, -eperta-som, -apra, -epram, -apraid, -abairthe, -abrat, -aprat, -ebarthar, -abartar, -abruinn, at-bertha, aderthe, -ebertha, -erbarta, erbartha, atberad, -ebrad, -aprad, -abradh, atbermais, aderdáis, -abbraitis, -hapraitis, -abartháoi, -erbrad, at-bēr, atér, adér, adéar, -eibér, -aibéar, atbēra, atbéra-su, adbera, -adéruir, atbera, adēra, adéara, adérus, -epri, -ebre, -aibéra, -aibeóraidh, adéaraim-ne, déaram, -aibéaram, atberat, adēraitt, -aibeórait, atdérthar, -habeórtar, adearainn, -eibrinn, atbertha, -ebertha, -aibeorta, ádertha, atbered, adberad, atberad, adéaradh, -ebéredh, -ébradh, -eibreadh, -aibeoradh, adéarmais, adiartáis, adérdáis, adéarthaoi, adéartha, -aibértaide, -aibeorthaoi, atbert, adbert, itbert, atbert sib, atbertatar, atbertar, atrubart, adrubairt, atrubairt, adrubairt, atrubartmar, atrubrumar, adrubramar, atrubrabar, atrubartatar, atrubratár, atrubartar, adrubrad, atrubrad, atubart, adubhart, adubairt, atubairt, gitubairt, dubairt, itubairt, adubert, dubairt, adubairt, duibhert, adeibairt, -dubhairt, -dobort, -dóbart, -debhairt, -debert, -débairt, -débuirt, adubramar, adubrumar, adubramair, dubrumur, -dubhramar, -dubhramair, -dobramair, -dobhramair, adubratar, dubrudar, -dubhradar, adubhradh, dubradh, -dubradh, -debhradh, -déabhradh, -óbart, -éabhart, -eabert, -ebert, -ebairt, -ébairt, -éabhairt, -ebradar, -ebrad, -ebrath, -ébrad, condérbairt, -derbertatar, asroepred, atbertus, adubartus, atbertais, adubartais, adobhartois, -ebartais, -dhébartais, atbertsat, asbertsit, atbertsatar, -epertsat, -ebertsat, -ebirtsit, adubortas, -ebras, -erbertus, atrubairtais, -erbortaiss, atrubhairtset, epert, abairt, abarta

v (* ess-ber-, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 466 ). IGT Verbs § 6 . In the prot. -epir there is some fluctuation between e- and a-, see GOI p. 54 , 508 and forms infra.

In Mid. Ir. a form atbeir (prot. -epir, -ap(a)ir) replaces as-beir, see GOI p. 268 . Later this becomes a(t)deir (prot. -apair) and is the usual form in late Mid. and Mod. Ir. Occasionally adeir (sometimes deir) is given the endings of a simple verb, see infra. The early conjugation (ā-subj., ē-fut., t-pret.) continues with Mid. Ir. personal endings. In the pret. new stem-formations appear: adubart (< adrubart); adebart, adébart (? conflation of adubart and -epert); adobart, adóbart. In depend. position -dubart; -ebert, -ebart, -ébart, -debart, -débart; -óbart, -dobart, -dóbart. In classical verse (IGT loc. cit.) adubart, adobart alliterate with d; adóbart, adébart with a vowel and with d.

Early forms. Indic. pres. 1 s. asbiur, Wb. 8a9 . -epiur, Wb. 4b26 . -epur, 5a31 . 2 s. asbirsiu, Wb. 12d17 . asṁbirsiu, Sg. 208b5 . asbir, 66b10 . -apir, ibid. -epir, TBC-LL¹ 1763 . 3 s. asbeir, Wb. 5a1 . asṁber, 10b13 . With rel. inf. pron. assidbeir, 20a10 . With neut. inf. pron. adbeir, 5a11 . atbeir, 10d5 . -epir, ibid. -epeir, 17d11 . -eiper, 33b7 . -eper, Ml. 69a21 . 1 pl. asberam, Ml. 14a19 . Sg. 55b1 . -eprem, Sg. 208a7 . 2 pl. asberid, Wb. 5a31 . 3 pl. with rel. inf. pron. asndonberat, Wb. 2a12 . Pass. sg. asberar, Wb. 3c21 . asberr, 21c7 . asmberr, 33a18 . asber, Ml. 110d16 , 114a2 . -eperr, Sg. 73a11 . -aiperr, Ml. 14d13 . Pass. pl. asbertar, Wb. 28a20 ; Ml. 123c8 . -epertar, Sg. 3b6 . With inf. ro: 3 s. asrobair, Sg. 198a18 . ? asrobar, Ml. 17b23 . With inf. neut. pron. atrobair, Sg. 190b4 .

Indic. impf. 1 s. asberinse, Ml. 54c26 ; asberinn, 91b10 . 3 s. asbered, Wb. 15a18 ; Ml. 54c18 , 23 , 55c17 ; asberad, 53d6 . 1 pl. With neut. inf. pron. atbeirmis, Wb. 26b19 . 3 pl. asbertis, Wb. 25b27 . asbeirtis, 4c23 , Ml. 106d3 . Pass. sg. asberthe, Thes. i 492.25 . With inf. pron. 1 pl. asṅdanbertheni, Ml. 114a7 .

Ipv. 3 s. epred, Wb. 10a16 . 2 pl. eprid, TBFr. 396 . TBC-I¹ 1570 .

Subj. pres. 1 s. asber, Wb. 16a24 . -eper, 32a20 . 2 s. asbere, Wb. 12d13 . asbera(su), Sg. 209d30 . 3 s. asbera, Wb. 22b23 . With inf. neut. pron. atbera, 12a4 . 1 pl. asmberamni, Wb. 2a13 . 2 pl. asberaid, Wb. 7d10 . 3 pl. asberat, Wb. 1d1 . -epret, Wb. 7d8 . Pass. sg. asberthar, Wb. 10a12 . -epert[h]ar, Wb. 5a5 . With inf. ro 1 s. -erbora, LU 6659 (TBC). 2 s. -ǽrbara, Sg. 209b30 . -erbara, LL 286a1 . 2 pl. -érbarid, Wb. 13c13 ; 15d6 . 3 pl. -érbarat, Wb. 27c8 . -ērbrat, Sc.M² 1R . Pass. sg. asrobarthar, Thes. ii 17.34 . -érbarthar, Wb. 10d13 .

Subj. impf. 1 s. asberin, Wb. 14c23 ; asberinn, 17b1 . 2 s. asbertha, Sg. 217b15 . -epertha, TBC-LL¹ 2161 . 3 s. asberad, Wb. 13a13 , 19 ; Ml. 59a7 , 67a8 , 95b7 . With inf. pron. 3 s. n. atberad, Ml. 62c2 . -epred, 28b11 , 69a21 . -epreid, 70a6 . -aipred, 33c17 . 1 pl. asbermis, Wb. 18a18 . 3 pl. -epertais, Ml. 28d8 . Pass. sg. asberthe, Wb. 15d20 . asberthae, Ml. 77a6 . -eperthe, Wb. 19a5 ; 23d25 . With inf. ro 2 s. -erbartha (-erbarta v.l.), Alex. 829 . -erparta, BB 498a4 . 3 s. with rel. inf. pron. asindrobrad, Ml. 50b8 . -ærbarad, Ml. 31b20 , 24 . -erbarad, SR 5642 . 3 pl. asndarobartis, Ml. 31b22 .

Fut. 1 s. asbǽr, Ml. 91b10 . asbéer, Wb. 32a22 . asbér, TBFr. 168 . -épéer, Wb. 32a20 . -epér, SR 1309 . -eper, PH 2382 . 3 s. asbéra, Wb. 12d6 . 1 pl. asbéram, Wb. 17c23 . 3 pl. asbérat, Wb. 12d12 . Pass. sg. asbérthar, TBFr. 177 . Pass. pl. asbertar, Sg. 73b8 . With inf. ro 3 s. -erbǽra, ZCP vii 484.25 (Enchir. Aug.).

Condit. pass. sg. -eperth, Ml. 127d14 .

Pret. 3 s. asbert, Ml. 16c10 , Thes. ii 241.12 ; 242.3 , 6 . asmbert, Ml. 58c6 , 124d9 . -epert, Thes. ii 242.15 (Ardm.). 3 pl. with rel. inf. pron. asindbertatar, Ml. 124d9 . -epertatár, LU 8079 ( FB 5 ). Pass. sg. asbreth, Ériu iii 137.52 .

Perf. 1 s. asruburt, Sg. 91a3 , Ml. 50d7 . With rel. inf. pron. asidruburt, Sg. 58b1 , 75b2 . asidrubart, Ml. 3a15 , 66c1 . -ǽrburt, 44b19 . 2 s. -erbort. Ériu xii 166 § 5 (TE). 3 s. asrubart, Wb. 4d16 , autrubert, Thes. ii 246.14 (Cambr.). -érbart, Wb. 13c12 . 1 pl. asrubartmar, Wb. 8d26 . asrubartmmar, Sg. 55b5 . adrubartmar, 197b16 . 2 pl. arrubartait (sic), RC iii 345.16 . 3 pl. asrubartatar, Wb. 18d1 . With rel. inf. pron. asinrubartat, Ml. 131d12 . -ærb[art]atar, 29a4 . Pass. sg. asrobrad, Wb. 3c31 , 5a4 , 10d8 , 12d26 , 33b16 . asrobrath, Ériu ii 104 § 15 . -erbrad, Wb. 32c8 , -érbrath, Sg. 220a10 . -érbrad, Ériu iii 137.52 . -éabrad, Celtica xiii 13.248 .

Later forms. Indic. pres. 1 s. atbiur, TBC-LL¹ 610 . adbirsa, Mon. Tall. 154.23 . atberim, SR 1873 . atiur, TBC-LL¹ 2990 etc., natiur-sa, 4269 . tiur-sa, 2975 . attear, 3180 . atderim-sea, 4403 . aderim, PH 2760 . adearaim, DDána 113.29 . adirim (: eisinill), IGT Verbs ex. 84 . -apur, Mon. Tall. 140.24 . -abbair, Ériu ii 92 § 6 . -apraim, PH 2188 . -abraim, TSh. 2694 . -dirim, Content. xxix 10 . 2 s. at-beire, SR 1268 . atberi, Trip.² 584 . at-biri, Sc.M² 3 . natbere, TBC-LL¹ 1679 . ateri, MU 420 . adere, PH 2712 . aderi, 2705 . adir (: fir), IGT Verbs ex. 83 . -abbrai, Ériu iv 98.7 . -abra, DDána 37.17 . 3 s. atbeir, SR 4169 . itbeir, Trip.² 64 . atber, TBC-LL¹ 430 . atbir, 1222 . adbeir, ZCP viii 109.10 . adeir, PH 2714 . ader, 2688 . -abair, TSh. 127 . -abrann (: cablom), IGT Verbs ex. 87 . 1 pl. atberam-ni, TBC-LL¹ 5017 . adearam, DDána 42.30 . adireim-ne, 70.1 . adermait, PH 2685 . idermaidne, YBL 142b19 . adeirmíd, TSh. 5863 . adearmuid (: dhuid), Dán Dé xv 22 . adirmid (: sirmid), IGT Verbs ex. 76 . -abramait, PH 2666 . 2 pl. atberid, PH 297 . atberthe, TBC-LL¹ 861 . atberthai-si, 1959 . atberthi, PH 5268 . itirid-si, TBC-LL¹ 1636 . -aparthi, PH 5268 . -aparthai, 2362 . -abraid, -aburth, CCath. 601 . 3 pl. atberat, Trip.² 1175 . TBC-LL¹ 2659 . adberuid, Laws i 34.4 Comm. atberait, PH 6985 . aderait, 2676 . aderaid, CCath. 1700 . adeirit, Ériu xv 14 § 1 . adeirid, TSh. 751 . -abraid, 2514 . Pass. sg. atberar, BDD² 582 . TBC-LL¹ 843 etc. atberair, PH 2870 . aderar, 7396 . aderair, 7345 . iderar, CCath. 722 . dearair, DDána 48.10 . adirthir (: sligthiph), IGT Verbs ex. 93 . adirthear, DDána 78.12 adeirthear, TSh. 2515 . deirthear, 5652 . -eperar, Laws ii 254.6 . -ebarar, ACL iii 247.5 . -apar, MU² 265 . TBC-LL¹ 1148 . -abar, DDána 23.18 . -aburar, Maund. 8 . -abairthear, Ó Héodhusa 50.16 . -abarthar, TSh. 1924 .

Indic. impf. 3 s. atbered, TBFr. 223 . adbered, Ériu i 46.10 . atdeired, TBC-LL¹ 2854 . a-deireadh, DDána 52.17 . conaprad, Ériu iv 32.4 . 3 pl. adeirdis, Maund. 16 . Pass. sg. atberthea, TBC-LL¹ 1453 . adberta, Ériu ii 176.5 . atberte, CCath. 4446 . aderthai, Irish Texts i 22 § 5 . frisi n-aburti , Ann. Conn. 1310.3 .

Ipv. 2 s. apursiu, Mon. Tall. 150.22 . apair, TBFr. 323 . abbair, SR 1213 etc. abair, PH 351 . 3 s. aprad, PH 1768 . abradh, Ériu xv 14 § 5 . 2 pl. apraid, TBFr. 144 . abraid, Ériu iv 140.18 . aprit si, Mon. Tall. 131.31 . 3 pl. abraid, RSClára 7b . Pass. sg. abarthar, RSClára 4a .

Subj. pres. 1 s. atber, Ériu v 30.4 . -apror, LU 6662 (TBC). -abrur, LB 141a28 . -abra-sa (abru-sa v.l.), CCath. 3340 . cia therar , Ériu i 227.5 . 2 s. ciadera, Metr. Dinds. iv 356.58 . -eibre, Laws iv 108.1 . -aprai, Fing. R. 381 . -apra (-aprae v.l.), CCath. 4209 . -abra, PH 431 . -erba, 3155 . 3 s. adbera, Laws i 120.27 Comm. -epre, Ériu iii 106 § 41b . ? -eperta-som, TBC-LL¹ 2153 . -apra, IT i 128.26 . 1 pl. -epram, PH 6887 . 2 pl. -apraid, LU 4009 ( SCC 45 ). -abairthe, TTr.² 337 . 3 pl. -abrat, Sc.M² R 20 . -aprat, PH 7891 . Pass. sg. -ebarthar (- erbarthar MS), Ériu iv 24.3 . -abartar, RSClára 103a .

Subj. impf. 1 s. -abruinn, KMMisc. 354.17 . 2 s. at-bertha, Sc.M² 3 . TBC-LL¹ 1730 . aderthe, ZCP vii 301 § 7 . -ebertha, TBC-LL¹ 1730 . -erbarta, Anecd. v 2.10 = erbartha, Alex. 829 . 3 s. atberad, LU 2511 . -ebrad, IT i 175.16 . -aprad, Fing. R. 30 . -abradh, TSh. 2509 . 1 pl. atbermais, Trip.² 63 . 3 pl. aderdáis, Fianaig. 70.27 . -abbraitis, TBC-LL¹ 3592 . -hapraitis, 3291 . Pass. sg. -abartháoi, RSClára 77b . With inf. ro 3 s. -erbrad, IT i 175.31 .

Fut. 1 s. at-bēr, Fing. R. 971 . atér, LL 298b40 . adér, BNnÉ 252 § 207 . adéar, DDána 67.7 . -eibér, FDG² 57 . -aibéar (: caigéal), Content. xxiv 10 . 2 s. atbēra, SR 8133 . atbéra-su, Trip.² 1141 . adbera, Laws i 302.26 Comm. -adéruir, Laud 610, fo. 18d (cited from Plummer MS notes). 3 s. atbera, PH 2038 . adēra, ZCP viii 212.23 . adéara, DDána 29.24 . rel. adérus, RSClára 152a . -epri, LU 2513 . -ebre, IGT Verbs ex. 82 (subj. ?). -aibéra, ZCP viii 212.30 . -aibeóraidh, TSh. 534 . 1 pl. adéaraim-ne, DDána 67.35 . déaram, ML 120.15 . -aibéaram, DDána 95.18 . 3 pl. atberat, TBC-LL¹ 1613 . adēraitt, RSClára 22a . -aibeórait, 14a . Pass. sg. atdérthar, RC xx 12 § 21 . -habeórtar, Maund. 268 .

Condit. 1 s. adearainn, DDána 59.26 . -eibrinn (: deighgreim), IGT Verbs ex. 91 . 2 s. atbertha, TBC-LL¹ 1730 . -ebertha, 1730 . -aibeorta, TBC-LL¹ p. 221 n.4 . ádertha, ibid. 3 s. atbered, SR 5903 . adberad, CCath. 754 . atberad, 755 . adéaradh, DDána 94.13 . -ebéredh, BNnÉ 323 § 33 . -ébradh (: érlam), IGT Verbs ex. 86 . -eibreadh (: fleadh), ex. 81 . -aibeoradh, Keat. i 62.17 . 1 pl. adéarmais, DDána 99.43 . 3 pl. adiartáis, TBC-LL¹ 4018 . adérdáis, ZCP viii 223.20 . Pass. sg. adéarthaoi, DDána 21.22 . adéartha, 11.33 . -aibértaide, Maund. 55 . -aibeorthaoi, Keat. i 234.16 .

Pret. and perf.

(a) 3 s. atbert, Trip.² 168 . TBC-LL¹ 962 etc. adbert, Mon. Tall. 136.18 . itbert, CCath. 412 . 2 pl. atbert sib, PH 1384 . 3 pl. atbertatar, TBC-LL¹ 456 etc. atbertar, TTr.² 560 .

(b) 1 s. atrubart, PH 1548 . 3 s. adrubairt, Anecd. i 11.13 ( -a(i)rt, SCano 309 ). atrubairt, SR 1325 . adrubairt, Trip.² 554 . 1 pl. atrubartmar, CCath. 2865 . atrubrumar, PH 554 . adrubramar, 3460 . 2 pl. atrubrabar, PH 2774 . 3 pl. atrubartatar, LL 401b42 . atrubratár, TBC-LL¹ 2076 . atrubartar, TTr. 422 . Pass. sg. adrubrad. Trip.² 1392 . atrubrad, PH 107 .

(c) 1 s. atubart, TBC-LL¹ 4110 . adubhart, DDána 39.14 . 3 s. adubairt, TBC-LL¹ 1494 . atubairt, 956 . gitubairt, 3764 (ce dubairt , v.l.). itubairt, RC xlvi 227.19 . adubert, ZCP xiii 182.26 . dubairt, PH 7464 . adubairt, IGT Verbs ex. 80 . duibhert, Rel. Celt. ii 190.33 . adeibairt (idubairtt v.l.), Ériu ii 184.16 . -dubhairt, TSh. 3198 . -dobort (: comolc), IGT Verbs ex. 88 . -dóbart (: cródhacht), ex. 89 . -debhairt, CCath. 421 . -debert, RC xiv 46 § 54 . -débairt, TTr.² 245 . -débuirt (: énuilc), IGT Verbs ex. 75 . 1 pl. adubramar (atrubhamar v.l.), CCath. 2641 . adubrumar, Laws i 92.9 Comm. adubramair, 42.21 Comm. dubrumur, 142.27 Comm. -dubhramar, TSh. 1158 . -dubhramair, 99 . -dobramair (: gormlannaig), IGT Verbs ex. 79 . -dobhramair, DDána 101.25 . 3 pl. adubratar, PH 2679 . dubrudar, RC xlix 5 § 2 . -dubhradar, TSh. 3210 . Pass. sg. adubhradh, DDána 21.7 . má dubradh , IGT Verbs ex. 80 . -dubradh (: chunnradh), ex. 90 . -debhradh, Lism. L. 3310 . -déabhradh (: téarnamh), DDána 108.3 .

(d) 1 s. -óbart, IGT Verbs ex. 85 . -éabhart, Content. viii 4 . 3 s. -eabert, Ériu ii 186.13 . -ebert, CCath. 4061 . -ebairt, TBC-LL¹ 137 . -ébairt (: mérailt), IGT Verbs ex. 74 . -éabhairt, DDána 97.24 . 3 pl. -ebradar, Ériu ii 180.10 , Pass. sg. -ebrad, Fing. R. 1030 . -ebrath, ZCP viii 313.30 . -ébrad, IT i 132.19 .

(e) 3 s. condérbairt, TTr.² 1764 . 3 pl. -derbertatar, BS 50.30 . Pass. sg. asroepred, Mon. Tall. 159.4 .

Pret. and perf. with s-pret. endings. 1 s. atbertus, PH 1517 . adubartus, 1785 . 2 s. atbertais, TBC-LL¹ 1414 . adubartais, PH 3332 . adobhartois, Desid. 799 . -ebartais, Fen. 300. x . -dhébartais, ZCP viii 552.14 . 3 pl. atbertsat, LU 9223 ( FB § 77 ). asbertsit, Alex. 690 . atbertsatar, PH 2743 . -epertsat, PH 750 . -ebertsat, 2305 . -ebirtsit, TBC-LL¹ p. 649 n.7 . Pass. sg. adubortas (: bfoltchas), IGT Verbs ex. 78 . -ebras, Ériu vii 225.6 .

Also 1 s. -erbertus, PH 4958 . 2 s. atrubairtais, PH 5046 . -erbortaiss, Ériu xii 166.30 (TE). 3 pl. atrubhairtset, Leb. Gab.(i) 244.9 .

Vn. epert. abairt, IGT Verbs § 6 .

Part. of necess. abarta, Anecd. ii 20 § 4 .

Says, speaks (folld. by direct obj., verbal clause or vn. clause): dogníthe a n-asbered Moysi, Wb. 15a18 . arna epret is ara miscuis in cúrsachad, 7d8 . ní arindí asndarobartis . . . inna briathra hisin, Ml. 31b22 . atbeir C. . . . inní so, Trip.² 10 . in ferand . . . a n-apar a mbith, 43 . ní abbair acht fírinne `I say only the truth', Ériu ii 92.15 . intan promthar epred ced, ZCP vii 312 § 24 . asrubairt ni regad co rrucad mo chendsa, TBC-I¹ 1219 . adbert co ndingnead, Ériu ii 180.9 . brat an druadh adir an leabhar / 'na smual ón tigh theineadh, Dán Dé xii 23 . dā n-abruinn gurab dubh an fíach, / adēardis Laighnigh gur geal, KMMisc. 354.17 . ná habair 's ní aibéar-sa / m'ainm, Dánta Gr. 95.13 . adeirid uile, crochtar é, TSh. 3196 . an madradh adeir sé do bheith i n-ifreann, 1030 . an dream adeirmíd do mharthain quos vivere dicimus, 5863 . In phrase a.¤ bréithir (bríathar) gives one's word: asbir mo bríathar . . . beith ré dosom ría n-ecaib ┐ ní dognéa . . . `by my word', Mon. Tall. 141.6 . natiur-sa brethir manu thísat . . . is missi conairgeba bás, TBC-LL¹ 4269 . asbiur mo bréithir . . . narb' ail damh nech d'anacal, RC xxvii 268 § 16 . In sense of orders, commands: asbert Colmán a scor reme C. ordered it to cease, BColm. 58.22 . má adubhairt cairt a roinn ribh / an tírse `if some charter orders you to divide this country', Aithd. D. 30.32 . céard gach fhir do dhíol adeir he orders the craft of every man to be rewarded, DDána 91.45 . adeirim ris an saoghal cromadh, TSh. 190 . sings, chants Celtica xxi 62 : co n-ebert an laoidh, BS 17.487 .

With prepp. With FRI says to, calls: amal asindbertatar som fris, Ml. 124d9 . is sain indí asidrubart ┐ indí frisa n-érbrath, Sg. 220a10 . asbert D. fri Pátricc, Thes. ii 241.12 . eprid frie for toisc , TBFr. 396 . Rí frisin-erbairt in slúag, SR 7689 . Conall C. atubrad rium-sa do gabáil ann `I was told that C. would settle there', Ériu xvi 67.93 . ní apur frit ol M. ní fodgní lind `I do not tell thee (to do so) says M., such is not our practice', Mon. Tall. 140.24 . notaitchim ar Dia . . . co n-erba rind . . ., PH 3155 . adbirsa fritsa cuicc bliadna dec pendi `I pronounce upon thee fifteen years of penance', Mon. Tall. 154.23 . apraid ríu . . . anat dina cuínib co fodailter dóib, TBFr. 144 . coimhlíonaid . . . mar a dubhradh riú `as it hath byn commanded them', RSClára 114b . is airi asbiur frit stultam, Wb. 8a9 . as uime adeirthear neamhghlan rú this is why they are said to be impure, IGT Introd. 5.12 . Druim C. risa n-apar Áni Clíach which is called, MU² 294 . as ris aderthai Mac Duinnshleibhe, L. Chl. S. 17 . mac do Fíachaig Mullet[h]an risinnabar Fer da Líach, ZCP viii 303.29 . an ced earnail dib re nabar morbus uniuersalis, RC xlix 3.4 .

With DO gives as a name to, applies to, calls: conna epreid ainm dia ndoib, Ml. 70a6 . ání as deus is du folud nephchumscaigthiu asberr, 110d16 . conepertar doib ylementa , Sg. 3b6 . ní eperr acht hilar dóib `only the plural is used of them', 73a11 . cid ara n-eperr fer midboth don[d] ḟi[u]r so ? Críth G. 30 . is hé in suide itberar doib, Trip.² 40 .

With DI calls: is de atberthe in siriti de ara met no delbad i n-ilrechtaib, LU 9008 ( FB 75 ). is airi adberta Furbaide de, Ériu ii 176.5 . cia tugaid ara n-ebarar berla tobaide din Gaedilg ?, Auraic. 2.10 . Says of: issed asberedsom desuidiu `this is what he used to say of this', Mon. Tall. 142.18 . is don ingen siu atrubrath cruth cach co hEtain, IT i 120.12 . conadh aire atberar in foranmach de .i. Nuada Find Feimin, ZCP xiii 197.15 . cé dearaid cách éag re hadhart / d'onchoin R. . . ., Magauran 1172 .

With ó names from: iar marbhadh . . . Charolusa . . . ó n-abarthar cloidheamh Charolusa from whom the sword of C. is named, Ériu i 80 § 8 . cia ó ndubhradh ainm gacha litre, IGT Introd. § 1.4 . Féine ó Fhéinius atbearta, Keat. ii 319 . Aed mac . . . Fergail on abar h. Fergail, Ann. Conn. 1232.2 .

bíathad

Cite this: eDIL s.v. bíathad or dil.ie/5835

 

u, m. vn. of 1 bíathaid. act of feeding; maintaining: amal as toisc fri biathad na forcitlaide `to support the teachers', Wb. 31d17 . do biathad bocht, Thes. ii 334.14 . is becc an bolcg-sa . . . ┐ is doilig rí do bíathad de, BColm. 60.12 . basa brugaid bíata dám (rhet.) a hospitaller providing food for companies, Fing. R. 496. fer cech n-aidchi dia mbiathad . . . in fer toesech in biatta, Ériu iv 26.3 , 4 . é féin do bhiathadh do bhiadhaibh séimhe soineamhla, TSh. 561. ag biathadh na gcloch do bhíodh san teinidh orra plying the (cooking) stones with them (sc. pieces of meat), Keat. ii 5109. Fig. in sisma . . . do biathad itir na saorchlanna `to nourish this . . . schism', Caithr. Thoirdh. 9. 24 . is granna duit beth gom brath ┐ gom bíathadh `baiting or luring me' (Plummer MS. notes), BS 60.20 .

Legal: leth a chinad immurgu fair ar biathad ut est: [bera] fiachu leptha for nech biathas [bid]baid (of liability incurred for maintaining an outlaw), ZCP xv 360.23 (Caratnia 45 Comm.). biathad ┐ methad feeding (swineherds) and . . . fattening (pigs) (of work performed by woman or housewife, see Thurn., Stud. in E. Ir. Law 34 ), Laws ii 366.20 .

Feeding, refection, of the obligatory provision of food for the stranger and his `company' on a journey; the particular foodstuffs to be provided and number of accompanying persons entitled to maintenance depended on the status of the visitor , see Críth G. p. 76. (of the `ócaire') bíathad deise dó di as ┐ grús nó arbaimm; ní dlig imb, Críth G. 115. is a lín bíata bís lín for coí, 400 . (of servile debtors) na dlegait biathad acht bochtan, no urchaelan, no bairgen huasal laithe, cona handlonn, Laws i 106.1 . uair dlegar dona gradaib flatha biatha gin ímcomarc `the chieftain grades are bound to entertain without asking' (i.e. without questioning those who seek sanctuary), iv 263.6 .

Food-rent which a nobleman or landowner was entitled to from a tenant or base client in return for a fief , see Críth G. loc. cit. refection for the fief i.e. annual payment-in-kind (Thurneysen), ZCP xiv 336 ; refection as a legal due from tenants, subjects, etc. to the chief, the amount and periods being fixed by law or custom or agreement, Plummer MS. notes. See also Études Celt. xii 514. biathad airech, Laws i 122.11 .i. na ngrad flatha, do neoch is flath cetgiallna, ar aine . . . .i. o ceilib na n-airech `the food-tribute of a chieftain . . . it has a stay of one day', 126.24 - 25 Comm. b.¤ dá ráithi ó ríg Cruachan dó-som (of the king of Cashel on visitation to vassal states), Leb. Cert.² 34. císa . . . bésa ┐ biata ríg Temrach, 1469 . ní dlegar do Ūib Gusān . . . bīathad ríg Midi `to provision', BColm. 64.20 . biathadh aidedh tuaithi na duna, Laws iv 18.9 Comm. rotbía tír lind cen chís, cen biathad cen ṡlóged, Ériu iii 140.17 . a chuairt-sean ┐ a aimsear bhiadhta orra, Keat. iii 2636 . biadhadh bocht is nocht, Keat. Poems 1411.

b.¤ grinde, crinde baptismal refection (?): caite in ḟled deoda . . . biathad grinde (no c written over g-, MS.), glossed: biad cretme .i. bathais .i. log in baistithi, SM Facs. 47b17 ( Laws iii 18.18 ) = biathad crinne .i. logh na baisti in tan is im linn ┐ im biadh doberar, O'Dav. 504.

canntlach

Cite this: eDIL s.v. canntlach or dil.ie/8158

 

adj (canntal): tréan-fhear mear groidhe . . . / ná raibh gallda c.¤ d'aon-toisc ` morose ', O'Rah. 64.52 . mo chumha ch.¤ , Oss. iv 168.z .

coimsid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. coimsid or dil.ie/10289
Last Revised: 2013

 

Forms: choimsidh, coimsighe, coimsidhe

adj [i]

(a) = 2 coimsech: ara comsid, LL 24904 . ní coimsidh nech dechmad an neich dorigne-sim do aisnéis none can relate, BColm. 104.13 . corbat c.¤ coisc / cech toisc immatēig (cuimsioch, v.l.), KMMisc. 260.11 . fri cairib comsidi against overmastering faults, ZCP vi 271 § 2 . ? gid choimsigh an fer (: toirrsi; cuimsi, v.l.), BNnÉ 254 § 211 . Note also: is nemchoimsigh an anóir doberitt na Serristtínig don eclais sin, Maund. 78 (for 1 coimsech).

(b) As subst. [i, m.] g s. choimsidh, Aithd. D. 94.9 . n p. coimsighe(?), ZCP vi 258.13 , coimsidhe, TTr.² 77 . one who is competent or capable, master, lord, controller: he fesin as ch.¤ dáu / in muid dungní cach oenláu `is master of the work', Thes. ii 294 § 8 . ach.¤ forslóg nD., SR 6970 . coimsig ar cach (Saturn), BB 412a5 . comsid na náem . . . / Día, LU 3042 . tri accaldaim E. comsid ┐ cumachtaig na ṅgáeth, LL 31354 (TTr.). a Ch. báid co mbúadaib, Ériu vi 114.19 . c.¤ Laigen, Ériu xvii 38 § 8 . athissech cach comsid, LL 344c20 . coimsigh mo c[h]omarle / Crīst cathbarr cāich, ZCP viii 199.7 . a choimsig nime ┐ talman, PH 767 . c.¤ nime `Heaven's Ruler', O'Gr. Cat. 463.20 . ní fhacattar . . . a ccoimsigh talmanda, AFM vi 2292.6 . intreb tige caich di lestrai, coruicce c.¤ comoil, Laws v 390.x (lit. lord of the feast, perh. concr. of a drinking-vessel). coinsiud (leg. comsiud) .i. lestar coimsighthe comoil, CIH ii 610.14 , CMCS lix 25 .

1 de, di

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 de, di or dil.ie/14787
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: di, di, di, di, di, di, du, di, di, dia, di, dí, di, de, desen, de, de, dhe, di, di, dég, dḟég, dím, dít, de, de, dhe, du, dú, doit, dínni, dunni, desom, dosom, dinach, donach, dind, dind, dind, dind, dind, dindh, dindí, dond, dond, dund, dind, dond, dun, dind, din, dund, dint, dind, dunt, din, din, din, den, don, dun, dun, din, dun, den, don, dind, din, dinaib, denaib, dinab, donaib, dunaib, din, den, don, don, den, dhen, dhent, don, dina, dena, dona, dona, dena, dhena, dosna, DI, di, dim, dimm, dom, dit, ditodérnamaib, dia, dear, diar, dibar, difar, dia, dim, dem, dom, dom, dit, det, dot, dot, dod, difar, dib(h)ar, dib(h)or, d'úr, dá, dár, dia, dá, dia, dá, dhá, dár, dhár, dá, dá, da, dia n, diarbu, diná-, dinadrícthe, dinach, dunach, dia, dá, diná-, doná-, do, dá, dhá, DI, díim, díimsa, dimsa, dím, dimsa, dimso, dít, de, desom, de, dé, dæ, comairle, Dairíne, ráidimne, fáistine, uile, di, dissi, díinn, díin, díinni, diínn, diín, dínn, dín, din, dínni, dinni, dinne, díib, díibsi, diib, diibsi, diibse, diib, díbsi, díib, diib, díb, dib, diib, dím, dínn, díim, díinn, dím, dínn, rúun, ruún, ríi, dím, dímm, dímsa, dít, dítt, dítsu, desin, desen, deside, desium, dissi, dise, dín(n), dínne, d(h)ínne, díb, d(h)íb, díbsi, díb, d(h)íob, díbsin, d(h)íobsan, DI, DE, dĕ, díbdud, derban, derbrad, conda-dercacha, -dercaither, níruderchóin, derchóiniud, niconderérachtar, -derna, -dergénsat, -derlaig, -derlaiged, -derlaichta, dílgai, dílgud, dermar, dermat, ndermanammar, todernam, -deroíma, derscaigi, deruarid, dered, de-reth, -dechuid, -dich, dechor, debuith, -dénai, dénum, dead, dudí, dudiastae, deich, dígal, diu-, diunag, deö-, deolaid, degaid, deïd, desruith, demaig, denall, denuas, dedbol, denmne, dethbir, dethiden, dessid, dellig, décsiu, -décci, -décmaing, decming, -dér, -dérig, dírech, dindba, fordingrat, dingbail, di, diucrae, diuderc, diunach, fordiuclainn, diummus, diupae, diupart, -diurat, diurad, -diuschi, diuscartae, díbad, rodíbairg, díbe, díberg, díbdud, rodibda, díbert, díchenn, díchned, -díchliter, dícheilt, díchor, dídnad, dígal, dígbáil, díguin, dílgud, dímeiccem, dírech, díscir, -díltised, díltud, -díxnigedar, di-anim, dí, díbec, dímór, díthrom, dí, dĕ, De, di, Di, di, DI, DI, dib, dííb, dimm, dínn, do, dinaib, de, diib, di, dia, dind, diib, di, dia, diar, don, dund, donaib, di, dia

prep. = Lat. de. It aspirates the anlaut of an accented syllable immediately following. Aspiration marked: Wb. 5 c 16 . 6 d 8 . 9 a 23 . 9 b 19 . 10 d 14 . 12 a 21 . 12 a 22 . 19 a 6 . 20 d 9 . 26 b 16 . 26 d 8 . 29 c 10 . Ml. 21 c 3 . 23 a 19 . 36 b 3 . 36 d 10 . 48 b 11 . 48 d 27 . 55 d 4 . 58 c 4 . 68 c 4 . 85 a 2 . 93 d 14 . 99 b 7 . 107 a 2 . 112 c 12 . 116 c 2 . 131 c 17 . Sg. 1 a 2 . 3 b 27 . 31 b 2 . 33 a 13 . 181 a 9 . Tur. 131 . Ardm. 17 a 2 . 17 b 1 . 170 b 2 . Thes. i 6. 23 . ii 256. 11 (twice); 295. 11 , 15 ; 298. 11 ; 302. 5 ; 309. 19 ; 315. 2 ; 332. 4 ; 344. 1 ; 346. 8 . Aspiration unmarked: di Críst (in full), Wb. 15 a 34 . di Críst , ib. 22 c 9 . 26 b 7 . 26 d 9 . 27 a 10 . Thes. ii 255. 15 (but di Chríst, Ml. 93 d 14 ). di peccad, Wb. 24 c 18 . di techt, Ml. 44 b 1 . di techdaisib, ib. 105 b 7 . du trócairi, 110 c 5 . di comparit, Sg. 42 b 3 . 43 a 6 . di posit, ib. 42 a 5 (cf. dia posit, 41 b 2 ). di Teretes, ib. 66 a 22 . dí triub, Tur. 6 . di croccund, Thes. ii 347. 33 . Though itself a proclitic word it is liable to eclipsis: (a) after a neuter noun: foraithmet ṅde, Ml. 61 b 12 . a bec ndo síd, ib. 51 a 5 . bec ṅdi dechur, 72 c 9 . (b) after a noun in the a sg.: fri Alpai ṅdesiu, Sg. 217 b 8 . (c) after the relative a n-: a ndu imnedaib fodaimi, Ml. 55 d 11 . (d) in Mil after rel. as: as ndí Assaraib, 35 a 10 . as ṅdu dóiri, 139 a 6 (twice). as ndi thalam, 68 c 4 . After rel. bias: cibed bias nde, ZCP iv 46. 16 TBFr. (Eg.). Cf. acht oenfiach adrenar nde, Anecd. iii 22. 21 .

FORMS: de, very rare in Oir.: de maid, Wb. 21 d 11 . de Iudeib, 18 d 6 . 31 b 15 (but 34 a 3 probably Lat.). de chuingid, 24 b 24 . Mil no instance ( for dech, 56 a 1 , read `di cech'). Sg: de dliguth, Sg. 26 b 7 . de rét, 31 a 5 . de genitin, 77 b 2 . de chaldigud, 181 a 9 . de dobriathraib, 181 a 9 ( de cithara, 103 a 1, probably Lat.). de phurt, Thes. i 6. 23 ; de obli, ii 254. 12 ; de molad, 315. 1 ; de nimib, 353. 4 . Always deṡiu, ( ZCP x 376 ) hence Sg. 71 b 2 . 217 b 8 . 217 b 12 . desen, Thes. ii 343. 32 . Under the influence of the pron. cpd. de, de became quite a common spelling in Mid.-Ir. (LU, LL, &c.). As an etymological writing frequent also in modern books and MSS. Spoken de, dhe = di + suff. pron. 3 sg., cf. mod. aige, ass, air, &c.

di usual Old- and Mid.-Ir. writing.

(a) before vowels (no elision of -i- in Wb Sg Mil); before a-: Wb. 2 a 14 . 7 b 11 . 18 c 11 (twice). 32 c 8 . Ml. 35 a 8 . 40 c 16 . 48 d 12 . 57 d 10 . 61 a 35 . 66 a 3 . 67 d 2 . 126 b 1 . 133 c 11 . Sg. 32 b 14 . 35 b 7 . 211 a 9 . before o-: Thes. ii 254. 7 - 11 , 13 . before u-: Ml. 23 c 20 . 51 b 10 . 93 a 5 . 127 a 2 a . Thes. ii 249. 10 . di humaldóit, Wb. 28 d 29 . di humu, Ml. 2 b 16 . before ái-: Wb. 7 b 11 . Ml. 102 d 9 . ói-: Ml. 43 d 1 . Sg. 40 a 13 . e-, é-: Wb. 4 d 1 . 8 b 4 . Ml. 2 c 1 . 33 c 17 . 55 a 18 . 130 b 1 . i-; Wb. 12 a 30 . 15 d 7 . Ml. 37 b 24 . 40 a 18 . 57 c 13 . 87 c 1 . Sg. 40 a 6 , 7 , 8 . 42 a 1 . di Iudeib, Wb. 4 c 40 . 27 d 4 .

(b) before gutturals: Wb. 6 d 8 . 9 a 23 . 12 a 21 , 22 . 13 d 7 . 15 a 34 . 16 a 4 . 17 b 19 . 18 d 6 . 19 a 6 . 20 d 10 . 22 c 9 . 24 d 10 . 26 b 7 . 26 d 8 . 26 d 9 . 27 a 7 , 10 . Ml. 21 c 3 . 36 d 10 . 40 b 7 . 48 b 11 . 48 d 27 . 51 d 3 . 58 c 4 . 62 b 13 . 66 d 10 . 74 c 13 . 85 a 2 . 92 c 5 . 93 d 14 . 99 b 7 . 107 a 2 . 112 c 12 . Sg. 3 b 27 . 31 b 2 . 33 a 13 . 34 b 2 . 42 b 3 . 43 a 6 . 106 a 7 . 181 a 9 . Tur. 131 . Ardm. 17 b 1 . Thes. ii 10. 6 .

(c) before dentals: Wb. 5 c 16 . 9 b 19 . 10 d 14 . 20 c 14 . 26 b 16 . 27 a 10 . Ml. 17 a 11 . 17 d 11 . 23 a 19 . 25 d 17 . 36 b 3 . 44 b 1 . 46 b 26 . 51 c 11 . 68 c 4 . 72 b 5 . 72 c 9 . 97 d 10 . 105 b 7 . 116 c 2 . 122 b 16 . 131 a 12 . 133 b 1 . 139 a 6 , 8 , 10 . Sg. 61 a 1 . 66 a 22 . 156 b 4 . Thes. ii 256. 11 ; 295. 3 ; 315. 22 .

(d) before labials: Wb. 24 c 18 . 29 c 10 . Ml. 61 a 9 . 115 d 9 . Sg. 42 a 5 . Thes. ii 256. 11 ; 30. 33 .

(e) before nasals; m-: Wb. 4 d 10 . 7 d 9 . 11 a 20 . 24 a 12 . 24 b 31 . 28 d 31 . 30 a 8 . 33 a 15 . Ml. 26 b 5 . 51 b 10 . 58 c 4 . 62 c 2 . 67 b 16 , 17 . 84 c 12 . 85 c 6 . 93 a 20 . 102 d 4 . 124 b 5 . Sg. 7 a 1 . 30 b 11 . Ardm. 17 b 1 . Thes. ii 295. 5 . n-: Wb. 15 c 13 . 16 b 11 (thrice). 17 a 11 . 32 a 20 . Ml. 16 d 5 . 63 c 5 . 65 a 1 . 75 b 20 . 123 c 15 . Sg. 40 a 80 . 43 a 3 . 45 a 11 . 59 b 18 . Thes. ii 11. 36 .

(f) before liquids; l-: Wb. 25 d 20 . Ml. 35 b 24 . 40 a 19 . 55 d 4 , 6 . 57 d 13 . 61 d 2 . 68 a 2 , 15 . 72 d 6 , 7 . 84 c 15 . 90 c 18 . Tur. 115 . Thes. ii 326. 2 ; 16. 40 ; 40. 31 . r-: Wb. 6 a 14 . 12 a 17 . 12 c 6 . 13 a 12 . 18 a 8 . 20 d 11 . Ml. 125 b 7 . Sg. 33 a 10 .

(g) before s and f. s-: Wb. 3 d 28 . 4 b 5 . 8 a 5 . 12 b 32 . 12 d 12 . 17 d 19 . Ml. 2 b 17 . 26 b 20 . 31 d 10 . 34 b 6 . 37 a 14 . 44 b 27 - 28 . 44 c 6 . 48 c 1 . 55 c 1 . 60 b 11 . 90 d 13 . 104 a 3 . 108 d 3 . Sg. 1 a 2 . 41 b 4 . 42 a 2 . 59 b 9 . 183 b 3 . Ardm. 17 a 2 . 18 b 1 ; cf. also didiu. f-: Wb. 1 a 9 . 11 b 13 . 14 a 33 . 18 a 8 . Ml. 20 a 12 . 54 b 30 . 93 a 5 . 134 a 3 . Sg. 3 b 19 . 66 a 6 .

dí: as ndí Assaraib, Ml. 35 a 10 . dí huaisletu, 40 c 16 . dí triub, Tur. 6 . dí Iohain, 40 . dísin, Ml. 63 c 18 .

d with elision of -i- before vowels and ḟ very common in Mid.-Ir. MSS. In Glosses rare, cf. doenscríbend, Sg. 112a2 . dég, Ml. 88 a 4 , from dḟég, cf. dḟech, Ardm. 17b1 . Common in Old-Ir. poetry, e.g. Anecd. iii 55. 18 ; 56. 8 (Siab. Conc.).

DO for DI. The confusion of di and do in proclisis dates back to the Cambr. and the Wb glosses. It is quite possible that on the lips of the people di had as early as the 8th century the same forms as to-day, i.e. unstressed də in proclisis, dí- in pronominal cpds. Under the influence of the latter forms (dím, dít, de), di de lingered on all through Mid.-Ir. The present de, dhe, is partly due to etymological spelling, partly (Cork, Kerry) renders a spoken de, ye = Oir. de (di + pron. 3 sg.), cf. mod. as, air, aige. The fusion of di and do was facilitated by their being unaccented; but it was also partly due to syntactical confusion of these two prepositions which occasionally might both be used synonymously with one and the same verb.—do: prímgeinde do hireschaib, Wb. 4 b 9 . 10 a 15 . 25 c 12 . 31 d 2 . Ml. 14 b 12 . 14 d 3 . 15 d 9 . 24 d 26 , 30 . 26 a 8 . 35 d 17 . 42 b 18 . 45 a 9 . 45 d 7 . 51 a 5 . 51 b 8 . 51 d 25 (twice). 123 d 3 . 124 c 22 . 137 d 2 . Sg. 2 a 7 . Tur. 128 . Thes. ii 298. 10 , 11 ; 299. 9 ; 309. 19 ; 311. 20 ; 313. 14 ; 315. 2 ; 320. 26 ; 321. 2 ; 322. 10 , 24 ; 323. 7 , 8 ; 332. 4 ; 333. 1 ; 335. 29 ; 344. 1 ; 346. 8 .—du: Cambr. 37 d . Ml. 24 d 29 . 26 a 8 . 55 d 4 . 55 d 11 . 55 d 25 (?). 63 b 12 . 63 c 5 . 66 c 3 . 68 d 14 . 69 c 7 . 72 d 9 . 91 d 4 . 94 c 10 . 96 b 5 , 13 . 98 c 6 . 103 d 9 . 110 c 5 . 110 d 16 . 114 b 12 . 114 c 9 . 117 c 6 . 131 c 17 . 133 a 10 . 139 a 6 (twice), 9 . Tur. 80 . 103 . Ardm. 18 b 1 . Thes. ii 294. 14 .—dú: ní dú ulc, Ml. 24 a 19 .— doit, Thes. ii 258 seems = dít.—For dond, donaib, see below.

DI FOR DO: Wb. 17 a 11 . 24 b 24 . Ml. 21 c 3 (?). 44 c 6 . 51 c 11 . 55 c 1 . 56 b 1 . 134 a 3 . dínni = dunni, 87 d 8 . desom = dosom, 33 a 5 . dinach = donach, Acr. 23 d 2 .

DI + ART.—SING.

(a) before vowels. dind, Wb. 5 c 16 . 10 a 5 . 11 d 16 . dind, 29 a 23 . dind hiriss, 11 d 2 . Ml. 21 c 3 . 24 c 17 . 25 a 19 . 48 d 28 . 58 c 6 . 67 b 17 . 67 c 18 . 89 a 6 . dind, 48 d 28 . 95 a 3 . 104 a 6 . Sg. 17 a 6 . 53 a 10 . dind huiliu, 40 a 17 . dindh, 35 b 13 . 125 a 6 . dindí, 9 a 2 . 63 a 17 (twice). 66 a 28 . 100 a 11 . 125 a 6 . 161 b 10 . 197 a 15 - 16 . Thes. ii 252. 14 ; 255. 7 ; 26. 40 . din obli, Thes. ii 255. 14 . dond: Wb. 10 a 14 . dond, Sg. 9 a 2 . 155 a 1 . dund: Ml. 17 b 23 . 34 a 27 .

(b) before ḟ (+ vowel or liquid): dind, Wb. 22 c 9 . Ml. 21 c 3 . 40 b 8 . 99 a 9 . dind fr., 56 b 1 . dond fritobairt, Sg. 183 b 3 . dun, Ml. 125 a 11 .

(c) before liquids: usually dind: Wb. 20 b 1 , 6 . Ml. 37 b 19 . Sg. 35 b 2 . 65 a 1 . 77 a 5 . Thes. ii 35. 32 ; 339. 3 . din rath, Wb. 5 d 6 . dund, Ml. 37 b 19 .

(d) before ṡ- (s + vowel or liquid): dint: Ml. 2 b 3 . 14 d 10 . 37 b 16 . 89 d 12 . Sg. 58 b 7 . dind: Wb. 13 a 21 . 24 a 17 . Ml. 55 c 1 . dunt, Ml. 27 d 2 .

(e) before d and t: din: din t., Ml. 15 b 4 . 16 c 7 . 24 d 14 . 44 b 1 . Thes. ii 13. 27 . din d., Wb. 12 c 13 . Ml. 61 a 36 . 81 a 7 . 94 c 12 . 97 d 10 . Sg. 39 b 11 . den d., Wb. 25 b 7 . don d., Wb. 9 d 5 . 10 d 8 . dun d., Ml. 17 b 23 (twice); dun t., Ml. 123 c 3 .— dind d., Sg. 5 a 5 . dind t., 3 b 14 .

(f) in other positions: din, dun: din ch., Cambr. 37 b . Wb. 22 c 18 . Ml. 2 b 13 . 112 c 11 . Tur. 60 . Ardm. 17 a 2 . Thes. ii 338. 1 ; 33. 19 . dun ch., 67 d 14 ;—din g., Ml. 48 a 21 . 48 b 2 . 48 d 28 . 49 b 4 . 61 a 37 . 113 d 3 . Sg. 9 b 17 . 156 b 6 . Thes. ii 248. 11 (sic leg.). dun g., Ml. 61 a 34 . 85 b 11 .— din ph., Ml. 126 b 1 .— din b., Ml. 39 a 1 . — din m., Ardm. 188 b 1 . Ml. 14 d 10 . 61 d 7 . 97 d 10 . Tur. 140 . den macc, Tur. 21 . den ch., 60 . den g., Thes. ii 230. 19 . don sc., Thes. ii 299. 8 .— dind b., Wb. 5 c 16 .

DUAL. din: din dib láib, Thes. ii 33. 26 .

PLUR. dinaib: Wb. 5 a 4 . 11 b 4 . 12 d 40 . 16 c 22 . Ml. 19 b 2 , 11 . 19 d 18 . 20 c 3 . 24 a 17 . 26 b 20 . 26 d 12 . 27 a 7 - 8 . 27 b 4 . 35 c 20 . 40 c 18 . 46 b 26 . 51 a 16 . 61 d 5 . 62 a 22 . 67 b 17 . 72 c 3 . 73 c 12 . 75 a 12 . 81 c 14 . 102 d 17 . 129 c 3 . Sg. 2 b 1 . 197 b 7 . Thes. ii 232. 10 . denaib: Ml. 29 a 9 . dinab gabálib, Wb. 13 d 33 . donaib: Ml. 19 d 18 . 23 c 27 . 37 b 24 . 46 b 26 . 60 b 6 . 64 c 17 . 89 a 2 . 107 c 8 . 119 d 3 . Sg. 2 a 10 . 50 a 19 . 63 b 10 . Tur. 115 . dunaib: Ml. 35 a 17 . 55 d 25 (?).

MID.-IR. din, den, don (arch. -nd, -nn); before ṡ- dint, &c. MOD. don, den, dhen, dhent (v. col. 128), don t (don tṡaoghal, don tṡruth, don tṡluach). Plur. Mid.-Ir. dina, dena, dona. These forms date back to Oir., cf. 1 do. Mod. dona, dena, dhena, Munster dosna (modelled on isna, leisna, &c.).

DI + POSS. PR. di short. 1 sg. dim: Wb. 26 d 21 . 27 a 34 . 29 d 3 . Ml. 21 c 7 . 23 d 6 , 9 . Ardm. 18 a 1 . m is unaspirated; hence written dimm, Ml. 23 d 9 . dom, Thes. i 337. 2 . 2 sg. dit: Wb. 31 c 8 . Ml. 40 a 6 . 110 d 12 . Thes. ii 249. 3 . ditodérnamaib, Ml. 40 a 7 . 3 sg. m. n. f. dia m. and n.: Wb. 5 b 10 . 33 a 2 . Ml. 23 d 17 . 40 b 8 . 44 b 1 . 53 d 6 . 65 d 8 . 94 c 8 . 133 a 10 . Sg. 50 a 3 . 111 b 2 . Ardm. 18 a 1 (four times). Thes. ii 253. 6 . fem. Ml. 72 b 17 . 102 a 15 . 1 pl. arch. dear n-: Cambr. 37 c . diar n-: Wb. 14 c 15 . 17 c 23 . 31 b 2 . Sg. 195 a 2 . 2 pl. dibar n-: Wb. 25 a 3 , 30 . 27 c 2 . difar n-: 23 d 17 . 3 pl. dia n-: Wb. 7 b 14 . 31 d 15 . Ml. 43 a 14 . 53 d 15 . 67 d 2 . 69 a 8 . 117 b 7 . 126 a 7 . 134 d 3 .

MID. & MOD.-IR. 1 sg. dim, dem, dom, &c.; mod. dom. 2 sg. dit, det, dot; mod. dot, dod. 2 pl. difar n-, dib(h)ar n-, dib(h)or n-; do bar n-, &c.; mod. do bhur n-, d'úr n-. 3 sg. pl. and 1 pl. The frequent early Mid.-Ir. writing dá (n-), dár n- shows that in the spoken language of the 11th century dia had become dá; dia, however, as a literary form lingered on for centuries until the close of the Mid.-Ir. period. Mod. dá (n-), dhá (n-); dár n-, dhár n-. For dá (n-) in the spoken language very commonly dona, modelled on iona. Exx. of dá from the LU: is cumma imthescad dá sciath ┐ dá sleg ┐ dá chlaideb, 79 b 14 ; ib. 27 . da, ib. 36 ; 81 a 25 . Numerous instances from LL in Quiggin Vorton. Wörter 35 . TBC Gloss.

DI + REL. dia n-: Wb. 8 c 11 . 13 b 12 . 13 c 12 . 13 d 25 . 16 c 7 . 19 d 11 . 21 d 4 .— Ml. 14 d 13 . 35 b 24 . 37 a 10 . 54 a 20 . 69 c 7 . 69 d 4 . 118 a 7 .— Sg. 3 a 2 . 30 b 3 . 66 b 10 . 71 a 17 . 197 a 6 . 197 b 12 , 18 . 208 a 7 . Tur. 80 . 131 . diarbu, ib. 22 . Thes. ii 326. 6 ; 328. 36 ; 337. 23 .— With negatives: diná-: dinadrícthe, Wb. 28 b 1 . dinaconbi, Ml. 85 b 7 . dinach, Acr. 23 d 2 = dunach.—MID.-IR. dia n- and dá n- ( LL 56 a 20 . 68 b 28 . 104 a 41 ), cf. poss. pron. above; neg. diná- doná- (di and do): innisis Mac Roth inní dona ragaib, LL 70 b 48 = TBC-LL¹ 1744 . Cf. ib. 2962 . ceol mbind diná fríth cosmailius fo niṁ, Ériu ii 116 § 47 . doná fríth sét ná samail, TTr.² 1711 . LB 136 a 51 . 138 a 12 . 138 b 11 . AFM v 1276. 17 . MOD. dá n-, dhá n-.

DI + PERS. PR. 1 sg. díim, Wb. 2 a 10 . 30 a 24 . díimsa, 7 a 2 . dimsa, 18 a 3 . dím, Ml. 54 d 7 . 95 d 3 . 132 a 10 . Thes. ii 248. 4 ; 351. 5 . dimsa, Ml. 17 b 18 . dimso, 59 a 18 . 2 sg. dít, Ml. 101 b 1 . 3 sg. m. and n. de masc.: Wb. 4 c 12 . 12 a 22 . 26 d 17 . 28 b 6 . Ml. 16 a 10 . 22 d 19 . 32 d 10 . 38 c 9 . 48 d 27 . 48 d 28 . 50 d 1 . 61 b 12 . 127 b 19 . desom, 33 a 5 . 91 a 21 . de, Sg. 59 b 7 . Thes. ii 298. 23 ; 337. 27 . neut.: Wb. 1 a 3 , 9 . 10 b 27 . 11 d 2 . 16 c 4 . 15 d 21 . 17 d 2 . 19 b 10 . 22 a 11 . 24 c 11 . 32 a 2 . 32 c 11 . Ml. 23 c 5 . 24 d 26 . 26 c 2 . 40 b 9 . 69 a 17 . 122 a 2 . Sg. 18 a 1 . 26 b 5 . 72 b 6 . 147 b 3 . 181 a 5 . Thes. i 5. 29 . Ardm. 18 a 1 . Thes. ii 248. 7 ; 253. 8 ; 298. 18 ; 334. 2 ; 33. 26 . dé: issí a pennit dé (not = ade), Wb. 26 b 20 . Ml. 69 d 3 . dæ, Ml. 44 b 1 . See further exx. in Ériu liii 135 . Rhymes with the final syllable of uide, Acall. 6811 ; comairle, 6659 ; Dairíne, 3231 ; ráidimne, 5170 ; fáistine, 6660 ; Laige, Miscell. Celt. Soc. 48. 9 ; uile, 68. 23 ; -se, 74. 25 . 3 sg. f. di (in Mid.-Ir. often dí, also occasionally in O.Ir. dī: lí, Fél. 166.27; . dī: lī: mbī, IT iii.1 § 131 ), Wb. 15 d 20 . 24 d 11 . 28 d 22 . Ml. 42 b 7 . 95 b 2 . 95 d 8 . 96 a 8 . 102 a 15 , 20 . 145 c 3 . Sg. 27 a 13 . 187 b 6 . 188 a 22 . 209 b 10 . di féisin, 199 b 10 . di feisne, 199 b 6 . dissi, Wb. 28 d 22 . 1 pl. díinn, Wb. 25 a 18 . 31 c 25 . díin, 10 d 8 . díinni, 26 b 18 . diínn, 15 b 4 . diín, 26 b 13 . dínn, 15 a 3 24 c 16 . 24 d 10 . dín, Ml. 105 d 7 . din, Ml. 53 d 9 . dínni, Wb. 10 d 8 . 15 a 6 . 24 c 8 . 24 d 24 . 26 a 25 . 26 d 7 . Ml. 87 d 8 . 135 c 1 . dinni, Wb. 15 d 8a . Ml. 91 b 10 . dinne, Thes. ii 335. 43 . 2 pl. díib, Wb. 27 b 11 . díibsi, 14 d 9 . 25 d 21 . diib, 8 c 9 . 23 a 22 . 24 c 14 . diibsi, 17 b 29 . 24 c 16 . diibse, 26 d 19 . diib féisne, 13 a 26 a . díbsi, 14 d 13 . 25 d 20 . 3 pl. díib, Wb. 5 c 2 . 13 a 16 . Ml. 90 b 17 . 90 c 27 . 121 b 8 . Sg. 9 b 10 . 51 b 13 . 73 b 8 . 74 b 4 . 138 b 4 . 149 a 2 . diib, Wb. 4 d 4 , 5 , 6 . 5 a 20 . 7 d 10 . 8 a 17 . 9 c 31 . 9 d 4 . 10 b 1 . 11 a 4 . 13 b 3 . 14 a 29 . 23 a 23 . 27 a 22 . 28 a 20 . 28 c 4 . Ml. 16 d 2 . 19 d 6 . 20 d 4 . 22 b 1 . 40 c 21 . 72 b 17 , 27 . 90 b 19 . 90 c 9 . 98 b 9 . 104 a 8 . 104 d 3 . 107 b 5 . 114 c 15 . 122 d 7 . 137 c 2 . 145 c 7 , 8 . Sg. 15 b 9 . 29 b 16 . 35 b 13 . 38 b 8 . 63 a 9 . 70 b 4 . 106 b 2 . 203 b 6 . 208 b 8 . 215 a 1 . Ardm. 17 a 2 . Thes. ii 23. 38 . diib féisne, Wb. 13 a 26a . díb, not in Wb; Ml. 30 d 13 . 35 a 8 . 42 b 5 . 47 b 6 . 61 b 17 . 96 c 13 . 129 c 18 . 146 a 3 - 3 . Sg. 9 a 18 . 213 b 8 . Thes. ii 320. 24 ; 335. 25 ; 335. 38 ; 344. 19 . dib, Ml. 33 c 13 . 42 c 7 . 44 a 20 . Thes. ii 34. 34 ; 298. 25 ; 310. 34 ; 316. 24 ; 317. 33 ; 330. 11 ; 335. 28 ; 344. 14 .—3 dual . de in cia de ( Wb. 23 b 33 . Sg. 242 a 1 ). nechtar (cechtar) de, q.v.—In the 2 and 3 pl. diib is disyllabic in Wb, monosyllabic only in connection with an enclitic particle. In the 1 sg. and pl. monosyllabic dím and dínn are original. Wb díim, díinn either disyllabic under the influence of the 2 and 3 pl. or, more likely, Wb-spelling for dím, dínn; cf. Wb rúun, ruún, ríi, &c.

MID.- & MOD.-IR. as Oir.—only monosyllabic all through (arch. occasionally diib. in the 2 and 3 pl.): 1 sg. dím, dímm (Mod. d(h)íom); dímsa (d(h)íomsa). 2 sg. dít, dítt (d(h)íot); dítsu, -so, -sa (d(h)íotsa). 3 sg. m. n. de (d(h)e); desin, desen, deside, desium (d(h)eisean). fem. di (d(h)i), dissi, dise (d(h)ise). 1 pl. dín(n), dínne (d(h)ínn, d(h)ínne). 2 pl. díb (d(h)íbh, d(h)íb), díbsi (d(h)íbhse). 3 pl. díb (d(h)íobh, d(h)íob), díbsin, -sen, -side, -sium, -so (d(h)íobhsan, d(h)íobsan). In Mod.- and late Mid.-Ir. the 3 pl. is kept distinct from the 2 pl. by broad bh ( díob, Mon. Tall. 147. 25 ; 15th cent. MS B IV 2, fo. 60 b . ZCP viii 116 st 15 , rhyming with síor. SG 309. 3 ).

DI, DE IN VERB. & NOM. CPDS. dĕ (cf. pron. cpds. 3 sg. m. n.) most frequent before `ro': co nderbadad (but rodíbda, inf. díbdud), ní derban , nís derbrad ( Thes. ii 347. 2 ), conda-dercacha, LU 87 a 29 , -dercaither (doecci), níruderchóin, derchóiniud, niconderérachtar (doérig), -dergaba (dígbáil), -derna, -dergénsat, -derlaig, -derlaiged, -derlaichta (ni dílgai , dílgud), dermar, dermat, co ndermanammar ni (Mil), dernum, todernam (cf. sním), -deroíma (dítiu), ní derscaigi , ní deruarid (diurad).—Cf. further dered `end, remnant' from *de-reth. Before broad ch, bh: -dechuid (but -dichsed, -dich), dechor, debuith. Occasionally before g-: -dénai, dénum. Before v: dead (besides diad, dudí, dudiastae), imper. deich (but -dích, dígal), aisndéis beside aisndís; but de + fo > dú-, Thurn. Hdb. 458 , or diu-: diunag, or deö-: deolaid `poor.' Before ṡ: degaid (beside digaid), deïd (if from + de-ṡed-), desruith; subj. condessin, ( ZCP x 376 ) (but condieig). di + a- >de in demaig, denall, denuas, v. XXXI. di + ad: dedbol. di + an-: denmne. di + aith: dethbir, dethiden. di + en: dessid, dellig, décsiu, -décci, -décmaing `cut off,' decming `impossible.' di + ess: -dér, -dérig, dérge, ( RC xxxvii 22 ) (do-érig), but dírech; deistiu .i. iartaige clainde, H 3.18, 80 . di + in: dindba, fordingrat, dingbail.

di: frequent with us (and fo): diucrae, diuderc, diunach (do-fonig), fordiuclainn, diummus, diupae, diupart, -diurat, diurad, -diuschi, diuscartae ( domfoscarte, Ml. 127 c 20 ). Cf. also diuchtraim, Wi.—Before most consonants: díbad, rodíbairg, díbe, díberg, díbdud, rodibda, díbert, díchenn, díchned, díchetal, -díchliter (díchlith, dícheilt), díchor (rodíchuired), dídnad, dígal, dígbáil, díguin, dílgud, dímeiccem, dírech, díscir, -díltised, díltud, -díxnigedar. Privative dí- very common: di-anim, -asnéte, -chin, -chmairc, -choem, -chretem, -chumuc, -grád, -gu, -ing, -miad, -rim, -thrub. Emphatic dí: díbec, dímór, díthrom (de- rare in this sense, cf. de-ḟordal, der-).

ORIGIN. Italo-Celt. , Ir. dí. In accented position also dĕ. The latter possibly includes the particle dis-, Lat. dis-. Compare especially the distinction made between dí-chor a putting away and de-chor a disagreement, a difference, diversity, and that between dí-taa stands apart and de-buith difference of opinion, dissent. De- from dis- possibly also in dedail. De- was either developed before broad consonants or possibly like Gk. δία it goes back to dis-a (modelled on μητά, κατά = Ir. ceta-). As dĕ- in the great majority of cases has the same functions as dí-, this explanation presupposes a blending of dē and dis in Irish. The original sense of dis- seems preserved only in nominal cpds. in Irish (de-chor, de-buith, de-dail).

OMISSION OF DI. Di is frequently omitted before the second of two substantives connected by ocus or nó: di ael ┐ chrieid, Ml. 102 d 9 . ib. 133 c 1 . Wb. 4 b 5 . BDD § 1 . MacCarthy, 62. 8 f.b. nech dia chlaind nó huib, RC xxiv 202. 17 .— Repeated: Wb. 13 d 7 , 25 c 12 . Ml. 67 b 17 . RC xxv 240 § 13 , 242 § 15 . Acall. 5355 . 7621 . 7677 .

SENSES. Di corresponds in usage closely to Lat. de, which it constantly translates in the Glosses, and with which it was identified by Irish grammarians: optimi de se meriti, gl. díb, Ml. 61 b 17 . de uita certamen, gl. din bethaid suthin, ib. 39 a 1 . exaltasti me de portis mortis, gl. dinaib dóirsib, 27 b 4 . ib. 19 d 18 . 24 c 17 . 25 a 19 . 40 a 6 , 7 . 73 c 12 . Tur. 21 . 59 . 115 . 132 . 140 . Thes. ii 26. 40 , &c.Ml. 27 d 12 it is introduced to render Lat. dis- in vb. cpds.: non dissimulat, gl. ní deintamladar. Like Lat. de it does not usually apply to time, except in a few petrified phrases, such as di chéin, do ló, d'adaig, d'aidchi, &c., cf. XLIX below. It unites the senses of the original ablative, instrumental and genitive.

De, di in a privative and emphatic sense (Lat. di-magis), see above.

A DI IN THE SENSE OF THE ORIGINAL ABLATIVE.—The difference between di and ass (removal of one object from within another) is shown by the following examples: tanísca Cuillius asa thruaill, LU 65 b 36 . tíscáil gái a hálad, O'Dav. p. 120 ; but : amal tíscar cend di luin, LU 71 a 22 . tairbling asa charput, FB § 36 ; but: doarblaing den chamull, Tur. 60 . tuc a lán...asin dabaig medha, Acall. 7399 . amal soersai lóain assin dabaig out of the vat Fél. Ep. 540 (but de lámaib Assar, Ml. 35 b 24 ).

v I With intransitive verbs of motion, denoting departure, separation or moving away from a place or object indicated by the subst., pron., &c., governed by di. Lat. cedere, decedere, discedere, migrare de. Often with verbs containing di- or ass- (as in Lat.).

atraig arises from, stands up from (Lat. de sella, de toro surgere): forchongair ... coire do línad hó bii ┐ Georgi do thabairt ind. atracht a ḟiuchad de cóic cubat déc, PH 1265 . Cf. éirgid: coro érig a ḟeoil ┐ a lethar de, ib. 2144 . aṁal luaithreadh saṁraidh ag eirghe do lár ré gal ngaoithe, TSh. 3. 5 . Cf. also Ml. 21 c 7 : de strato meo matutinus adsurgam, gl. dim dérgud.

bruinnid darts, springs forth from: bruinnid breo di thein, LL 145 a 40 . bruinnid araile díb bréo don teni forsin mac, Cóir Anm. § 54 . Cf. do-bruinn.

con-oscaigi removes from: cumscugud du díglae dín, Ml. 105 d 7 .

conrualae went away, departed : for nem a conrualae cech laithe dind íre what has gone to heaven from the earth Fél. Ep. 26 .

do-airling springs from, descends from: doarblaing den chamull, Tur. 60 (twice). disin doeirbling unde desilit, ib. 59 . beirid eocha lib ┐ ná túirlingid díob, SG 257. 18 .

do-bruinn springs forth, flows from, sprouts : dubrúinn dinaib slébib forsna talmana...in chré fechtnach sin, Ml. 81 c 14 . Cf. 1 bruinnid.

do-cer falls : docer in biail dia samthig, Tur. 131 . co torchair in cochull dib, Thes. ii 335. 28 .

do-érnai escapes from: ní thérna duine di riam gan éc, Acall. 6792 .

do-ic comes : súth nime ticed don draic sin, PH 2491 . táinic aingel Dé do nim, 3467 . 2473 . 5367 .—For the idiom tic dím `I can,' see below.

do-téit comes from, téit goes from: notésstae (sic leg.) di thír ┐ talam na ní sin, Wb. 9 b 19 . tuidecht in popuil di Ægipt, Ml. 130 b 1 . dichoid de muldach Muire which went out from the head of M. Mon. Tall. 127. 10 . coná térna ass acht a ndechaid do rind gai ┐ do gin chlaidib, LMU § 15 . doraga mac duni de nim i lló brátha, RC xxv 234. 15 . doraga in Comdiu de nim, RC iv 248. 3 f.b. do thuidecht do nim, PH 3044. 3087 . cech húair nothéged dia lurgc, BColm. 56. 14 . má ragad cliar dimdach de, Ériu iv 214 st 10 . rachaid in fiad ata urri di, Acall. 7505 . iar ndol a feirge díbh, Cog. 214. 27 .

do-tuit falls from: coel ┐ cumung in drochet co tuitet dia medón isin glend ngaibthech, FA § 22 . mar tuitios baindi daill, O'Gr. Cat. 198 . gur thuit duille na fíréandachta bunadhasaighe dhínn, TSh. 91. 20 . cloch gan láma uirre ag tuitim do ṡliab, ib. 3. 1 .

dul depart from: ré ndul don doṁan so, TSh. 103. 7 .

lingid leaps from: ní asse léim dind béstatu ┐ dind tinchosc, Wb. 5 c 16 .

scáilid parts with: doscaeil in chaillech díob, SG 309. 3 . dond ch., 308. 4 f.b.

scaraid separates from, parts with: nír scar din fognam SG 326. 28 .

scuchaid departs from: scuchaid dím a mallachtnachu LU 32 a 34 . RC iv 248 § 9 . PH 3635 . Cf. LL 92 b 20 : ragab som dá armaib for feraib Hérenn coro scáigsetar dó.

scuirid ceases from: scuirem i fecht sa do scélaib na ṅGaedel, LL 4 a 47 . coná rosguirsed don treathan, MR 256. 11 . scuir don forcetul sin, PH 708 . níor sguireadar den tseolréim sin gur ghabhadar cuan a nEas Dara, OCT 9.20 .

snigid drips from: inbanda uisci glain oc snige anuas don charraic, PH 506 .

teichid flees from: ní techdis na heoin dia chonair reime, Ériu v 20. 14 . oc teiched din tsligid, SG 403. 3 .

trágid ebbs from: trágid in pian díb, FA § 24 .

II With trans. verbs denoting removal, abstraction, expulsion, robbing from, &c. (Lat. abripere, capere, deicere, emittere, eripere, expellere de); particularly after verbs containing di-.

ar-clich wards off: oipni ri airsclaige na gona díb, TTr. 2056 .

ar-scarta sweeps off, casts out: cethri cóicid Hérenn... do aurscartad di Maig Murthemni, RC iii 179. 3 .

benaid (bainid, béim, buain) takes off, cuts off from; wrenches, strips from, &c. ní bas síriu bithus di chend dít, LU 71 a 22 . bí a dornd do Ḟiachaig, ZCP iii 45. 2 . co mbí a chend de, TBC-LL¹ 1309 Y. robean sum a chathbarr dia chind, MR 70. 23 . in cochall gan a buain de, Acall. 4890 . SG 13. 3 . ic búain duilisc do charraic, ZCP v 497 § 11 . a chroiceann do bhuain de, TSh. 190. 19 .

berid takes away from, dobeir, do-ucc-, &c.: ruuc cách a rainn dí sin amal dundgniat geinti dinaib brataib bertae hodie, Ml. 63 c 18 . amal runucad buáid diib, 104 a 8 . rouic búaid diib, Wb. 27 a 22 . Cf. buadigidir, XXXII below. Thes. ii 311. 20 . bec nách ruc ár folta diar cennaib, Siab. Conc. Anecd. iii 49. 1 . ní beir dím sním lobrae, Fél. Prol. 223 . étach berar do aos tuati, Mon. Tall. 154. 42 . nach brat berair do aos étraich, 155. 24 . Acall. 7366. 7931 .— berid coscur de, PH 3515 . 4895 . 4909 . 6275 . 8407 . co ruca braff di, ib. 3513 . go tuc Gamut leis da thig na ceola go teach Grigair, ZCP viii 114. 16 . tucsat a lláma chucu don méis, PH 5136 . breth di, 4200 .

brataid steals from: cétna brat Saxan di Ére, AU A.D. 434 .

cnuasaigid gathers from: do barr in ḟeóir docnuasaigthea in mil, CF 73. 10 .

con-gaib keeps from: ní congebed uacht síne do ḟeiss aidche hi linnib, Thes. ii 315. 2 .

con-scara keeps apart from: co comscara Dia dínn a mbruth, Otia ii 96 § 27 .

con-sní gains from: ag cosnum mennato dia bráithrib RC xxiv 176. 4 .

cuirithir puts away from: cuirid díib in nere so, Wb. 27 b 11 . n do chor diib, Sg. 106 b 2 . rochuir a mertnigi de, SCC § 31 . dénum aithrige co cuirmis dind ní diar cintaib, MacCarthy 62. 1 f.b. cor chuir in cathbarr de, Acall. 7931 . SG 13. 3 . PH 451 . iar ccor in tṡaoghail dé having retired from the world AFM 847 .

dlomaid removes, expels from: dlomais dóib da thír díles, LL 152 b 45 .

do-airindi, -tairinni lowers : aṁail do turnadh an chloch don tṡlíabh, TSh. 3. 20 .

do-boing exacts (a tax) from: toibgigthur éric dit, Laws ii 16. 6 ; ib. i 136. 11 , v 422. 20 . fuil Críst do thabach dia clannaib, PH 3287 . a lín in tṡluaigh doboing bretha dín, RC xvii 143. 19 .

do-cuirethar, vn. díchor, puts away, prevents from: bod ríg Érenn acht co ṅdíchuirea Luirig do neart ata forin neclais, BB 208 a 38 . díchor da cach dualaig, Alex. 824 .

do-ecmaing, -ecmaing cuts off : coneccmaing a láimdói di Lugaid, RC iii 182. 3 . décmaing a chend de, LL 291 b 3 . RC xiii 46 § 58

do-esc-, tesc- cuts off : doneiscend a chend den mil TBF, ZCP iv 41 . 5 (YBL). do chlaideb féin tescfas dít do chend, Dinds. § 36 . tescthar de a lám, RC x 68. 15 . gur thesc barr a thengad de, Cóir Anm. 279 . gur thesc a chenn da cholann, Sechrán 66 .

do-feid, do-díat leads from: as nert Dæ dudaruid som du cech imniud, Ml. 63 b 12 . oca tuididen di cech imniud, ib. 92 c 5 .

do-foscart-, -diuscart removes : díuscart dím an delg, Thes. ii 248. 4 . díscart dín in nécin fil fornd, LU 63 b 9 . nodiuscartiss de, BColm. 94. 22 .

do-fúarcaib, tócbál, etc. raises from: ní thuargaib a cend dia glún, LMU § 17 . tuarcabad dímm a náirde tegdais i rraba, PH 3728 . toicébut sa mo thinnscrai dhít, Lism. L. 1159 . dosnócaib do lár, Trip. 552. 8 . cioth rod-tógbhuais dot choilcthaib, ITS v 20. 10 .

do-gaib, vn. dígbáil, takes away from: dirogbad a díib, Sg. 9 b 16 . ná digebad cid a oenḟocul dia briathraib si nó di briathraib ind cáich cossa fuided, Mon. Tall. 150. 5 . ó ndígaibther .vi. lathi díbsin, PH 4931 .

do-ícsa takes off : bithus di chend dít amal tíscar di luin, LU 71 a 22 . ní thíscad a drucht do rind ind ḟeoir FB § 88 .

do-ingaib, vn. díngbáil, keeps off from: Dia dím cech saeth doringba, Thes. ii 351. 5 . FA § 16 . a Dhia cidh ná dingbai dínd in cia why keepest Thou not the mist off from us? RC xvii 143. 17 . BColm. 92. 17 . PH 344. 7233 . dingaib dind na hamaiti, Acall. 6767 . 4416 . 5463 . 6975 . 7143 . 7680 .

do-léci lets go, throws, lets down: condarlicthe tech immunn di nim, Wb. 15 c 13 . tairlaicid forchai tentide dina nemdaib a fiery bolt was hurled from the skies Trip. 60. 19 . ind long...doleced do nim, FA § 2 . rotelged... do neim, BColm. 64. 8 . theilgeas na daoine i dtiaich na talṁan do chlár táiplisi an tsaoghail, TSh. 26. 2 . teilc tart doit, Thes. ii 258. 12 (one expects dít).

do-seinn hunts : rotaiphnedh socraite Poimp don muigh, CCath. 5769 .

fennaid flays : iar ḟendad a chrocind ┐ a ḟindfaid dia chind, PH 6578 .

fo-ceirt throws from: focertam fial diínn, Wb. 15 b 4 . amal foceirt nech a ætach de, 32 c 11 . facheird dia aicniud, Ml. 94 c 8 .

fóidid sends : fóidis Dia Michel do nim, SR 1918 .

foxul, toxul remove from: iar foxul s diib, Sg. 15 b 9 . ferann da togslaidther in athgabáil, Laws i 302. 17 .

gaibid takes (away) from, keeps from: gabáil mo gotha dím, Ml. 95 d 13 . masa gabáil rogabu de in mac sin, Laws v 200. 12 . ní gebed di dul ind, Thes. ii 315. 22 ; ib. 333. 1 .—Frequent in the phrase gaibid desemrecht di takes example from: co ngaba cách d. dit gnímaib, Wb. 31 c 8 . 7 b 14 . 24 c 8 , 14 . 26 a 25 . 26 b 7 , 13 , 18 . 26 d 7 , 17 . 28 a 20 . 30 a 24 . 32 a 2 . Ml. 22 b 1 . 30 d 13 . 118 a 7 . cu ragabthai se desmberecht dimm, PH 5272 . ib. 3573 .

gataid takes away from, lops off; steals from: ní gatda diib imnetha in betho, Wb. 10 b 1 . mar ragatad a chend de Chormac, LL 52 b 7 . gatsat mo uli indmas dím PH 704 .

glanaid clears away from, expels from: glanais a luathred di lár ind lis, LU 23 b 12 . Mac Moga ┐ Eocho glanait sluago Mumnech do chlár Lifi Lagnech, LL 35 b 10 .

gluaisid moves from: gluasacht oenubuild díob de lár Mon. Tall. 145. 18 .

in-árban expels from: indarpe s de genitin ejection of `s,' Sg. 77 b 2 . Usually constructed with ass.

laaid casts from: ní rolsat som cumachtae ṅdé diib, Ml. 16 d 2 . rolá in cennide dia chind, ScM. § 3 . rolá a bratt de, PH 1128 . 7084 . Cf. rolái dó a étach, ib. 5242 .

léicid puts away from: fár léigis díot do choimét, SG 260. 11 . ná leic meisi don chroich sin, PH 2471 . anté leigeas de gan bheith ag smuaineadh, TSh. 7. 5 ; same phrase 9. 19 .

leoid cuts off from: co roleoad dia bun, Ériu iv 134. 11 .

scáilid loosens from, releases from: BB 364 a 40 . rosgaoil macc an chuill dá héill, Tor. Dh. Oss. 182 . co roscáil de fochetóir, PH 2195 . atá mian orm sgaoileadh dhíom, TSh. 75. 14 . leaves alone: sgaoil don médail!, RC xxix 220 .

scipaid sweeps or snatches away from: cor scib dím in díliu, Ériu iv 128. 15 . an ceann lem ingin do sgiobfainn dod chaolsgrog, Midnight court 652 . ib. 709 .

taithmigid loosens from: taithmidig a chuibrige de PH 2227 . assan i cuibrech ┐ ócech immalle fria. taithmigid díb, ib. 4372 . 2223 ; with do = di, 2112 , 4888 .

-talla takes off: tiagsa contall a chenn dind aithiuch labar, Ml. 58 c 6 . nico tald som dér dia gruad, Mon. Tall. 153. 23 . an bic co tall mo léni dím, LL 277 a 19 . antan tallus mo chéill dia thorbu dam, Ériu iv 134. 11 . tallsat in étach de PH 3300 .

tremi-beir transfers from: crux ainm do gním in chrochtho acht tremiberar di suidiu conid ainm dun chrunn, Wb. 8 a 5 . Ml. 2 b 17 . 21 c 3 .

III With verbs denoting salvation from, protection from, cure of:

aingid: nonanich Dia di cach imniud, Wb. 16 a 4 . Dia mór mo anacol de mur teintide, ACC 4 .

cobraid helps out of: cabair mé don díchumang sa, BColm. 62. 11 . fuarus sa mo chabair do cach docamail irraba isin tsægal, YBL 164 a 31 .

do-eim rescues from (orig. `demit'): conidnderoimed di lámaib Sauil, Ml. 55 d 4 .

do-essoirc saves : dumesurc sa din (sic leg.) galar fúail se, Thes. ii 248. 11 . donnesmart...do, etc., 322. 10 .

ícaid saves from: ár nícc donaib galaraib i mbiam, Ml. 107 c 8 . isindí rondannícais ni din derchoiniud hísin, 89 a 6 . din galar, 48 b 2 , 48 d 28 . dun g., 61 a 34 . dun tedmaim, 123 c 3 . donaib imnedaib, 35 c 20 .— íccfaid side (i.e. Dia) cách dia cintaib, PH 6475 .

soeraid id.: nobsóirfa si Dia dinab fochidib, Wb. 11 b 4 . di peccad, 24 c 18 . nonsoer ni di dóiri...dinaib pecthaib ┐ donaib adradaib idal dorigensam, Ml. 46 b 26 . din dóiri, 81 a 7 . de d., Fél. Ep. 532 . din galar, Ml. 48 a 21 . 61 a 37 . dinaib fochidib, 19 b 2 , 11 . 24 a 17 . 26 d 12 . di f., 20 a 12 . ( Fél. Ep. 520 ). dinaib imnedaib, 27 a 7 - 8 . 102 d 17 . donaib i., 89 a 2 . di lámaib (Asar, mu námat, &c.), 35 b 24 . 53 d 6 . 55 d 6 . 61 d 2 . 68 a 2 . 84 c 15 . 90 c 18 . Fél. Ep. 528 . du l., Ml. 91 d 4 . pro liberatione .i. di lámaib A., 72 d 6 , 7 . di chumachtu Assar, 112 c 12 . cum saluata sis, gl. di chumachtu A., 107 a 2 . saluum eum fecit Deus .i. di ingraimmim Abisolon, 87 c 1 . di thein, Thes. ii 302. 5 .— Fél. Ep. 512 . 516 . 524 . 536 . 552 . 556 . rosaerad Abraham dona gáibthib, PH 5885 . Three Hom. 92. 29

With omission of the verb: di thólu æchtrann ┐ námat di phlágaib tened ┐ nóine save us from Thes. ii 256. 11 .

IV After verbs denoting cleansing, clearing, purging, washing:

nigid cleanses from. in sruth niges anmand na næm din (v.l. don) chutrumma chinad noslenand, FA § 16 .

V With verbs denoting restraint, prevention or prohibition (di + dat. pers. or dat. rei). quis nos impediuit..., gl. dind riuth forsa robith, Wb. 20 b 1 .

ar-fuirig keeps back from: ma arfuirestae díb in taidchur, Ml. 47 b 6 .

ar-gair forbids : ní argart recht díinn, Wb. 31 c 25 . prohibentes nos, gl. .i. dínni, 24 d 24 . prohibere, gl. .i. diib féisne nó di nach aile, 13 a 26 a . ní bói ní aridgarad de, Ml. 72 b 6 . din, 53 d 9 . dím, 132 a 10 . argérat ítaid díib, 121 b 8 , with which comp. Mon. Tall. 147. 25 : ní argara ítid díob, and RC ix 474. 21 : cumma aranggairtis gortai ┐ íttaid díb na hubla; -argarad dit, BDD § 13 .

ar-troetha restrains from: artróidfea siu inna drochdáini dia nanduch, Ml. 134 d 3 .

baccaid hinders : nír bacadh dibh no one hindered them Lism. L. 3208 . an aithne bhacas dín the commandment that hinders us MacCur. p. 110 .

con-gaib restrains from: níscongbaitis .i. di ersolcud a ngena, Ml. 55 a 18 .

con-secha id. coiscid do bar nimresuin, Fen. 182. 5 . coscther a gin de golgaire, TTr. 1068 . Ériu v 190 l. 472 . coisg dá luadh, Each. Iol. 59. 3 .

do-airmesca, -tairmesca hinders : ní rotoirmescad dibso toidecht, PH 575 . Cf. nadat torbad .i. nachat tairmescad dit gaisciud, LL 262 a 21 . Cf. SG 22. 2 , 16 .

VII After fris-toing abjures : mani cometsam dear tolaib ┐ ma fristossam dear pecthib, Cambr. 37 c .

VIII After anaid ceases from, rests from, orig. `to breathe...from' (cf. ἀναπνέω with gen.): ná anam di dénum maith, Wb. 20 c 14 . iarsindí ronan hua céin di aisndis dun popul, Ml. 126 b 1 . de molad Dé ni anad, Thes. ii 315. 1 ( anad do molad, PH 2418 . ) rogess dó anad de, LL 288 b 16 . an dím, ib. 119 a 25 . ní anfem de, Lec. 150 a 1 = BB 326 b 4 . anad dind imguin, SCC § 36 . roansat dia nimratib FB § 72 . anad de thinsaitin, LL 159 b 2 . do imthecht LU 22 b 3 . 25 a 16 . ó and oc are competing prepositions.

IX In the construction of such verbs as beogidir revives from, sonartnaigidir becomes strong from: a mbeogud dia marbad, Mon. Tall. 147. 17 . a rrosonartnaigestar din galar hi robae, Ml. 49 b 4 .—Cf. Speijer Scr. Synt. § 100 n. 2 .

X After verbs denoting surpassing, excelling:

deligid surpasses : deligfit a ndegláich de deglaechaib fer nÉrenn, LL 57 a 16 .

do-róscai surpasses, excels : ní derscigem nech di alailiu, Wb. 2 a 14 . doroschither dano diib, Ml. 107 b 5 . di hilib, 40 a 18 . Sg. 40 a 6 , 7 , 8 , 17 . 42 a 1 . doróscaisset maic Israhel donaib cenélaib cocríchthaib, Ml. 119 d 3 . di neuch, Sg. 43 a 3 . 45 a 11 ; further 42 a 1 , 5 . 42 b 2 , 3 . 40 a 13 . Thes. ii 335. 43 .— dirósced Cuchulainn diib uile, LU 121 b 21 . roderscaig do mnáib Érend, 48 a 25 . darrósci de rígaib, LL 237 b 5 . FB § 1 . CCath. 279 . SG 345. 2 , &c.

ro-uc prevails over, outstrips : a ned ruc do chéli do ócaib domoin...roucaiseo di mnáib Ulad, FB § 18 . a ned rucc grian do rennaib nime rucaisiu de mnáib domain uile, ib. § 19 . roucsaidse...do sluagaib na tíri sin ule, § 93 . ruc Íth de brithemnaib Hérend, LL 12 a 17 . corruc díb Ír mac Miled...do cach luing, ib. 12 b 22 .

XI In the construction of verbs denoting lack or want of. The preposition which originally depended on the verb often comes to be associated with a neighbouring noun or pronoun in a partitive sense.

ar-tá stands before, confronts, remains: becc arabí do uidi do neuch, Anecd. iii 21. 11 .

do-esta is wanting : andudesta di foirbthetu for nirisse, Wb. 1 a 9 . 23 d 17 . ma dudesta ní dibar niris, 25 a 30 . tesarbae óinloman de, 17 d 2 . aní dodesta di chomalnad, 26 d 8 , cf. ea quae desunt .i. diar niris, 31 b 2 . ut nihil desit, gl. dia forcitul, 31 d 15 . Ml. 94 c 10 . Acr. 3 c . Thes. ii 13. 27 ; 33. 19 ; 33. 26 .—dá bliadain teasda do dá ḟichet = thirty-eight years, Cog. 140. 21 (B). dís testa do ḟichit = eighteen AU ii 230. 15 . oenlá tesbaid di fichit nineteen days SR 6814 . a ndotesta dit nirt, SCC § 13 . ní theseba do slondud su don tír se, Dinds. § 127 . —Competing prepos.: ass, Wb. 28 d 31 . Hy. v 88 .

do-fuarat remains, is left over . Prep. no longer connected with the verb: forsan dered duruarid dib, Ml. 44 a 20 . nícon diurat ní dib dia æs (partitively), 72 b 17 . do neoch rothiruarthestar din churp doenna, RC xxv 242. 8 .

mairid is left over, remains : ó nár mair do thrí cathaib na Féinde acht mad Oisín, Acall. 7906 . issed romairistar d'iarsma na muintire, 7903 .

XII After verbs and substantives denoting disgust, abhorrence of:

lius: amal nadngaib lius di suidiu is samlid insin nísgaib som lius di fordiuclaimmim mu thuaithe se, Ml. 34 b 6 .

XIII With verbs denoting buying from, receiving from. Lat. emere, redimere, mercari, accipere de aliquo.

ar-fóim receives from: anmman araḟóimtar di dánaib ut doctor de doctrina , Sg. 156 b 4 . combed de láim anmcharat arfemad sacrafaic, Mon. Tall. 146. 26 . is do láim ind anmcharat is cóir airitiu in tsacrafaic, 146. 23 . de aiti, 160. 18 .

cennaigidir buys from: is díles in mac sin don fer isa ben coro chendaigther de, Laws v 200. 12 . ceinnechutsa fín lógmar díb, LB 139 a 51 .

crenaid id.: ní cria di ṡecht mbaethaib file la Féne .i. di mnái di chimbid di mesc di drúth, &c., Tec. Corm. § 19 .

do-oggell(a), ZCP x 377 , LEIA D-172-73 . buys from: issed doruagell diib AU A.D. 963 . doruachell lógu móra don scolaigi, LB 213 a 56 .

XIV After verbs denoting asking, begging, demanding . Lat. quaerere, percontari de aliquo.

fisraigid inquires : dḟiosruig de, Gadelica ii 91. 6 .

guidid begs : in clam gáde ailgis dí, Thes. ii 339. 5 . nathir...gáid dím a tichtu i Pardos, SR 1322 . gáid side di mithisse .vii. ṁbliadan, LU 134 b 12 . But also with do ( LU 61 b 22 ; LL 288 b 16 ; 124 a 14 ) and co ( SR 2171 ).

iarmi-foig asks : with di and do in Mid.- as in Mod.- Ir.; the oldest sources seem to prefer do: iarfaigis dó, FB § 39 . iarmoracht dosom, Mon. Tall. 137. 2 . roiarfacht scéla dó, Trip. 122 . LU 113 a 22 . dia coic .i. do B., Thes. ii 334. 41 . doib (v.l. dibh) ib. 323. 9 . Mid.-Ir. usually di; de, Acall. 2854 . 3646 . 6445 (do only in proclisis as 6546 ); PH 1802 . 1960 . 2611 . 2621 . 3106 . 6579 . 7294 , &c.

XV In the construction of dligid (ar-dlig) in Mid.-Ir., competing with do.—OLD-IR. do: (a) dlegair domsa precept do chách, Wb. 1 b 8 . dlegair do neuch attlugud buide do Dia, Ml. 55 a 7 . (b) dligim ní duit I have a claim upon thee, Wb. 32 a 20 . rodligestar ní dó, Ml. 36 a 29 . MID.-IR. (a) di: ní dlegar díb dol a cath, BColm. 102. 3 . ardlig dín a cetol, Fél. June 1 . a ndermat ní dlegar dím, LL 137 a 12 . dlegar dínn ár nimcaissin do thimorcain PH 6870 . ib. 4098 . 4157 . 4168 . 4182 . 6514 , &c. ní díom dlegar, SG 320. 35 . do: dlegair do neuch cloechlód inaid do dénum, PH 6464 . (b) duine trúag dia rodlecht rí Laigen lind, Thes. ii 337. 23 . rodlig Lugaid fíacha de SG 253. 7 . orguin rodligestar Ingcél díb to which I. had been entitled from them BDD § 23 . dligid Colmán screpall de, BColm. 94. 27 . dligim dítsu, RC iii 184 . In this sense do is not used in Mid.-Ir.

XVI After verbs denoting eating, drinking from. (orig. abl. or gen.). Competing prep.: ass.

ibid drinks from: assibsem imróol di rath in spirito, Wb. 12 a 17 . de turbulento riuo ... potare .i. dint sruth buadarthu, Ml. 2 b 3 . ité ata mou atoibet do thopur ecna na deachta, PH 6238 . cachaen ibius ní de (.i. din tobur), Acall. 6778 . —ass: ibhis digh móir aisti (sc. assin tsíthal), Acall. 7151 .

óol drink from: deug mór du óul din dígail, Ml. 94 c 12 .

loimm sip from: is loimm de (v.l. do) romuir, Fél. Ep. 41 .

ithid eats : mad a lourtu noestais diib, Ml. 98 b 9 .

XVII After verbs (words) denoting choice or selection out of a number or quantity.

do-roígu has chosen : nípat hé indíi beta thuicsi di Iudeib, Wb. 4 c 40 . toga díb sin choose of them ZCP viii 318. 4 . aitire dogó de manchaib, Ériu i 220. 6 .

XVIII In the construction of do-rorban profits by, from: is mór a thorbe de dúnni, Wb. 1 a 3 . níbtá torbe de, 19 b 10 . connach bi tarbe dúinde de, Acall. 4213 .

XIX Di with ellipse of verb between two substantives, indicating removal of the former from the latter: dá mad gnáth mairb a talmain nó fuilt do chennaib dáine, Acall. 7062 . a cind dona druídib ┐ dona filedaib mani fintar cia doróne ...shall lose their heads ZCP iii 5 § 15 . Cf. usce dia mbassaib do dhig fair, MacCarthy 70. 13 .

XX Expressing position with regard to, (north, south, &c.) of: amal rundgab Slíab Sion andes ┐ antuaid dun chathraig, Ml. 67 d 14 . in tulach lethaniar do Themraig, Acall. 7897 . allathís dia ṡúil below his eye PH p. 630 b . suas de, Thes. ii 314. 7 . Cf. Sliabh Cruadha do thaobh dhé, ML 22. 12 .

XXI Ml. 55 c 1 : hi telaig ba nessam dind slóg, dind seems to stand for older dund (nessa do geintib, Wb. 2 b 17 . cid as nesu dúin, LL 258 b 43 . LB 219 a 70 . dó LU 62 b 40 ); but both constructions might be old. Cf. Lat. proximus with dat., abl. and ab, and Umbr. nesimei asa deveia (abl.), Iguv. 6 a .

XXII-XXXI ABLATIVUS ORIGINIS—denoting derivation, descent, source, starting-point or the like.

XXII After dotéit, do-ic (cf. I supra) ásaid, imfolngai, forcomnacair indicating the source (thing or person) whence anything originates or is acquired. dotéit: ished dothéit de tre ilar na ndáne, Wb. 22 a 11 . cid mall ished dodechuid de, 24 c 11 . anda lim ol sisi dorraga ní don mac sin something will come of that boy Mon. Tall. 150. 26 . is de taett ár tárcud ne, BColm. 98. 9 . do-ic: táinigc maith an tsámaid sa dom thoisgc cucu good has come to this congregation from my journey to them BColm. 98. 11 . de tháinig a thiughlaithi, MacCarthy 420. 4 (BB). táinig don smuaineadh sin gur dhiúlt sé dáinius an tṡaoghail, TSh. 13. 12 . thiocfadh de, dá dtiocfadh, ib. 14. 28 ; 34. 2 f.b. ; 48. 13 ; 65. 1 ; 80. 11 . IDIOM. ní tic dím I cannot (orig. it cometh not from me; for the sense-development cf. Acall. 7680 ): ní tic din (sic leg.) astud we cannot keep RC v 200 § 12 . tic dimsa, ib. ní thic dim a náirim uli, LU 39 a 12 . ní thicfad don domun uli, LB 145 a . ní thic dimm a nindise uli, PH 503 . do neoch, IT i 169. 21 . with do: ní thic dún a rád, LL 29 b 2 . ásaid: síl Aeda diar ásair mór ríg, LL 185 b 1 . iseadh fásas desin, MacCarthy 122. 2 (BB). fásaid in maith se díb co menic, PH 7963 . —im-folngai causes, effects : imforlinged mór namri de, Wb. 15 d 21 . Ml. 69 d 4 . déde immefolngi dundí contuarcar, Ml. 34 a 27 . condib degním immefolngither de, 23 c 5 . imfolngar gním di suidib fochetoir, 31 d 10 . a folad dia nimmolṅgaithær uox the substance from which vox is produced Sg. 3 a 2 . The last ex. shows how close is the connection between this sense and that of XXVII (c). forcomnacair has come from, is formed from, v. foll.

XXIII Expressing the origin or derivation of a name .

(a) name from: denominatiua, gl. de rét ailiu roainmnichthe, Sg. 31 a 5 . ainmnigud dind rét as mám and, 77 a 5 . doberr ainm ṅdóib din gním gníte, 156 b 6 = PCr. 65 b 1 . a fogur dia forcomnacair, Sg. 30 b 3 . mbruigfer cid ara neper? dí lín a mruige, Laws iv 31 . Lugaid...is desin ráiter Gairbḟerand claidim Luigdech, RC xxiv 186. 16 .—Often approaching or passing into the sense of `cause.' is ainm sanctus dó dind rubríci sin, Ml. 37 b 19 . amal asrobrad leusom donaib feraib trénaib di inni a nneirt asrobrad donaib ídlaib di inni a nenartae, 37 b 24 . asberam sanctos doib dint sainriud inna nóibe techtae, 37 b 16 .

(b) gram. derived from: Aniendae di anmmaim ind ṡrotho, Sg. 35 b 7 . rosarium .i. bróinde nó rostae .i. de rosa dind luib, 35 b 2 . celae dondí as caelestem , 9 a 2 .

XXIV Connecting two substantives, of which the latter indicates the source whence the former has come or is brought (cf. XIX): pane caeli, gl. in sásad di nim, Ml. 123 c 15 . Iudae Machabeo, gl. di Macha civitate , 67 b 16 . sacaird dí triub Leui, Tur. 6 . Lassar di cheniul C., Ardm. 17 a 2 ; 18 a 1 (dia desciplib di Laignib); 18 b 1 § 15 . lam nóib di Laignib, Thes. ii 326. 2 . Dé de nimib, Hy. vi 19 . Nár thuathech di thuathaib Cruithnech di chlaind Lóith LL 138 b 13 . cométaid di muintir nime, Snedg. u. Mac R 37. 6 . dias dAlbain is do Lochlaind, ib. 13 . Nechtán de Albae, Fél. Jan. 8 . Émene de Brú Berbae, Dec. 22 . Ep. 396 . láir do Chorco Ché rodnalt, ZCP viii 307. 30 . ib. 313. 32 ; 110. 5 . Ériu iv 104. 5 , 15 ; 106. 15 . luisse do ṡléib a flash from a mountain, 102. 15 . daig do sléib, Rawl. 84 b . dig den tiprait, Ériu iv 100. 15 .—do ṡíl Rosa (the npr. follows) LL 314 a 18 .

XXV Indicating racial origin, descent .

cinid springs, descends from: cinsiu di churp ríg sceo rígnai, FB § 22. 3 . conid díb rochinset in dá tharb, LL 246 b 51 . cinfid di ṡíl Chuind, ZCP iii 461. 16 . nír chin a choṁaosa dia chined i naonaimsir, AFM 1788. 5 . Competing prep.: ó ( Wb. 4 c 6 ; LL 46 a 34 , &c.).

gainithir is born from: ó óinsíl rogénartar dá macc de, Wb. 4 c 12 . cuirp genit...dina sílaib dereolaib, LU 37 a 31 . geinfid maccán dia fine, Three Hom. 98. 23 . co ngeinfitis cinedu iumda dia ṡíl, PH 2260 . oen is mesa rogen ┐ genfes do ṡíl Adaim, 3079 .—More usual with ó.

do-fuissim v. XXIX (c). is di v. XXVI. attá di v. XXIX.

XXVI After the copula.

(a) indicating the group, person or thing whence anything originates or of which it is a part.

(α) type † ba di Grecaib Aichil: di chlaind Cham ind Egiptacdai, Ml. 99 b 7 . ba do Ḟraṅccaib máthair inna clainne, Thes. ii 309. 19 . ba díb in tṡaergein Slaṅga, LL 5 b 23 . corub do muinntir Finn iat, Acall. 3142 . cúicir druad...ba díb Badgna, díb Cathbad drái, 2543 . do lucht in tíre seo hé, 7476 . do Thuathaib Dé Danann issí, 3907 . asberat bid di lucht na luinge...in tEugan Táidlech, ZCP viii 313. 23 . ib. 26 . ba de Ultaib a bhunudhus, RC vi 174. 8 . Ériu iv 140. 20 .— is din chorp in ball, Wb. 22 c 18 . ní díbsem in comsuidigud, Sg. 213 b 8 . is do chóicid Chondacht in ferann sin, RC xxiv 186 § 20 . PH 5766 . 2589 .

(β) type †ba di Grecaib do Aichil indicating racial origin: de Iudéib do Barnaip di geintib do Thit, Wb. 18 d 6 . di Iudéib doib, 27 d 4 . as ndi thalam do that he is of the earth Ml. 68 c 4 . di chlaind Thessei dóib .i. di Grecaib dóib huili, Sg. 31 b 2 . ropo do Dáil Choncobair dosom, Thes. ii 325. 4 . is dár sluagaib duitsiu a Ḟerguis, TBC-LL¹ 753 . can do Ḟind? do Laignib ar Cáilte, Acall. 6547 . Finn...do chlannaib Baiscne dó, 7307 . as do Leith Cuinn dó, 2029 . ní dibh dóibh ZCP viii 112. 1 . ib. 112. 4 . Todd Nenn. 224. 30 .—Cf. d'oendreim dóib is d'aencháraid they were of one company and of one yoke (of horses), BColm. 90. 11 .—Rarely of things or abstracts (as type α): is de corpore dissi (of the eye), Wb. 12 a 26 . prouindsi Aroandum didiu, do rigi Magnuis Cam dhi, ZCP i 388 . Hence the change of construction, Ériu iv 140. 19 : de chloind Míled dúindi ┐ do Grécaib ár mbunad.

(b) indicating the origin of a name: is de is named from: corub díb...na trí tulcha, Acall. 6517 .

XXVII After the subst. verb.

(a) of origin, descent, native place : nícon bia rí dit chlaind, ZCP viii 315. 24 . manodfil fer di chlaind Airt i nÉre ishé in fer sin, 311. 34 . Most frequent diatá from whom is (are) ZCP viii 293 pass. dia rabatar Mic Conchubair, 294. 21 .— cathrach dia rabi, PH 1635 . Cf. also Ml. 103 d 9 : cum totius gentis interitu, gl. connaconbeth ní du Israheldaib.

(b) of issue, consequence : ní bia bríg desium, Mon. Tall. 154. 11 . biaid olc de, LMU § 10 . regma amin cibed bias nde ZCP iv 46. 16 . ní bia debaid de, Ériu iv 108 st 69 . ised rombia de, ZCP vi 267 § 8 . TBC-LL¹ 1896 . PH 2647. 4745 . is eol dam a mbias de, Fianaig. 26. 7 . atá so de this results from it ZCP viii 317. 36 . cid bias din gai seo, RC iii 179. 28 ; 180. 4 f.b. inní dia fuil a marbad, Fianaig. 50. 19 ; v. XLV (a).

(c) of the origin or derivation of a name: atá di is named from. is de attáa Féna Forfid, Ardm. 18 a 1 . Colmán mac Duach diatá Cell meic Duach, Ériu i 44. 1 . conid de atá Cnoc in Banchuire, Acall. 2851 . isam mebrach inní dia fuil, 7305 . is díb atá Ferb in Trír, 7349 . inní dia raibe, 6451 . is desin atá, 7880 . Ériu iv 140. 8 .—Cf. conid desin atá in seanḟocul, RC xxiv 194 § 8 .

(d) makes a part of, belongs to, v. XXXIII (k).

(e) of the stuff or material, v. XXIX (b).

XXVIII The idiom attá di such is originally meant it follows, comes, results from (XXVII (b) supra), is because of . A similar usage occurs with do-ic: dothicfad dia nimut nách biath anóir forro = such would be their abundance that they would not be valued ZCP i 386. 10 ; and with rosaig: rossaig do binne a labartha conid, &c., TBith. 101 . —For the sense-development cf. especially: consternatus sum, gl. atá di thrummai na fochaide insin, Ml. 23 a 19 , which might be translated: this results from the heaviness of the tribulations. robói du méit a pecthae som combu uisse a nepeltu i nóinecht so great were their sins that...(orig. it followed from the greatness of their sins, &c.), Ml. 98 c 6 . robói du chensi Duaid conná rogaid do Dia dígail for Saul, ib. 55 d 4 . búi dá cosṁailes ná haithned nech fer seoch a chéile díb, CCath. 2051 . atá do gére theinedh ifrinn dá ndoirtidi fairgi an domain na chenn nách turnfadais aenraed dá thes, RC xxiv 381. 14 . atá do ṁét an ḟuachta atá and, ib. 17 , 20 , 24 , 26 , 28 , 30 . búi dia noemi coná rolámsat a marbad, PH 552 . —si sanctorum pedes lauauit, gl. marusbói di humaldóit, Wb. 28 d 29 . ni tha dia méit, 5 b 10 . ní rabæ di esamni Duaid co naipred, &c., Ml. 33 c 17 . attá di ṡeirc la laitnóri inna nGrec co seichetar cid a comroircniu, Sg. 1 a 2 . rosbúi do bríg they had such grace Snedg. u. Mac R 9. 2 . búi do méd a ratha such was his grace Ériu v 20. 6 . robói d'imarcraidh egla forro conná fededar..., CCath. 776 . robúi do méd do cinedaib roclói Poimp conice sin nárbo miad leis, &c., 275 . atá d'iomat maigeanta as díolarrdhacht maisdeadh such is the abundance of my intelligence ML 124. 5 . dobí d'ḟebas a ṁebra gacha cluinedh tiar is tair dobíodh aige do mebair, SG 108. 7 . bói d'ḟebus in fethme...co, &c. LB 156 b 28 . dobai d'ḟeabhus aimsire...go fuabradais fognamaig na fearann gan feidhm MR 102. 7 . dobí dá thinneasnaighe tháinic, SG 27. 28 . dobhí dá rothes, 22. 13 . búi dia luas som cu cengailtea a marcaig isna dillaitibh, ZCP i 382. 2 . atá dia sruthi ┐ dia huaisli na hesergi co mbátar..., PH 3424 . Acall. 3119 . In late Mid.-Ir. also with a personal subject: ní bíd dá bochta nech isin domun ná bá hécen dó a ícc, LB 132 b 7 , for Oir. †ní bí di bochtai neich, &c. no one is so poor. atá da faide fodhes iatsen (Stokes' emendation unjustified) ná faicet acht blogh bec don tṡechtar rét, CCath. 1583 . — di méit...feib as much...as: itá do mét dethiden ┐ gráda cáich díbsium feib oc araili, RC xxv 246 § 24 . Cf. XLVIII.

XXIX Indicating the material or substance of which anything is made or consists .

(a) between two substantives (for orig. gen.), connecting the material immediately with the thing, type: tob di humu a bronze trumpet Ml. 2 b 16 . críol di croccund róin a basket of sealskin Thes. ii 347. 33 . cros dit sailiu, ib. 249. 3 . mílech de ór, BDD § 1 . tuagmila di ór ┐ airget, ib. léine dei ṡítiu, ib. ecor de ór, ib. cúaich di ór, Anecd. iii 50. 20 . bruidni do dergór, 51. 2 . brat d'olaind Tíre Tarrṅgaire, Acall. 7268 . cimus do bánór, ib. léine do tṡroll ríg, 7415 ; do tṡída buide, 7660 . coróin do spínib PH 3296 . cros de ór, MacCarthy 38. 7 . ib. 38. 3 .—Competing with the gen.: amdabach do sciathaib, Acall. 6940 : amd. sciath, LU 65 a 6 . MR 142. 3 . én dergóir, MacCarthy 38. 8 ; cúaich óir, LL 22 b .

(b) attá di is made of, consists of: dá maelassa imma chosaib ┐ ní feas cia luib dia rabadar, Ériu iv 138. 28 . inar corccra...┐ ní fess cia luib dia robi, PH 2854 .

(c) after verbs signifying `to make, to shape, to produce, create; to be made,' &c. Lat. de aliquo fit aliquid; facere, componere, comparare, fabricari (aliquid de aliquo).

con-utaing builds up: amail cumtaiges inna curpu móra dena sílaib dereolaib ┐ dano amail rochumtaig na curpu dermara den dligud nemaicside ┐ den dligud nemchorptha, RC xxv 242. 10 . is sochma do Dia coro chumtaige cen adbar nó de adbar deróil cech nadmat bes áil dó, 242. 14 .—Cf. XXXVIII.

fo-ceirt: ár do chor dínni, Ml. 135 c 1 . rolauth ár dermar di cechtar in da leithi, LL 408 a 46 . ib. 404 b 24 .

cruthaigidir creates, shapes : rochruthaigfea in Comdiu cuipa na esérgi dind adbur toltanaigfes do, RC xxv 242. 7 . isé rochruthaig Adam do chriaid in talman, PH 2289 .

do-fuissim brings forth, creates : hé donrósat do nephní SR 7518 . má rothuismis na huli do nefni, PH 4796 . clanna cáine tusmiter di ḟorbbaib téchtaib, LL 293 b 40 . na dúli dia rotuismidea na cuirp sin, RC xxv 242. 13 . cuirp na ndáine...tusmiter dina sílaib dereolaib, 252 § 37 . LU 37 a 31 .

do-gní makes. (α) trans., type: mad fleteg dogneid dind œclis if ye make the church a banqueting-house Wb. 11 d 16 . dorigénsat in descipuil deu diib, 7 d 10 . ib. 2 a 10 . 4 d 1 . 8 c 9 , 11 . 9 d 4 . 13 a 21 . 17 b 29 . 24 d 11 . Ml. 26 c 2 . 27 d 2 . 51 b 8 . 69 c 7 . níbu machdath dorónta dia dind liac that a god should have been made of the stone Sg. 65 a 1 . ib. 9 a 18 . 26 b 5 . 27 a 13 . 35 b 13 . 41 b 4 . 63 a 9 . 63 a 17 . 66 a 22 , 28 . 70 b 4 . 100 a 11 . 125 a 6 . 149 a 2 . 187 b 6 . 188 a 22 . 197 b 7 . 209 b 10 . 216 a 1 . is di lus...dogníther in chorcur, Tur. 115 . din chloich dorigne saland, Hy. v 40 . Thes. ii 337. 27 . na dúili co ndernta do nemní, RC xxv 252 § 36 . déna bairgena dona clochaib se, PH 4797 . dogéna ór do indebar, 7276 . dorigne sroigill do ṡúainemaib, 4526 . cruithnecht don eorna, BColm. 102. 32 ; 104. 1 . MacCarthy 48. 7 , 11 . SG 251. 3 f.b. gadaigi dogní dimsa you make me out a thief Ériu v 234 l. 52 ; cf. PH 7600 . dorinni sé rí do Lingcus, RC x 181. 22 . doghéna Diabul cimidhi dona pecthachaibh, xxviii 318 § 36 . LB 212 a 5 . RC xii 428. 2 f.b. Ériu iv 134. 12 . PH 7656 . TSh. 32. 28 .—Here also dogní di = to do with, dispose of (like Lat. facere + abl.): an rochara dogné dímsa do with me as thou wishest RC xxiv 150. 31 . ZCP iv 43. 13 . apair cid dernais dind ornaisc, RC iv 43. 29 . déntur do thoil féin dímsa, ZCP vi 277. 12 . (β) impers., type: do-rinne ḟinnmagh d'iforn hell became a fair plain Ériu iv 114. 28 . ib. 116 st 20 . co nderna min ┐ luaith díb. Acall. 5585 6336 . 6340 . ib. 5619 . 5013 . 420 . 421 . 2395 . 3510 . doringne cuach cera dia gnúis, TBC-LL¹ 2602 . 6083 . SG 250. 18 . co nderna brioscbruar dona huile longaib, ib. 3 f.b. dorignedh uisce searbh da lionn, 28. 23 .—With ellipse of the verb: ní asse nóib di suidib not easy is it (to make) saints of them Wb. 3 d 28 .

suidigidir establishes : rosuidigestar æm óinchorp d'ilballaib, Wb. 12 a 30 .

im-folngai v. XXII supra.

XXX Indicating the place where action is originated and whence it extends while the originator remains fixed there; type: dobert maldachta foir di mulluch in tslébe he cursed him from the top of the mountain Ml. 58 c 4 . ex Sion...inde, gl. is dé ropridach ┐ is de atror int huile talam, 69 d 3 . luid hi telaig ┐ argart doib di suidi, 55 c 1 . fommchain...de dindgnaib doss it sings to me from the tops of bushes Thes. ii 290. 9 . di uertice fulget .i. din mulluch, Tur. 140 . Dia firién cluines mo dó nuaill de (v.l. do) nimiath néll who from the heaven-land of clouds hears my cries ACC § 5 . is dib (viz. from the thrones) beres in comdid a briathra fíriana for cech noen, PH 6239 . asbert Bricriu friu do lár in tigi from off the floor of the house FB § 26 . tarlaic aurchor do muin a mairc, Oss. i 3 . Also: gabtar ár neich dún ┐ indliter ár carpait co ndernam cathugud dar nechaib ┐ dar carptib indiu, TBC-LL¹ 3609 . Cf. debaid dechaib, s.v. debuith.

XXXI In some STANDING PHRASES in connection with a subst., adj. or pronoun.

demaig from without , q.v.

deṡiu: romsnáidhet d. ar demnoibh, Ériu iv 238. 8 .

fri...deṡiu on this side of: fri Alpai ndesiu, Sg. 217 b 8 . fri crích deṡiu on this side of the boundary, 217 b 12 . citra .i. centarach .i. frie deṡiu, ib. 71 b 2 .—Opp. to fri...anall.

dianechtir from without : Ml. 57 d 10 . 66 a 3 . 67 d 2 . 127 a 14 . 211 a 9 .

diandes from the south , Thurn. Hdb. 287 . Ml. 67 d 2 .

fri...denall from yonder side: fri sonnach adíu...fri sonnach denall, LU 23 b 19 .

denuas from above, de-super: d. dotiagar hisa tech, Thes. ii 292. 19 .

di bunud (from the root) from the beginning, originally: ná hadṁuigh si toirrchius na bainimpire óir ní let é do bhunadh, Sechrán 24 . Ériu iv 53. 10 . dar liom is urlabhradh daona sin agat...is duine mé do bhunadh, OCT 13.12-13 , 14 . Cf. iar mbunud, Acall. 7704 .

di cech aird from every side : abís in mara timchellas in talmain sin do cech aird, RC xxv 252 § 36 . FA § 6 , § 28 (LB).

di cech leith id., undique . immib di cach leith, Wb. 17 b 19 . dugairet arbar inna nnámat...impu di cech leith, Ml. 62 b 13 . 66 d 10 . in talmain impu di cach l., 51 d 3 . v. leth.

di cech thóib id. na héigmi doníthi umpu do cach thaib, Acall. 6782 .

di chéin from afar (a) of time. doarrchet d.c. nombiad adrad Dé la genti, Wb. 6 d 8 . is d.c. immunrordad, 20 d 10 . (b) of space: fasisidar di chéin Coinculainn, LU 71 a 34 . do neuch ditoet do chéin aidchi ndomnaig, Anecd. iii 21. 12 .

di chian from afar, of space: gan nech do thiachtain dochum ár longpuirt do chian ná dḟocus, Acall. 5474 .

di chianaib for long : robádar cethri cridiscél liomsæ de ch. I have long had four darling wishes Mon. Tall. 136. 20 .

di chiunn with a verb of motion = away . intan tét a laithe di chiunn cosnaib gnímaib, Ml. 21 c 3 . For other senses of di ch., v. 1 cenn.

din chur so (sin) this time, on this occasion, now , &c. Already Mon. Tall. 148. 14 (den ch. sin). don ch. sa, TTr. 1275 . LL 215 a 45 : dind ara chur.

di éis after ; but do might be older ( dom héis se, Wb. 29 d 9 ). retro .i. di ess, Ml. 2 c 1 ; dia é., 23 d 17 . 72 b 17 . dia né., 69 a 8 . 53 d 15 . diar néis, Sg. 195 a 2 .

di ḟocus, d'ḟocus from near : do chian ná d'ḟogus, Acall. 5474 .

di ḟót at once, suddenly : di fot .i. dinad nó di maighin .i. fochetoir, O'Dav. 754 .

dinad on the spot , v. di ḟót.

di leith: dind leith ailiu, Thes. ii 16. 40 ; 35. 32 .

di maigin on the spot : ó rob erdalta lais a ṁarbhadh do ṁaighin, Hugh Roe 102. 20 . O'Dav. 754 .

disin hence, then Ardm. 18 b 1 (twice); glossing Lat. unde Ml. 44 b 27 - 28 . Tur. 59 . Lat. hinc Ml. 48 c 1 . 104 a 3 . Lat. exinde 90 d 13 . Lat. proinde 108 d 3 .

B In the construction of certain verbs (and subst.) which might partly belong to the categories mentioned above.

XXXII aithnid, Mid.-Ir. aichnid, enjoins, commands : ná derb le maith ná le saith issed aithnius díot an Flaith, ZCP vii 301 §8 . tre forchongra in Tailgind do aichin dim dul ann, Acall. 7254 . mar daithin díobh gan where he commanded them not, &c., Keat. aithnes dia apstalaib, LU 35 a 31 . dá ḟeadhnachaib, ML 64. 22 . roaithniged díob, SG 54. 21 .— One would expect do (cf. Cog. 146. 16 ); di seems to have arisen in such phrases as do aithin dóib (díb) cen...do dénum.

buadaigidir is victorious, wins : nír bu lour leusom buaduguth dib with victory over them Ml. 33 c 13 . is missi buadaigfes de bar mac nDamáin, LL 82 a 38 . buadugud do Grécaib dona Troiandaib, TTr.² 180 . In Fél.² clxxii 11 , di seems original.—The same constr. occurs after búaid.

celebraid bids farewell : de Ḟiachraig, LL 51 a 17 f.b. díb, 276 b 4 . díib, Trip. 182. 18 . do: celebor dam, LU 73 b 8 . celebrais dó, LL 291 b 7 f.b. dóib, Trip. 198 . TFerbe § 16 Eg.; do seems original.

dethiden care , v. LII (c θ). essamnae fearlessness, confidence , v. ib.

lenaid adheres to, cleaves to, follows : lenit a pecthe dindí dobeir a ngrád, Wb. 29 a 23 . 5 c 16 . 10 a 5 . co lenamain dít, Ml. 101 b 1 . roleldar díb (i.e. axibus) 96 c 13 . rolil dím, 54 d 7 . lenaid din gutai thoisig, Sg. 9 b 17 . Thes. ii 310. 34 .—Thus also glenaid: glete de which stick to him Ml. 127 b 19 .—There is no support for the common supposition that di has here taken the place of do. The vn. díle .i. lenamain, Metr. Gl. 17 , also points to di as the original construction.

remcaissiu providence , remidéci provides for, v. LII (c θ).

C DI IN A PARTITIVE SENSE, often taking the place of the old genitive.—The partitive sense arose when di loosened its connection with the verb and became dependent on some neighbouring word denoting quantity. Compare the following instances where the sense of the original ablative is still apparent: assibsem imróol di rath in spirito we have drunk a great draught of (orig. from) the grace of the Spirit Wb. 12 a 17 . Ml. 94 c 12 . cach æn ibius ní din tobur, Acall. 6778 (cf. ité atoibet do thopur na deachta, PH 6238 ). gatar dam díb one of the oxen is stolen BColm. 56. 13 . ní foichred cnói díb for lár, LU 90 b 6 . cid focerdmais ní dé why should we cast away any of it? Cog. 96. 23 . dís testa do fichit eighteen AU ii 230. 15 . má dudesta ní dibar níris, Wb. 25 a 30 , &c.

XXXIII

(a) Preceded by a cardinal or ordinal number: óin di airchinchib Assiæ one of the leaders of A., Wb. 7 b 11 . óin dinaib aicsenaib inso, Ml. 62 a 22 . unus de cantatoribus, gl. dinaib cétlaidib, 61 d 5 . oen dinaib cestaib, Anecd. ii. 12. 1 . aen díb, ZCP viii 110. 30 . aen do chétt one out of a hundred BColm. 106. 11 . -mebdatar a nnói díib ZCP viii 313. 35 . míle dia náimtiu, PH 4048 - 4051 .

(b) preceded by a numeral subst.: mórḟeser dia muintir, Ardm. 18 a 1 . dias aile díb; dís dia muntir, PH 4427 . triar do chlannaib Baiscne, Acall. 7308 . morfesiur dia aes gráda, PH 980 . ochtur do Cháilti, Fianaig. 50. 1 . trí nonbair d'iarsma na Féinde, Acall. 7896 . trí .l. ban do mnáib T., 7822 . Cf. is óinfer gaibes búaid diib, Wb. 11 a 4 .

(c) preceded by a pronoun or pronominal word: alaile: alaaili diib...alaaili dano some of them Sg. 215 a 1 . for alailib diib, 208 b 9 . rel. a n-: ní áirmi a mbís iarna chúul dind séit, Wb. 24 a 17 . a mbís hóṡen suas dind eo, Thes. ii 255. 7 . a fúair do ṡaethar ┐ do ṡalchar, PH 7390 . ib. 7485 , 7646 . cách, cech: cách di suidib, Ml. 26 b 20 . cách diib, 114 c 15 . 137 c 2 . díb, 42 b 5 . 42 c 7 . díob, Mon. Tall. 132. 14 ; 133. 15 ; 136. 2 . cech diib, Ml. 72 b 27 . cachae, cechae: cach hae díib, Sg. 74 b 4 . cechae diib, Ml. 40 c 21 . 146 a 2 - 3 . cach ai dib, Thes. ii 330. 11 . cach oen, nach oen: fri cach noen din cenélu dóine, Cambr. 37 b . cech óin díib, Ml. 90 c 27 . dia chlaind, 133 a 10 . cach haen do mnáib, BDD § 3 . nach oen...de[m] muindtir, Mon. Tall. 129. 36 . cechtar de: Wb. 15 d 9 . 19 c 21 Ml. 17 d 12 . 39 b 2 . 31 b 3 b and 4 . 31 a 24 . 114 b 1 . Sg. 4 a 8 . 29 b 16 , 18 . 77 a 6 . 147 a 5 . 188 b 5 . nechtar de: Wb. 11 c 17 . 14 c 4 . Ml. 35 d 24 . Sg. 27 b 6 . 62 b 2 . 173 b 6 . 201 a 4 . cía de, Wb. 23 b 33 . Sg. 242 a 1 . c. dhib, ACL iii 5. 29 . RC xxiv 194. 1 . cia don dís, PH 3262 , 3273 . Acall. 7644 . cid: cid as maith di sunt, Wb. 12 d 12 . After é, sí, ed, often emphatically brought forward with the copula: ishe rochreti di muntir Cessair, Wb. 24 b 31 . ishé céetne fer cetaruchreti di áis Assiae, 7 b 11 . ithé ciaturuchreitset diib, 14 a 29 . issí mo sanserc sa di cleirchib, Mon. Tall. 150. 10 . sechi sí dia rígnaib, Ml. 65 d 8 . issed romarb don tṡlúag, RC iii 181. 36 . intí: intí nochreitfed diib, Wb. 5 a 20 . intí diib bes tresa orcaid alaile, Ml. 19 d 6 . 102 d 4 . Mon. Tall. 132. 24 . indní díob adgladmis, ib. 136. 29 . nech, neut. ní. nech: accaldam neich diib, Wb. 13 b 3 . nech di æcnib, 8 b 4 . 18 c 11 . 28 b 1 . 32 c 8 . nech dim chlaind, Ml. 23 d 6 . nech dinaib nóibaib, 51 a 16 . cen nech dimm æs dim chlaind, 23 d 9 . nech dia chloind RC xxiv 202. 12 . ní: fil ní de as fir, Wb. 11 d 2 . ib. 1 a 9 . 12 b 32 . ma dudrignius ní donaib remeperthib, Ml. 23 c 27 . ní din main, 97 d 10 . ib. 20 d 4 . 24 a 19 . 60 b 6 . 102 a 20 . du dánaigiud neich dúnni di (sc. a thrócaire), Ml. 96 a 8 . ithe neich di, 102 a 15 . ib. 105 b 7 . Sg. 147 b 3 .

(d) preceded by a substantive (or substantivally used adj.) denoting part or quantity . banne: b. dond lind, LL 208 a 46 . bec and its opposite mór: is bec di mór aní roinnisemar, RC xxvi 148 § 28 . is bec di mór chena aní sin, LU 17 b 32 . ní romill a bec din chasail, Trip. 58. 23 . ní beg dhe, O'Gr. Cat. 115 . a bheag ná a ṁuar de, Midnight court 520 . blog: dind ailig, Corm. s.v. gaire . don blonaicc IT iii 65. 8 . CCath. 1584 . iar mbloid don ló, Ériu v 116. 4 . boimm: b. don bargin, LB 49 b . PH 5141 . cethramthu a quarter: cecha cethramthan di (viz. nox), Ml. 95 d 8 . cuit: cuit cáich din rath diadu, Wb. 5 d 6 . cuid díb, Otia i 115. 6 . drécht: dreecht díib, Wb. 4 d 6 . 5 c 22 . i ndrécht dind hiriss, 11 d 2 . cachla drécht diib, Sg. 38 b 8 . drécht din aidchi, Rawl. 44 a 1 . Otia i 114 . d. mór dona longaib, TTr.² 1701 . dia muintir LU 65 a 37 . d. d'écsib, LL 161 a 5 . drong: drong dia míledu, PH 848 . d. dona Iudaidib, 2623 . d. díorma do ṁaithibh Dháil Chais, AFM iv 1064. 8 . leth: assin leath deiscertach de Ultaib, RC vi 174. 5 . indala leth dind rígthig FB § 15 . lucht: a roacairbe fri lucht aile díb, FA § 9 . mír: mír dind lucht, Thes. ii 339. 3 . rann: rán din deacht, Wb. 12 c 13 . rann diar forcitul, 14 c 15 . r. di sillaib, Sg. 59 b 9 . rann din obli, Thes. ii 255. 14 . pars de feoil, Mon. Tall. 132. 8 . rand de (sc. corp) RC xxv 242 § 14 . sochuide: s. diib, Wb. 8 a 17 . uathad: huathad ṅdóine do chretim diib, Wb. 4 d 4 . bid huathad creitfes diib, 4 d 5 .

(e) after words like ball, membur, tráth, lá, bliadain and the like, to denote the unity of which a part is expressed by the preceding word: is ball di Críst in fer, Wb. 22 c 9 . is ball dind fiur in ben, 22 c 9 . naich baill dind deilb, Sg. 5 a 5 . óire nundem membur uili du Dea, Cambr. 37 c . Thes. ii 255. 15 . in naemad caibdel do lebar Matha, PH 7293 . 7304 . lomán dia brut a string of his cloak BColm. 92. 30 . in fichetmad lá do mís Márta, PH 2574 . ba hí in sesed uair do ló innsin, 2894 . isin nomad bliadain déc do ḟlaith Tibir, 2571 . etir dá thráth din ló, RC iii 184. 29 . re deirid don ló, Acall. 7696 .

(f) similarly after any substantive (or adj. used absolutely), denoting the class or category of which the preceding word forms a specimen. (α) type: duine (fer, ben, macc, rí, &c.) diib = one of them: sé maic leis. ní fárcaib mac díb claind, ZCP viii 291. 21 = nech díb, 292. 3 . trí slóig ...slóg díb, FA § 22 . ní fil diib mnái nachit charad, SCC § 6 . tuarustal uirrig diobh, ZCP viii 116. 33 .—Similarly duine (fer, &c.) di chét one of a hundred TSh. 55. 16 (d. do chéad). Cf. oen do chétt, BColm. 106. 11 . cech fer din cethrur so, Ml. 2 b 13 . (β) type: fer dia muintir a man of his household Wb. 33 a 2 . ib. 9 c 31 . cach fer di chlaind Latin, Sg. 33 a 13 . do cach cathrur di Románaib, 33 a 10 . 51 b 13 . 138 b 4 . (γ) type: aingel di ainglib nime one of heaven's angels Wb. 18 c 11 . ib. 12 d 40 . rann di rannaib in domain, Ml. 125 b 7 . ced laá di laib sechtmaine, Thes. ii 40. 31 . robrisiset cleith di clethaib ind rígthige, FB § 25 . fer d'ḟeraib Éirenn, SG 291. 25 . fer dina feraib, ib. §§ 61 , 91 . oenchainle dina cainlib sin, FA § 13 . mac dia maccaib PH 6614 . ball do ballaib, 7631 ; ib. 4825 . secht deich bliadna de bliadnaib, MacCarthy 192. 6 . Often emphatic.

(g) Very frequent with a comparative or superlative or word with the force of a superlative: carissimo filio, gl. dim daltib huilib, Wb. 29 d 3 . iunioris .i. di chlaind Iacob, Ml. 85 a 2 .

(α) di follows immediately after the comp. (sup.): anas ansam diib, Wb. 10 b 1 . in deil as choemem di dindgnaib Roerenn, Thes. ii 295. 3 . cia ben is mesa do mnáib, ZCP viii 113. 11 . in dá én ba háildem dib, SCC § 6 . fer as áldem di feraib Hérend, FB § 51 . in fer ba ṁó dḟeraib Éirenn, Acall. 7990 . in ingen ba sine díb, 7329 . in tóclach ba mó díb, 5064 . is cruthaige dferaib, 6988 ; ib. 7393 . 7819 . oenlaech...caeime do laechaib in domain, FDG 575 . in tænduine is ferr delb don Ádhamchloind, Acall. 7562 . in ba hindilldirghi dibrucud dona feraib ┐ in ba mó eiri dona trénmogaib, 7394 . dún ba dili lais dia dúinib, TE § 1 Eg. in dún fa nessa dóib dona trí dúintib, Acall. 7462 .

(β) type: in gaiscedach is ferr robói d'ḟeraib in domain, Acall. 6557 . in tarm is derscaidti bai dib, RC xxiv 196. 4 . triur is ferr lámach atá d'ḟeraib in domain, Acall. 6092 . in lín is lia robadais d'ḟéind riam, 7621 .

(γ) type: intí diib bes tresa orcaid alaile, Ml. 19 d 6 = intí bes t. díb. Cf. ní beth duine budh áille anás, Acall. 6020 . ní ḟuil don drong dænnachta nech is annsa limsa, 6434 .— After words equivalent to a sup.: prímgeinde do hireschaib, Wb. 4 b 9 . lennán dia claind, RC xxiv 176. 10 .

(h) di in partitive sense after a negative verb (esp. attá) = Fr. il n'y a pas de: nád bíad dē de cleithi la chenél and, Trip. 1814 . See cléithe. nísfil do pláig for bith nachusbera sin for cúlu RC xii 430 § 21 . go nach raibhe do chongnaṁ aige, ML 30. 15 . ní fail di nach dath ná beth forsin loch sin, LL 170 a 37 . cen co beth do thrénḟeraib and acht Fergus, Ériu iv 28. 15 . cen co beth do gaisciud and acht Conall, ib. 28. 20 . gin co beth d'ḟis ná d'ḟíreolus a nÉirinn acht..., Acall. 7887 . ní fuil d'feraib innti acht mathir sea, Acall. 5958 . ní fuil d'écsib Innsi Fáil fear imtha, Ériu iv 220. 9 . gonár fácbhadh do bhúaibh i nÉirinn so that no cows were left in Ireland, ib. i 89 § 36 .—Similarly in positive clauses after attá: i mbói di óinachdaib leu robeth for díb mílib ech, Ml. 43 d 1 .

(i) partly from the preceding usage and partly from the partitive usage in general arose the idiomatic use of di neoch din neoch, din cách (with or without díb) = cách, cach oen, nech.— fidbretha...muirbretha do neoch doruirmius, Laws i 182. 1 . is triasin forcongra sin atresat na huli dáini a bás .i. do neoch rosluic talam ┐ atuatar biasta, RC xxv 236. 2 = PH 3628 . fer rodíglastar Ultu for firu Hérend .i. do neoch díb romarbad, Ériu iv 28. 27 . bertís lægu riasin tráth arnabárach ┐ do neoch nobered loegu díb noscáiltis imma loegu TBC-LL¹ 1531 . cech dúil do neoch techtas bethaid all creatures who PH 4021 (partit.). morfesiur dia aes gráda do neoch ba díle lais díb, ib. 980 (part.). ragait attrebthaide Salamona etir aes ┐ áitid din neoch as tualaing gabáil gascid, TTr. 490 . ara clannaib...de neach file ┐ bias co dé ṁbrátha, LL 36 b 4 . connách bái dUltaib i mbethaib do neoch donarbo chotlud ná cuala, TBC-LL¹ 2962 ; —Here perhaps also Thes. ii 11. 36 ; Wb. 17 a 11 di neuch is governed by Lat. oboedientia. Neut. di neoch all that: imdéntar leis do neoch romilled dUltaib, TBC-LL¹ 1612 (di depending on imdéntar; but 1622 : imdénta latt an romilled dU.). essbuid cecha maithiusa do neoch fil eter neam ┐ talam, PH 4344 . Cf. also 2219 : coro díglum ár nancride fén fair do neoch forodámar ara dáig, where di depends on díglum.

(j) di partitively with the copula = one of, part of: is d'adbaraib chatha Chula Dremne sin that is one of the causes of RC xvii 142. 4 . bid dia phianaib a niffern na péisti sin fésin ic cocnam a ḟola it will be part (one) of his sufferings PH 7670 . bid diar scélaib, Snedg. u. Mac R 14. 7 . ba da bésaibh cach ní fa tibred lám da forba it was one of his customs to complete everything to which he put his hand CCath. 1178 . is do thimnaib rechta Moysi nemthomailt ḟeóla mucce, PH 6542 . is do bhuadhaibh an chopáin so an tan, &c., Oss. iii 226. 25 .—Here also Ériu vi 160. 2 f.b. : corub d'ingantaib láime Ciaráin an scél sin. Cf. XXVI above.

(k) di partitively with attá = forms part of, belongs to: ní di chorp atóosa hóre nímtha laám, Wb. 12 a 21 . ní nádmbed arse di chorp acht atá de, ib. 12 a 22 .

XXXIV Type ferr do laech a better warrior : isé ba ferr do laech, LL 150 a 37 . Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 20 . am ferr do laech andái (sic leg.) RC ix 460. 4 ( ICM 1. 5 ). Modelled on the plural: †ité batar ferr di laechaib.

XXXV di . . . di, di . . . nó di, whether . . . or, be it . . . or, developed from the partitive sense of di: gibé noḟothraiccfedh innte (viz. isin dabaig) do chlannaib Fiachrach d'ḟior nó do mnái whether man or woman Anecd. iii 5. 3 f.b. (depend. on gibé). aonduine d'fir nó do mnái, ZCP viii 211. 20 . ar ná bí nach soer fri tairmthegd in domnaig di triun ná tróg whether strong or wretched Anecd. iii 25. 20 (depend. on nach). ní búi mílid...doná búi cara isin longphort sin da coibhnestu nó do cliaṁain nó da comdalta nó da fir aenchluichi isin Róim, CCath. 2431 sq. ní faicfed delb daena fair do chind ná do chois, RC xxvi 146. 3 . cidh bé conair isin domun do dodhaing nó do ṡodhaing be it hard or easy CCath. 639 . Not here PH 4285 . —Cf. do bicc nó (do) mór little or much PH 4140 . dḟír nó do gó, ZCP v 24 st 15 , v. L infra.

XXXVI GENETIVUS GENERIS: after a collective, quantitative or numeral word, di indicates the constituent units or substance. Competing with the genitive and sometimes not distinguishable from the gen. materiae (XXIX above) and partitivus.

(a) after a numeral word: a nói do móin a nói do min ┐ a nói do chaill, Thes. ii 298. 10 . míli dainglib, Acall. 7735 . trí cét míle do demnaib, 7770 . aon do ló one day ZCP v 495. 5 . viii 562. 10 . SG 23. 16 . Caithr. 150. 5 . aen doidche one night SG 60. 31 . Cf. araile doidche below. dias de fennedaib, LL 90 b 25 . céd do doirrsib, Snedg. u. Mac R 13. 19 .

(b) after pronouns and pronominal words: quaecunque fecerimus, .i. di sóinmechaib ┐ dóinmechaib, Wb. 4 b 5 . nihil, gl. di frithorcuin, Ml. 95 b 2 . Rel. a n-: (α) type: a ndorigeni Dia de maid the good that God had done Wb. 21 d 11 . 30 a 8 . Cf. Ml. 124 b 5 . a césme di cach imniad ┐ di cach guassacht in betho, Wb. 13 d 7 . (Cf. in rocésusa dimned, Anecd. iii 55. 18 = 56. 8 .) Ml. 127 a 2a . a nobid and de feol, Mon. Tall. 129. 25 . a tánic do noeblégund a tír, 136. 21 . a ndernnsat na senóraig do thoirrsi, Acall. 7909 . (β) a ndu imnedaib fodaimi what of afflictions thou sufferest Ml. 55 d 11 . araile: a. doidche, SG 12. 32 . Cf. oen di ló. cid: cid as imgabthi do dénum di ulc ┐ cid as déinti di maith, Ml. 51 b 10 . dim: deim de eot deim de formut, ACC § 105 . ed: ciped do phéin nó do fochraic dliges, RC xxv 240 § 13 . ceped dliges di phéin, 242 § 15 . ní, nanní, nech, inneoch. ní: ní di maith, Wb. 28 d 31 . 33 a 15 . ib. 13 a 12 . Ml. 15 d 9 . 23 c 20 . 36 d 10 . 63 c 5 . 68 d 14 . 93 a 20 (ní di máinib). 114 b 12 . 114 c 9 . 122 b 16 . 124 c 22 . ní di maith, Mon. Tall. 134. 17 ; 147. 30 . ní de min some meal, 157. 31 . ib. 137. 7 . nanní: slogait nanní do uisciu dodaic, Ml. 123 d 3 . 96 b 5 . 96 b 13 . nech di fáithib some prophet Ml. 93 a 5 . co millit in neoch bís do moltaib accaind, Acall. 7677 .

(c) after a collective term or quantitative word (subst. or adj. abs.) or the name of anything having component parts. aicme a tribe : Siracusii .i. aicmae di Graecaib, Sg. 106 a 7 . ib. 34 b 2 . airge a drove; a herd, a troop: airgi do buaib, Acall. 7602 . a. do bochtaib, AFM p. 824 . banne a drop : banna bec de usci, Mon. Tall. 150. 36 , 37 (but banni dond lind LL 208 a 46 partitively). bec a little : a mbecc sin dogníu di maith, Wb. 24 a 12 . a bec ndo síd and, Ml. 51 a 5 . bec ṅdi dechur, 72 c 9 . gan a becc ná a mor do chomraind, Acall. 5474 . boimm a bit : b. do arán, Lism. L. 2734 . breth choice of: do breith fén dór ┐ dairget, Eg. 1782, 30 a 1 . do breth féin do iath ┐ do ferann, Ériu v 150 l. 71 . ib. l. 62 . crithir a spark : c. do chuimne, TSh. 11. 13 . cutrumae an equivalent : a cutrume si do súg this much juice Mon. Tall. 150. 40 . dia enough : d. do cheart, Miscell. Celt. Soc. 356. 1 . d. do phudhar, ib. 13 . do chin, 21 . drong a flock : drong dechaib, Acall. 6542 . d. da gach uile bethadhach, ZCP ii 270 § 205 . emid: emid di fiur so much of a man Sg. 66 a 6 . ere a burden : ere camaill de ór, PH 2011 . here do úir Rómae, BColm. 84. 9 . foróil super-abundance: f. dinaib anib, Wb. 16 c 22 . frass a shower : frass do nemannaib, BDD § 2 . Anecd. iii 50. 15 . gar: gar daimsir iarum a short while after PH 7199 . lán the full of: lán lainne a scéith di úir, RC iii 182. 6 . —Cf. XLIII. lín number : ara lín du chenélaib, Ml. 131 c 17 . lín do bochtaib, PH 6129 . loimm a sup: lom di midc, Mon. Tall. 136. 10 ; but lom nais, ib. 9 . lór sufficiency : ba lór do neim dó he had enough of venom Ériu iv 32. 2 . lór do chalmataid, ib. 28. 16 .—Cf. XLIII. méit quantity : méit di flescaib, Sg. 3 b 19 . cia méit...do biud, Thes. ii 335. 29 . cá mét do chloind, SG 250. 8 . méd do chinedaib...mét do degthoici, CCath. 275 . mór much : mór di maith, Wb. 11 a 20 . 4 d 10 . mór di genib, Thes. ii 322. 24 . a mmór de, Mon. Tall. 152. 22 . is mór do cheol dochualamar, Acall. 7212 . mór do tṡétaib ┐ dindmusaib, 5355 . ib. 7883 . Cf. mór nóir, mór nargait, Anecd. iii 55. 8 , the older expression. morán id.: m. do ṁíltib SG 9. 24 . ordu a morsel: dorat do Ísu ordu do bratán ḟonaithe, PH 6711 . ré space of time: re ré mor do bliadnaib, Acall. 5541. 7029 . riar as breth above: a réir do ṡétaib LU 133 a 40 . LL 375 b 38 . treimse id.: re treimse do bliadnaib, Acall. 5547 .

(d) after words denoting kind, sort, like, parallel, &c. a samail di ríg, SCC § 37. 8 . a samail di graig, 37. 6 . ní fuar do ṡét di márchlois, Liad. and Cuir. 16. 6 . MOD. ní ḟeaca riaṁ a ṡaṁailt sin do dhuine, W. K. a leithéid sin dechtrannaib, SG 260. 3 .

(e) after other substantives: ascaid de ór, PH 7057 . cró uimpi d'ḟeraibh, Ériu iv 112. 11 . fit mór de tuari anmín, Mon. Tall. 152. 18 . lóg di máinib inna nEgiptacde, Ml. 84 c 12 .

(f) frequent with comparatives denoting quantity: quod minus habuistis .i. di rath nó di forcitul, Wb. 18 a 8 . uilliu ...di fochaid, Ml. 54 b 30 . ní bia di mútaib bes huilliu, Sg. 7 a 1 . lugu di mirbuil, RC xxv 252 § 36 . lugu do chinaid, PH 5166 . móo do peccad, 5259 . ZCP viii 111. 9 . MOD. níos mó do ṁaith, &c.—After lia di occasionally has the sense of Abl. respectus: cipsa lia do randaib nocha lia do naeṁaib, Ériu iv 224. 2 . lia do maccaib na rígna do degamsaib, ib. 94. 1 .

(g) buan dolcc a lasting evil RC x 226 § 179 . cinnte do chendaigib certain merchants LB 115 a .

(h) after words like dabach, soithech and the like, di denotes the contents of the vessel: dá dabaigh décc do lionn maith, ZCP viii 116. 1 . baiglend do midh soóla a can of delicious mead Acall. 7421 .

D DI OF MEDIUM, CAUSE, MANNER, TIME & MEASURE in the senses of the original instrumental; in old texts the latter is occasionally still preserved: isé nobenfad a crand oenbémim di bun, LU 58 b 21 . iarna foebraib fennad, Fél. Prol. 48 .

XXXVII Di introduces the tool or instrument by means of which something is done, after trans. verbs denoting:

(a) to make or to do , dogní, conutaing: is do rinn scine doníther, Corm. Tr. 145 . in loech órda cumdaiged do lámaib, PH 2830 . in gái dia ndernais in gním namra, RC v 203 § 26 . don chaladcholg is dom gó díob dorignes in gleo, SG 252. 11 . dodhein teine de chipíní, Gadelica 88. 41 .

(b) to seize , gabaid: rogab din láim aile in seig, SG 391. 16 .

(c) to beat, strike, ply upon, scourge , and the like, benaid, buailid, dobeir builli, dounsi béim, gabaid, dofuairc, &c.: cote in rinnd dia ruba uitam omnis hominis, Wb. 13 d 25 . béim dind echḟleisc, SCC § 8 . dobennaissiu hé di ḟleisc, Trip. 224. 16 . dobeir M. béim do biail, RC xiii 30. 10 . dounsi Cuculainn béim da biail do, FB § 77 . dounsi C. béim din chlaidiub, ib. § 57 .— tuc buille dó do chrann na sleige, Acall. 6721. 6731 . don chonṡlaitt, PH 856 . gabaid goi...dorat buille de i toeb Ísu, 3358 . buille do laigin, 2874 . cét mboaille fort láim dé abaind, Mon. Tall. 142. 10 . bualad do chloidheaṁ, Ériu i 102 § 63 . búailset dia mbassaib, PH 117 . 2143 . do ṡlaitt, 135 .— doriacht fer co claideb...┐ dorat dara brágait don apstal de, 2151 .— co ngébad do chlaidim air féin, Acall. 7495 . rogab cách díb da claidmib a cend araile, 6261 . PH 3299 . — is díbside sraiglit, FA § 16 . — rotúaircset a nochta da ndornaibh, CCath. 1082 . túaircset do flescaib ┐ do sonnaib, PH 2143. 8313 .

(d) to cut, shear, clip , tescad, berrad, gerrad, selgad: arna dteasgad d'armaib an chatha, Ériu i 91 § 41 . is cumma imthescad dá sciath ┐ dá sleig ┐ dá chlaideb, LU 79 b 14 . deimes dia mberrtha, SG 411. 12 . gerraid sí... dia fiaclaib, PH 7661 . consealgad glasgég darach dia corrán, RC xxiv 196. 18 .

(e) to break, to injure : dobrisfinn thfiacla dom dorn, RC xix 144 § 120 . dobacaighedh mac Con la Coirpre don rindcne .i. do sleigh Ailella, RC xvii 11. 2 .

(f) to wound, to kill : gonaid, créchtnaigidir, ardíben, marbaid: cor ghonsat toeb na himagine de (sc. in gae) PH 142 . gaet do ṡleig Deirg, Acall. 1104. 1745 . in gai dia gcréchtnaigther, CCath. 3669 . ardibiba sluaga dia lúaignib, SG 254. 29 . d'iarann ní marbthar, Fen. 68 . Acall. 3236 . SG 391. 32 (di chloich). a nguin d'armaib límtha SG 42. 15 . Cf. marbhas d'urchar sleige í, ML 32. 13 ; Acall. 6947 . 6950 . 7065 .

(g) to throw, fling : doléici, dobeir urchor, foceirt, dobidc, &c.: dambidc Semei di chlochaib, Ml. 58 c 4 . rodíubraic rónurchair de (viz. lia cloiche), Acall. 4802 . dobered urchair di, Acall. 5797. 5810 . Oss. ii 2 . tolléci aurchor de, FB §§ 82 , 87 . focheird rout nurchair din liathróit, TBC-LL¹ 1024 . — Cf. for frestal a námat do clochaib, CCath. 1873 .

(h) to drive, drive away, expel : bruidni dia taircellad a eochu, Anecd. iii 51. 3 . bocṡlaitt dia nescartad conu PH 851 . dorigne sroigill...┐ rosindarb di na slóig, 4526 .

(i) to destroy : toghail in múir do reithibh toghla, CCath. 1883 .

(j) to bind : rochengail hé do línscoit, PH 2916 .

(k) to write : in chathach roscríb dia láim féin, Fen. 167 . scríbtha do láim, PH 4769 . gur thoit eite cuige conadh de sin roscríbh in leabhar, SG 23. 21 .

(l) to shut : dúnaid comlaid a thaige de baccánaib íarnaide, RC vii 296 l. 116 .

(m) isé doratt tí dia bachaill he made a circle with his staff BColm. 52. 23 .

XXXVIII With a wider application introducing the means or instrumentality; transl. the Lat. inruptione (abl.), gl. di maidm, Ml. 85 c 6 . ceilid conceals : náchar étir le do cheilt do bréthir ná do gním ná do chomartha, RC xix 166. 3 . buadrid disturbs : búaidrim port parrghais do neim an imarbais, Ériu iv 114. 12 . buadertha in táth dia chacc LU 74 a 24 . dogní makes, does : mina déna maith díb... mina déna toil Dé díb (sc. na hindmasa) PH 4110 . lessaigid aids, heals : in lín do bochtaib conicfatís do lessugud do indmusaib, PH 6129 . lassaid illuminates : isiatt so na lóchranna da lasfatt Laighin, ZCP viii 110. 16 . insorchaigid id.: roionsorchaigh iarthur Eórpa do ṡoillsi soalach, ZCP v 496. 6 . loscaid burns : mo loscud do chrithrib, TFerbe 610 . loscud do thenid, PH 7428 . conutaing adorns : conrotacht in grianán sin do imdénmaib sainamraib, FB § 3 . conrottacht in timdorn féssin dór, TTr. 1548 . bethugad support oneself by: a b. dá allus féin with his own sweat SG 41. 28 . broenaid: dia rath ronbróina Brigit may B. let her grace rain on us Thes. ii 326. 6 .—Not uncommon in Figura Etymologica: mad ferr cotobsechfider di chosscc alailiu, Wb. 9 a 23 .—Like Lat. per introducing the intermediate agent: is dítsa tarras sin uile through thee Acall. 5986 . teora mná torrcha di hUltaib do mnáib na nDéisi, Ériu iii 141. 219 . di chumachtu by means of, by the power of: cia tír ass asam lat do thabairt dúinne dit chumachta, ZCP viii 318. 34 . cia clérech dá fil muilenn cerr do ch. a mírbuile, BColm. 102. 23 . di chomairgi through the protection of: terno do chomairci an naeim each ríg Lifi, BColm. 90. 10 . de and desin thereby, by means of that, deside id., desen, Thes. ii 335. 37 , see PH 629 b .

XXXIX After verbs of vanquishing, gaining victory, triumphing, excelling, &c., di introduces the domain within which victory is gained: aonlaoch bérus barr ormsa do rith ná do chomrac ná do chorraigecht, SG 290. 12 .

XL After the intrans. verbs dotuit and docer, di introduces the tool or weapon; the agent is usually introduced by la. craet dofæth don gai seo a maccu. dofaeth rí din gai sin, RC iii 178. 22 . dofaethsat din gai roléici, 180. 39 . ib. 38 . dofaoth Fraoch darmaib Eochaid, ML 124. 12 . dona harmaib sin, Acall. 7029 . 6885 (di ṡleig).—dorochair de (viz. din gai) RC iii 129. 31 . Also followed by béim, lám and the like: gur thuit N. do béimeannuib ṁic Mórna ML 18. 25 . dofaeth in corp den snaisse, Anecd. iii 62 . co torchair do bíc (= bidc) aenuaire, BB 49 a 23 . tuitfid dá láim, ML 58. 1 . di láim M. docer Daire, LL 48 b 25 . MacCarthy 192. 4 .

XLI After verbs of buying di introduces the price: manisdeirclimmis di thorud ár láam, Wb. 26 b 16 . dorúaicled do lóg ḟola Críst, PH 3242 . oenfiach adrenar nde, Anecd. iii 22. 21 . ceinnechut sa fín lógmar díb, LB 139 a 51 . rochennaigset don argut sin ferann, PH 3235 . dochennaig sé ┐ nách dór nó dargat acht dia ḟuil féin ┐ dia ḟeoil, 7513 .

XLII In the construction of arbeir biuth he uses, consumes , competing with the genitive: airbert biuth di thorud a precepte, Wb. 10 d 14 . as di sunt arbeir biuth, Ml. 60 b 11 . intan airbir bith in scriptúir do deismirecht asna salmaib, Ir. Ps. 128 .

XLIII After verbs, substantives, and adjectives of filling, satiating, smearing and the like, where di has taken the place of the original instr. or gen. línaid: ronlín di rath in spirto, Wb. 20 d 11 . líntar lán di fín, 11 b 13 . a llínad di atrub ┐ dóinib, Ml. 133 c 11 . CCath. 1920 (forlínaid). cor lín in grian da soillsi in doman, Acall. 5442 . líntar lestar de, PH 6362 . ib. 2507 . líonta dairc, TSh. 38 . 14 . líon mála de ghainiṁ na trágha, Gadelica 88. 26 . lán: inna mmaige robtar lána di Assaraib, Ml. 40 b 7 . ib. 36 b 3 . 40 b 7 . 104 d 3 . Sg. 59 b 18 . it bois láin di uisciu, Thes. ii 249. 10 . ib. 320. 26 . ScM. § 1 . FB § 67 . ba llán in tír di suigibh, Anecd. iii 49. 9 . at lána dímsa, PH 3405 . ib. 2016 . 2113 . 7177 . Subst. loingṡithel ┐ a lán duisci inti, Acall. 7149 ; cf. XXXVI (c). foslig smears : lase foruillechta béoil in chalich di mil, Wb. 7 d 9 . foselgatar a bráthir a tunig som do fuil, Tur. 128 . focertar i nim ┐ fuslegar de imman delg, Thes. ii 248. 7 . sáithech satiated, satisfied , sásaid satiates : ba sáthech in cú de, Hy. v 28 . beit sáithig de na braineoin, Lec. 440 b 9 . na hindmassa doratait dúinn...do sásad bocht díb, PH 6122 . lour: lór di chath, SCC § 36 . PH p. 787 a ; cf. XXXVI (c). riar supplying wants: a muinntir do riar don ṁin cheadna, TSh. 137. 10 . Cf. also frisailethar serves, attends : rofreslad co maith do cach ní, Acall. 6845 .

XLIV DI OF MANNER—the sense of means passing into that of attendant circumstances. The old instr. is occasionally preserved: dotaet bidc, FDG 37 (YBL). atchuadatar briathraib bíthib, SR 5814 . —doghabhasdair aga ccaoineadh do chneadhaibh ┐ d'éighṁibh ┐ d'osnadhaibh ML 108. 14 . gabuis in rígmílid uirri do brathbuillib móraibsecha co torchair leis, SG 251. 4 f.b. laibheoraidh an cluigín do ghuth ṡolusbhinn, ib. 2. 33 . dolabhair do briathraibh gruama, 12. 23 . adubairt Serlus do briathraib imcainte, RC xix 18 § 6 . adubairt do guth mór, ib. 18 § 4 . adubhairt d'ḟoclaibh dána, Midnight court 61 . rolabhuir an colam fris do glór dhaona, Ériu iv 53. 31 . raluidin se de marcaib I used to ride on steeds Ériu i 72. 20 . dothuit ar talaṁ do tháimnéll báis she fell to the ground in a dead faint RC xix 162 § 151 (ambiguous). di léimim with a leap: dotiag dia léimim inna carptib, LU 63 b 5 . TBC-LL¹ 738 Y. téid san uaṁaigh do léim, Ériu i 30. 239 . di bidc id.: dotaed do bheidhg asin imdaig, FDG 37 B.K. (dotœd bidg YBL). In a similar way arose a great number of standing phrases, cf. di chois, dech, di ḟorcraid, doenguth, doenbreith, doeninntinn.

XLV DI OF CAUSE, REASON OR MOTIVE—This sense was developed partly from the sense of `means' and partly from that of starting-point or origin (XXII above). Cf. such a phrase as: is de tháinic a thiugbás originated from i.e. was caused by Acall. 2584 .

(a) from, by, in consequence of, according to, in various usages: si enim mente excedimus, Deo, gl. .i. caritate .i. di imradud Dæ, Wb. 15 d 7 . Ml. 99 a 9 . Sg. 50 a 3 . di chor cruinn dacer dul issa muir de ligno sortis in mare missus Tur. 131 . cia adbar dia cess in bith, SR 7866 . ropo liath in mag sin dia ninchinnib, RC iii 177. 33 . ba brecc do imdornchoraib na claideb, Ériu iv 26. 26 . corbo chlárḟind...don tṡnechtu, TBC-LL¹ 1706 . ní bia blicht ac buar ...don bás hísin in consequence of ZCP viii 111. 23 . ní bí acht trí duirn in cach duine díb ┐ is bláith inócclach iat da méte féin according to their size (Stokes) ZCP ii 260 § 186 . fordorchae soillsi in lae don tṡaighnén (means and cause at the same time), CCath. 373 . de therefore, for that reason, consequently : Thes. i 5. 29 . ii 253. 8 . is de tra doforgill som, Mon. Tall. 140. 17 ; 144. 25 . is de forácaib Fiacha Connla ina tír, ZCP viii 314. 16 . betis colla de can chend, Ériu i 130. 39 . RC xii 88§97 . ZCP viii 115. 4 . Denoting consequence: torchis Eocho do chinn a chéli co mbreth Colla de, ZCP viii 319. 29 . bia torrach uaimsea ┐ béra mac de, BDD §7 .—Often in poetry in a vague sense, esp. at the end of a line to suit the metre. Frequent after comparatives corresponding to Lat. eo, Goth. þe, Eng. the; v. 5 de. desin id. bái imchosnum ┐ tnúth mór eter B. ┐ F. desin, RC xxiv 180. 10 . dochuaid doigh éada a nAoife dhesin, OCL 6. 7 . is demin desin conid náma Dé intí ná cretend, PH 2264 . coná fétait desin na popuil fognam, 4233 , 568 . &c., v. PH p. 629 b . TSh. 20. 22 . deside id.: conid córa deside marb do rád frisin pecthach, PH 4811 . diṡuidiu, disuidi, didiu, v. didiu. dindí for that, because, since , cf. airindí: dindí nád rochoilset ind Assair tempul, Ml. 48 d 28 . inde est quod...i. dindí as nansae ┐ as línmar a cenél sin condaarthróithad Dia, 104 a 6 . itaque .i. dindí atacomla, Sg. 161 b 10 . ib. 197 a 15 , 16 , syn. with fobíth. cid dia n- why , cf. cid ara n-, cid frissa n-; may contain either di or do according to the verb that follows. cid dia léicid cundubairt for drécht úaib..., Wb. 13 b 12 . cid dia nepir som aní sin, 19 d 11 . is súaichnid cid dia ndechuith, 16 c 7 . cid dia téige uann RC x 66. 10 . cid dia rotdíchlis ḟormsa, LL 289 b 33 , cf. SG 61. 38 ; but Ml. 35 b 24 (ind fochuinn dia ragbhtha .i. dia sóirad) contains di in the sense of ` of, about, concerning .' aní dia fil the cause of: inní da fuil a marbad, Fianaig. 56. 19 , v. XXVII (b).

(b) in the construction of several verbs, subst., and adjectives, denoting:

(α) to die of, to be sick with: atbail, atbath, caillter, téit éc, is marb, galrach and the like. atbail: mani eple de, Sg. 181 a 5 . dafuabair galar...atbail de, SCC § 4 . in dig tonnaid dia nerbalt, LMU 17. 32 . co nerbailt do bidg oenúaire, LL 25 a 39 . atbélam di ḟuacht ┐ gortai, MacCarthy 62. 8 f.b. de galar olc, ib. 158. 8 . atbath: conid de atbathatar, Thes. ii 298. 18 . dend áine sin, Mon. Tall. 156. 5 . dia guin, RC xxiv 184. 15 . do mallchríne, MacCarthy 144. 2 . do thám thrait, ib. 142 st 3 . do galar, BColm. 106. 4 . conbeba dot breith, LL 147 a 6 . caillter: ní caillfear den ocras tu, Gadelica 90. 37 . éc: éc a máthar dia breith ZCP viii 303. 31 . dochóid N. éc de thám, MacCarthy 146. 3 . a éag do chuṁaid a ṁná, Ériu i 24 l. 115 . tatham: rothathaiṁ C. do bheadhg aonúaire, AFM 308. 4 f.b. marb: marb in ben dot breith, LL 147 a . do bidc oenúaire, SR 7170 . de thám, MacCarthy 150. 15 . do galar, ZCP viii 120. 4 . do dásacht, TFrag. 164. 2 . do chumaid a mná, RC xiii 11. 7 . de, PH 3844 . The opposite is beo de, Wb. 10 b 27 . galar: amal as már a galar de, Ml. 40 b 9 .

(β) to reprimand for, take vengeance for: is cúrsagad rondcúrsagusa di chomitecht, Wb. 19 a 6 . oc toibeim for Laegairi don badbscél, FB § 70 . cairigid: cairigius a menma Ailill don gním sin, TE § 6 LU. Competing with imm. díglaid: coro díglum ár nancride fair do neoch forodámar ara dáig, PH 2219 , v. XXXIII (i).

(γ) to beat one for sth.: céd mbémenda fort láma...da cach uabar dogensat, Ériu i 201. 6 .

(δ) to do penance for: issí a pennit de, Wb. 26 b 20 . du aithrigi dia pecthaib, Thes. ii 253. 6 . ní hécen aithrigi disuidiu, Mon. Tall. 142. 2 . co ṅdénsat aithrigi don chul doronsat PH 993 . aithrige don ulc roimraid, 5134 . ib. 1208 .

(ε) to complain of: fodord dóib di dommatu, Ml. 97 d 10 . murmurare de inopia .i. din dommataid, 97 d 11 . de male potentibus querela, gl. denaib míchumachtgib, 29 a 9 .

(ζ) to be or become angry for: rofergaiged Ailill de, LL 27 b 1 . rofergaigestar fri Patraic do marbud in druad, Anecd. iii 36 . iarna dechrad d'íttaid, LL 75 b 25 . gabaid feirg desin, PH 981 . ib. 855 . Competing with imm.

(η) to be proud of, to boast of: rosgab huall dí imbud a soinmiche, Ml. 57 c 13 . connách gabad huall de, Ml. 69 a 17 . is deidbir móidem di suidib, Wb. 17 d 19 (a rare construction). is diumdach Gúaire díot, SG 53. 13 .

(θ) to be envious or jealous of: nongaib format friu dia sóinmichi, Ml. 43 a 14 . nád robae étugud Dæ desom, 32 d 10 .

(ι) to be thankful for: attlugud boide do Dia dibar nícc, Wb. 27 c 2 . di cach maith, 27 a 7 . dia sóirad, Ml. 117 b 7 .gratus...de præstitis, gl. dinaib remfoiridib, Ml. 72 c 3 . gratus...de recentibus præstitis, gl. dinaib remfoiredib nuib .i. dinaib degnímaib, 75 a 12 . budig desen, Thes. ii 343. 32 . dín bat budig brain, LU 119 a 33 . buidech dib, ACL iii 6. 1 . Midnight court 898 . diambtis budig d'oenbairgin, Ériu i 132. 72 . SG 19. 6 ; 54. 32 (bud buide Guaire díot). BB 498 a 15 (di toirtib in talmun).

(κ) sad, mournful, tired, weary and the opposite: arnápat toirsich dim chuimregaib se, Wb. 26 d 21 . 27 a 34 . toirsich de, Trip. 84. 19 . brónach: is de ní beth brónaig, Fél. Prol. 188 . b. de díth a coiceli, ZCP iii 248 § 63 . desin, PH 911 . doguilse: d. di neuch adbaill ┐ di neuch nád etar ┐ di neuch bís la nech, Wb. 16 b 11 . co cáined in doman do bás Mártain amal noḟáiltniged dia bethaid, RC ii 400 § 38 . de quibus oportuerat me gaudere .i. díibsi, Wb. 14 d 9 .

(λ) thirst from: bátar i nítaid...dend ḟulacht they were athirst from the cooked food RC xxiv 196. 11 .

(μ) intoxicated : atbertis conid for mesca do nua fína robátar na hapstail, PH 5394 .

(ν) weak from: súili tláithi do déraib, Ériu i 138. 6 .

(ξ) Here also arcessi commiserates, has compassion on (orig. is sorry for): air arrocheis side di bochtai cháich, Ml. 61 a 9 . airchissis de, LU 78 a 15 . roairchis dind Críst, Snedg. u. Mac R 9. 9 . dib, 11. 17 . dííb, PH 4961 . dimm, 1301 . dínn 2204 . 4412 . airchis co luath díomsa, SG 393. 2 . Occasionally also do: a. daib (3 pl.) PH 1009 . arcessi do neoch, Wb. 4 c 19 .—Cf. airchissech di cech duine, Rawl. 40 a . menma airchisechtach di cach duine, 3 B 23, 27 a 1 .

XLVI DI OF MEASURE WITH COMPARATIVES corresponding to Oir. i n-: dob áirdi do dhá throigh Admirandus A. was taller by two feet RC xix 368 § 235 . as má Mars do bheagán ná oiread go leith na talman paulo maior Gadelica ii 106. 5 . For -de after comparatives v. XLV (a).

XLVII DI IN THE SENSE OF GEN. or ABL. QUALIT.: in corp do rogili ┐ in folt do roáilli ┐ in agaid do chumtachta ┐ in tṡúil do roglaissi, ZCP iv 40. 13 sq. issiat ubla is millsi amuigh do chubra innsi Áduim of the fragrance of Adam's Isle Ériu iv 114. 4 .

XLVIII (Possibly a subdivision of XXVIII) DI is the preposition in idiomatic impersonal phrases of the type: attá d'ḟebas na síne the weather is good: is fossad do chéim glan glé cia beith d'ḟeabus na síne, TE § 9. 6 Eg. má beth tra do húaite ind aessa gráid lasna tuatha cia beit trí hecailsi for cubus cech ḟir gráid, Ériu i 220 § 13 . má beth tra do úaisle ind ḟ.r gráid ┐ a airmidin dofórmagar a dligid, ib. § 15 . Here also Ériu iv 142 § 19 : cia bar lín se...ní fil ém diar núaiti we are not few; and PH 3964 : bói dia óite in inbaid he was a young man at that time.

XLIX DI OF TIME: for, during : do thríb cethorchaib aidchi ammain for usciu ┐ bargin, Mon. Tall. 136. 7 . di lau: luid tria hecosc a ṡenathar do Themuir di lau sobais on a prosperous day ZCP viii 311. 18 . do ló in ḟuigill on the day of judgment FA § 6 LB. di lau is d'adaig by day and night: do ló ná d'áidchi, Acall. 6118 . do ló ┐ d'aiche, Lib. Flav. ii 25 a 2. 22 . pl. do láib is d'aidchib, Ériu iv 106. 14 . d'adaig at night , q.v. disin unde, hinc, exinde, proinde, v. XXXI. di chéin from afar , v. XXXI. di chianaib, ib.

L DI FORMING ADVERBS from adjectives. Cf. Lat. de improviso, de novo, de integro, de cetero, de subito (Plaut., Lucilius), Lat. de repente (Plaut.). di léir diligently : guidid Dia di léir, Ml. 68 a 15 . geib do mámb do léir (v.l. co lléir), ACL iii 313. 2 . robói Fergus féin isin gliaid sin ┐ atát a scéla do léir aige, ib. 5. 7 . di glé clearly, openly : ní éicsem huile do glé cid fri saegul sechtmaine, Rawl. 88 b 26 . di gnáth usually, always : is grema duit nách é Tadhg do choṁarsa garcc do gnáth, ZCP viii 223 st 23 . do ghnáth. Miscell. Celt. Soc. 380. 12 . AFM 2256. 3 . As to do gréss cf. LI. di biuc a little, di mór much : dia nellad do bicc' nó mór ón ḟuigell ḟírén, PH 4140 . do biuc ZCP viii 217. 17 . do lomm, Midnight court 391 . Cf. XXXV above. do ṡír always = co sír, TSh. 5. 5 ; 12. 25 ; 21. 26 . dḟan sé a bhfochair a athar do ṡíor, TSh. tearcól do ṡ. aca, ib.; ised bís mo smacht do ṡír, Hib. Min. 82.12 . v. sír. Here also dano, if it is from di nuu = Lat. de novo, denuo. Cf. also dáirithe.

LI PHRASES, belonging to E in various senses.

di ág, dág, dáig, dágain, dáigin; dég, d'ḟech, d'éigin for the sake of, because of: dígal...dég ár pectha, Ml. 88 a 4 . d'fech, Ardm. 17 b 1 . bid dibar nág si ronbia ni corona, Wb. 25 a 3 . di ág mná .i. di ág Medba, ZCP viii 305. 20 . di ág aige Aingine, RC x 224. 166 . v. dáig, &c.

d'áis with the consent of, of free will : go mbendaís an tiarla as d'áis no d'éiccen until they should rescue the Earl by consent or violence AFM vi 2172. 25 . tré chloinn Eogain 'sní dá nais but not with their consent R.I.A. 23 G 24 p. 250 .

di breith, do b. according to the judgment : do b. rechta PH 2810 . do b. a anmcharat, ib. 7615 . See breth.

di bríg because of: de bhrígh nách bhfuil spioraid Chríost aca, De Imit. 1. 16 . do bhrígh ó bheith na pheacthach dhó, TSh. 62. 1 . dá bhrígh sin for that reason, TSh. and mod.

do chet with the permission of, opp. cen chet: adubhairt nách geabhdaois suirghe ón dias sin oile acht do chead a nathar, ML 12. 25 . do chead Dé, SG 16. 35 . do ched a nathar, AFM v 1686. 24 .

di chiunn, do chiunn away , after a verb of motion: intan tét a laithe di chiunn, Ml. 21 c 3 . for the sake of, on behalf of, &c. de chind, LU 82 b 18 .

di choiss on foot : is dia chois a mbúi, Hib. Min. 70. 15 . immathéged cách dia chuis, LU 40 a 12 . dariachtatar na noecharptig...┐ in triar de choiss maroen riu...┐ nira luathiu na noecharptig anda in triar de choiss, LL 101 b 32 = TBC-LL¹ 5876 . do choiss, BB 487 b 5 . ib. 7 a 34 . conadh airi sin nách togluasinn laech do ch. ná dheoch, ZCP i 394. 13 . Cf. di thraig below.

di chumaid from sorrow LL 11 a 29 . 23 a 50 , b 38 . SR 6923 . See XLV (b α).

di dáig because of. See dáig.

di deoin by the will of: atbath rí de deoin Dé, LL 133 a 22 . dia deoin of his own accord LL 16 b 7 . PH 2361 sq. dia nd., LL 193 a 46 . dom d., Fianaig. 62. 12 . ZCP viii 223. 30 . v. 1 deóin, aindeóin.

d'écin by force : d'áis nó d'éiccen, v. dáis supra.

d'eoch on horseback : do chois nó dh'eoch, ZCP i 394. 13 . Synonym for eoch, TFrag. 204. 15 .

dom dóig on my own account : doscríbus sin dom doig Mon. Tall. 154. 26 .

di druimm by means of, in virtue of, on the score of: de dh. dinntleachta, De Imit. 4. 1 . do dh. chennaig, AFM vi 2076. 5 . na ccreach, ib. v 1338. 4 f.b. de dhruim díchill ┐ díoghraise, TSh. 225. 3 (N.E.). Often only a strengthened di, v. druim(m).

di eclai for fear : d'eagla go ndiongnadh biataigh dhíobh ML 118. 17 . ná hinnis aní bu mian leat do dénam d'egla muna, &c., Ériu iv 126 § 4 .

d'ḟebas on account of the goodness or excellence of: tét do saigid Chuipit dia febus a ṡeirce sium ó gentib, Aen. 384 . d'feabas a delba, FDG 458 . tabair di siud iad d'febas. a huirchill, SG 297. 6 .

d'ḟech v. di ág supra.

d'ḟeirc in anger : dodechad...d'ḟeirg riut dot romad TBC-LL¹ 3421 .

dia ḟír in truth LL 192 a 36 ( Metr. Dinds. ii 49. 39 ).

di ḟochonn in consequence of: di ḟ. a ferge a ttothfund for fairge, Todd Nenn. 132. 51 .

di ḟorcraid, di imḟorcraid, d'imarcraid abundantly, extra, in excess : atá leusom di forcrid a ndudesta airibsi, Wb. 14 a 33 . conná ternó ní dona .u. gaiscedaib déc nobítís di imforcraid hi tegluch Chonchobair, LU 61 a 13 f.b. ; cf. PH p. 758 a , and see immarcraid, immḟorcraid, immarcaid.

d'ḟorniurt through the oppression or tyranny of: fearg oirne ┐ air d'ḟoirnirt indluig, Ériu iv 212. 20 .

di gním nó di bréithir in word or deed : má dotuc easanóir do g. na do b. do nech acu, RC xix 28 § 22 .

do gréss continually, semper : origin of do obscure, v. 2 grés.

di inchaib, do i., d'inchaib ( LL 147 b 16 ) for the honour of, under the protection of, &c. tair lind dí giall di i. Connacht, LU 69 b 2 (cf. Laws v 308. 19 : fíach gill di inchaib). de i., FB § 13 . dit i., LU 66 b 38 . roléiccead ass d'ionchaibh a chomairgedh, AFM 1072. 14 . See 1 enech, ainech.

do láthair, de l. in presence of, before (both after verbs of motion and of rest) contains original do.

di léimim v. XLIV.

di marcaib v. XLIV.

di memur, do mebair by rote, by heart : gabáil ind tsailm de memur, Mon. Tall. 142. 24 . dobhí dḟebus a ṁebra gach a cluinedh tiar is tair dobíodh aige do mebair, SG 108. 7 . gan aonḟocal do ṁebair, ib. 280. 1 . atá in scriptúir do mebair lais, PH 2185 . ib. 4178 .

di glanmemur, do ghlanṁeabhair id. conách bi ní da gcluineadh gan a bheith do ghlainmeabhrae aige, MR 282. 11 (Stowe, not in YBL). dá mbeidheadh an bíobla go léir de ghlanṁeaṁair agat, De Imit. 2. 4 . ib. 112. 4 .

dia mess féin according to his own opinion Each. Iol. 25. 14 .

di miscais from hatred : dia m. ara máthair, Ériu iv 102. 6 .

di muin, glossed de chommairgi: robí (.i. romarb) Aed di muin Chormaic in ríg , Rawl. 122 a = LL 314 a 27 .

di muir by sea : ac indrudh Muman do muir ┐ do thír RC xviii 49. 24 . in comdortad darónsat a námait do muir ┐ do thír fair, CCath. 2675 . cach olc do muir is do thír tige fri Temrach, BColm. 102. 10 .

do nós ever : do n. mar is cóir dóib, Hy Fiach. 459. 1 ; ib. 458. 35 . ar thagid do n., KMMisc. 264. 13 .

d'oenaicned of one mind : d'aentáib ┐ d'aenláim ┐ d'aenaigned da bar ninnsaigid, MR 194. 14 .

d'oenbreith at one birth : doenbreith ructha Olom ┐ Conrí ZCP viii 332. 2 .

d'oenintinn of one mind, intent : dias dot sluagaib do beith da aeninntinn, RC xix 26 § 19 .

d'oenláim. See d'oenaicned.

d'oenméin with one accord : dorinneadar uile d'aoinṁéin, TSh.

d'oentóib together (after verbs of motion as well as of rest): is d'oentaib bátar ind fir se hi cend Ulad, SCC § 22 . do chuadar cum an catha dh'aentaeibh, Caithr. CC 25 .

d'oentoisc with special aim, deliberately, exclusively LL 90 b 25 . Laws iii 422. 5 ; v 336. 19 , 20 . TSh. 160. 2 ; 215. 16 ; v. toisc .

d'oenuaim of one report, all together , v. Dinneen 36 a .

d'oenurchor, v. XXXVII (f).

di ráith, do r., .i. ar son for the sake of O'C. is di r. dee dobeir dígail fort, Wb. 6 a 14 ; v. ráith.

do réir ( dit réir, ACL iii 313. 2 ) according to contains original do, v. 1 do.

di rogain, di rogu, with beirid = takes as a choice, chooses : ruc in mac ba sine a indmus do rogain, LB 158 b 6 . AFM 1640. 8 . Proverbs 22. 1 . a breith do (v.l. de) roghain TSh. 56. 25 .

di ṡeirc for love : cum benignitas apparuit saluatoris nostri .i. is do seirc móir dodechuid airitiu colno do Chríst, Wb. 31 d 2 . asbert...cid dia mbói fochond a galair. atá dit seirc seo ol Ailill, TE § 10 LU (belongs under XLV a). is dia ṡeirc conairlither a thol it is through love of Him that His will is cared for Ériu i 195. 2 .

diṡuidiu = didiu, q.v.

di thír by land . See di muir.

di thoisc, do thoisc on account of, owing to: ag caoineadh a amaráin féin do thoisg an trír chéadna, TSh. 60. 7 . gach saoth da dtig orra is do th. an ubhaill úd táinig, 92. 15 . bás...da ṡíol do th. a anuṁla sin, 93. 1 f.b. do th. an adhalt rannais, 151. 18 , &c. Tor. Dh. Oss. p. 194 .

di thraig on foot , cf. di choiss: doluid aṅgel Dé dia thraig ar chinn Baláim, SR 4785 .

d'urmór for the greater part: dochuartaighsiod fearann Chonaire ┐ dochreachsat durmór é, ML 22. 19 .

E DI OF THE SUBJECT-MATTER OF THOUGHT, FEELING OR ACTION : of, concerning, with regard to, in reference to, corresp. to Lat. de.—For the sense-development compare: is becc pridchimmeni di rúnaib Dée, Wb. 12 c 6 . atfét dún ní dona mórgaibfi rogaifis, Anecd. iii 53. 26 . co ninnisi tú ní dot madgnímradaib, &c.

LII

(a) In elliptical or incomplete sentences: de collectis autem quae fiunt in sanctos, .i. dinab gabálib, Wb. 13 d 33 . uaniloqui...maxime qui de circumcisione sunt, gl. de Iudeib ón that is of the Jews, 31 b 15 . mire sane uariauit hos uersus .i. cachla fers and di adhuath...in fers aile dí húaisletu, Ml. 40c16 . du gnímaib aní tuas du persannaib anísiu sís, 117 c 6 . ib. 89 d 12 . 102 d 9 . in finem .i. di laithiu brátha, 40 a 19 . Transl. Lat. de: Sg. 2 a 10 (donaib). 2 b 1 (dinaib). With the copula: is do (seldom di) is of, about : ní dond imdibu colnidiu lessom inso he is not here speaking of &c., Wb. 10 a 14 . is do diuchtrad corporum ┐ do chotlud corporum , 25 c 12 . náich do imdibu colnidu aní thuas, 10 a 15 . is do dóinacht maicc cachla focull ┐ dia deacht a naill, Ml. 24 d 30 . is dind oipred, 67 c 18 .—ceith dand erán ┐ den seildind imbe both as to the bread and, &c. Mon. Tall. 151. 25 . issed as chóir laisim...de bithbúr praindea, ib. 146. 28 . isí comairli is cóir dhe, ZCP viii 114. 8 . ni ba edh de thuathaib Dea it was not so with RC xii 92 § 122 .

(b) in subject-headings, titles of tales, chapters , &c. after Latin model: Cato de agna pascenda, gl. din dínit bed ṡástai, Sg. 39 b 11 . Nonio Marcello de doctorum indagine .i. dind eclim, 17 a 6 . De Chophur in da Muccide, LL 246 a 15 . de gabáil in tṡída inso sís, 245 b 12 f.b. do fallsigud Tána Bó Cúalṅge, 245 b 1 . de rígaib Muman inso, 320 a 15 . do Monur (leg. monur) epscop sunna, ACL iii 313. 1 ; 316. 15 , ZCP x 378 . do fedmannaib anmcharat...so, 318. 11 . de chórus cána in domnaich budesta, Anecd. iii 21. 1 . agso síos do ríoghaibh Éireann, Keat. iii 2. 1 .—Often at the end of a tale when the title is repeated.

(c) in the construction of many verbs, such as—

(α) speak, tell, preach, mention and the like. Lat. loqui, dicere, narrare de. Referring to Lat. dicere: cum dicit de osoribus suis .i. di náimtib, Ml. 16 d 5 . de suscepto homine dicta .i. di dóinacht Críst són, 17 a 11 . Sg. 3 b 27 . 66 a 6 . Lat. tractare: de speciebus...supra tractauimus, gl. di delbaib, Sg. 61 a 1 . praefari, Ml. 61 a 35 , 36 . sermo esse, 26 b 5 . inserere de, 75 b 20 , cf. 26 b 20 . After adfét, asindet, aisndís; di: a nadfiadar di Críst, Wb. 27 a 10 . ib. 5 c 16 (di thuiste dúile). innahi adfiadam di Christ, Ml. 93 d 14 . aisndis di duiniu, 131 a 12 . intan adcóidemmar di comparit, Sg. 43 a 6 . Ml. 65 a 1 . 115 d 9 . Cf. Sg. 103 a 1 . Tur. 40 . din (-nd, -nt), Ml. 14 d 10 . 40 b 8 . dinaib, 40 c 18 . de, 122 a 2 . Sg. 18 a 1 . 59 b 7 . diib, Ml. 145 c 7 , 8 . di, 42 b 7 . dia (n-), 40 b 8 . 54 a 20 . Sg. 197 a 6 . taidbsin dia nécid remaind, PH 6689 . do: aisndís du forgairib Dæ, Ml. 66 c 3 . ib. 14 b 12 . 14 d 3 . 24 d 30 . 42 b 18 . 110 c 5 . 125 a 11 . 126 b 1 . 137 d 2 .—do may be original in the sense `ascribe to' ( Ml. 72 d 9 ). asbeir di: amal bid di muir atberad, Ml. 62 c 2 . ib. 37 a 14 . dind, 21 c 3 . dinaib, Wb. 5 a 4 . dínni: ní don daum storidiu acht is dínni preceptórib ar is díin asrobrad a ndede so, 10 d 8 . diib, Sg. 29 b 16 . 73 b 8 . 203 b 6 . di 3 sg. f., Wb. 15 d 20 . Ml. 145 c 3 . dia n-, Wb. 13 c 12 . 21 d 4 . Ml. 14 d 13 . Sg. 66 b 10 . 71 a 17 . 208 a 7 . diar n-, Wb. 17 c 23 . is de atberthe in sírite de, SCC § 17 . cid arnapair in tapstal spirtalda díb, RC xxv 244 §§ 20 - 23 . issed asbered som de suidiu, Mon. Tall. 142. 19 . de bithúr, 136. 31 . PH p. 630 a . do: Ml. 26 a 8 . 45 a 9 . 51 d 25 . 133 a 10 . don, dund: asberar corp don dlúim máir sin, Wb. 9 d 5 . Ml. 17 b 23 . 37 b 19 . donaib, 37 b 24 . issed asbert do bithfúr, Mon. Tall. 134. 21 .—In the sense `ascribes to' do may be original ( Wb. 4 b 3 . 9 d 5 . Ml. 110 d 16 ). atá briathar: ní díib attáa briathar less it is not of them he speaks Wb. 13 a 16 . intí dia robe briathar linn, Sg. 197 b 12 . PH 2725 . 3148 . 4600 . 6189 . 6501 . 6698 . 6791 . cestnaigidir asks, inquires : cestnaigther do forcraid na foltni, RC xxv 240 § 12 . foraithmet mention of: f. ṅde, Ml. 61 b 12 . dia mbi f. riam, Sg. 197 b 18 . coná raibi acht mad f. bec di (viz. the Táin) in Érinn, ACL iii 4. 15 . gairthir di is called : goirther coin in diabuil díb, PH 7703 . Sabecdai do gairm díb, 6969 . Longínus goirther dím, 694 . dogairther di id.: conid de dogarar díndi Féne ó Fénius, Ériu iv 140. 23 . RC xxiv 184. 7 . BColm. 58. 3 . labraithir Lat. `loquitur': ní labrathar di féisne, Sg. 199 b 6 . de se loqui, gl. cétna persan di féisin, 199 b 10 . quando de ratione...loquimur, gl. de chaldigud, 181 a 9 . pridchid: is becc pridchimme ni di rúnaib Dé, Wb. 12 c 6 . rolá di: ní du choscrad in tempail rala som, Tur. 80 . ráidid: Góidil do rád dib, Thes. ii 316. 24 ; 317. 33 .

(β) sing of, write of. Lat. canere, scribere de. canaid: is di laithiu sabbait rocét in salm so, Ml. 57 d 13 . ib. 48 b 11 . 85 b 11 (referring to Lat. cecinit). Thes. ii 252. 14 . conid díbsin rochéad in seanchaid, RC xxiv 182. 15 . PH p. 630 a . gaibid: di: di thuasulgud in popuil...rogabad in salm so, Ml. 116 c 2 . ib. 16 a 10 . 35 a 8 . 35 a 10 . 44 b 1 . 48 d 27 . 133 b 1 . 139 a 8 , 10 , 11 . din, 44 b 1 . 48 d 28 . 112 c 11 . de, 16 a 10 . 24 d 26 . 44 b 1 . 48 d 27 , 28 . dia (n-), 35 b 24 . 44 b 1 . dimsa, 17 b 18 . díb, 35 a 8 . do: is de rogabad in salm so do dechur etir deacht ┐ dóinacht maicc, 24 d 26 . 24 d 29 . 45 d 7 . 133 b 2 . 139 a 6 , 9 . Referring to Lat. scríbere, Wb. 25 b 7 .

(γ) prophesy, prefigure; testify . do-airchain: is díimsa tairrchet, Wb. 7 a 2 . ib. 15 a 34 . 26 d 9 . desom, Ml. 38 c 9 . di thetacht in spirto...profetauit, Tur. 170 b 2 . amal roterchan in fáith de, PH 5115 . fiugraid: an rofiugrad di Críst, Wb. 15 a 34 . fáitsine: dia mbói oc fáitsine dia mac, PH 3436 . dobeir forcell: is de dobiur f. di neurt inna deserce, Wb. 16 c 4 . ib. 25 d 20 , 21 (díibsi), 25 d 20 . Ml. 22 d 19 . 24 d 14 . a forcell forrogelsam ni di laithiu brátho, Wb. 25 d 20 . dobeir teist (testas): do thabirt testassa dínn, Wb. 15 a 3 . ib. 15 a 6 . 15 d 8 a . 18 a 3 . 23 a 23 . 24 c 16 . 25 a 18 . 28 b 6 . 28 c 4 . 34 a 3 .

(δ) instruct, teach . Lat. docere de: do munud a dalti di cach gním, Wb. 24 d 10 .

(ε) discuss, dissertate . Lat. disserere, disputare de: etarcert di dúlib, Wb. 27 a 10 . di phecthib, 29 c 10.

(ζ) blaspheme : du écnduch di Dia, Ml. 72 b 5 (hardly for `do'; usually with gen. `écndach Dé').

(η) hear, think, remember, forget . Lat. audire, cognoscere, sentire de. cluinithir: issed rochualai Maolrúain la sruthi di dérgu ind tíri, Mon. Tall. 133. 19 . Cf. magna a patribus de tuis factis audiuimus .i. di neuch durigni siu du adamru, Ml. 63 c 5 . domoinethar: cáintoimtiu diib, Wb. 23 a 22 . náro taithmen Ísu do forcraid na foltne did not think of RC xxv 242. 16 . Referring to Lat. sentire, Ml. 15 b 4 . accipi de, ib. 17 d 11 . coná raibi acht mad cuimne di (viz. the Táin) i nÉrinn, ACL iii 4. 15 . cuimnigidir is mindful of: ní de fat na foltni .i. dia forcraid acht dia nárim nammá cumniges Ísu isin tṡoscélu, RC xxv 240 § 12 . ár ndermat ni diar sóirad, Ml. 96 a 13 .

(θ) care for, provide for, be confident about, fear for: dethiden: dethiden díbsi, Wb. 14 d 13 . dissi, 28 d 22 . diibsi, 26 d 19 . d. dinaib bochtaib, Ml. 129 c 3 . Cf. cia dethitiu i faili siu don bargin út, Ériu i 134. 3 . Later also with for. A cpd. with di (*di-aith-fedan). remcaisiu, remdéicsiu providence ; remidéci provides for: nád rabae r.-déicsiu Dé dimso, Ml. 59 a 48 . desom, 91 a 21 . díib, 90 b 17 . dia dúlib, 20 b 2 . remcaissiu Dé diib, 90 b 19 . 90 c 9 . diib som, 122 d 7 . dinni, 91 b 10 . dinaib dúlib, 20 c 3 . de, 50 d 1 .— nadmbed dliged remdéicsen Dé du dóinib sech remideci Dia dunaib anmandib amlabrib, 55 d 25 . essamnae: de protectione tua...fiducia, gl. ní núae dúnni ind esamnae so dit dítin siu this confidence concerning thy protection Ml. 110 d 12 . Cf. XXXII above.

(ι) uisio quae de obscuratione solis facta est, .i. din temul, Ml. 16 c 7 .

(κ) de Homine intelligendum est .i. di dóinacht maicc is immaircide, Ml. 25 d 17 . is din gním...is i. .i. du chésad Chríst, Ml. 113 d 3 . do of the person, Wb. 12 b 26 .

díthugad

Cite this: eDIL s.v. díthugad or dil.ie/16915

 

Forms: dithaigthi

(díthiug-) u, m. vn. of díthaigid act of destroying, exterminating; destruction: oc dithugud ar slóig, TBC-LL¹ 1705 (LU) . co rogabsat leod ┐ letrad dithugud ┐ díchennad, LL 243a25 . ní táinic d.¤ dáine mar sin a nEirinn riamh, CF 703 . ic dithiugud na cinedh n-echtrand, CCath. 5087 . a allmhuraigh . . . ar na ndíthiúghadh, ML 138 . roghabsat gá ndíthiugad ┐ gá ndianmarbad, SG 358 . ag diothughudh a neirt wasting their strength, RC xxix 130 . is beg do toisc rē dīthugad mbīd consuming , MacCongl. 125 . g s. arm dithaigthi weapon of destruction, ZCP i 410 .

do-airicc

Cite this: eDIL s.v. do-airicc or dil.ie/17140
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: tair, to-m-air, to-n-fairne, nā tar-sa, tar, tairr, tairre, tarr, tarra, tairced, tairceth, toircidh, do-nd-airic, thairic, tharic, tairic, thairc, taircet, taircther, do-m-aircedh, tairced, tairccedh, tairgidh, taircitis, tairgidis, do-air, do-mmair, condomthair, nachumthair, nīcontair, donnair, toir, tair, -tairi, do-airset, tairset, tairiset, -tairesad, tairsead, -tairsed, tairsiudh, tairisedh, do-t-aircibe, do-t-aircceba, do-far-faircebha, tarceba, targebu, tairceba, taircebe, tairgeba, toirceba, tairgfi, do fair, tair, do thairgebad, taircebat, ni tairset, tairchebad, do-arnacair, tharnacair, tarnacar, do-dn-arnic, do-da-farnaic, farnaic, ndo-f-arnic, tarnaic, tarrnaic, tarrnaig, rotharrnig, dtairnig, tairnic, tarnecamar, do-n-arnactar, to-sn-airnechtár, tárnactar, thairnechtar, thairnectair, tairnegtair, doarnactatar, con-tornachtatár, to-sn-airnechtatar, ó thárnecatar, conatornacadur, tarncatar, tuarnect

v (* to-air-icc-, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 553 ). IGT Verbs § 9 . Ipv. 2 s. (the forms occurring are originally subjunctive) tair, Ardm. 18a1 ( Thes. ii 241 ). TBC-I¹ 295 . Metr. Dinds. iii 378 . to-m-air, TBC-I¹ 1070 . to-n-fairne, Ériu iii 140 . nā tar-sa, ZCP x 306 . tar, TD 2.3 . tairr, Ériu iv 144 ; v 28 . tairre, CF 582 , 686 . tarr, Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 40.5 , sic leg. Ir. Review 1913, 625 . tarra, Imr. Brain i 68 . Acall. 2089 . RC xxviii 314 . 3 s. tairced, LU 1569 ( IT ii2 213 ). MacCongl. 117.33 . tairceth, IT ii2 209a . 2 pl.? toircidh, Cog. 86 . Indic. pres. 3 s. do-nd-airic, O'Mulc. 291 . thairic, tharic, SR 4699 , 6741 . tairic, RC xxi 378.4 ( LU 1361 ). CCath. 2483 . thairc, TBC-LL¹ 1784 (tair, v.l., cf. PH 899 ). 3 pl. taircet, Metr. Dinds. ii 10 . Imr. Brain § 14 (tairget, v.l.). ? Pass. taircther, Corm. Y 1262 . Impf. 3 s. do-m-aircedh, Anecd. i 73 ( ZCP xi 161 ). tairced, SR 4605 . tairccedh, AFM 806 (cf. tairgidh, IT iii 195 § 33 ). 3 pl. taircitis, Dinds. 117 . tairgidis (as past subj.), RC xxvi 134 .

Subj. (forms often indistinguishable from those of do-roich and do-airret) pres. 3 s. do-air, Laws v 508.2 . do-mmair, Hy. vi 11 , 16 . RC xv 489 . condomthair, Hy. vii 59 . Ériu iii 198 . nachumthair, LL 307a2 . ( dūs in tair, TBC-I¹ 1141 , nīcontair, 2757 seem to be fut.; cf. also donnair, Trip.² 1344 = Lat. Lives 35 , ZCP x 225 , if this is from the same verb.) toir, CCath. 462 . ? do-d-áir (MSS. dodar, do dar, dod dor), Éigse xx 143 § 5 . tair as fut. perf. hypothetical, Laws i 62.23 ; ii 232.5 , etc. cipead dommaire, Ériu ii 90 § 16 . -tairi, BDD 128 , 129 , cf. Ériu i 203 . nim thaire, ZCP vi 260.4 . 1 pl. ? co tairsem, Ériu iii 143 § 5 . 3 pl. do-airset, Fél. Sept. 20 . tairset, Fél. Dec. 13 . Hy. i 45 ; cf. tairiset, Laws ii 58.20 . -tairesad (leg. tairsead?), Cog. 50.17 . Impf. 3 s. -tairsed, Trip. 382 . Laws ii 58 . co tairsidh, Aen. 2676 . tairsiudh, BNnÉ 321 . Laws ii 58 . tairisedh, ZCP x 276 ( noco tairsidh í, IT ii2 129 , if not subj. pres. 2 pl., may belong here. í may be the subject, cf. the var. adubhairt B. go raibh fledh aige . . . ┐ gur gheis do a fagbail no go ccathadh í until he should have consumed it). 3 pl. ¤tairsittís, BNnÉ 13 . AFM vi 2016 .

Fut. 3 s.

(a) (-b-) do faricba (= dobaricba), RC x 66 . do-t-aircibe, IT ii2 190 (Eg.).

(b) (infl. of gaibid, see Ériu iii 191 - 3 ) do-t-aircceba, ZCP xiii 276.2 . do-far-faircebha, RC x 66 n. 2 . do fairgeb, 66 n. 1 . tarceba, RC xii 88 § 97 . targebu, 82 § 79 . tairceba, ZCP viii 195.5 . taircebe, x 52.25 . tairgeba, IT ii2 194 . ni toirceba , Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 36 .

(c) tairgfi (-b-, late), ZCP viii 547.25 = TBC-LL¹ 1784 v.l.

(d) (-s-) do-n-air (sic leg.? do fair, v.l.), ZCP x 225 (cf. Lat. Lives 35 ). ? tair, TBC-I¹ 1141 , 2757 .

3 pl.

(b) do thairgebad (= do-t-airgebat?), IT ii2 190 . taircebat, 193 (Eg.) tairgebhaid, BB 418a19 .

(d) ni tairset, TBC-I¹ 3131 ?

Condit. 3 s.

(b) na tairchebad , Ériu iv 26.18 .

Pret. and perf. 3 s.

(a) (depon.) do-arnacair, SG 406.3 . ni tharnacair , RC xiii 30.29 . co tarnacar , LL 262b31 ; 49 . BNnÉ 98 § 6 . ZCP x 411.17 .

(b) do-dn-arnic, ZCP viii 195.4 . do-da-farnaic, Fél. June 10 . do farnaic , RC xiv 416 , x 66 . a ndo-f-arnic (= ndo-b-arnic), 64 . tarnaic, TBC-LL¹ 420 , etc. co tarrnaic , TBC-I¹ 2616 . ní tarrnaig , TFrag. 26 . rotharrnig, CF 1021 . go dtairnig , TD 11.26 (-ic(c), v.l.). tairnic, 25.77 (MSS.).

1 pl. tarnecamar, ZCP iv 242.24 . 3 pl. do-n-arnactar, Wb. 7b13 . to-sn-airnechtár, FB § 55 . tárnactar, SR 6939 . ni thairnechtar , IT ii1 178 . co thairnectair , PH 5292 . tairnegtair, RC xiii 30.31 . doarnactatar, Leb. Gab.(i) 144.7 . con-tornachtatár, LU 10098 ( Imr. Brain 64 ). to-sn-airnechtatar, FB § 55 Eg. ó thárnecatar, TTr.² 1601 . conatornacadur, Imr. Brain 64 v.l. tarncatar, LL 308a1 ( RC xiii 112 ). Pass. pret. s. tuarnect (?), Fianaig. 10 § 3 .

(a) comes: tair dum berrad-sa, Ardm. 18a1 ( Thes. ii 214 ). tair dom chobair, Ériu iii 31 . LB 262b75 . tair lemm 'come with me', Echtrae Chonnlai 121 § 5 . tairced fer ar mo chend-sa, IT ii2 213 . TBC-I¹ 748 . a Phátric, tairche ┐ tair, Metr. Dinds. iii 378 . ni tharnacair Conall, RC xiii 30 . tarra co luath a comfochraib dūin, RC xxviii 314 . tárnactar 'na dáil, SR 6939 . tairced int angel do nim i comdāil Aroin, 4605 . tair don chath, BS 6 . nā tairgidis arīs docum nErenn, RC xxvi 134 . Ériu iv 26 . dofarnaic reme co faidchi na hEmna came onward, RC xiv 416 . tairgebhaid na Troiana for ar ndail, BB 418a19 . āilit . . . R. . . . ar co tairsiudh co cutrama friu `that he would come into conformity with them', BNnÉ 321 . co tairsedh riaghail dromann na sciath (sic leg.) . . . isin cōir cētna doridhisi so that the row of shields might return to the same order (?), CCath. 5847 .

(b) With infixed pron. obj. or accus.: to-m-air, a Lugaid, TBC-I¹ 1070 . a ndo-farnic (= ndobarnic) arráer do-f-aricba cach naidchi ye shall every night get what ye got last night, RC x 64.2 . do-t-aircceba mid cuill a cuachaib airgit thou shalt get hazel-mead, ZCP xiii 276.2 . Anecd. i 73 = ZCP xi 161 . domairnic sund tipra, Anecd. 63 = ZCP xi 156 . tosnairnechtár fleda mōra feasts came to them (i.e. they found, got), FB § 55 . hōre don-arnactar Crist `because they had approached Christ', Wb. 7b13 . targebu deogh firu hErenn, RC xii 82 . do thaircgebat (= do-t-a.) uaindi tri doim, Anecd. i 11.9 ; cf. IT ii2 190 § 3 . do airset ar ndala `may they visit our assemblies', Fél. Sept. 20 , cf. in dál . . . tuarnect im robánad `the tryst . . . has been kept by me in pale death', Fianaig. 10 , and the doubtful reading condatornachtatar in dáil (i nd.¤?), Imr. Brain § 64 .

(c) Hence finds, gets (in some of the exx. which this meaning suits there is probably confusion with fo-airicc finds, e.g. condofairnic in Mac Óg for duma shidha in Bhrogha, ZCP v 524 , cf. dofornic lánamni ar a chiund hi síth C. . . . foránic alaili hi nDumu G., Imr. Brain i 53 ). for cach oen tarnecamar on all whom we have met, ZCP iv 242 . ni thairnechtar fodail they had not arrived for the distribution, IT ii2 178 . asbert . . . ara n-aurthaitis do Emain co tairsitis ōl and, TBC-I¹ 613 (do-airret?). co tairsem a sen-anmann that we may find their original names, Ériu iii 143 . Perh. also: tairr .i. arinnī taircther ind cach biad, Corm. Y 1262 (do-áirci?). dūs in tairsimmis a baegul whether we can get a chance at him, TBC-I¹ 1650 . TBC-LL¹ 667 . Hugh Roe 48 . dūs an ttairsittis iad to see if they could take them, AFM vi 2016 . is mairg taircebe in cuire unhappy who survives till that band, ZCP x 52 . mairg thair iadsan d'aithle cháich, O'Gr. Cat. 556 ( fúair, A V 2, 76b ).

(d) comes to an end, is completed, finished, exhausted (probably arising from perf. tairnic has come = is over; cf. is inbechtain ma tairnic leis deredh a imacollma he had hardly made an end of speaking, CCath. 5186 ; go ttairnic crich ┐ comhchaithemh a n-uile chostuis, Fl. Earls 188 ). tarnac ┐ tairnic .i. do críochnaigheadh, O'Cl. innuraid . . . .i. in bliadain tairnic and the year which has just ended, Corm. Y 783 . doarnactatar cumhacta (sic MS.) gach iodhoil ind aimsir na geine coimdetta, Leb. Gab.(i) 144 . tarncatar a rīg-leptha `his royal beds have ended', RC xiii 112 = SG 388 . Esp. common in subj. with co n-: co tairsed a gabáil till its recital should have ended, Trip. 382 . leicid cairdi dūn co tair in t-aifrinn till the mass is over, Fél. p. 116 . ní rag co táir in cluichi-seo, RC xiii 108 = SG 386 . co tarnaic in cluchi sin d'immirt, ib. nī ḟētaim-si fācbhāil na crīche nogu tair a coisercadh uile until its consecration is finished, Lism. L. 1819 . tarnaic an dairtech the (building of) the oratory is finished, RC xxvii 288 . ó tharnic in recles do chumtach, Lat. Lives 61 = Trip. 470 . tarnic in bith the world is over, ZCP v 23 . tairnic do ré thy span is completed, Ériu i 124 . trén tairnic a worn-out champion, ACL iii 239 . tarnic ar lón our provision is exhausted, RC xxxiv 312 (= thairnic linn ar lón, LB 279a21 ). co tairrnig sdair Sērluis thus endeth, Fier. 258 .

With DO of pers.: o tharnic dond ingin a haithesc, LU 10054 . co tair dúind ar toisc do dénamh, Imr. Brain i 64 . co tairnic do raind na muici, Anecd. v 15 (= cor ránic dó, IT i 105 ). go dtairnig dhúin dáil na gcorn, TD 11.26 . ro imbir a chluiche co tarnacair dō ar in fidchill, SG 405 . ni thairnic dhó acht sin do rādh anuair, etc. he had barely finished these words when, BS 48 . With FRI: o thairnic fri h Ísu osaicc dia apstalu when Jesus had done washing His apostles' feet, PH 5265 . With LA: ic ól na coibledi sin co tarnacar leo, MU² 128 . cu tairnic leo athnuaidiud . . . gach neich romillset, RC xiv 36 . go ttairnig léo a raibhe d'uisge aca do chaithemh, Ériu v 186 . in tan tairgeba lemsa, dena cennsa frim anmain when all shall be over with me, Ériu iii 30 . With ó: ní tharnaic uad acht a rád he only managed to say, TBC-LL¹ 2071 . ni tharnic úan do rád, 645 .

1 echlach

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 echlach or dil.ie/19519

 

n ā, f. IGT, Decl. § 12 . messenger, courier; attendant: eachlach .i. giolla turais, O'Cl. : triar eachlach .i. giollaidhe, Oss. iii 126 . ind echlach thaisech...ind echlach tanaise, TBC-LL¹ 127 . comartha n-echlaige, 1720 . cia d'echlachaib hErend sin do imluad athisc ┐ irlabra frimsa one of the couriers 1720 . Mac Róth ind echlach, 85 . ní gonaim aradu no echlacha, 1260 . do-chuatar a echluchu ┐ a oblori...úad ┐ roṡirsit hErinn ule IT i 119.4 . 129.11 . bith etir echlachu ┐ oblóire tigi Conchobair, TBC-LL¹ 1198 . fiarfaigis F. scela di ┐ indissid ind echlach [v.l. ethlach] a toisc dó, Acall. 3000 . ZCP xiii 169.26 . eachlacha aisdir, Todd Lect. iv 70.17 . robhaoi gille occ athoigidh chuca...i ndon echlaighi, Hugh Roe² 10.3 (f. 5b) . e.¤ urláir a household servant, domestic: mo mogaid ┐ m'echlacha urlair, Celt. Rev. ii 32 . re mnáibh is re hechlachuib urláir, Acall. 586 . See Ériu ix 15 .

fecht

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fecht or dil.ie/21408
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: fecht, fectae, fechta, fecta, fecht, infectso, ind[ḟ]ectsa, indectso, fodechtsa, fhecht

n ā, f. later also m., sometimes n. (? 1 fichid Bretha 60 ): n s m. in fecht (Ib) CRR 15 ( LL 173b ). g s f. na fectae , Wb. 33a20 (Ia). m. or n. ind fechta , SR 6447 .

I A course, journey, expedition , usually one in which a number of persons participate and often of a hostile enterprise.

(a) In general sense: feacht .i. turas, O'Cl. fecht a uecho (= veho ?), O'Mulc. 505 . hore rombu thoissech na fectae (of Moses leading the Israelites) Wb. 33a20 . dorala drem do Bretnaib Sratha C. for f.¤ dochum a mbráthar .i. co Bretnu Armuirc Letha, Trip. 16.8 . luid Srú sair for f.¤ dochum na Scithia, LL 130b45 . is baeth do ḟeacht | isin maigin i ta do ḟert, TBC-I¹ 1565 . dochúaid feacht buadha ... | suas go tech an Duilemhan, BNnÉ 287.1 . eser ní re ndol ar f. ¤ , ZCP vii 269.21 ; 'you shall eat something before going on a journey', ZCP xxix 104 . ros-biadh mor do scelaib atfesedh for a f.¤ (the sun) would have many tales to tell on its course Ériu ii 126.1 . roslín mertain ... dia fechtaib o tir diles, SR 3446 . f.¤ féile a journey of (free) entertainment, visit of hospitality (properly an occasion of hospitality belonging to II below UR 122 ), mentioned as an example of `fled deoda,' O'Dav. 954 . (dist. from the customary entertainment which was due to the lord according to terms of service): biatha fechta féile .i. aoidhechta aonaidche, no aon lae doberar do gradh uasal in leth nach táinic riamh, ┐ a techt le toisc deithbhire ┐ a biathadh iarna lín ┐ iarna dáimh ┐ iarna uaisle, O'D. 679 ( H 3.17, 497 ). Laws iii 18y Comm. biad fechta feile, i 126. 23 Comm. ii 26.13 Comm . is fri gnathles do in cethrurso, ar is ochtar do for a daim fechta feile, Irish Texts iv 23.13 . curup ed tig in grad flatha da tig .i. fer for a lan-daim .i. in tan is for fecht feili, no fer for a leth-daim, in tan is fria gnāith-leasa, Laws v 42.16 Comm. a lan-dam maraen re gach nduine ... for fecht feli do tig a comgraid ib. 20 . Cf. asrimgaib in fili dāma (.i. fechta fēle) asa thig, ZCP xv 334 ( xvi 222 ). Rendered `a (one) night's entertainment' Laws Transl. pass. srethugud a dáme for fecht féle .i. cétadaig aigidechta duni do thig a cheli conid lánbiathad dliges iarum in n-aidchisin acht corop deithbir no n-imluade. ┐ a biathad iarna dáim ┐ iarna grad ┐ iar n-úasli ┐ iarna lín. Gnáthless im. dó cech tan rachas o sain immach. ni dlig acht lethbiathad ┐ ni dlig cid éside menip ra deithbir dig, LL 187a44 ff . cia līn dām na firfhiled | for feacht fēili, for caī cuir | for gnathlessaib, for fledaibh?, Auraic. 2221 . ceathrur ar fichit ... fecht feili ollaman righ, 2224 .

(b) a raid or hosting: a fecht ┐ a slóged la firu Erend ... a cāin ┐ a cobach la firu Alban (of the obligations of the Scottish Dál Ríata) LU 375 . ro saertha clerig Erenn ar f.¤ ┐ sluagad, Fél. 4. 7 . mnāu do hsoerad ... ar fegt, ar sloagath, Cáin Ad. 6 . techt ar cenn catha ..., fechta ┐ slōgaid, 3 . Lúagni ... | cen dola ar fecht lem, LU 9949 . ... is he sin ... fecht dia romarbad Saól the hosting whereby Saul was slain SR 6432 . fer d'aes ind fechta one of the invaders 6447 (cf. d below). ba fās fri fianna fecta warrior-bands (g s. as attrib. ?) LL 6a6 = Keat. i p. 168 .

(c) a fight, attack, assault (? original meaning Bretha 60 ): fíchset co ferda a fechta `their fights' Metr. Dinds. iii 150.7 . Fintan ... fecht fland `of bloody battles' ii 12.45 = LU 4161 . gai ... feras feochtu, LL 12b44 = feachdo, BB 39b30 ( IT iii 61 , 62 ).

(d) transf. of persons making a foray, a (marauding) band: Cland Meic D. do teacht feacht Albanach ar tarraing Meic U. `with a band of Scots' AFM v 1488.7 . ro tionoil [Ó N.] ... fecht adhbhal Albanach, 1352.17 . tanaicc go ffeacht mor Albanach lais, 1540.7 .

(e) in chevilles, course, proceeding (?): baí Dauid ... inna thig fo míad, f.¤ ṅgúr, SR 5947 . co mbái i nOchain, f.¤ co n-uaill, Metr. Dinds. ii 20 . aeinis Senan tes ind-ailen Ard N. ... ba feacht feidhil `an enduring battle' Lism. L. 2105 . (f) military service ( The Kingship and Landscape of Tara 111 ): is la rīg Laīchsi Rēta trā a fecht, Corp. Gen. 93 (Rawl. 127 b 13) . cen chobach cen fecht cen [sh]luaged, Notitiæ as Leabhar Cheanannais 10.10 .

II A time, occasion = Fr. fois, Germ. Mal; cf. similar use of W. gwaith and in later Ir. of dul, turas; in this sense appar. always neut. or masc. For transition of meaning cf. is é-seo mo chétḟecht latsu; bud é mó ḟ.¤ dedenach co mbrunni ṁbrátha, TBC-LL¹ 1207 (mo cetturus et mo cetfeacht St), where Wind. translates mein erstes Mal ... mein letztes Mal, but the sense may perhaps be `expedition, chariot-ride.' Usually as adverb or in stereotyped phrases, rarely with prep. (except when compounded with an adj.: isin cetfecht, PH 3630 ; i n-oénfecht, see below): frithṡecnap for f.¤ an alternate vice-abbot (?) on occasion ZCP v 499 § 3 . fecht (absol.) on a single occasion, once: Cluain ... do argain fo thri; ... f.¤ o Síl nA. ┐ fo dó hó Callraidhi once by S.A. and twice by C. RC xvii 390.25 . ar na hathleagad fecht for a sé resmelted seven times CCath. 4679 . once (on a time) = Lat. olim, quondam: robámarni f.¤ co cátaid acut LU 3917 ( SCC 43 ). bali i teigtis f.¤ fir whither men used once to resort IT i 158 ( LL 154a46 ). cathair oirechuis isidhe do Thartraidibh fect riam formerly Marco P. 28 . ni raibhi rí forro fect riam ` theretofore ' 29 . denaid umhla ... isin bethaidh n-aili amail doronsabair feacht riamh ` before ' 35 . o do marbad P. Seon fecht riam doberat, etc. `ever since P. John was killed' 46 . Similarly in the phr.: f.¤ roboí (folld. by main clause): f.¤ robai luid araile manoch once upon a time a certain monk went Mon. Tall. § 66 . f.¤ ro búi damsae domchaomnacuir airisem I once chanced to stay § 45 . Cf. fechta for nia nem (.i. in tan noragad in trenfer for nem) `at the time the champion (should go) to heaven', (`may be g s. ... as advb.', Stokes) ACC 115 ( RC xx 282 ). f.¤ n-and (n-óen) once upon a time, on one occasion = Lat. olim (see Thurneysen, KZ lvii 72 ff ): dorochoir f.¤ n-and iarum do B. denam na fledi, IT ii 173.9 . f.¤ n-and baí ... oc fennad loíg, LL 260a16 ( IT i 71.14 ). f.¤ ann testa tarb do indilib Gargain, PH 6301 . f.¤ and foidid ... a manchu do buain choeluig, Lat. Lives 110 . fecht n-and do Ultaib i nEmain Macha once when the Ulstermen were in E. LU 9177 ( FB 91 ). fect and do Mártain ina recles taet demun chuci, RC ii 396.21 ( LB 60b56 ). búi C. ... ind Emuin M. fect n-oen ann, IT i 136.17 (Eg.). feacht n-aen da roibhhe Cond ... a Teamraig, Ériu iii 150.3 . fect n-oen do Ailill ┐ do Meidb ... arrecaim comrad ... eturru, TBC-LL¹ 2 . f.¤ n-aile (n-aill) another time, on another occasion: fecht n-ali luid S. do A., Trip. 240.21 . f.¤ n-aill forréccaig Mac R. in mag a second time TBC-LL¹ 5041 . fect aile do M. ina recles taet demun chuci, RC ii 396.27 ( LB 60bz ). f.¤ and is lethan, f.¤ aile is cumung at one time ... at another PH 3996 . dála an chléirigh eacht eile 'like the cleric on another occasion', Giolla Brighde 34 § 21 . On a former occasion (= Fr. autrefois): atchuala lib in mac ṁbec sain f.¤ n-aill i Cruachain, TBC-LL¹ 844 . rí rogabustar rígi for Erinn fecht n-aill, Anecd. v 17.22 = Ériu ii 174.3 . faidhis Magnus C. fecht n-aill techta, Marco P. 24 . do bi rí uaibrech ... ara tir sin f.¤ n-aill, Maund. 131 . cidam bocht ... indiu baam bannrighan ... echt ele, D IV 2, 71[61]r a 3 . With art: in cetna f.¤ ... in f.¤ n-aili the first time ... the second time TBC-I¹ 3106.09 . imun Michíl inddalae f.¤, immon Muiri a f.¤ n-aild, Mon. Tall. § 30 . nolinged i n-arddi in f.¤ n-aile ... no theiged in f.¤ n-aile isin talmain at one time ... at another LU 9138 ( FB 88 ). indara f.¤ ... in f.¤ n-aill at one time ... at another LU 1978 . Cf. atracht Isu indala f.¤ isin pelait a second time PH 2638 . an dara feacht, TSh. 316 . an dara feacht, is follus ... in the second place; again Eochairsg. 22.28 . ba marb aenfhecht ... atbela in f.¤ tanaise a second time PH 1245 .

in (a, ind) f.¤ sa (the word is in the adverbial case, in, being acc. of the art., ind the dat.; a (hi, i) is apparently the neut. acc. art., though hi, i, may be prep. Cf. the exx. below without art.), on this occasion, now, passing later into sense henceforth: in f.¤ sa this time, now Sg. 11a4 . BCr. 18b10 , PCr. 62a2 . in f.¤ so, Sg. 20b4 , 153b3 . in fectsa (nunc) Wb. 9b20 . infectso, 3c13 . 7c5 . ind[ḟ]ectsa, 3a7 (opp. to `riam') 3c22 . nitat pecthi collnidi híccatar and indechtso, cebtar hé riam, 4a8 . indectso, 4d3 . (opp. to `cosse'). tecat don chomram a fecht-sa, IT i 105.1 (LL). 128.28 ( LU 10785 ) = fodechtsa, Eg. hi fecht-sa cinnas dothíagat, LU 8703 ( FB 53 ). BColm. 56.22 . is rí Ulad Conchobar i fechtsa, MU² 108 ( LL 262b17 ). TBC-LL¹ 1168 . i fectsa, 718 . congab i fechtsa forsind fit sin cot'ēc henceforward Mon. Tall. § 60 . iar tiachtain do Adamnan hifecta ni gatar a forgall, etc., Cáin Ad. 4 . Maithi tra, a A., or sí, hifechta is duitsiu doratath mnā ... do hsōerath, 11 . ērigh suas hifecta as t'ochlach, 15 . a bfechtsa, BColm. 62.21 . cid dogena fecht-sa what wilt thou do now? LU 3372 ( SCC 16 ). nā bíd ar n-airfitiud fechtsa ... i n-arsaidecht na tol collaide henceforth PH 5280 . misi dobēra bíathad duit ... fechtsa co bráth, BColm. 62.9 . is ed ráides Foachtach i fechtso, Ériu xi 45.11 = i bhfechtsa, Ériu xiii 46.24 . See festa and fo-dechtsa.

cach f.¤ each time, every time: Laws iii 282.24 . gach feacht, Keat. Poems 1598 . cach la (re, ra; see 1 aile) f.¤ every second time, alternately: rannfaider in rigi cach re f.¤ eter a clannaib the kingship will be held by their (Brian's and Fiachra's) children in turn RC xxiv 174.20 . comdūchus cirt Casil cach ar (leg. ara or ra) f.¤ doibsin, Cog. 54.12 . gac re ffecht, 212.19 . gurab dóibh ... budh chóir ríghe M. gach ré bhfeacht, Keat. iii 4362 .

oínḟecht once for all; on one occasion (only): used in Glosses to transl. Lat. semel Ml. 138b8 . 34a9 (oinecht). oinecht a ppecad amal [as] n-oinecht rombebe colinn Crist (gl. mortuus est semel) Wb. 3b3 . mad oenfecht tra nom-gairfea, ni fhrecer-sa dó if he calls me only once PH 1495 . is aenfhecht rochés Crist, 5203 . mad daríus Emain oenḟecht if once I reach E. TBC-LL¹ 1208 .

i n-oínḟecht at the same time, simultaneously = Lat. simul: nach ḟacfed a da céili for talmain i n-oenḟ.¤ , IT i 81.23 ( LL 261b19 ). naro epled sib uli i n-oenfhecht, PH 2832 . co ndechudar a n-enfecht ┐ na T. isin Teibh they and the Thebans entered Thebes together Stair Erc. 741 . go mbiadh dúil ag duine i gcraos ┐ i ndrúis ... ┐ a rádh go mbiadh grádh do Dhia i n-aoinfheacht riú aige that he would love God along with them TSh. 399 . i n-aoinḟeacht sin is biadh da ḟreastal ... táinig ... at the same moment that food was served Keat. iii 1009 . cruinnighid ... a naóinḟeacht am aghaidh gather themselves together against me Psalms lix 3 .

Seldom in pl.: is mor fhecht rom-sáraig many a time PH 3823 . .xl. míle tighidis, xl. fect is aitreabhthaigh don chathair forty thousand forty times is (the number) of inhabitants Marco P. 139 . teora f.¤ gach aonaighidh three times every night Stair Erc. 122 . teora f.¤ ro thrascair E. ... hé, 2400 .

fri

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fri or dil.ie/24329
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: frimm, rimm, frim, frím, frium, frimsa, friumsa, frit, fritt, friutt, fritsu, rut, rutt, fris, friss, frissom, f., frie, friae, frise, frie, frinn, rinn, rind, friunn, riund, frind, frinni, raindi, frinnai, frib, frithib, fribsi, friu, friú, friu, friü, frithiu, friithu, friusom, riom, rum, riot, rut, ris, ria, rinn, ruinn, ribh, ruibh, riú, r, frim, frit, fria, friar, fribar, fria, frim, frim, frim, ram, frit, frit, frit, rit, rat, rot, friar, friar, fribar, fribar, fria, fria, fria, re-na, rena, fria, fris(s)a, frisi-, risi-, fris-, ris-, frismbiat, fris-mbruchta, fris, fris, fris, risa, frisin-, frisnid, risnad, ris, fria, frisa, re n-, fria-, re, ra-n-adh, re, re, ré, freisin, FRI

prep. with acc. For etymology see Thurneysen, GOI § 839 , Fraser ZCP viii 37 , J. E. C. Williams, Celtica iii 126 . In later spelling prefixes h- to following initial stressed vowel; does not leníte following consonant (cf. frinna aill, Sg. 45a16 . fri nnach ..., Ml. 75a9 , fri nnech 23c20 ; but fri nech further on in same gloss and regularly elsewhere); the initial s- of the article following fri is preserved. In Middle Irish gradually replaced by the forms RI, RE (already in Ml: oc eregim re Abisolon, 44b4 , cf. fre, 90c27 ); RA (common in some LL texts, see CRR 54 , TBC-LL¹ 499 , 602 , 740 , etc.); rarely RO ( SR 1990 ZCP xiii 204 15 ); FRIA, RIA, RE also common. Hence in Early Mod. Ir. there is occasionally confusion with , RÍA `before', see Bergin's note Stor. Keat. p. xix , and section IX (e) below. Apart from this the latter prep. sometimes replaces FRI after fáilid, fáilte and kindred words (as in Mod. Ir.). On the parallelism of some of the pronominal forms of FRI with those of LA see GOI l.c. (with Translator's n. 178 ). Though FRI still appears in some later texts, especially those of the archaising type, it had become obsolete in the classical language. Its later form (RI, RE) remains down to the end of the Early Mod. period and is recognized by the grammarians as distinct from LE (LA), see IGT, Introd. § 75 , 24 P 8, 194 ( IGT VI , Bard. Synt. Tr. p. 7 ). In the modern spoken lang. it is replaced partly by LE, partly by CHUN (O.-Ir. dochum). For a contrary development cf. Engl. `with,' originally `against,' which has absorbed the functions of A.S. mid `(together) with.'

In development of meaning generally FRI shows a remarkable parallelism with Engl. ` with '; it also agrees with ` against ' in several senses.

Forms: With suff. pron.

sg. 1 frimm St. Paul Codex Thes. ii 298.17 . rimm, IT i 123.24 . frim, SR 1422 , 2049 . LU 5228 . LL 110b26 . frím Ml. 38c19 . frium, Ml. 71b9 . frimsa, Wb. 26d17 . Ml. 33a18 . friumsa, Ml. 127a2a .

2 frit, Wb. 5a31 . 10a29 ; Ml. 103d14 . SR 1425 . fritt LL 93a10 . 249b1 . friutt, PCr. 62b2 (= ḟrit, Sg. 151a3 ). fritsu Ml. 91d8 . 112b8 . rut, SR 2031 IT i 123.15 . rutt, LL 110b27 .

3 m., n. fris, Wb. 14c37 . 15a1 . 22c15 . ACL iii 304 [: [Mael] mis]. (: eisleis). SR 6109. 6317 . ([mēt] anfis) LL 33b21 . friss, Wb. 2c24 . 3c6 . 6a4 . 8a12 . 14d22 ; Ml. 91a21 . frissom Wb. 5d39 .

f.¤ frie, Sg. 72b1 . Ml. 40c15 . 67d15 . friae, 130c9 . Wb. 28a20 . cf. frise, Ml. 74c21 , which Ascoli corrected to frie ( Thes. i 722b ).

pl. 1 frinn, Wb. 4b12 . 17b10 . 19d22 . rinn, Ml. 54a3 . SR 1821 . rind, SR 1905 (: herḟi[o]nd). friunn, Ml. 38d20 . riund TBC-LL¹ 1874 . frind, LL 177b39 . frinni, Wb. 17b32 . 17c5 ; Ml. 32c15 . 93a13 . 106c12 . raindi, BColm. 68.9 . frinnai Ml. 91c9 . 114a8 .

2 frib, Wb. 17b16 . 22d9 . 24d26 . cf. frithib, Ériu iv 162.13 . fribsi, Wb. 14c42 . 17b14 .

3 friu, Wb. 4a10 . 4c37 . 24a4 ; Ml. 54c23 , 72b22 , 110c9 . LL 35a21 (: fiú) friú, Wb. 17b9 . Ml. 74a2 , diss. friu, Hy. V. 54 , cf. friü: at-chiü, ACL iii 294 § 10 ; frithiu, Blathm. 94 § 17 ; friithu, LU 4671 (see further GOI 515 ). friusom, Wb. 20c25 ; Ml. 17c5 , 54c18 ; 26 .

For forms found in later texts see citations below.

In the Early Mod. Grammatical Tracts the forms given are: riom, rum; riot, rut; ris; ria; rinn, ruinn; ribh, ruibh; riú, r, 24 P 8 194 ( Bard. Synt. Tr. p. 7 ).

With following poss. pron.: frim, frit, fria, friar, fribar, fria, e.g. frim ort. Wb. 29d2 . frim peccad, 28a14 . frim foraithmet, Ml. 23d9 ; ram anmain, TBC-LL¹ 3692 (rem St.). frit adrad su, Ml. 136c11 . frit c[h]ele, 70d2 ; frit laim, SR 5854 . rit láim, TBC-LL¹ 3055 . rat láma, 3052 . rot chlaind, SR 2031 . friar corp, Wb. 15c22 . friar fochric, 33a9 ; fribar n-ícc, Wb. 24b3 . fribar pecthu, 13b19 ; fria mbriathra, Wb. 31b30 . In Mid. Ir. the form `fria' is often used for the simple prep., hence occas. fria a = prep. + 3 s. pron. In Early Mod. Ir. 3 s. and pl. form re-na sometimes appears: rena ardnaem, BCC § 12 (see III c below). fria n-a, Fl. Earls 214.4 . Cf. the n- prefixed to poss. after le, ó, tre in Mod. Irish.

With rel. pron.: O. Ir. fris(s)a n ...; Mid. Ir. also frisi-, risi-, fris-, ris-: frismbiat, Sg. 202b3 . fris-mbruchta, Fél. June 21 . fris n-agar, E. 406 . fris-reith, Prolegomena 302 . fris-tarddam, Thes. ii 293.19 . risa n-abar, Acall. 53 , etc. With cop. frisin-, frisnid, risnad ail, LB 257b9 . ris na duthracht 256a44 . fria ndechraiged (= frisa nd.) Sg. 28a14 may be a mistake. In later MSS. the form re n- becomes common: fria-cosmailend, PH 7674 . re ndubairt, 7464 . ra-n-adh KMMisc. 156. 124 . re n-abar, Acall. 1241 , etc. re rāiter, Ériu viii 139.4 . ré raibhe, Keat. ii 4467 , etc.

Composition.

(a) In vn. and prototonic verbal forms, before a vowel, frith-; before a cons. fre-, e.g. frecre, fretech; with syncope of a follg. vowel, fres-, e.g. frescsiu, fresndid, fresndís, fresngabal. In Glosses fri is often used in compos. with a vb. to represent Lat. ob-. Later frith- is used before cons. with or without lenition of following cons.: see frithgnam, frithsét, etc.

(b) In deuterotonic verbal forms fris-; before an infixed pron. in rel. construction frith- or friss-: fritum-chomart-sa (= frith-dum-) Wb. 33a12 ; but friss-idn-oirctis, Ml. 39a20 (see Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 147 and cf. Strachan's OIPG⁴ ed. Bergin, p. 27 n. 2 ).

SYNOPSIS OF MEANINGS.

N.B.—The classification is perforce somewhat arbitrary as, perhaps in the majority of instances, the meaning could derive from the original sense in I. Cf. J. E. C. Williams Celtica iii 122 ff .

I Of local relations

(a) towards, facing, turned to ;

(b) against (touching; cf. d); alongside, down along, by ;

(c) against (implying violent or hostile action);

(d) next to, at, in contact with (cf. b).

II To express association, along with, beside (both of local and mental relations).

III To express figurative direction

(a) aim, purpose (cf. VI), frequently of function, specific purpose;

(b) after adj. in sense of Lat. gerund or with ad or supine in -u;

(c) to express direction of feelings, behaviour towards (cf. I a);

(d) of prayer, etc. to ;

(e) of opposition to, hostile feeling, attitude towards ;

(f) to express protection, guard, watch against, also limitation, boundary;

(g) in elliptical sentences with these meanings.

IV

(a) after adjs., nouns or verbs expressing resemblance, equality or comparison;

(b) to express difference, distinction from .

V

(a) with respect to, with regard to ;

(b) on account of:

(c) on behalf of ;

(d) according to, in agreement with (cf. II).

VI To denote occasion

(a) with vn. or other abstract after subst. verb or equivalent;

(b) denoting the occasion (event, cause, etc.) on which something takes place.

VII To denote mental subjective attitude, in the opinion of .

VIII

(a) to denote agent;

(b) to denote instrument through, by means of .

IX In expressions of time

(a) in O.-Ir. in locatival sense;

(b) to denote period during which something continues or takes place;

(c) fixing a limit within which something takes place;

(d) of point of time;

(e) used for RIA ` before .'

X In regular or occasional construction with many verbs.

A classified list of the instances in Wb is given by Fraser ZCP viii 37 ff .

I Of local relations

(a) towards, facing, turned to: do rosc frisna nemdaib = looking heavenward SR 1604 . a n-aiged fri Dia facing God LU 2048 ( FA 12 . Cf. III c). a lām chlē fri muir the sea on their left SR 4074 (see lám). do cumlaiset for fairgi ┐ dochorsatar aurlunn fri tir, Corm. Bodl. s.v. prull . bai D. 'sa druim fri fraig D. had his back to the door SR 6053 . is amlaid bai in gilla ┐ a druim fria thigerna, TBC-I¹ 2327 (see druim(m)). Ethne ... fria chossa E. (standing) at his feet (i.e. at the foot of the bed) LU 3300 ( SCC 10 ). Carpre ... 's a hucht ra hág, LL 32b49 (see ucht). a druim re dimsachaib, a des fri deiblenaib, ZCP viii 204 § 26 . an let[h] bis rinne don rē the side of the moon turned towards us ITS xiv 90.19 . fri bun cruche at the foot of the gallows Mon. Tall. § 1 . síl nÁdhuimh ... re sáluibh a senathar at the heels of (i.e. following) Ériu iv 118 § 33 . níor chubaidh tigearna ... d'ḟágbáil re caladh on the beach [i.e. when about to land; perh. fig. cf. beirid i gcaladh brings to safety, see 1 calad] viii 139.23 . dā traig .x. ... a [sic leg.] fot fri dún its length towards the stockade (of the internal slope of an earthen rampart) Laws iv 336.23 . dā dúncladh ... ré dá taebh na clasach along both sides of the fosse CCath. 1747 . ní thurcaibh crand ... cét míle fria taebhaibh within a hundred miles from (lit. towards) its sides Marco P. 11 [cf. the temporal use IX (c)]. See also phrases s.v. agad, ais, enech, gnúis, sáil, taeb, ucht.

This use is regular in Old-Ir. in stating relative position: fri Grecia aniar ... fri Etáil anáir west of Greece ... east of Italy Wb. 6d17 . fri Alpai ndesiu (gl. cisalpina) Sg. 217b8 . frie anall ... frie desiu (gl. ultra ... citra) 71b1 , 2 . fri Ath F.D. desiu, TBC-I¹ 2183 . frie anechtair outside it Ml. 40c15 . fri Pardus amuich outside Paradise SR 111 . ra chuala sa fri hEmain andess I heard it (as I was) to the south of Emain LU 5056 . altoir fri dorus antuaid, SR 4261 [cf. la taeb ind rigthaige aniar, LL 3810 (30a) ]. a mmag fris anair the plain in front of him LL 122a33 . co ndechaid [in gai] triana chend ┐ co ro marb nónbur ris aníar behind him 121a21 . frit aniar, LU 4134 . is e a chorp in taitneamach rit anall the shining one opposite thee RC xxiv 60 . Also fig. : foscichret i crandchor ... fáicebthair Lugaid fris anechtair they will cast lots for it... L. will be left out of the chance RC xiii 444x ( LL 289b8 ). See also s.v. lám (fri l.).

It is doubtful whether: i mbae neach fri hopair immuig BB 362a21 (= Dinds. 20 ) is an instance of this construction; the literal meaning here is was anyone at a work outside ? The Rennes `amuig' is perhaps merely a late spelling.

After verb or vn.: tan turcbad E. a di láim fri Coimdid nime, SR 5085 . suidig do da laim fri ... clasp thy hands (in prayer) to ... 1606 . rosecroth a chend frisin slúag brandished his (severed) head at the host LU 5269 . crothad in chind frisin slóg, 5280 . donnochtat a mbruinni fris bared their bosoms to him 5199 . rochoraig fri tenid he arranged [them] before the fire RC xiii 6.21 . roscóraig gnúis fri gnúis (see gnúis) LU 2046 ( FA 12 ).

Cf. tuídhleach ind óir frisin ngréin the glistening of the gold against the sun BDD 1 . crand airgit ris tatin grían LU 3700 ( SCC 33 ).

(b) against (touching), alongside, down along by: doesetar ┐ a nglūne fri talmain, TBC-I¹ 3164 . éc fri hadart death against a pillow i.e. a natural death Lib. Hymn. i 62.72 (see adart). fri etnu dam ... bátár fedmand la firu Herend = [till then] the loads had been harnessed to the foreheads of the oxen LU 10816 (= Ériu xii 178 ). tennait a n-ette fria curpu press their wings against their sides LU 2281 ( FA 33 ). cf. doimmaircet ind eoin a n-ette friu ┐ a cossa can scibud ette ná cosse co tairic in precept the birds fold their wings, etc. LU 1361 . dosnimthasa i llai a broit fri a bruinde `gathered her to his bosom in the fleece of his cloak' Ériu xii 154y . co tard a druim frisin liic leaned his back against the stone LU 3284 ( SCC 8 ). dossleced fria thoeb he let them (i.e. his arms) fall to his sides SR 5091 = no thimoirced a lama fria thoeb, LB 124b29 (cf. LU 1361 above).

In local sense of attached to or pending from: úathroic ... cona cimais do banór fria having a fringe LU 6421 . beilge óir friu golden bits on them TBFr. § 3 . srian ... fria graig, LU 3649 . Cf. srian do thabairt fria thoil to bridle his passion PH 4990 (see srían). Cf. la I (a).

Here perhaps: i ngialnai fri fraigid in hostage-ship at the wall LU 7015 ; 7295 ( BDD 66 ; 94 ). (of the brazen serpent, Numbers xxi 9 :) turgabar fri crann ... uasin [t]slúag fri sirsellad let it be hung on a pole to be gazed at SR 4163 .

Cf. an carracc ard ar cuiretar ... an Tigerna da teilgen ría sís to cast him down from it Maund. 106 . tuitim sioss re beinn an ailt, Fl. Earls 86z .

(c) against (implying violence or hostility; cf. III e): rop saiget húan fri demnai, Hy i 20 . friu conuccaib ind oub, Hy v 54 . conéracht Glaiss Ch. friu the stream C. rose against them (= to bar the way) LU 5362 . Cf. conocbath in carpat fris ... ┐ concligtis ind h[e]ich fris the chariot would tilt up before him and the horses would spring at him Ériu vi 134.21 . bēim a cinn fri cloich, Ml. 139c3 . beim cind fri hall, LL 225b38 (see benaid). esarcain cind fri hallib, 176b33 . aiges (feras) in tond frisin mbruach, Anecd. i 12.19 (21) . cf. FB 44 , see fri. See also phrases with cúl, druim(m), lám).

(d) next to, at: folt dond fri toind a chind, folt croderg iar n-airmedon, LU 2564 . dond fri toind cind, 6542 . lene de sról ... i custul fri gelcnes ... dó, 6296 . léne ... sita fria gelchnes, 1810 . cona luirigh ... ria cnes ... ┐ lethan sciath fria gualaind, Stair Erc. 1243 . In this use frequent with ais, cnes, taeb.

II To express association, along with, beside (of local or mental relations, cf. V d): ní bí friu hi comasndeis it is not with them in apposition Sg. 212a5 . in tan mbís nihelas do .u. fri .g. when u is silent beside g, 6b11 . nobiad fri femen `it would be [used] with the feminine' 207b2 . ní biat remsuidigthi friu `there are no prepositions with them' 215a5 (cf. biit remsuidigthi ... cen briathra leo ib. 6). See also s.v. comṡuidigud. is tabarthi `bonum est' fri cechtar in da fersa so, Ml. 112d1 . cen tabairt anman trén fríu, 30a9 (see do-beir). ni bai crand dond indsi fri aroile (i.e. the walls were shattered) Anecd. i 2.5 . ar choibnius frisna comaccomla sa, Sg. 203a10 . in oentid fri Crist, Wb. 15a12 . ni ba suair[c] comlepaid no comaentu frissi, TBC-LL¹ 2079 (fris St) In: ni reid bith fris im longud no im ligi, LU 5957 , the meaning may be different; see atá (fri). toeb fri toeb ata in ri is Eocho F. side by side LU 2839 (see taeb). comaitecht re hairdrigh, ZCP viii 116.5 . méraid ra cách a chumne TBC-LL¹ 740 (here perhaps: meraid hua chlaind fri claind Ml. 100b4 ). is frit mo chairde `with Thee is my compact' Fél. Ep. 534 . (see cairde). iar corai fri I. after making a pact with I. SR 5946 . Cf. córe fri Dia, Wb. 2d16 . is core doib fribsi (gl. salutate invicem) 18b19 . bad chore dúib friu, 7b4 ; - 14 (`lit. let it be peace to you towards them' Thes., but the original meaning of córe points to `with' as the sense of the prep. here). Cf. also: biid pax libsi fri cách (gl. cum omnibus hominibus pacem habentes) 5d33 .

Here probably: isi no beired teora pōc fria cach copān ... dō, TBC-I¹ 2218 . Cf. further: hi cocetul fri Eman in unison with Hib. Min. 4.12 . do dlommad E. is A. ... fri gorta, SR 1419 . ara toimlid fri sid sain | toirthi Parduis, 1085 . taed as fri sidh ┐ fri subha `let him go ... in peace and happiness' AFM 979 .

In this sense with verbs of joining, connecting, also occasionally with verbs of motion and in nominal phrases, such as imma llé fri, immaróen fri, see s.v. , óen (cf. Ériu xiv 142 n . ) also cos, taeb.

In: crithnaigset ... immar bocsimin fri sruth the meaning of the prep. is doubtful. curtar a fuigill re sruth ┐ re fairgi `be the remnant cast out to be carried off by the sea-tide' O'Gr. Cat. 182w . Cf. perhaps: Drochet Atha do dhul re sruth `D. was carried away by the flood' ALC i 260.7 , though these may be exx. of the confusion of re (FRI) with le (LA). curcas fri sruth, FB 44 ; `against a stream' Strachan ZCP iii 419 . Cf. Ériu i 194.4 . See 1 téit and la I (d).

Passing into sense in addition to: tris fer friu (gl. te tertium) Sg. 2a5 . cethri chet bliadan ... a noe sechtmogat fri sein, Rawl. 68b31 ( ZCP iii 18 ). Cf. is fri ni dona salmaib dognid a figild, Mon. Tall. § 5 . fris sin moreover, besides , Leb. Gab.(i) i 88.1 . Hugh Roe 114.1 (f. 30b) . Cf. mod. freisin. For a special sense of with see Mon. Tall. cited under V (d).

III To express fig. direction (cf. V a);

(a) aim, purpose, freq. of function, specific purpose: cen nech dim chlaind frim foraithmet to preserve my memory Ml. 23d9 . ce notechtad ilgotha fri inchosc in mrechtraid sin `that it should possess many sounds to express that variety' Sg. 197a11 . ní fris arícht fri slond persine it was not for that it was invented, to signify person ib. (cf. cid arna airecht pronomen ... dia ṡlund, 198b3 ). in bríg frissa ndéntar a saithar sin the value for which that labour is performed Wb. 11a9 . am loor fri cach reit (gl. ego ... dedici, in quibus sum, sufficiens esse) 24b16 . altoir ... | fri loscud n-edpart an altar for burning [ = on which to burn] offerings SR 4162 . dá magh ... do ṡlaidhi ... co rabad do grés fri geilt do ceithrib ┐ fri trebad do daīnib, Ériu xii 150.6 . primepscop ... accu fri huirdned a n-oessa graid, fri coisecrad a n-eclas ┐ fri hanmchairdes do ḟlaithib, etc. Ériu i 218.2 . sechtmoga fer fria cobair to aid them SR 4196 . drong ngilla ... fri timthirecht, 6280 . ra ergitar ... dalemain fri dail, LL 173a27 ( CRR 13 ). mōr salm | fri hindarba plāg-tedmann, BColm. 70.8 . slóged hi crích ... fri indnaide slogid tairse a hosting into a country to delay a hosting (coming) across it Críth G. 511 . fergniae fri forngaire ndoirseo, 591 . In this sense perhaps in: fót fri haltóir, see 1 fót (d). pars de feoil fri foimtin terci as a precaution against scarcity Mon. Tall. § 12 . Here perhaps: dognith Saul intleda ... fri Duaid used to lay snares against D. Ml. 30a3 . techt do Roim ... fri foglaim n-ecnai, Trip.² 241 . roairis re sloind senchasa he remained to relate Ériu iv 152.6 [or remained relating ? See VI (a)]. cid frisi farcbad int id for what end the withe was left LU 4752 (= cid imma ndernad int id, TBC-LL¹ 597 ). cid frisindrolais in cloich why hast thou thrown the stone ? LU 5092 . o tancamair friss `since we have come for it' ( = for that purpose) Fél. 72.24 (cf. inní imo tainic ib. 30 ). co ndernur inní fris tánac LU 4347 . Cf. doluid Saul fri tāirsin David i fus, SR 5959 . lurech imme ... fri cathugud, SR 5757 . treb Leue ... immon eclais fria immarchur, 4883 . docúaidh B. frissan umaloitt sin gusin muilenn `on that service' BNnÉ 26 § 19 . téit féin re toisc ┐ re túrus a crichaib na hEspáine on business CCath. 1806 , cf. do chuaidh gach aon rea dtoisgibh ┐ rea dturasaibh féin, ML 26x (= le tosgaib fein, ML² 347 ). The follg. perhaps are elliptical: the idea represented is anticipating, forestalling: dogniad pars de feoil fre terci do t[h]ecmong = as a provision against the occurrence of scarcity Mon. Tall. § 12 . do na .u. gaiscedaib dec no bitís ... hi tegluch C. fri maidm n-airm no fri gabáil ngasced do neoch LU 5046 . Cf. Fél. Nov. 14 cited VI b.

(b) after adjs. in sense of Lat. gerund with ad or supine in -u: leiscc .i. fri fognam, Wb. 31b23 . conid mesc fria rim so that it is confusing to count it LU 4794 . ba gnim ṅdangen fri himluad, SR 7229 . ingnad fria innisin, LU 2074 ( FA 15 ). adhbal rea n-innisi prodigious to recount ZCP viii 204 § 26 . cenco beth ... and acht C. ba lór fri immarbaig, LL 107a19 ( Ériu iv 28 ). lia iná rúainne ... re n-áireamh, IGT, Decl. ex. 1201 . Cf. atait ... re a ttaispenadh go follus are plainly to be seen Fl. Earls 50.12 . In this use modern Irish has le (LA).

(c) to express direction of feelings; behaviour towards, after nouns or adjs., both of persons and things (cf. I a and V a): conroib deserc leu fri cách, Wb. 26d22 . fáilte fri noíbu, 7b2 (see fáilte). ar formut fribsi, 12c29 (see format and formtech). ropat ḟáilti frimsa, Fél. Dec. 18 (see fáilid). hissel fri hard, sleman fri garb, ZCP iii 447z . anmne fri fochaidi, 449.15 (see ainmne). mailli fri cloc slowness at (answering) the bell ib. 21 . dána fri tōla tromsluaig daring in face of an army SR 5778 . uair ná dernsam huimli fri forngaire, 1854 . ar gart friu for generosity to them ZCP viii 313.12 . créd nach frim atā a maithe ? why is not their bounty bestowed on me ? ACL iii 296 § 38 . ní ar maith friu it is not for their good Wb. 4b37 . ar ulc friu, Ml. 72b22 . tar aesi n-uilc huai[m] se friusom, 74a2 (see also s.v. maith, olc). bad chert do cluchi frim play fair with me LU 5228 . ar ngabáil bāide ... dō rena ardnaem having conceived affection for his high saint BCC § 12 . lére duit frí ríg ngréne ┐ réde fri doíni, Ériu i 193 . is buide linn frib (gl. rogamus vos) Wb. 25a39 (see 2 buide). is maith robai Dia rind, SR 1905 . ní maith ro mbátar frim they have not treated me well LU 4891 . Cf. is maith ro ngabus fritt, TBFr. § 11 . bad faitig frisin foirin sin (gl. observate eos) Wb. 24a23 (see faitech). bid cennuis a gnuis risin lucht ra-nadh (= frisndid) rathmar to whom he is gracious KMMisc. 156.124 . in maith frit menma ind airdríg whether the king is well-disposed to thee SR 6114 . ba fearr di frib menma bar mathar, RC xxiv 56 ( YBL 206a47 ). Cf. is beite duit menma fris `thou must take heed of him' Ériu xii 176.16 . Similarly in expressions like: do-gní maith (trócaire, etc.) fri (see do-gní). nech no comaildfed fir fer frimb uime RC xiii 29.6 .

(d) of prayer, etc. to: irnigde fri Dia, Wb. 4d18 . cf. abstanait fri Dia, PH 4988 . ro throiscset ... fri Dia im a ḟurtacht, 7258 (see troiscid). im aīne fri Dia cora faillsigthi dō ... fasting towards God, that ... might be revealed to him Ériu v 120.12 . Similarly: frit, a rí ..., mo dēr | conom thī ... Mīchēl, SR 2091 . co ndēraib frisin coimdid, PH 6292 . (cf. use with ad-teich). cossoít a thuaithe fri Dia, Wb. 5a23 (see cosaít). Here, perhaps, should come such expressions as the following: ar Christ frit, aithirigh pēin dam, Cáin Ad. 13 . ar do chubus riut, a ingen, crét tuc ort ?, Acall. 6012 . ar bar cubus rib..., crét..., 5476 . ar fir do chubais riut..., 5824 . cf. 4544 . ar t'ḟírinne riutsa, nā furáil, CCath. 1659 .

(e) of hostile feeling, attitude, conduct towards: fri aicned contrary to nature Wb. 2c25 . ba fri aicned ... in talam ... do indluch, Ml. 129d8 . frisin n-uall (gl. adversum inflationem mentis) 68c1 . trifar pecthu fri Dia through your sins against God 115b8 . Common after verbs of opposing, hindering, fighting: hóre nád comeicnigther nech fri toil no one is constrained against [his] will Wb. 28b1 . tuidecht fri toil Dé resistance to God's will 4c23 (see do-tét). cf. o dorala ... | frim thala mac I. | duit ... | niba céle SR 6014 , where opposition seems implied despite the similar phrase cited below under V (d). soud a gnuso fri nech frisa mbi ferc do (gl. ne auertas [faciem tuam] a me Ml. 47d8 (`to turn his countenance from one against whom he cherishes anger' Thes., but surely `fri nech' here must also mean either against ... or towards ... ? See soïd). fergach fris Fíadu, SR 6837 . iar ndebaid do fri Duid, 6994 . na cathaig frim do not contend with me 2877 . ni sirsan do Ch. a n-imned i tá a óenur fri firu Herend not happy for C is the trouble in which he is, alone against the men of E. LU 5995 . Cf. do thoitim fria Cu | ba dirsan sad that thou shouldst fall by [ = fighting against] C. (?) TBC-I¹ 2715 (see also III g). Mairg fris ticfa a ḟerg ... Mairg ticfa re cert, Fen. 200 (see do-icc). ar bruc fris `in displeasure at him' Mon. Tall. § 58 . namthi garga fri sluagh nA., ACL iii 297 § 55 . atat frim hi cotarsnai, SR 1520 . Cf. ni bia th'anim fri fugall | ind ríg hí laithiú brótho, Ériu i 196 § 13a . With adj.: cotarsne fri Dia, Wb. 26a18 . is torcda ┐ is díchéill notaí frim, LU 10831 (= Ériu xii 172 ). is bairnech mo menma frit, LU 10832 (= ib.). is tromda atai rim, RC vi 183.13 . olc roba rim, Ériu v 208.8 (see III c). Here perhaps: tromde ... ro buí frisim ind chaillech oc atach Dé, Mon. Tall. § 7 (= do bhí sí roliosda ar Dh., Rule of Tallaght § 41 ). But cf. VII below.

(f) To express protection, guard, defence, watch against: gabthe dūnad les fris, Ml. 55c1 . inna cathrach conrotacht la Duaid fri Ebustu, 48d27 . múr trén ... fri dóini, fri demnai, Fél. Ep. 152 . tocuiriur etrum ... inna huli nert so fri cech nert n-amnas in ..., Hy vii 49 . cor gabad Sinann friu the Shannon was held (defended) against them RC xviii 10.28 . gébtaít ar tír frind, LU 4634 (see gaibid). iadad Caisil frim eochu the closing of C. to my horses Anecd. iii 63.4 . cóir duit arechus ri siút, TBC-LL¹ 1280 (aire do tabairt fri ... St; see 1 aire). Dia lem fri cech snīomh, Ériu iv 236 . Crist credal fri demnaib, ACL iii 221.12 . dín ... re holcaib, ZCP viii 202.18 . Of limitation, boundary: nā bí crích la nech fri peccad that no one sets a limit to sin Ériu i 218.9 . Cf. samaiges crích fri aidchi, Hy ii 55 , corresp. to contra noctem terminum pones, Ardm. 8a1 . See also s.v. inillius.

(g) In elliptical sentt.: leic ... in fognam, ol se; ni lamaim, ol sī, frisin rigain = I dare not disobey the Queen RC xxiv 192 (but perh. FRI here = because of; see V b ). ro an ... ina aenar ru remained alone to oppose them ZCP vi 56.31 . rofetursa a n-as maith dúib fris I know a good way for you to deal with him LU 5934 . tarmairt mo Dia dil frisin tuaid ... a cor fo leittreib lethglenn = my dear God had well nigh (in His resentment) against them cast them down ... SR 4718 . Cf. lām fri idal to renounce idolatry SR 4845 (see lám).

IV

(a) after adjs. and nouns denoting resemblance or equality (esp. those compounded with com-) and vbs. of resembling or comparing: cosmil fri cethir (gl. animalis) Wb. 8b14 . cutrummus fri Dia, 17c8 . i cutrummus fribsi 17b14 . ɔodernain hi cutrummus frim cheliu `to do like my fellows' PCr. 2a2 . (pariter) fri, Sg. 77a2 . i tomus fri nech Wb. 17b11 . intamail ... fri nech, Ml. 22c1 . cen a chondelg fri nech, Sg. 42a6 . cosmaili tuisil `sui' fri tuisliu `ego' ┐ `tu', 200a12 . (similiter) fri, 203a5 . cf. (eandem significationem habens) .i. fri `cum', 218a1 . diatā oenḟolaid ... frissin Athair, PH 177 . ba cudruma re core mōr é, RC xviii 183 . ni caithedh acht coibeis fri gach manach he used to eat only as much as any other monk BNnÉ 300 § 3 . nir chumma nech ris im chath, Metr. Dinds. iv 344 . ru boí i comré ri Cormac, LL 3796 (30a) . i comhrē ris coeval with him Moling 4 . rogheanair i n-aenuair fria was born at the same time as she BB 406bz (= Dinds. 111 ). Cf. IX (b).

Replacing O. Ir. construction with equative: comdhub fri hec, Thr. Ir. Gl. 36 (prull) = duibidir éc, Corm. Y 1059 . Bodl. comard fri fid, Ériu iv 138.26 . meidithir fria hasal as big as an ass Marco P. 10 . corbo chomfota frisin sroin LU 6472 .

See also verbs and adjs. of comparison, e.g. 1 do-ella, samlaithir, in-samlathar; cosmail, 2 cutrummae, etc.

(b) to express difference, distinction from : frissaní immeraidtis (gl. longe aliud) Ml. 61c12 . sain fri .c. `different to c' Sg. 6b7 . do dechor fri praenomna aili, 28a13 . huare nád deligedar fri praenomen , 28a15 . do dechrugud persine fri alaili, 202a4 . is allail pronomen aní sin fri `sui' (gl. `is' aliud pronomen...) 209b10 . (differentia) fri, 213b15 , gl. contra 214b4 . Cf. nipo choím less frinn He was not dear to Him compared to us (?) Wb. 4b12 [Fraser l.c. suggests this rendering, ZCP viii 41 n . `in our case (?),' Thes.].

See s.v. 1 dechor, dechraigidir, deiligidir and other words of similar meaning.

V

(a) with respect to, with regard to (cf. III c) : is sain fri cath sain fri scor different for battle, different for unyoking (of trumpet-call) Wb. 12c46 . idain fri cach réit faithful as to 31c13 . cen chinaid n-uaim fri nech, Ml. 54d16 (see cin). nach é Dia is ciontach riú is to blame for them TSh. 10499 . as eola fri aidgne ind Athar, Wb. 19d9 . it maithi a arilti frib `He deserves well of you' (`literally good are his merits as to you' Thes.) Wb. 16c11 . airle Dé fri Herind, LL 49b13 ( Hail Brigit § 2 ). .iiii. seóit a dire ... is fechem is fiadnaisi friu `four seds are his `dire'-fine ... he is a suitor and witness for them' (i.e. he is liable to that extent) Laws iv 308.2 ( Críth G. 138 ). is amlaid in t-athair frisin mac ngor; ... nimtha in t-athair frisin mac n-ingor thus the father acts with regard to the dutiful son; ... not so with regard to the undutiful one Laws iii 56. 22 ; z 0 . ba fria as-breth: cruth cách co hÉtaín 'of her was it said, 'every woman is fair till compared with Étaín'' BDD 43-44 , Celtica xv 57 . 'fer hi lorcc so,' ol in fer deginuch fri Nero 'a man is following us,' said the last man with regard to Nera RC x 216.48 . conidh ed isberdís cách fris, Cóir Anm. ii § 150 .

Cf. further: crādiis Ultu fri Cethirnd guin Fécc the slaying of F. imbittered the U. against C., ZCP viii 305.32 . ferdha a cathuibh iat, ar is friu ronnaltadh oc imairecc fria geinnti, Marco P. 189 . ro alt ... ind ingen co digrais fri légend ┐ gaís, LL 279a47 ( SG 413 ). Possibly the last two exx. belong rather to III (a), also : is me is cintach fris ni he is cintach frim, BB 479b14 (see cintach). See also : a lleth fri, s.v. leth.

(b) on account of (cf. VI b) : ro lega in snechta ... fri meit brotha in miled, LU 5858 . ba lond F. friside (-suidi), RC xxvi 12 § ix . saeth mār fri luga dige great distress from [?] lack of drink Fianaig. 12 § 20 . cid mís no bheinn gun ríg thess | ro-fess ná bíad mo scís fris, ACL iii 304.20 . ní ḟaicim-si ... ni rís budh choir t'obadh for which it were right to refuse thee Ériu iii 154.5 . atchess ... na haīble tened ... uasachind re fiuchud na ferge, LU 6466 . ba mertnech Moisi fri hilchaingni ... fri orddugugd cāich fo mām, SR 4542 . batar toirsech fri Moisi, 3886 (in these two exx. fri = oc of prose LB 122a etc.). féimdid sim imt[h]echt fri scíss he cannot go on from weariness BColm. 94.16 . ni ro chotail C. fri himṡním, LB 274a55 . ni faict[h]e ise fri feidm a léiginn she used not be seen because of her duty of study ACL iii 308 VI 13 . Cf. la III a.

(c) on behalf of: aitchitt an C. ris comad he noberad, etc. they beseech the Lord for him that it might be he BColm. 98.15 . dogníther airnaigthi frisin ríg co nambed fot saegail do, MacCongl. 59.23 . ica cantain fria Cianoig chanting (a prayer) for C. ZCP vii 308.7 . Cf. also : ata mo briathar ┐ mo comairghi fria ar Tuatha D., Ériu xii 152.9 . o doratsat briathair fris, CCath. 1236 . in tī bes rí is fris beimmi, ZCP viii 316.3 . See do-beir, gell, and ráith.

(d) according to ; in agreement with, with pers. somet. = in obedience to: ni ni nach breith nā bi fri canoin cumtastar [sic leg.] no judgement is valid that is not framed according to the canon Corm. Y 1224 . cf. manib fri fasach fuirmider, Ériu xii 199.23 . fri mes airechta adrimter, Laws iv 298.25 ( Críth G. 22 ). fri saltair nogebad ... a salmu by the psalter (i.e. with the psalter before him), Mon. Tall. § 39 , cf. ni lugae mbis ind menme hisin cheill dia gabail ind tsailm de memur indas cid fri saltair ib.). fosernd clothri Connacht ... fri senchus ... fri buaid ┐ breatha in conformity with (the claims of) pedigree, with prowess and legal decision ZCP viii 108.10 = Ériu v 234 . bid som iarum fria toil (= they will be able to do as they like) Mon. Tall. § 35 (= go mbid ... aca ara ttoil fein, Rule of Tallaght § 35 ). fri tala ind rig ... domrala I am about the king's business SR 6187 (Rex praecepit mihi 1 Reg. xxi 2 ). cia ro delb fria thuil a ndath who coloured them to please himself (?) SR 7675 . For FRI TOIL in a different sense, see III (e). Cf. nitattorbi fri toil Dé (gl. non omnia expediunt 1 Corinth. x 22 ) `against God's will' Thes., Wb. 11b 17a . Also : ind tí dogní ní do maith fria menmain fadesin ... ar ind bo neoch gabti he who does a good thing in accordance with his own inclination ... should openly proclaim it Mon. Tall. § 21 (= chuirios ní maith ... do dheunamh uaidhe fein, Rule of Tallaght 71 ).

VI

(a) with vn. or other abstract after subst. vb. or equivalent = to be at, engaged in or about to engage in (some occupation, process ; cf. III a) : in tinscanfam .i. in biam fris (gl. incipimus ... commendare ?) Wb. 15a1 . ní uisse do mug Dae buith fri debuid to be at strife 30b26 . cf. ní bethe fria acre, 9c20 . ni piam fri aithirgi, 30b17 . ni biat som fria togais adi (= non fallacia ad quoscumque loquuntur) Ml. 31a17 . cechtar nathar fria saindān `each ... at his special art' Thes. ii 293.14 . feib donrala fri comrad, SR 1214 . indí ... bíte fri tnúith `those that are given to lust' Mon. Tall. § 11 . nebbuith fri éthech not to be lying Ériu ii 64 § 6 . céin bete fri soíthar while they shall be at work Fél. Ep. 298 . in tan natbi fri frestal na n-anmand when he is not attending to LB 110b43 (cf. SR 1199 ). ní mo chean ... tarrla re freastal ... na fairrgi sin, CF 42 . amail do beith se re goibhnecht ríam as if he had always been at smith's work BCC § 92 . na saoithe do bhí re seanchus, Keat. i 74 . cuirim suas don ghrádh, | ní fiú é bheith ris, Dánta Gr. xiv 3 . Cf. boí a ben fri idna in travail LU 105.86 (see 1 idu). Similarly without subst. vb. : nachitochthad fria choscc `let him not wear thee out in admonishing him' Wb. 31d11 . conus tarttsat fria ttoghairm chuca an lucht they set about calling the people Hugh Roe § 8 . Cf. airfitech re tetaib, ACL iii 223.23 (= Keat. ii 5358 ). dias fri cerdacht, SR 190 (perh. III a). dá mbeinn re héagnach `had I purposed to revile' Content. v 7 (cf. le hóradh bhriat[h]ar da mbeinn, Ó Héodhusa 4 ). In class. lang. `re' is used with vn. to express futurity : an chathair atá ré teacht ( = civitatem futuram) TSh. 2751 . i n-oirchill na n-olc bhíos ré tuirling orra, 532 .

(b) denoting the occasion (event, cause, etc.) on or from which something takes place (some of the exx. could be explained as extensions of other uses (cf. V b ; IX a) ; often the construction is elliptical) : gaibed cach a greimm ... | fria brethir in primsacairt, SR 4400 . ba huisse soillse fri éitsecht na noeb at the death Hy ii 60 . Cf. co mbidis i nd-aenmaigin fria n-ég, Corm. Y 1233 (fri héc LB. ria n-ec LL 179b ). fri gein Críst ... tindscan lechsa léri, Fél. Nov. 14 (cf. III a). ro eirgis fri breithir Isu, PH 2780 . ret[h]it daim ... ri dorddan na damgaire, Ériu vii 2 § 1 . phreab as G. risan gair, Ériu i 18.33 . ac cantain cheóil ... fris coteltais Síl Adaim, LL 3305 ( Ériu xiv 156 ).

VII To denote mental subjective attitude, in the opinion of (cf. similar use of Lat. apud, and see la) : ni cumdabairt fri Cirine is tre metur Jerome does not doubt Hib. Min. 6.187 . nad maith fri C. ciasperthar ..., 7.235 . frithir frisin mac i n-ebras riss, Ériu vii 225 ( LL 209a16 ). ba bind fri cach na canaind, LU 1301 (`sweet to all was what I said' Imr. Brain ii 298 . But this may be ex. of : canaid fri). bid inmain fria cách a ainm loved of all PH 4299 . ba hingnad mor frisin popul sin, 2959 . ba mo a grad fri Gargán oldait a uli cethra G. loved him more than all his cattle 7178 . Cf. Mon. Tall. § 7 cited under III (e) where the meaning seems different. gurbh annsa ré hEóin Críost ioná ré Peadar Christ was dearer to John than to Peter TSh. 10327 .

VIII

(a) to denote agent (a late use, mostly in texts in artificial style). ar na bennughadh fri sanctuss Silvester consecrated by Fl. Earls 196.19 . laech ... frisimbia mo thiglecht (= who will cause my death) Metr. Dinds. iv 360 (but perh. this is ellipt. and belongs to III (e) ; cf. TBC2 cited there). romarbtha na maithe ... frisna crechairib LB 154a63 . in lucht frisa tucad in digal .i. Uespiam ┐ Titus ib. 16 . Constantiana ... .i. eclas rocúmdaiged fri Constantin 157b48 . Of parenthood : trī meic Medba fri Fergus, Corp. Gen. 279.33 . sē meic do Mīlidh fri Scota ┐ dā mac frisin nEspānaig 'Míl had six sons of Scota, and two sons of the Spanish woman', ITS xliv 64 § 424 . do chomthusmed clainni fri hA. to have children by A., Alex. 512 .

(b) to denote instrument, through, by means of, by dint of (cf. similar uses of Engl. `with') : sénais Brigit fria bachaill with her crozier Hy v 58 T = lia F. fria noebainm ... séntae cech slóg subach by [or at ?] his holy name every happy host was sained Fél. Prol. 99 . ícaid [Tipra C.] gallrae ... fri troscud aici, BColm. 52.15 . argain fri daigid (destroying by fire LL 107a21 ( Ériu iv 28 ), cf. multi nobiles ceciderunt ... fri daigidh ro horta uile, AU 900 (see RIA Dict. s.v. daig). go nach deachaidh neach re siúbhal ... as no one escaped by flight ML 88.31 . re dán nglas ... dán breaghdha do bhréagnachadh with a simple poem to refute an elaborate one Content. vii 13 . ro ēirigh fri nert seoin ┐ solaid, Moling § 4 (possibly = with here cf. dol ar fairrge ... ré cóir na gaoithe = with a favourable wind ML 36z = le ML² 466 . cuir me ... chum seoil ... re cóir ghloin, Measgra D. 48.16 ).

IX In expressions of time :—

(a) in O. Ir. in locatival sense in phrase : fri dē by day, in the day-time Ml. 121d8 . Wb. 6a30 . fri dei, 9a5 , 24d14 , 26b17 . Cf. in gabail fri dei ... in gabail cech ráithi a catch (of fish) daily (?) Trip. 250.14 (2950) . fri díe, Mon. Tall. § 55 . fri haidchi by night Trip. 208.25 (2452) . gl. contra noctem Lat. Lives 18 . re lá, Ériu iii 148 § 3 . arna imbreth ... i n-aidchi cía nosgonad fri dé, LU 5609 .

(b) usually to denote period during which something continues or takes place : 'na fuair frisna secht ṁbliadnaib SR 3394 . fri a n-aimsir in their time Laws iv 210.28 . niro chotail C. frisin ré sin, LU 6337 . fria ré hi fut a saegail for their lifetime SR 5932 . bai cocad mor etarro fri re ciana RC xxiv 186 . batar ... fri re secht la amlaid sin, ACL iii 225.1 . conosrala for sechrán fri re bliadna co lleith, LU 1279 . bá-sa i Tul T. fri ré inna dílenn, Ériu iv 144y . maith graig dorat damh rem lá in my day ACL iii 304.23 . D. ba talchar fria ré in his day Metr. Dinds. ii 40 . dorumaltsa ... m'aimsir fri hamsir Nemid, LU 1276 . nir siubhuil in conuir-so re bliadhain aenridiri for a year past ZCP vi 104 z.

(c) fixing a limit within which something takes place : ni ba marb-sa fri sin I shall not die before that ZCP i 105.4 (co sin v.l.). Cf. also the locative use in Marco P. 11 cited I (a). tanic ... uidi na .xii. mís fri .xii. laa made the twelve months' journey in twelve days LB 139a31 . icuis fri teorai nomaidhe within thrice nine days RC xii 66x . nos ithend ... friha brathad sula in the twinkling of an eye LU 1895 ( RC x 56 ; fri b. v.l.) do imredar ... re trí lá, ┐ ní ruc G. énchluichi rissin, Acall. 1348 .

(d) of point of time ; in some cases approaching VI (b) above. fri dead n-aissi, SR 2829 . in tan nadbi fri húair i fos | frithalmi when he is not here at the hour of attending ... 1199 (cf. LB 110b43 cited under VI (a) above). cech dūil ... rosdelb fri oenuair, SR 7864 (similarly 7234 , 7386 ). grend Muman ... grend Connacht ... ra hóen-úair at the same time Ériu i 130.36 ( LL 46b ). buaidh ... damh fri deiredh mo ṡaoghail, ACL iii 231.1 . ra dered flatha Domnaill, LL 185a48 ( Arch. Hib. ii 85 ) = Rawl. 154a52 . Rí dorat na deich plāga | forthu fri huair combāga, SR 3942 . ? cid fri geld bāis nobeth `though he were at the point of death.' Mon. Tall. § 48 (see gell). re húair nfaicsiona at the time of looking RC xxix 128.13 . fri huair tacrai do ghníma, Ériu ii 228.7 .

(e) in follg. exx. perhaps used for ria before: na buidne ... robatar fria Crist...rofhogain don Choimdid fria tuidecht soscela (= turbae quae praecedebant ... ante evangelium) PH 4573 . dorad som a cuibidil fria mbass made his confession before death RC xviii 53.19 . Cf. co ro muid fri maccu Israel, LB 122b47 = re, YBL 293b40 (corresp. to mebaid remib SR 4765 ).

(f) In later lang., 3 s. ris occurs as adv. bare, exposed, uncovered : mar do leig ris a n-aoinfheacht 'how it left [her] uncovered at once' Duan. F. ii 332 § 9 , Éigse ix 228 . do theilg Ercuill a bhrat de ┐ ro leig a lorg ┐ in croicenn leomainn ro buí re cnes ris, ITS xxxviii 997 (Stair Ercuil) . chonarcadar a ccroicinn go coirtighthi buídhe ris, Smaointe B. Chr. 150 . ó bhí mo chroiceann-sa nochtuighthe síos reis, 160 . cia d’innis doit-se a bheith nochtuighthe síos reis (leis, v.l.), 161 . See also la VI (d), léicid.

X In regular or occasional construction with many verbs (and nouns of cognate meaning with them), e.g., those of speaking, addressing, boasting, complaining, asking, thanking ; meeting, touching, striking, rubbing, grinding ; listening ; waiting, expecting ; entrusting ; co-operating, associating, helping ; visiting ; resembling, comparing, differing ; parting, severing (from) ; doing (something to), acting (towards), giving, distributing, apportioning ; requiting, paying, selling ; refusing, rejecting, denying ; hindering, restricting, opposing, combating, etc. See especially : ad-cosnai, ad-gair, ad-teich, ad-tluichethar (attlugud), aigid, 1 anaid, ar-báigi, as-beir, benaid, beirid, 1 caithid, canaid, 1 cingid, comalnaithir, 1 con-clich, con-delca, con-gní, con-ricc, con-sní, con-túaisi, crenaid, dálaid, dlomaid, do-beir, do-gní, do-icc, do-rogaib, do-slí (tuillem buide fri), do-sluindi (diúltad), do-tét, dúnaid, 2 erbaid, fáiltigid(ir), feraid, fo-gella (2 fuiglid), fo-rig, fris-oirg, fris-tairissethar, fris-taít, gaibid (fris-gaib), gellaid, íadaid, 1 íccaid, imm-beir, imm-fogni, imm-fresna, in-samlathar, in-túaisi (éistid), labraithir (labraid), laigid, 1 ligid, lingid, 1 luigid, meilid (con-meil), naiscid, ráidid (ol, ar), rannaid, renaid, saethraigidir, scaraid (and compds.), soïd (do-soí), 1 téit, tongaid.

gléid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. gléid or dil.ie/26033

 

v (glé). Trans. & Intrans.

(a) Trans. makes clear, purifies (in phys. sense and fig.): cruth ron-glea a form that may purify us, Fél. Jan. 5 . gleam ar les ria n-aidche let us make our lights clear..., Auraic. 5097 . ocht n-airic[h] go ngolaige | rongléat go grīan may they make clear to us to the depths, ZCP vi 271 § 1 . srotha ionnallta an iomais | do ghlé mé m'oige eisdibh `I purified my poetic learning in them,' Content. xxii § 17 n. adorns (?): Āed ... co ngelblaid glinn glēthe rann, Bruchst. § 127 ( AFM i 252.11 [an. 1004]).

(b) Intrans. clears up, becomes clear or bright: o roglé an lá cona lanṡoilsi, Hugh Roe § 41 (21b) . Fig. an gartoirear far ghlé Conn `... where Conn was made famous,' Studies 1919, 258 § 17 . co ro gle (sic leg.) itir maithre ocus aithre, Laws i 192.14 = co roglea, O'Curry 800 ro ( H 3.18, p. 371b ). bá-sa ... i n-imṡnim mor ... co ro glé dam till I made up my mind (lit. till it became clear to me), IT i 98.16 . ? To this: gle .i. tife nó toingfe ut est gle fo erc n-ebron, O'Dav. 1026 ; cf. no. 773 and O'Mulc. 635.

(c) Trans. in fig. sense: clears up, decides (a question, dispute, etc.): co ro gleus an comtapairt sen till I had cleared up that doubt, IT i 98.16 n . coroglethe a mbrethugud, LU 8472 ( FB 33 ); 8751 ( FB 56 ). gleithir eturru a settlement is made between them, LL 118a4 . o rogléset ... a córu, TTr.² 1827 . rogle sen in curadhmir do Coin C. he adjudged ... to C., Dinds. 106 . Isaac fri dead n-aissi | glead gnima glangaisse, SR 2830 . an idh sin Morainn nó ghléedh fírinne do chách, Cóir Anm. 107 . glefid dia edruind, Ériu v 236.59 . dia nglēifidher cech caingen when every question will be solved, iii 29 § 4 . ní gleter dala lasna Déisi acht ind aidchi matters are not decided ..., Trip. i 208.23 = lvi 23 . gleithe[r] ria cach she is settled with before everyone, Laws i 138.20 Comm. fiadain ... .i. glees a n-imresain, ii 332.29 Comm. ní rogleithi gubretha, O'D. 535 ( H 3.17, c.432 ). co rogleiter (.i. co rodeili[g]ter)..., O'Curry 374 ( H 3.18, 208a ). is and gléther cert ime, O'D. 1653 ( H 5.15, 22b ). ara glethea cath Almain when the battle of A. was decided ? TFrag. 48.14 . Of computations: deich cunia co leir cia gléis..., SR 766 . léir rothuirmisemar ar crónic | cia noṅgléëd (sic leg.), Todd Nenn. 268.328 ( LL 135a23 ). cea noglea, 250.216 ( LL 134b 18 ). Of the Annalist Flann: ro glé tre a gním a guth | ré cach ríg do réidiugud `dessen Stimme hat durch ihre Tat es zu Stande gebracht,' ZCP x 271 V .

(d) concludes, finishes up, is done with: o ro glé ... a scrútan uli inna menmain, LU 8108 ( FB 8 ). o roglé a toisc , RC v 203 § 27 . o rogleset in les frisa tancatar when they had completed the work ..., Lism. L. 2030 . innisidh M. do uile mar do ghlé isin Róimh how he had completed his affairs (?), SG 32.18 . go ro gle dó a caithim uile till he had eaten it all up, BNnÉ 300 § 3 . Cf. Fél. 92.40 . o roglé dó indred ind ídhailtaighe, TTr.² 506 . co ro glea dó a foropoir indhí sin till that man's special business be finished, Mon. Tall. § 16 . is buide lem ronglēos I have done with it, Otia i 126.20 .

imm-sói

Cite this: eDIL s.v. imm-sói or dil.ie/27928
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: immesoisiu, imsāi, imsoi, im-suí, imsoidi, immesoither, imsoat, imdasuat, imsoadh, imsaitis, nimparrá, nachnimparrae, nimpád, impob, imsoifitis, imid-rae, impo, imorroiset, impaithi, impáid, impáidid, impádaid, impóid, impóidid, impódaid, impaíd, impaigid, impoidid, impos, impas, impoghas, impoit, impait, impabas, impóbas, impaifes, impóidhfidher, iompábhainn, n-impoighidis, n-impádhbaidis, impáis, iompoidis, impáidis, impodais, impaidh, impaiseat, ro-impóset, impaidhseat, impátar, impoatar, imsāi, ro-impod

v indic. pres. s. 2 rel. immesoisiu gl. conuerteris, Ml. 111a6 . s. 3 imsāi, TBC-I¹ 581. imsoi, LU 8880. im-suí, BDD² 140. With suffix. pron. imsoidi, SR 2121. pass. rel. immesoither, Ml. 61a26 . `p. 3 imsoat, SR 1013. imdasuat, BDD² 143. impf. s 3 imsoadh, RC ix 470.9 . p. 3 imsaitis, SR 1125. subj. pres. s 1 with ro : co nimparrá , TBC-I¹ 24 (an analogical formation, see Ériu viii 126 ). nachnimparrae, Corm. Y 756. subj. past s. 3 connach nimpád , Ml. 122a14 . fut. s. 1 ní impob , ZCP i 134.23 . sec. fut. pass. pl. imsoifitis, Ériu ii 142 § 157. pret. and perf. s. 3 imid-rae, BDD² 501. nochor impo , Ir. MSS. Ser. 178.12 . p. 3 imorroiset, AU i 434.14 .

Verb. necess.: bed impaithi gl. convertando, Ml. 125a8 .

Later impáid, impáidid, impádaid, impóid, impóidid, impódaid : indic. pres. s. 1 impáim-si, ITS Sub. xxvi 84 § 12 . s. 3 impaíd, LU 2114. impaigid, Laws iv 56.18 Comm. impoidid, Ir. Astr. Tr. 42.20 . rel. impos, Laws v 268.25 Comm. impas, 438.1 Comm. impoghas, Stair Erc., 1927 . p. 3 impoit, Laws v 132.15 Comm. impait, Ann. Conn. 1296 § 4. fut. s. 3 rel. impabas, Fél. 76.10 . impóbas, BColm. 66.5 . impaifes, TTr.² 979. pass. impóidhfidher, BNnÉ 123 § 73. sec. fut. s. 3 nach iompábhainn , Aithd. D. 14 § 10. p. 3 go n-impoighidis , Donlevy 90.6 . pass. co n-impádhbaidis , Maund. § 55. pret. s. 3 impáis, TBC-LL¹ 201. iompoidis, 1435 v.l. impáidis, BNnÉ 236 § 160. impodais, IT ii2 131.244 . ro impaidh , Stair Erc. 1713. p. 3 impaiseat, D IV 2, 63rb30 . ro-impóset, PH 3770. ro impaidhseat , AFM ii 1068.12 . ra impátar , TBC-LL¹ 6064. impoatar, RC xviii 268.24 (Tigh.).

I trans. turns round, moves, drives: in dæni immesoither dærgud `the swiftness wherewith a bed is turned,' Ml. 61a26 . imsāi (imsói, LU) int ara ... a carpat fōsom, TBC-I¹ 581. gibe impabas hí fo trí, Fél. 76.10 . imsoe (v.l. dointái) reme na sluagu a Modha, TBC-LL¹ 2815. (sóebchore) impaíd immá cuaird anmand inna pecthach, LU 2114 (FA). imsuíthear in chomlai fri cech ndorus día mbí in gaeth, BDD² 283. roimpai in lestar iarsin ┐ dorochair ass in neim he turned over the vessel, Lat. Lives 9.6 . na himpam in curach acht bíd a erais reme, RC x 52.11 . impáidis a bachla ... fo tri túaith[bél] ina ttimceall, BNnÉ 236 § 160. d'fhéachuin graifne each n-áluinn | leath m'aighthe ní iompábhainn, ITS xl 232.23 . d'impó Cú Ch. a aiged arís ar Emhain, Comp. CC 97.4 . ro-impóset a n-aigthi fri nem, PH 3770. iompaigh chuige an [giall] oile, Matthew v 39. iompa thort `turn over [the page],' O'Gr. Cat. 631 n. 1 . Fig. changes: umsai .i. impaigheadh cach menmain, O'Curry 1907 (< 23 P 3, fo. 23(21)d ).

II In intrans. or semi-reflexive sense with and without infix. pron.

(a) turns round, revolves, rotates:

(i) with infix. pron. : connach nimpád `so that he could not turn himself,' Ml. 122a14 . bithir og a foraire ar nachn-imparrae ┐ nach toirmescae neach so that he may not turn round, Corm. Y 756. imasai ar tuaithbel fo thri fair he revolves, Ériu v 122.2 . manid talam imid-rae `unless it is the earth which has turned round,' BDD² 501 (but LU has immid-róe .i. ro-bris, RC xxii 54 § 56 ). immesoid (?) macuairt in grianbruth etracht sin, Ériu ii 100 § 6. immesoi Ruadán ... ┐ geogoin Goibninn, RC xii 94.25 .

(ii) Without infix. pron. : immesoisiu gl. [quae nullo labore] conuerteris, Ml. 111a6 . imsoi deisell ocus do-thoet ina frithlurg, Trip.² 411. (firmimint) immon talmain ... | imsoi on trath co araile, SR 284. cloc bec bis for cinn in muil | uirri impas in mol, Laws i 140.19 Comm. imsoi cusna húathaib ┐ nos cerband; LU 8880 (FB). imsoadh ina crocend, RC ix 470.9 . imsái cách díb dochum a chéli attacks , IT iii 510.673 . im iomdhaidh nach iompábhainn, Aithd. D. 14.10 .

(iii) With suffix. pron. : imsoidi Eua iarsain | do descain anman Adaim, SR 2121.

(b) turns about, goes, returns:

(i) with infix. pron. : immasói in Mac n-Óc for slict Fuamnaige, IT i 132.14 . doluid Patricc ... or muir immesoí de sut sind tracht, Trip.² 903. dorairngired dó Findabair do t[h]abairt dō ┐ immásōi úadib iarsudiu, TBC-I¹ 1478. timnaiss cauch dib celiubrad di alaili ┐ imdisoat go Alpi they go to A., ZCP iii 247.20 . ima-saí a charpat ┐ a arai co mbaí oc Áth Cliath, BDD² 135. gaibid ... a gaisced ┐ imasai isin chath, TBC-LL¹ p. 863 n. 3 . imdasoad immach iarsin `she used to return out after that,' RC viii 150.16 .

(ii) Without infix. pron. : imsaí ina ndegaidh comdar scítha ind eich, BDD² 137. imsoi as Fergus ar sligi cet loech, TBC-LL¹ p. 872 n. 4 . imsóiset rempu i Sliab Fúait, 1315 . imsaitis for deis | ... | cach dib día adbai co glan, SR 1125. impais co hEspoc Eirc `reversus est ad Ercum,' Lat. Lives 107.4 . cu raimpaset na daim otha sin cusan inad a mbui B., 79.7 . doairig Naeisi sin ┐ impodais ara cenn, AU i 434.14 . imsoi ... con luid for (leg. fon ?) Loch Rudraide, Laws i 74.3 Comm. ag imsoi dia eol .i. agh impos conicce in baile as a tuccad hi `a cow which returns by its knowledge,' v 268.18 , .25 Comm. ma do chuaid i n-ailithre ┐ ro impo esti aris, 124.10 Comm. imsáe reme docum na hEtáile, CCath. 385. impobsa co fesar imthusa in ridiri, D IV 2, 67ra27 . do chuir techta dochum Meic Diarmata ... ┐ impait-sin isin tir lasna techtaib sin, Ann. Conn. 1296 § 4. imsaoi Niall cona Ghallaibh ... dia ttighibh, AFM vi 2226.1 . ro impogh Ercuil for culu ... don cathraigh, Stair Erc. 1356. impuide duinn a fritheing na conuire we must turn back ?, ZCP vi 292.z .

Fig.: achtaigim ... co na himpatur hí for culud d'fine erluma `I decree ... that it be not returned' (of an abbacy), Laws iii 78.8 Comm. acht iompam don sgeol ro thionsgnamar, TFrag. 230.14 . rogeall ... nach impobad isna peccadhaibh cedna doridhisi, D IV 2, 70va20 . immpa co lluath co Dia, PH 236. d'impó sén ┐ soladh uain don toisc so, Comp. CC 99.4 . iompóigh ód fheirg bhuirb, Exodus xxxii 12.

III converts, changes:

(a) trans. bed impaithi .i. a doiri hi soiri gl. convertando, Ml. 125a8 . conidnimpaith bron no [ḟ]āilte, Anecd. v 24.14 . cislir fodhla fil forsan mbrōn imidhsūi (.i. impōs é), ib. 16 . imsoifitis iffirn i ligbotha ┐ i taitnemh richidh `they would be turned into radiances and into the lustre of heaven,' Ériu ii 142 § 157. mara nderna ar Tigerna a cétmírbuil an uair do impádh sé an t-uisci a fín, Maund. § 105. cionnas iompoighthear an tarán agus an fíon a bhfuil agus a bhfeoil Chríosd ?, Donlevy 242.z .

(b) intrans. changes, becomes: impoidid se a naduir na talman `it adopts (lit. changes into ) the nature of the earth,' Ir. Astr. Tr. 42.20 . tipra ... imshoi ildatha fri haimsir cach en-laithi `a well ... which turns to many colours,' Ériu ii 112 § 36.

(c) in theological sense converts:

(i) intrans. do-chí an sciúrsa do-chí an cló | sí don iúlsa nír impó, IGT Decl. ex. 53. adúbradur ... co n-impádhbaidis morán do Serrisdinechaib ... do cum creidmi tritt an mirbuil sin `many Saracens ... should be turned to belief,' Maund. § 55. amhuil do ghuidheas an eagluis ortha ... ionnas go niompóighidís, Donlevy 90.6 .

(ii) trans. do iompō sē na Lumbardaig ... a ccreidium chomhlāin na heclaisi, ZCP xiii 184.2 . gurbh e Eōin do impo iat ō arrait ┐ ō ṡechrān, ib. 14 . pass. ? ro-impod sochaide do Romanchaib fo eris ┐ cretim, PH 287.

IV revokes, annuls, abrogates, reverses (a contract, etc.; generally glosses do-intaí) : do innthai flaith ocus fine .i. uair impaigid in flaith ocus in eclais ocus in fine cach cunnrad, iv 56.8 Comm. cuir nach tindtai in t-athair um a mac .i. nocha n-imponn in t-athair um a mac iatt `the father does not reverse them as regards the son,' Laws v 286.9 Comm. atait tri cuir tindtai mac beo-athar .i. impas mac in athar bi im a athair, 438.1 Comm. do intaiter in chair sin .i. impothar in cor sin, 384.4 .12 Comm. as na tindtaigtear .i. as na himpaither ar cul he, 500.17 Comm. ? To this : suith na hathgabala .i. impait na athgabala in ni hisin im a hanad i laim cintaig, Laws i 98.21 Comm.

V With prepositions.

(a) with FOR, AR turns against, revolts against: imda-suat fair co ngaíb `they turn upon him with spears,' BDD § 13. antí díb so impóbas oram-sae, BColm. 66.5 . ro impá form Finnachta | ní bad airdide a fhine, SG 388.37 . as tridsin do impoatar Ulltaigh ... airsium, RC xviii 268.24 (Tigh.). galar do gabail Muirchertaig ... cor' imposat fir Erenn air, 33.15 . cebe minca ro impodh in toici ríamh ar in Róimh, CCath. 512. do impa for a thigerna `he rebelled against his liege-lord,' Marco P. § 64. cid iat ard-maithe Erenn uile do impobadh ar h-ua n-Ainmirech, MR 148.10 . in tan impoghas in sen orum `when fortune turns against me,' Stair Erc. 1927.

(b) with FO attacks, turns upon: imsói fóithib ... ┐ marbthus iat a cethri firu déac, TBC-I¹ 1681. immsóe in Dond Cualngi fa mnáib ... tíri Cualngi, TBC-LL¹ 6201. imma-sái Conchobar iarsin fo slúag Geirg sechnón in dunaid, IT iii 480.245 . imsói fothu, feochar ngal, | Cú na cath is na comram, Metr. Dinds. iii 258.29 . imasai-sium fuithibh-sium ocus trascraid morfesir dib, RC v 199 § 10. dobert a moghadhu ... leis ┐ imsae futhu, CCath. 2445.

(c) with FRI turns against, attacks: is and-sin imsóe Cuchulaind friu ┐ ra gab bar a slaide ... co ros cuir úad na n-ágib minta, TBC-LL¹ 2977. imsoe Cuchulaind friu-som ┐ eiscis a da cend déc díb, 2911 . imsoítis a claidib fríu in tan dognítis gúchomram `their swords used to turn against them when they would make a false contest,' SCC² § 2 (= LU 3235 ). impais in anim fris-in corp ┐ ercid a ferg fria, PH 8219. frit fein impaifes sin ule, TTr.² 979. roimpo a sen ... ris na Gallaib `their good luck turned against the foreigners,' Cog. 116.2 . roimpaised a eich ris fochetoir da ithi `his horses turned upon him forthwith to eat him,' TTebe 2382 .

laíded

Cite this: eDIL s.v. laíded or dil.ie/29372

 

[u and o, m.] vn. of laídid.

(a) act of urging, exhorting, inciting to battle : ac lāigedh na lāth ngaili, Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 38.5 . ris in ngresacht ┐ ris in laidiud sin tuc Mairt . . . forru, TTebe 2611 . in gresacht sin ┐ in láidhiudh dobert Curio for Césair, CCath. 567 . crich ar laidhead an liubair, Irish Texts ii 51 § 12 . gach fer dot locht laoídhte, Duan. F. i 20.4 (g pl. of laoidh wrongly in Gloss. and n.). ni dligid duit-siu clann C. do laidiud . . . acht muna ḟaicthea . . . laige 'na lonn-gnimaib, MR 154.1 . imdha laídhedh úabhair ann / úamhain maídhemh a madhmann, IGT Decl. ex. 1137 . do bi se ar n-a fhurtacht on aingil mar fher laiti (of Christ in Gethsemane), Smaointe B. Chr. 3495 . ni measa an cat re laoidheadh, Measgra D. 63.20 . tiocfaidh dod laoidheadh `the result of your provoking', Content. v 47. Cf. do thuitsedar . . . táimnélla báis air fén ┐ ba lór do laighdiugadh (leg. laídhedh, Ed.) Oisín sin, CF² 487 . re lāidhedh na laechraide arna mórchonuib, Fianaig. 56.31 . Freq. in phrase (oc) l.¤ na laech(raide): ac laídheadh na laechraidhe ┐ ag greasacht na ngalghadh, CF² 1210 . ic laidedh na laech, CCath. 5964 . ac laoidhed na laoc[h]raidhe, ML² 1713 . occ laoided na laechraidhe, Hugh Roe² 178.z .

(b) act of celebrating, reciting in a lay : toisc Maodhóccc i ttír mBretan / toiscc da lentar lea laoidhedh, BNnÉ 213.22 . mithidh dhamh sgaoileadh dom sgéal / ní rach dá laoidheadh gan luagh `not unrewarded shall be its telling', PBocht 11A.8 . fiú a écht a laoidheadh leam, L. Cl. A. B. 31.14 .

In cheville: l.¤ ṅglé, SR 6645 (but perh. leg. laíd as line is hypermetric).

1 lainn

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 lainn or dil.ie/29425

 

Forms: loinn, luinn, lainnfordiuclandtaid

adj i, also loinn, luinn.

(a) Of persons keen, eager: ata lainni gl. avida sunt, Ml. 33d5 . 34b9 . boi obeid .i. auidus .i. laind, LU 931 ( ACC 80 ). l.¤ gl. acer, Sg. 64b7 . acer .i. l.¤ nō tin[d] nō trén, Corm. Y 11 (= Thr. Ir. Gl. 1 ). nidam laindsea lánbrostud ar nech etir da indsaigid I am not eager to urge anybody to assail it, LL 230a27 ( TTr. 959 ). mac l.¤ luchair lātha ar gail, ZCP viii 334 n.l. in tí as laind ┐ is escaid, gresed in lesc, alacer et impiger, PH 5825. Also joyful: in tí is láind ┐ is failid don fháilte spirutalta qui spirituali laetitia hilaris est, 5830 . láind . . . ┐ subach forbaelid, 5920 . With n.pr.: Lugaid l.¤ , ZCP xiii 5.15 . Adv. co laind ┐ co héscaid, PH 6029.

With copula and prep. is l.¤ la desires, delights in: nach ní . . . is adlaic ┐ is laind la duine, is ed isbeir `is toisc', Corm. Y 1201 = toisc .i. voluntas hominis .i. inní is laind la duine, Thr. Ir. Gl. 41 . cía lasmboth scīth ┐ lasmboth laind techt int slōgaid, TBC-I¹ 155 ( LU 4617 ) = cia lasbad lesc ┐ lasbad laind, TBC-LL¹ 408 . tairsi linne . . . mad l.¤ libh, Leb. Gab.(i) 198.9 . bheith 'na n-aontoigh ní luinn lat, KMMisc. 242 § 7 . ní loinn lemsa comhlonn . . . do denam ritsa, TBC-LL¹ p. 245 n. 10 ( nī accobar lem, TBC-I¹ 1194 ). ba loind les techt, CCath. 360. maircc chuindges ni for carait / minab l.¤ l[e]is a tabairt, ZCP iv 469.16 . coim tar an anam lér fhaoi / an chalann ní budh loinn lé `the body is not anxious to protect the soul', Dán Dé ix 9 . Mág Suibne dá madh l.¤ lais / do thairg O Domhnaill . . . do gairm de `had it had attraction for him', O'Gr. Cat. 386.10. leis nach loinn uabhar d'éisdeacht, DDána 100.3 . gion gur luinn leis `not anxious', Content. xiii 22 . ge madh l.¤ leó anacal dfaghbail nocha nfhuairsiot idir (`they expected'), AFM v 1846.6 . Also with DO: congnamh dan loinn treabh do tháth `helpmate ever eager to weld the land together' Magauran 2770 . With FRI, in different sense: rob rolaind frinn gnúis Rígh réil may the glorious king greet us with a smiling face, ZCP vi 266 § 10 . With compar. and superl. lainne prefers, likes more, most : robu luinne lim do thuitim leis nā lim fēin, Fianaig. 96.19 . cona bui da Románaib aenduini lasar' lainni gnim in catha catharda innás (i.e. Brutus), CCath. 1131 . lúdh n-a coinne dá mbé ar bhochtaibh / loinne lé rochtain dá réir `she is still more anxious to meet them', Magauran 1522 . h'foghnam as e as loinne linn, Irish Texts ii 44 § 31 . With proleptic -de: co mad laindite leo in forcetul do gabail do laim ut libentius a[u]diatur, PH 6759.

(b) In a variety of other applications bright, pleasant, etc.: ingen Araind fort lár luind (of Brug na Bóinne), LU 4129. am lis loinn, Irish Texts i 55 § 5 . int-aislingthe laind landes (of dream of Pharaoh), SR 3350 . sínus Ádam in láim luinn `eager', Ériu iv 118 § 31 . clandais Buide a liic laind `his keen stone', Metr. Dinds. ii 24.77 . Cf. fuil gormlaind don grein it gris `the bright sheen of the sun illumines thee', Cog. 124.2 .

As subst.: l.¤ .i. solus no taithnemach, . . . annlesach cach l.¤ lochta gáisse `very helpful is every bright one of the folk of wisdom', O'Dav. 1184.

Compds. With nouns. ¤eólas: loinn-eolas, Lism. Lives Gloss. ¤ḟordiuclandtaid: lainnfordiuclandtaid avidus devorator, Dinds. 9. With adjj. ¤chréchtach: iomdha laoch loinnchréachtach, CRR² 76.26 (lonn?). ¤gnímach: in lainnghnimach Lighan, Caithr. CC 7 . ¤réid: an tuath lainréidh Luighnisi, O'Hara 3310 , where Ed. suggests cpd. of lonn-.

See also lonn.

léir

Cite this: eDIL s.v. léir or dil.ie/29810

 

Forms: léra, lérscribnid

adj i (but see Murphy Lyrics 1 and 2 léir ) ? Pl. also léra: gidh mor a lochta léra, Duan. F. ii xlix 45 .

I

(a) In O. Ir. freq. used attributively: assiduous, earnest, careful, zealous : indithem leir ┐ menma adblam assiduous attention, Ml. 53c18 . léri gl. (inuentione malorum) diligentes, 88c6 . sóer .i. leir són gl. dilegens, 145c12 . industrius .i. l.¤ , Sg. 41a1 . caraimse fos . . . / oc mo lebran leir ingnu `with diligent science', Thes. ii 293.16 . áes atrige lere earnest(?), LU 2158 ( FA 23 ). eirgg dam ri toisc l.¤ co lúath urgent(?), LL 208b24 . irfhuacra l.¤ . . . fon uile doman, PH 456 . ernaigthe leri ┐ molta mora, 155 . ba leir .i. ba trebar, Lec. Gl. 79. Hence: l.¤ .i. treabhar (sic leg.). no éolach, O'Cl.

Freq. by transf. of books, chants, etc.: in lebrán l.¤ laindrech, Fél. Ep. 90 (`pious'). it lebránaib lérib, Prol. 310. tindscan lechsa léri `begin pious chants', Nov. 14. cona lóidib lérib, Prol. 334 . da cét slechtain . . . / la lebrán l.¤ don Choimdid, Ériu i 197 § 13b . litirdheacht leir ┐ rim, Auraic. 55.

(b) In verse used freq. for metrical reasons, meaning vague: Lucifur leir (:drochcēil), SR 849 . is mo cen in loingius leir, / do connarc a hetercéin, MR 46.9 . lasfaidh an lānḟairrgi / lānainfech lēir, ZCP viii 211 § 59 . do legadh linn 'san leirg lēir / trīcha cairp[th]ech, ML² 231 . Lorcán l.¤ tar firFodla, 23 E 26, 48.28 . mac Dé 'na bhreitheamh l.¤ lom, 23 G 24, 249.16 .

(c) Later much more commonly predic. with meaning visible, perceptible except in first ex. below: ba lēir Patraicc co mbebae `diligent', Thes. ii 314.6 ( Hy. ii 23 ) (gl. i crabud .i. ba feb ar crábud). connárbo l.¤ do neoch isin dúnud ┐ corbo léir dóibseom cách, LU 6405 . is l.¤ balath in conluain, Laws iv 122. 12 Comm . combat léiri lesbaire aeóir triana chend, TBC-LL¹ 1268 . in lā ō nab lēir feadha as findlinti, ACL iii 235 § 21 . ro tinoiled fuil in chatha isin ballan ┐ nir bo leir sin isin ballan beous `noticeable', Ériu v 118.60 . easbaidh carad is coigéile / ní l.¤ d'aon ar dheaghaidh Eoin felt by, Arch. Hib. i 98.z . nar l.¤ faighthe amoigh ó mnáibh so that the green was not visible on account of all the women on it, DDána 103.3 . uirre gan bhréig ní l.¤ locht, 51.1 . cairt nach l.¤ do léghadh, L. Cl. A. B. 237.11 . ceol na n-éan ní l.¤ 'san Mhárta, Keat. Poems 505 . an tan bhus léir dhamh do ghlóir-se (cum apparuerit), TSh. 10306.

Compar. leriu gl. industriior (sic), Sg. 41a2 . nách . . . líomhtha, ghéire, léire teangtha na bhfear ná ar tteangtha féin, Párl. na mB. 377 . Used for superl. in: slóg is léri rucad la rig riam .i. Goith ┐ Dalmáit . . . outstanding(?), striking(?), Alex. 100. With de: tuctha leo-sum a n-aes cíuil ┐ airfiti ┐ admolta combad leriti na hairgni, CRR 3.

II In adv. uses: is l.¤ dorigni indala lestar ` carefully ', Wb. 4c32 . is l.¤ do-rrími `it is industriously that thou recountest', Fél. Apr. 30 . secht mbeosgartha . . . / ler nos-luaigit liubuir libh, Laws ii 314.16 Comm . lē[i]r ra lēg . . . / suithe sechta, ACL iii 303 § 8 . feib leir dorigned . . . / atchuas do aírrig Egept, SR 3727 . coir ord ura dlige dia lentar leir, Laws i 266.4 .i. . . . ordu an uasil-dligidh do rer coir, mada lentar de co leir no co lór, 292.28 Comm . dlighidh leir lethchumal he is clearly entitled to(?), iv 348.17 (cf. teora leire lethcumala, 346.z ). piantar leir lām asidroille, i 12.1 Comm .

Equative used adverbially: is lerithir inso nonguidim-se dia . . . amal rotgád-sa `I beseech God for thee as urgently as . . ,' Wb. 27d19 (gl. precor multifarie). is lerigtir sin ron-gabsid occai, RC iii 346.21 `you are so determined about (finding) her', Aisl. Óeng. 12 .

In adv. phrase co ll.¤ , di l.¤ do l.¤

(a) carefully, diligently, assiduously : cid ecen áisndís do neuch as doruid co leir, Ml. 14d3 . in tan domberam ar menmain intiu co lleir gl. adcommodata aure, 21a8 . co raib indithem and co lleir, 67c12 . gudid dia di leir ┐ na carid hi far cridib, 68a15 . lilisiu iar línib / co ll.¤ donaib félib, Fél. Prol. 312 . túir la fége frithgnam / co ll.¤ ord na caiptel, 332 . maith lem . . . cé no slaiss co l.¤ give him a good drubbing, LU 6070 . ferthae a oígidecht co l.¤ amal na haidchi aili punctiliously, 11022 . iarfaigther co ll.¤ , 5993 . na téig a Brénaind . . . / conid arlasar do l.¤ , 3032 . saer lerlong .i. in saer doni cu ler no cu lor na longa, Laws v 104.3 Comm . dosroisechtsa co ll.¤ im bossán (of a ring), TBFr. 331 . oco cuinc[h]id duit do llēir, Fianaig. 14 § 31. dia mbo epscop . . . / geib do māmb do lēir, ACL iii 313 § 9 (colleir, v.l.).

(b) clearly : in tíí . . . nach dáll . . . .i. fhégas co ll.¤ . . . slige na sualach, PH 4672 . fria hetarchert co leir . . . do aicned cech retai `for penetrating clearly into the nature of . . .', 3975 .

(c) completely, entirely; used adjectivally all: ní mholaim dheit . . . / bheith éigcríonna id leanbh go l.¤ , DDána 97.40 . Imlech Iubhair do losccadh co l.¤ eittir daimhliacc ┐ cloictheach, AFM ii 874.12 . co rus dileghait uile do leir `entirely', AU i 532.6 (an. 1014). immáfoacht C. scéla di. Adfét dó ind ingen du l.¤ all, LU 10442 (H). Laighin uile do leir, AU i 532.2 (an. 1014). do thinōiledar Laigin co lēir, ML² 873. a scēla do lēir, ACL iii 5.8 . a maithi go lēir, ML² 101 . co ro bris na hídlu ┐ na altóri co l.¤ , PH 743 . a uile choibsen do lēir `his full confession', Fl. Earls 158.8 . oruibh go l.¤ , Párl. na mB. 354 .

III As subst. teacht l.¤ a dtionóil iar bhfagháil rabhaidh dhóibh, L. Cl. A. B. 42.30 (lér, v.l.). Cf. compds. below.

Compds. (freq. in alliteration). With substt. and vnn. ¤aisnéis: Lucás . . . fer na ler-aisneisen-si, PH 5636 . ¤choimét carefully preserving : na laīde da leirchomet (of a tale), LL 376a x . ¤chrech: gan déanamh léirchreach, gan maidhm, gan cháin, Keat. Poems 567 . ¤fhrital: léirfhriotal laoitheadh, Hackett xxxix 235 . ¤gním: adfed dia muindtir lergnima na bliadne beus amail cach faith, Dinds. 27. As vn. in Fáthliaig . . . ic lērgním in taige `setting in order the house', MacCongl. 91.15 . Attrib. g s. in tech lērgníma `well-appointed', 67.16 . ¤laíd: saigid lulgaigh lan-mesaig ar leir-laidh leirigter `for a clearly manifested laid' (apparently a legal maxim), Laws v 62.18 . ¤lí: amal badh rós léirlí a chinn, Comp. CC 101.10 (leirlighi a cenn, v.l.). ¤mes `act of closely considering, estimating', TSh. Gloss.; criticizing, calculating : léir-mheas do dhéanamh ar gach anfhochain, TSh. 7662 . lucht a léirmheasta, 5165 . ¤reic (2 reic): ag léir-reic locht a chomharsan, 9026 (`act of clearly stating, enumerating'). ¤scríbnid: Lucas lérscribnid , LB 185a39 . ¤scris annihilating : pláig . . . chum léirsgris do thabhairt ar an ccine daona, Párl. na mB. 1284 . ¤thacra: lertacra .i. tacra eisidhe do-gnither ara leithe ┐ ara léire ┐ ara chirt, Cóic Con. 60 § 144 . ¤thecosc: ár léirtheagasc féin duit, Keat. Poems 373 . ¤thinól complete muster: lin na tuaithi uili . . . a ler-tinol, Laws v 50. 4 Comm . rigraidh Laigen ┐ Osraigi cona lertinol, RC xviii 272.29 (Tig.). san bfaithchi lá an lérthinól, IGT Decl. ex. 931. ¤thúarascbáil: lerthuarascbail na cined-sin do faisnes, LB 150a55 .

With adjj. ¤chert: adv. an léigheann go léircheart do chárnuigh, Hackett xl 75 . ¤meinic (dvandva-compd.?) zealous and frequent : co coibsinuibh leirmincuip / do rēir carud naeimh, ACL iii 320 § 98.

With adjj. formed from nouns. ¤brígach of outstanding force(?): cach luíghe leirbríghach .i. cach aen brigus luighe co leir, O'Curry 2009 ( H 4.22, 33 ). ¤chíallach: dar le daoinibh léirchiallacha, Párl. na mB. 27 (`very sensible,' Gloss.).

With part. ¤thinóilte : go mbatar i n-aenmaighin . . . co lionmar leirthionoilte, Leb. Gab.(i) 246.10 . do ionntuígheadar Ulltaigh uile ┐ Laighnigh go léir-thionóilte forro, ML 62.25 . a dteacht léirthionóilte, L. Cl. A. B. 42.22 .

With verbs ¤chenglaid: fa a thuathaibh do iadh 'na fhéithleannaigh / gur léircheangail aniar go Cruachain gcraobhchollaigh, Aithd. D. 4.13 . ¤chrechaid lays waste: tond do leircreach tír thoraidh, ZCP ii 346.26 . ro leircreachadh Baile an Mhótaigh . . . seach gach mbaile, AFM vi 1936.10 . ¤goid (gataid): séideadh séitreach do ghaoith . . . / do léir-ghoid do théagar, Keat. Poems 554 . ¤indrid: ro creachadh ┐ ro lérindreadh an tír, AFM vi 1974. 22 . ¤loiscid: do dhóich sí na caóirigh . . . ┐ do lérloisg iad, Job i 16 . ¤lommaircid: gur milleadh ┐ gur lerlomairccedh leo, AFM iii 390.14 . ¤scrisaid: léir-sgriosfuidh sé a peacacha-san aiste amach, Isaiah xiii 9 . ¤theclammaid: ro leirtheglamadh lais an conranagair do sochraide, AFM v 1356.6 . ¤therbaid: ro leir-therbá Colum cille a soos . . . o cach duinne co Dia, RC xx 252 § 54.

loinges

Cite this: eDIL s.v. loinges or dil.ie/30536

 

Forms: longas, loingse, long(a)is, loingis, longais, longes

n ā, f. (long) O.Ir. longas, g s. loingse, a d s. long(a)is. IGT Decl. § 54 . Later appar. m. § 53 , g s. loingis but this not clearly attested, though supported by a d s. ¤. longais, LU 6601 = longes, TBC-I¹ 2072 (see also LU 5489 , 6629 , 6644 = TBC-I¹ 1010 , 2090 , 2104 , and RC xviii 179.10 ); later usually -eas, -ius.

(a) fleet; ships, shipping: longas tre ḟichet long di Norddmannaibh, AU an. 837 . long .i. Saxanbērla .i. lang .i. fada, et inde dicitur loṅges, Corm. Y 845 . longus Locha Cuan do ghabail oc Linn hUachaill, AU an. 926 . troid longsi etir longes an tuaisceirt ┐ coblach Con[n]acht, RC xviii 179.10 (Tig.). toisc loiṅgsi `a naval expedition', AU ii 540.23 . an sál lomnán do loingis, IGT Decl. ex. 1370 . is lia do loingius dó innat srotha in betha `it has more shipping' (of a river), Marco P. 134 . i mbeagán do luingeas fhada (= longis navibus non multis), Keat. ii 1717.

(b) naval expedition, invasion by sea : tancutur luinges macc Miled, Laws i 20.31 Comm . toisig na lloṅgse dar ler, LL 1920 . tancatar dar muir morglass, / hi tri longsib . . . / Galiuin, Firbolg, Fir Domnand, MacCarthy 148.7 . for l.¤ a hEaspain co Sceithia, 290.26 . a marl.¤ Aeniass, TTebe 4036 .

(c) banishment, exile (not necessarily over sea), (téit for lo(i)ngis goes into exile): l.¤ .i. indarba, O'Dav. 1177 . luid epscop Fith leo for longis, Thes. ii 240.20 ( Ardm. 18a ). dia luid Duaid for longais re Saul, Ml. 55c1 . īarna longis `nach seiner Vertreibung', Ält. Ir. Dicht. ii 10 § 3 . is 'na haimsir-side tollotar na Deisse for longais, Cymmr. xix 108 n.1 . luid Eochu for l.¤ co Fergus, Ériu xvi 37 § 1 . longus Coirpri mic Foghertaigh re nDonnchad `banishment', AU an. 769 . Cuanu abbas Lugmaidh . . . do dula a tire Muman for longais, an. 818 . cia bemni for l.¤ riam, nī fil ind Ére ōclaig bus amru, TBC-I¹ 372 . longas Fergusa ó Ultaib, IT i 70.15 ( LMU 5 ) (luingius, v.l.). mór do maith fuarais i fus / ar do loṅgais a Ḟergus, TBC-LL¹ 493 . tria longais ┐ carcair, PH 4200. In the titles of tales: Loinges mac n-Uisleand, YBL 109b20 . From the tale-lists: Longus nUlad, Anecd. ii 43.16 . Longes Labrada, LL 189b33 . Tocomlod loṅgsi Fergusa a hUltaib, 190b1 .

In B. na f. as quasi-vn. to drive away : loithēan do loingeas ō bhūal (.i. lacha d'indarba ó uisge), ZCP v 488 § 3.

(d) band of sea-rovers, company of banished men, invaders : cach longas tra rofitir Eithne Huathach la Herind dosreclam cosna Deisse, Cymmr. xiv 122 § 22 ( Rawl. f.73ra4 ). forbrisfet comlund scéo Fergus dánae co loingis Ulad, LU 6629 (rhet.). tricha cét rop é lín na longsi, IT i 77.3 ( LMU 16 ). clú . . . na luingsi ut, Laws i 20.34 Comm . ar húaman a mmórlo[i]ngsi (of the Israelites), SR 4748 . do bhí ag Cathaoir don taoibh theas / slógh Laighean i na loingeas among his forces, DDána 105.30 .

In the sobriquet of Cormac son of Conchobar mac Nessa, Cond Loṅgas head of the exiled bands : Cormac Cond Loṅgas mac Conchobair, LU 4485. 5961 . Condloṅges, TBC-LL¹ 705. Corbmac Con Loinges, TBC St. 162 . do Chormac Con-loinges, Metr. Dinds. iv 276.x . Cf. Cormac, cond na loiṅgse-se, 236.14 . Cormac ba con longas laind, ZCP viii 333.8 .

maelaid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. maelaid or dil.ie/31246

 

Forms: mælad, moelta

v a, (1 mael)

(a) shears (the hair), makes bald: sāl tria hassae .i. as a firmullaig moeltar side (of a kind of tonsure?), Corm. 1091 s.v. ranc (= maeltar LB). do maoladh a cnuic corra `her round hills have been stripped', TD 1.6 . Intrans.: nach maoluid siad (= nec calvi fiunt), Rosa Angl. 326.2 .

(b) decapitates or truncates (cf. 1 mael (d)): maelfaitir muneóil, TFerbe 187 .

(c) flattens, blunts: máolais [an phéist] an greann adhuathmar baí fuirre lowered its horrible bristles, BNnÉ 8 § 27. in drem isa claidhbhi no maelta whose swords were blunted, CCath. 5981. do mhaoladar [a n-airm] ó thuargain na cloiche, ML 34.2 . ní har dhaorchloinn . . . do mhaolfoinn arma fhileadh, Ir. Monthly 1930, 297 § 15 .

(d) esp. in fig. sense makes blunt or dull, depresses, abates: gach ní méith maelaid sé an t-inntleacht, O'Gr. Cat. 260.17. máelfaidh t'ferg dá n-éiste ar ndán, IGT Dec. ex. 88. ro máolaitt menmanna a mileadh, Hugh Roe fo. 5 a . Impers. pass.: nir mælad forru they were never defeated, LL 272b32 ( SG 49.31 ). ro maeladh for slógh Poimp, CCath. 3705 , cf. 3696 . Cf. further: ro maelad . . . im Chennfaelad a ríge `C. is shorn of his royal dignity', SG 404.7 = TFrag. 70.10 . part. is clanna moelta in Moeil | bid traeta a taeib sel re sreib `the brave (? discouraged, subdued) sons of the Mael', Fen. 230.5 . Cf. biaid co hanbuain Eri | re forran na fer sin; | da toisc co Raith Cloentai | ni ba moelta a mesair (= her measure shall be full?), 282.22 .

1 ríata

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 ríata or dil.ie/35244
Last Revised: 2019

 

adj io,iā. part. of 1 réidid (?), of horses and draught-oxen trained for driving or racing, broken, passing into the senses full-grown, domesticated and possibly swift.

co toracht . . . cona eoch riata leis co Emain, LU 8462 ( FB 31 ). tabar carpait . . . for echaib riattai ro-luatha, PH 410 . bit daim ríata laíg ar mbó | co tí cobair Diarmato `the calves of our kine will be trained (? full-grown) oxen ', ZCP iii 204.13 ( LU 9589 ). ba samalta re seiche doim riata ar mēd `full-grown', BCC 390.26 = seithe ṡen-tairbh, KMMisc. 316 § 8 . .x. mile elefint ríata `tamed', Maund. 207 . do croicnibh bethadach n-allta ┐ ríatta `domesticated', BNnÉ 53.7 . Of persons: ros-gabsat rig-droing riata, LL 17a48 . is ríatai di rathbriugad ( trained, expert ?), LU 8959 ( FB 71 , of Cú Chulaind). compar. (?) is and assbreth fris: `Is ríataide ind imrim sin' oc dul dó dar Slige nAssail; is desin asberar-som Fiacha Ríatai `like driving was that errand . . . the driving-like F.', Ériu vi 149.58 ; perh. compar.+de `the swifter; the same episode is transferred to Cairbre Riada in Keat. ii 4326 fg . : gur riata an toisc re ndeachaidh siar ané ┐ tigheacht aniar aniú `it was on a quick errand', 4335 .

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