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1 enech, ainech

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 enech, ainech or
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: ainech, ainech, enech, einic, enig, ainiuch, inchaib, enech, enigh

n o, n. (Ascoli considered the latter form to be originally a distinct word, connected with aingid protects), in later lang. m., and sometimes s in pl.

I Face, front ; as the word is regularly pl. in early Irish the original meaning was evidently brows or cheeks. In the later lang. it is more usually treated as sg.: n p. a di chulaid-som friu ┐ enech Loig, TBC-I¹ 1154 . a p. ní 'na n-enech robitha acht is inna ndrummai (gl. vulnera non aduerso corpore exciperunt, sed auerso) Ml. 100b2 . dubeir cách a chorp hí cotarsnae fria chele .i. enech fri enach (gl. aduersis corporibus) 65b10 . follaig Medb a hainech, LU 6567 . tucastar dóit fri dóit ┐ einech fri einech, CRR 45.48 . goeth garb ina n-enech, FA 26 (LB). nobetis déra geiredh dar eneach gach caratt ZCP vii 268 § 4 . d p. is i n-inchaib atat na cétfaide, O'Mulc. 403 . g p. comlethet a enech di or, LU 20b27 = MU 54.15 . cathbarr ┐ éittidh robaoi foraibh ag...diamlughadh a n-aightheadh ┐ a n-eineach, Hugh Roe, 166.9 (f. 44b) . In later texts the gen. is usually in sg. form: ar son a einich .i. ar son a aighthe, O'Cl. s. eineach, and the word is probably to be taken as sg. in the following exx.: glass robhói a ainech .i. aighed ghlas lais, Cóir Anm. 201 . dorat sígín na croiche dar a enech, RC x 185.14 . dearg a oineach .i. a ghnúis, Keat. ii 2223 (< dearg-ainech robái, Cóir Anm. 21 ). Later form of n p.: nírbo heinighi carat im [sic leg.] fleid in lucht bátar isin tig sin faces of friends at a feast Hib. Min. 52.23 (= aigthe carat, IT i 99.15 ). Of the outer surface of anything: nói mbuilc co n-inchaib órdaib, BDD 119 .

In phrases: ar (for) inchaib over against, in front of: Lia na Fían... | ar inchaib Rátha Senaid, Metr. Dinds. i 18.80 . co torchair for incuibh a duine fessin, Ériu vi 144.10 . badar da tulaigh arda fora n-inchaibh, CCath. 2407.1652 . Leb. Gab.(i) i 208.30 . Hugh Roe² 3.32 (f. 2a) . AFM vi 1898 z . After verb of motion: tainic ar ionchaibh a lethemain came in front of his twin (to shield him) CCath. 2068 ( Luc. Phars. iii 614 ). do dhol ar ionchaibh an Choimdhedh go breithemnus mbratha, BNnÉ 128.17 .

The following seem to belong to this section, but the sense may be that of II b: dorochradar...gleri laech for inchaib a tigernadh, Aen. 2494 . do eirgedar...isin comlonn sin ar inchaib Fergusa `in support of F.' Celt. Rev. iv 22 note m.

ar (for) enech into the presence of (cf. II b). Later also in front of: Ó D. ┐ Ó N. do bheith i ndíbh scoraibh for aineach aroile ó Shamhain go Nodlaicc, AFM iv 1178 x = for enech, AU 1490 . atconnairc T. an t-aingel ina seasamh ar a oinigh [leg. oinech?] gerbo ina diaidh fosraccaibh, Aisl. Tond. 101.9 . Cf. elta dian mag fo ócaib...fert na n-airech ... | décaid ar ainech Etair, Metr. Dinds. iii 106.52 .

fri enech opposite: isind ḟoclúi féinnida fri enech in ríg, BDD 74 . Cf. Ml. 65 b10 and CRR 48 , cited above.

i n-enech against, in opposition to: dolbfamaitni sé muca...a n-einech na sé n-onchon, Anecd. ii 62.15 ; 63.3 . Cf. duberat mo bráthir im ainech mu étchi my kinsmen urge against me my ugliness (cast it in my teeth?) Trip. 152.6 . ? dá mbeith ’na oineach 'if opposed by him' Celtica xvi 91 § 5 .

os inchaib?: airchinnig étrocair bíte ós inchaib martra na nnǽb for dānaib ┐ dechmadaib na hecailsi, FA 25 (this may belong to II).

enech i n-inchaib face to face: tucad cuce in di tabald co mbatar ina lamoib eneuch a n-inchoib facing one another RC xiii 223.53 . dorola airri na hA. doib...eineach i n-inchaip for in muig, CCath. 3058 . With do: do suidhigh [Césair] a longphort ann einech i n-inchaibh do longphort Poimp, 3287 . With fri: gabhsat longport and eineach i n-ionchuibh fri hUltaib, ZCP xiv 228.1 . batar enech i n-ionchaibh friaroile corofighedh iomairecc, AFM ii 908.5 . iii 362.4 . Hugh Roe² 5.32 (f. 3a) . go ranuicc go Dún na nGall eineach i n-ionchaibh frisna Gallaibh, 18.4 (f. 10a) . AFM vi 1926.10 .

e.¤ imm inchaib id.: ro gabh Cesair longphort...enech um inchaibh ríu, CCath. 2286 . Cf. robhai aigidh im inchaib fris directly opposite him Aen. 2857 .

With pref., as adj.:

bán-ainech white-faced: ben bán-ainech, TBC-LL¹ 4314 = TBC-I¹ 2789 (= banaighthech St).

clár-ainech flat-faced: Mo clárainech ( .i. cen sróin lais itir, LB 97 ), Fél. Oct. 12 . in dall clar-enech = cæcum tabulatam faciem habentem Todd Lect. v 86.3 . Cf. ferais tromṡ mbatar clarenig uile coiceda hErend din tṡnechtu so that all the fifths of Ireland were equally level plains TBC-LL¹ 627 .

crunn¤ (cruinn¤ ) round-cheeked: gnúis chorcra chrund-ainech, TBC-LL¹ 5323 .

coím¤ with noble face: Cathbad cóem-ainech, IT i 68.14 . LU 124 az = ZCP iii 236.19 ( ¤oinech). mor cend caem-ainech, BB 420 a36 .

derg¤ ruddy-cheeked: derg-ainech robái coni[d] dé ro lil Enna Derg dé, Cóir Anm. 21 .

gorm¤ swarthy-cheeked: fer gorm-ainech, BDD 75 . fien gorm-ainech, Fianaig. 10 § 8 .

moíth¤ soft-cheeked: ben mæth-ainech, TBC-I¹ 2789 .

COMPDS.: pn enech-glass green-faced: Bressal Enechglas RC xxv 22.10 . Rawl. 117by . B. Ainechghlass, Cóir Anm. 201 . asbert fri Breasal nEineachlais, Lec. 380a7 = Leb. Cert. 194 . rí O nEnechlais, Top. Poems 74.13 = ar Uibh Inechruis, 90.5 (see note, and Leb. Cert. 195 - 6 n.g.). Cf. ...AVI INEQUAGLAS, JRSAI 1898, 57 .

¤nár of noble countenance, or noble repute: Enna enech-nár, Metr. Dinds. iv 182.12 . ri claind Iafeth enechnāir, LL 142a44 . Rawl. 76b20 . ó mac Cumaill einechnáir, Acall. 1417 . Caichni ros ícc Sinchell slán | co himthend co henech-nár, Metr. Dinds. iii 156.18 .

¤réid of gentle face, or of free generosity, lavish: ar ndol don úr enechréigh upon the death of the generous one Miscell. Celt. Soc. 330.3 (cf. ó ṡíol R. an réadhoinigh `generous seed of R.' TD 16.57 ).

II By a transition of meaning apparently connected with the tendency for feelings of shame or humiliation to be reflected in the countenance, enech comes to be used in the sense of honour, repute, good name . The `enech' of an individual might be damaged by unatoned insult or injury on the part of another, or by any act on his own part which was dishonouring to his status, or any failure to fulfil the duties of his rank. Such acts or lapses, when unatoned, left a stain upon his `enech' and thus damaged his status. The contexts in which enech occurs in this sense usually deal with acts which cause humiliation or degradation, or with compensation for such acts, and the word takes on slightly different shades of meaning according to the aspect in which `enech' is regarded. For convenience of reference the exx. given below are grouped as far as possible in accordance with these aspects. In some passages the literal meaning of the word is plainly recognised. In the Laws Text it is treated as pl.; elsewhere it is often sg., though at least some of the instances from early texts are doubtless due to transcribers: gen. einic, Corm. Y 685 . enig, 532 . FB 94 LU. dat. ainiuch, AU 1123 .

(a) honour, repute; dignity, status: ar na torthaiset isnaib sechtaib hi tuitet enech caich...a aér i [= a?] torgabail cen gell dia inchaib, gú-fiadnaisi [sic leg.] gú-test, ailsed nadma, elud rathaigis, dul tria aitiri im ni dichuat fuiri [cf. Laws i 58.1 ff .], cacc for a enech [cf. Corm. Y 685 . ZCP xv 342 § 33 ]. Cid dinigh di inchaibh neich inna .uíí. sa? nach sal aslenna ainech duine biit a tri oca diúnach .i. sleic ┐ usce ┐ anart. is edh is sleíc, fóisitiu in mídénmai fia[d] doínib ┐ in gell nád súifii friiu aitherach. in t-usci, ícc ne[i]ch atball tria mignimiu. anart, penait in midenmai rer [per?] lebor that they fall not in the seven things in which everyone's honour (or countenance) may fall, that is, to be satirized, to transgress without having a pledge on his behalf (or to be satirized for transgressing, etc.?), false witness, false testimony, careless bond-making, evasion of suretyship, breaking through his pledge...(?) [all these bring?] dirt on one's honour. What cleanses from one's honour (or countenance) these seven things? Any stain which soils a person's honour, etc. Laws iv 318.21 ff . Cf. MacNeill, MacNeill, Law of status § 100 ( PRIA xxxvi C 16 ). nā raibh on for inchaibh tuaithe, ACL iii 295 § 27 . on it inchuib, Laws i 232.3 . recht ┐ enech ┐ anim [sic leg.] do rig, enech ┐ anim [sic leg.] do cāch olcena...treidhe do rig recht a timarcain is enech do beth sochaide ┐ imcomet anma do insin for a king, rule and honour and life; for others (only) honour and life. Threefold for a king, i.e. his (power of) constraint (or castigation) is (his) rule, it is his honour to have a retinue, and that guards his life Laws i 230.11ff. Comm. Cf. recht .i. flatha. enech .i. feni .i. ocus filidh. ainim .i. eclasa .i. inas dír do eclais rule, i.e. of the lord; honour, i.e. oj the freeborn native, i.e. and the poet; life (soul ?), i.e. of the church, i.e. what is properly for the church 230.10 . dilsi n-ainech rig a king retains his honour ZCP xv 366 . conagaib ainech ┐ anmain damsa in fer muinteri rucad uam .i. mo chú upheld my honour and my life (i.e. by guarding his stock so that he was never shamed from lack of provender for his guests, and by guarding his own person) TBC-I¹ 534 . secht seoit airech...con-oat enech which maintain (his) honour (i.e. appertain to his status), Cóic Con. 45 § 72 . Cf. Laws i 134 . ní dlegar anim is enech i n-íc n-anma (the loss of) a life need not be requited by both honour and life Metr. Dinds. iv 110.43 . úaisle eineach inā anam, ZCP xiv 251.2 . béo duine d'éis a anma ┐ ní beo d'éis a oinigh [sic leg.] RC xxix 138.4 . Aen. 2203 . Here we may note the punning sentence: olc amser...i mbiat ile cenna, i mbiat uate enig when heads [i.e. severed ones] will be many and countenances [i.e. reputes] will be few LL 188a52 = RC xxvi 36.3 .

To each grade was assigned a certain rate of satisfaction for any act which if left uncompensated would taint the individual's honour and thus affect his standing and reputation. This compensation was proportioned to the nature of the act and the status of the individuals concerned, and based on the valuation termed lóg n-enech ( honour-price ) in the earlier law tracts (`honour-price was the valuation of the freeman's status'; `a valuation of the power and effect of his status at any given time,' MacNeill, l.c. 270 . Another term for honour-price was eneclann, q.v.): digaib do log eneach eireach it diminishes the honour-price of a chief Laws iv 56.26 . is dilis don cele log n-einech dib, ZCP xiv 391 § 59 = Laws ii 336.5 . log enech fuidre, ma[d] doerfuidir, can mittir ? a inchaib a flatha whence is the honour-price of an unfree settler estimated? from the status of his lord Laws v 516.13 ; 108.24 . fer cen selb...a inchuib a mnā direnar side he is rated according to the status of his wife 516.5 . ii 394.27 . log n-ainech cach fuidire acht doer-fuidir direnar as a leth-[th]othchus, v 518.14 . na gradha tuaithe...ailsed nadm[a], no rath, no eteris, no gūfiadnuisi, no gūfoirgiull, no gūbreithemnus, no gūmes, no guin indilsi, no forlosccadh...troethaidh a logh einech umpu, i 58.10 Comm. dia ndenut guin, no fell for corpuib no colluib, fingal no duinethaighe, no etech daime, no adaltrus do graduib ecuilsi tesbuidh a lan-log einech iumpud fo cetoir curu icuit ┐ curo pinnet na grada ecuilsi ┐ ro sothut na grada cetna cinmotha in t-espoc, Laws i 56.24 Comm. ciasingba in ben as a mamaib ni fairben log n-ainech indi fir `if the woman falls from her obedience, it does not subtract from the honour-price of her husband' v 516 z . sechtmad lōge enig cāich iarna míadh, Corm. Y 532 . lān-lōg einig cāigh fo miad, 531 . Cf. dalbach dina tobngar dire n-ainech, ACL iii 294 § 7 . congairim firiu hErinn. nus biathaim gu cenn dechmuidi. fosuidiur a ndana ┐ a ndibergai. forriuth a n-enech ┐ a n-inechgreso amin I help (them to maintain) their status and (to repel) attacks on their honour IT i 141.27 = 325.8 . ZCP iii 236.4 . dodechas o M.A. cuice do cuingidh na muice do chabair a einich M.A. sent to him for the pig to help (him to maintain by his hospitality) his honour Dinds. 112 = IT i 112 . Cf. cit. from TBC-I¹ 534 , above. fó daig na rotubaide fria enech lest his honour should be aspersed IT i 121.30 . dús in fugebmáis tesorcain ar n-enech fri Ingcél, orguin fón orguin dorat dún to see if we could get wherewith to guard our honour from I. (that is,) a reaving to set against the reaving he allowed to us BDD 48 (they had promised him a return reaving and their honour would have been damaged had the promise not been fulfilled). na haithber ar n-einech, a I. (he had reproached them with shrinking from the promised reaving) 80 (ainech YBL). is messi thall cach n-accobor collaide n-airi na beth milliud enech daitsiu and, IT i 128.25 . ni fil imlot n-enig daitso and, 128.28 (LU) = issat slán-sa dot enech, 128.6 (Eg.). guin in meic ro mill a enech `that smirched his honour' (by embracing his wife) Metr. Dinds. iv 110.32 . do dígail ar mná ┐ ar n-ainig ar na Manib, TBC-LL¹ 4572 . an ferann in ro sáraighedh C. a dílsiugad dó 'na enech as compensation for his (outraged) honour Metr. Dinds. iv 268 x . MR 132.4 . olc do inchaib tri eclaind do thutim dib ┐ nad tabrat digail fair, IT ii2 214.51 . bid olc dot inchaib-siu (not to avenge the slaying of his servant), Laws i 6 z . Ériu ix 46 § 8 . foipremm ina ndegaid ┐ liach on, ol M., ┐ is meth n-einig duinn inni sin a blighting of our honour ZCP iv 39.13 . cáemain, a rí... | th'ainech, th'agaid, ocus tabair Ailech d'A. `guard ...thine honour and thy face, and give A. to A.' Metr. Dinds. iv 116.103 . not áirubsa, ol in cainte. ro íccus dom inchaib indiu. aírfatsa Ultu it chinta. ro iccus dia n-inchaib I shall satirize thee [for refusing a request]...I have paid on behalf of my honour to-day. I shall satirize Ulster for thy faults. I have paid on their behalf LL 121a42 - 44 . RC viii 48.25 ; 52.12 . do ænig a fir, 48 z . Cf. ni herfaider dom incaibse ón sibse imme (reply to a challenge) LU 21a18 = IT ii2 213.15 (cf. 210.1 ). ro íccus do chind m' enig indiu chena, LL 121a16 . tanic F. leo dar cend a enig, daig ba hussu lessium a thuttim do gaib gaile ┐ gascid...ná a thuttim de gaaib áire ┐ écnaig ┐ imdergtha, TBC-LL¹ 3022.1738 . berid enech carries off the honour of (by satire, etc.) humiliates, shames: nicon n-etus leo fer du thuidecht ar a chend. is mebul hinnso, ol O. bertar enech di sunn they could not get a man to oppose him, that is shameful, says O. it will cause loss of honour IT iii 239.132 . ni cóir enech cóicid do brith ar ái óenḟir do thesbaid díb, FB 94 . RC viii 48yz . But in a different sense: dosmbidc Cú C. a Delga connach cæmnacair anmanna de duine na chethir ronucad a ainech secha fades C.C. cast at them from Delgu so that no living thing, human or quadruped, was able to get past him unshamed (?) (i.e. without being overcome, but cf. II (b), first cit.) TBC-I¹ 1745 . It was especially harmful to one's honour to refuse a request or to fail in any of the obligations of a host; to show churlishness towards poets or minstrels: meni tuga biad im dorn | berat th'eneach, Laws v 64.22 Comm. conattecht R. in clettín ┐ nad tarddait C. in clettín dó...rádis R. nobérad ainech C., TBC-LL¹ 2068 . TBC-I¹. 1336 (enech). Otia ii 78 z (einech). Cf. O'Dav. 1527 . co mberdais enighe Erenn, Ériu v 116.50 .

do-gní e.¤ maintains (achieves, satisfies) honour, reputa- tion: ar ái óenḟir do thesbaid díb oc denam a n-enig, FB 94 ( = hoc diden a n-oinich, ZCP iv 175 ). ba fearr lais a bās ac denum a enig inās a ēlud fo mebail, Aen. 3117 . nā bīd ...dobrón fort, ar dogéntar th'ainech ┐ ní bía fo mélai (Agamemnon to Menelaus), TTr.² 551 . dia ndernad enech fíal-Ḟind when generous F.'s honour was achieved Metr. Dinds. iv 42.34 . cia enech mór dorigne ? indarbad na nGall...'s ár ar síl I., iii 200 . denu-sa mo eineach don chur-sa ma doronais mo mieineach roimi treat me honourably this time, even though thou didst treat me dishonourably before Anecd. ii 78.16 . In: asbert Agmemnón nírbó santach immon ríge...léor leis namá connerntá [ = connerta, LL 406bw ] enech na Tróianda , TTr.² 1236 , Stokes's emendation conderntá is probably right, though co n-érnta (ernaid) would also make sense. In either reading the context shows the meaning in general to be as he renders it, `that the honour-price of T. be exacted' (i.e. that they might be compelled to render satisfaction fitting to their status. Stokes compares einach .i. eneaclann, O'Cl. ).

tiagait dia tir ┐ a n-eneach leo go home with their honour secure (they had maintained their reputation) Ériu v 32 z . Cf. dobert ainech ris he saved (his) honour thereby (?) Metr. Dinds. iv 94.27 (the meaning seems to be that by reaching the spot with the stone he had given satisfaction for the crime; see p. 102 ib. ).

In adjuration: for fír th'ainich ┐ t'anma, a F., asndíth cia cruth... !, ZCP iv 43.32 . ar ghrádh th'einigh innis damh `for the love of thine honour, tell me' TD 3.43 . ar ghradh h'oinigh [sic leg.], Atlantis iv 220.33 .

aís enig people of degree, nobles: mo dímiad-sa fíad...ǽs enig, SCC 41 ( = LU 49a46 ).

(b) One's honour could be harmed by failure to fulfil a promise or a guarantee, especially a guarantee of protection. Such a lapse was equivalent to failure to protect and maintain one's `enech,' hence the transferred meaning

protection, security, guarantee: here most probably should come: mad fíu lib mo ainech-sa do breith less if you think fit that it have my protection Wb. 14a4 (the gloss is not a mere translation of ut ego eam, but supplements it by the reason for Paul's offer to accompany the collection). Similarly: ní imdidnibter ainech and no one's guarantee will be protected 15c25 (if ainech is pl. the MS. reading is correct). tucad enech Pirr friu fri[a n-] anacul, Aen. 49 . ri feallus for einech (.i. for a comuirce), Laws v 172.17 ; 168.11 ; 368.8 . MR 190.8 . (Saul has promised David his daughter if he slays Goliath:) ainige fris... | a meic Cis...! | rót biat limm anige in tslúaig | ...enech Ioseph uas cech du, | Moisi, Iacob is Iessu | henech...os cech dáil | uaisliu díb (sic leg.) Dia Abaráim pledges for it, son of Kish !...Thou shalt have from me the guarantees of the host...the guarantee of Joseph, etc. SR 5841 - 52 . nā sāraig... | Maísi, Ioséph, Iacób | nā bris báig n-airech no láech | no ainech na fer fírgáeth, 6030 . co tartar glinne ┐ enighe frinn im anacul ógh ar muinteri, TTr.² 1803 . in tan do-n-athmongar cuir tar einaige fer, Laws v 506.13 = tar enech ratha, O'Dav. 980 . Cf. ZCP xiii 23.7 = Bürgschaft 11 § 35 . Fergus... ro rir a einech ar chuirm F. who sold his honour (pledged to protect the sons of Uisnech) for ale IT i 81.7 . gai Táidhg rug C. lais chum na mbroc ar co tísdaís...amach ar enech Taidhg. tangadar na bruic chum C. ┐ do mharbh iat . dochóidh Tadhg iarsin do chaithem na fleidhe bai ag C. ┐ do ḟetir a enech do choll T.'s spear C. took with him to the badgers so that they should come out (relying) on T.'s protection. The badgers came to C. and he slew them. Afterwards T. went to eat C.'s feast, and he knew his protection had been violated Cóir Anm. 239 . can comarci acht eneach B. fein, Cog. 130.15 . ar bith ainig Ḟergusa ara tanac because thou hast come under the safeguard of F. TBC-LL¹ 1884 . conaitig C. cucu a n-eneach no a n-anmain (the fulfilment of) their guarantee or else their lives (i.e. that they should make the defaulters for whom they were pledged give satisfaction or else lose their own lives) BB 389b14 = Dinds. 78 (a n-enoch nó a n-anom). crech lasin nG....for araill do chenel E. baoi for comairce Uí Thaircheirt. rucc O Tairceirt forra... ┐ marbhthar é budh deisin ag cosnamh a einigh, AFM iii 174.10 . ii 1138.5 . vi 2208.1 . Hugh Roe 248.2 (f. 66a) . riar Maol Brighde iarsin hi ccol einicch Pádraicc satisfaction was given to M. for the violation of Patrick's protection (i.e. for invading the sanctuary of Ard Macha) AFM i 542 x . tre miorbailibh na naem isa heneach ro ṡaraigh whose protection they had violated iii 54.2 . térna imorro Ua M. do eineach Chianáin gan mharbhadh through C.'s protection ii 1016.14 . AU 1123 (ainiuch).

ar (for) inchaib under the protection of: nach ingen macdacht...nobid la hUlltai is for a inchuibseom nobitdis noco n-irailtis for feraib in his ward RC x 222.131 . a athair...sul lenus sé in chalann cuil | go mbé in t-anam ar th'ionchuib, O'Gr. Cat. 446.14 . ar fhaosamh nó ar ionchaibh ar Slánuightheóra, TSh. 2717 . a ndioghail an imir sé ar na daoinibh...batar ar a ionchaibh ┐ ar a ḟosdadh under his protection and engaged for his service AFM vi 2148.1 . ar inchaib a enig, MR 248.9 . Cf. cid hē nobeith and...nangonaind-se [nomg—MS.] ar inchaib Ulad even if it were he (his own son) I would slay him in spite of (?) the Ulstermen Ériu i 118.19 . Cf. is ort as chóir a chumhal | d'agra...lucht faghla... | do losgadh mh'arbha ar th'ionchuibh GF, Ir. Monthly 1919, 564 . For exx. of ar (for) i. after verb of motion, see II (c).

ar (for) enech , etc., id. (properly only after verb of motion): is commairgi dait immar einech... Fergusa, TBC-LL¹ 1854 . techt don anam ar h'oineach, YBL 401b8 = Dán Dé xxii 21 . cecib tan docuirethar neach uaidibh for ionchaibh aroile gurbo hiomairgidhe laisiomh dul for eineach Fhélim, Hugh Roe² 8.25 - 26 ( ff. 4b-5a ). gabh ar h'oineach mé, TD 30.26 . Here, probably: toet for m'ainech-sa, ZCP viii 311 w . Cf. in slúag-sa bar th'einech ┐ ar do chommairgi, TBC-LL¹ 6088 . ar th' eineach dhamh I dependent on thee GF, Ir. Monthly 1919, 510 . mé ar h'eineach 'sar eineach nGall, Studies 1924, 243 . TD 30.25 . a milled ar t'inchaib ┐ ar t'einech `if they should be destroyed in spite of thy safeguard and thy honour' IT ii2 123.48 . Cf. dochōid for m'einech ┐ for m'anmain airec co mbúaib my honour and life have been pledged ZCP iv 44.29 . d(i) inchaib by the guarantee of; by means of: co tísad slán d'inchaib a coraigechta-som ZCP iii 206.5 = LU 115b38 . forócrad do B. fácbáil in tigi de inchaib na n-atairi on the security of his guarantors FB 13 (cf. TBC-I¹ 1243 ). ro leicceadh ass...d'ionchaibh a chomairgedh, AFM ii 1072.14 . Cf. gan timdhibhe ferainn for M. gomadh fiadhnach lasna comairgibh a chion, ┐ co ffoccarthaoi slán é d'ionchaibh a chomairgedh, 1072.12 , where the sense may be different: till he should be proclaimed exempt from the protection, etc. (?), and : eirgg es... dem inchaib, RC xxv 346.14 . nod ber as dom inchaib-si, riasu ba marb-sa, ZCP i 105.24 (away from the jurisdiction, peace, of?). With fír: nod gaibim for fir mo enig ┐ mo ḟaesaim, BDD 162 .

fo e.¤ under the protection of: do Thorinis fot ainiuch Tours is under thy protection LL 367 marg. inf. = Sitzungsb. Pr. Akad. 1912, 25. 439 § 8 .

In some contexts equivalent to (c) mercy, clemency, quarter: dober einech don bharda, AU iii 522.2 = ALC ii 224.14 = maithemh n-anacail, AFM v 1334.13 (ann. 1516) . dia ttardta eineach ┐ maithemh n-anacail dóibh quarter and protection AFM vi 207.4 . techt for eineach Uí D. ┐ a óighriar do thabairt dó to cast himself upon O'D.'s mercy AFM vi 2136.8 . ticc D. disccir diairm...amach ar ionchaibh Meic Mic M. throwing himself on M.'s mercy v 1760.12 . go ttiocfadh for ionchaibh an Iustis `would surrender to the Lord Justice' vi 2300.12 . Cf. is truagh dúinn intí beith i n-áit édaingen ar inchaibh a escarad at the mercy of (?) his foes Expugn. Hib. 33 . mar atá airde na neamh ós cionn na talmhan atá a oineach comhmór sin don lucht ar a bhfuil a eagla, Psalms ciii 11 . ná bíodh ann duine do ṡínfeadh oineach chuige, cix 12 . Cf. loghadh (ón einech), IGT, Decl. p. 54.15 - 16 .

In: ro láithea for biastaib | la berga cen enech (`merciless ruffians') Fél., Prol. 42 the meaning seems rather good faith and the rendering faithless ruffians is more likely.

Honour was maintained by open-handedness, bountifulness, hence the sense (d) generosity, bounty, hospitality , cf. in ruidiud tic isin do sin is nomen nāire. fēile immorro ainm don einech bunaid, Corm. Y 983 : ainech coitchend cáich...cen diultad ri nech, LL 148b22 = KMMisc. 268 . ba mór einech in oclaigh sin...uair nír facaib ben cen a coibchi...gilla cen a dliged dingmala...fer cen a tuarustal ┐ nír gell i n-aidci riam ní nach comaillfed i lló, Acall. 4073 . cia díb siut is ferr einech...? is ferr einech in gilla, uair issé dobeir do chāch cach ní dogeib, 4623 . ZCP vii 304 § 12 . BColm. 98.24 . Cas clothach...cloth .i. enech. ar is é nech robo mó enech ┐ ba fearr im cach ní do iarfadh nech fair, Cóir Anm. 9 . ben robudh maith deirc ┐ oineach, AFM iii 414.1 . Acall. 222 . ar mbrath oinigh gach éinḟir, TD 10.40 . ZCP viii 109.13 . Here perhaps: roddet i nArd Macha...ainech aībhda ro mmac nDé delightful hospitality (?) Ériu viii 67.15 . an t-enech sotal soichlech | brondtach díghuind derloicctech (an attribute of the chief), Ériu iv 218.17 . ar mhéid a oinigh d'aoidheadhaibh, Keat. iii 1700 . ó oineach óir is eang generosity with gold and territory Ó Bruad. ii 152.10 . With do-gní: is romhór luach an enigh cidh cia do-ni, ZCP x 51.7 . an tré ghlóir dhíomhaoin doní G. an t-eineach mór úd?, Keat. iii 957 . With concrete sense: conid hé sin enech dedenach Guairi G.'s last act of bounty ZCP iii 218 § 37 = LU 117b18 . dontí do-ní an offráil nó an t-eineach so ar na marbhaibh, TSh. 5280 (cf. 4815 ). Phr.: tré dichell damhna lusa éigin dá faghail dúinni eneach cennach `for love or money' O'Gr. Cat. 120.5 . g s. as attrib.: sluag [sic leg.] an enigh the generous ZCP x 51.13 . With pref.: dobi se fíal degh-enigh, BCC § 136 . As compar.: ni tainicc riam duine ba degh-enich inās é more generous § 157 . ni raibe...duine ba doichlighi ┐ bú droch-enigh ina in G. sin more churlish or more niggardly § 138 .

2 mát, máta

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 mát, máta or

Forms: mat, mát, muc

n [f.] a pig (archaic and poet. word). mat [mát LB] .i. muc, unde est isna Brethaib Nemed: forruachtatar mata mo t[h]uinde torgabail , Corm. Y 876 ; see Ériu x 44.6 . cuich in mait . . . .i. cuich in muc, O'Dav. 1241. dhá ṡenainm ar mhuic . . . féis is máda, Forus Foc. 17. mochen mata moaigther, Ériu vii 6 § 8 = muc, ib. (prose). don matai, ib. = don matta, p. 199 . ferba . . . sceó mátai (.i. mucci) moogthi, FB 68.

? 2 snas, snass

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ? 2 snas, snass or

Forms: nas(s)

v is leis cetna ro snas torgabail C. for Maig M., Rawl. 141a8 . cech ēchtach cach aṅgbaid | i slabraid ro snass `was bound', PRIA xix 550 § 38 ( LL 147a45 ). ? con atuaidh o sin ros nas | orrdan, BB 42b27 . Perh. developed from ro nas(s) , perf. pass. of naiscid. Cf. snaidm. Cf. also con-snaidhim sea on aile, ZCP viii 550.29 , where, however, the text may be corrupt, with snaidhim standing for snaidm.

targabál, torgabál

Cite this: eDIL s.v. targabál, torgabál or

Forms: targabáal, torgabal, torgabail, targabail, torgabale, torgabail, targabail, torgabala, tairgabail, targabalaib

n ā, f. vn. of do-rogaib. transgression, sin: n s. issí in so in targabáal , Wb. 9c19 . in torgabal , Ml. 15c11 . a s. cen torgabail friu, 62d6 . 99d6 . nocha né do rine targabail cinad, Laws iii 156.9 Comm. g s. inna torgabale gl. errore commisi, Ml. 58a19 . inna targabalae, 71b3 . tar es a cinad ┐ a targabala, Ann. Conn. 1410.14 . d s. on torgabail , Ml. 22c7 . ón targabail , 22d24 . 44b18 . 59a6 . ? a aér i torgabail cen gell dia inchaib, Laws iv 318.23 Comm. n p. inna torgabala , Ml. 44b11 . mad iar fichit bliadnae dorogbad inna targabala so, Ériu vii 144 § 29 . ni bít cinta na targabala [leu], Alex. 852 . a p. cia dulogae doib a nuili torgabala on, Ml. 138b7 . addaimh a turccbhala, Hugh Roe 260.22 . g p. i cinaid ar targabal, SR 3620 . slan-dilgud ar cinad ┐ ar t.¤ dúin, PH 5218 . tairgabail, D IV 2, 67c6 . iar ccaoi a cionadh ┐ a turgabhal, AFM i 494.3 . d p. du[t] targabalaib sin, Ml. 70d6 . ō peacoibh ┐ turcbāloip na seinnsear, Fl. Earls 116.18 .

In Laws also trespass (?): gell da screpall fri diguin ┐ turgabail `for violation and trespass,' i 216.16 Comm. masa turgabail ro turgabuit iar nélódh do bidhbuidh `if trespass has been committed after the absconding of the debtor,' ii 132.9 Comm. ? To this: forruachtatar máta mo t[h]uinde torgabāil , Corm. Y 876 . See Ériu xi 44.12 , O'Dav. 1223.

1 tonn

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 tonn or

n ā, f.


(a) wave: ba teipirsnige aicned inna t.¤ , Ml. 129d5 . ba sī in tond dar cach n-ald, Hail Brigit § 24 . fo thonda searba sāile, Ériu ii 26 § 9 . ni cluichi mad tind ri ruind, ix 48 § 24 . Íssu úas tuinn tuili, Fél. Prol. 250 . úas. tuind trilis `over a sparkling wave,' Fél. Apr. 23 . co tachim thuinni, IT iii 246.85 . co rus báidh t.¤ tuile ann hé, Acall. 55 . Hence foam: cnes mar thuinn, Rel. Celt. ii 220.x . As a measure of distance: diles i muirbrethaib airi ruanada dar nae tondaib, Laws iii 422.1 .

(b) outpouring: teora tonna torunni, Wb. 27a14 (of baptism). is ann sin tucad t.¤ baitsi Críst tairsibh ac Pátraic, Acall. 317 . d'fhuil a baisde ┐ a bhonn | tond baisde do chuir bar ceand, IGT Decl. ex. 1989 . cét cell co comlantus tuinne cailig aifrinn, Lism. L. p. 317.14 . tri tonna luigi ... tri tonna in chailidh aifrind draughts , O'Curry 989 ( H 3.18, 425a ). o taisbentar na tri tonna and .i. tond sceithi ┐ t.¤ fola ┐ t.¤ comna `vomiting and haemorrhage' ( Ériu xii 130 n. 2 ), O'Curry 2100 ( H 4.22, 75 ). cor rethitar da thuind as a sliss, PH 2874 . uchán adrochair Aillén | táncatar a tri tonna, Acall. 1746 . [aghadh] ar thuinn cneadh gcroidheadh, DDána 40.7 . go smuainim ar tonnaibh an taobhochta, Aithd. D. 55.5 .

(c) in figurative expressions: fri toind t' eólchaire oḟadib wave of homesickness, LU 10043 . tangadar na tri borbtonna dó .i. t.¤ fergi ┐ t.¤ éoid ┐ [t.¤] ainmfesa, ZCP xiii 204.14 . cf. conda-dic intond inburbi chétna, MU² 673 . rob é sin ... in lám anuachtar ┐ in t.¤ báis os borbbuidnib, Acall. 5930 . t.¤ báis bá romh rod báidhe, AFM i 472.11 . dom thanic tond diummais, LL 273b42 . rolínustair t.¤ danatais a criche, Lism. L. 3043 . tic iarsin t.¤ diadhachta co Finnchua, 3045 . tond do diúmus, Anecd. ii 68.10 . do cuireadh fa cráibh mBeithbhi | tonn sceoil bregi buaiderthi, Ériu iv 214 § 7 . nī cōir crē nā talam thorum | acht tond brātha, beg in ḟerg, ACL iii 242 § 6 . an t.¤ brátha ráidhtir ribh, Aithd. D. 2.8 . co toirtea tuind mbroin ar B. `wave of woe,' Cog. 120.25 . i ttuinn fhichidh mh' aigeanta, Studies 1921, 75 § 13 . a th.¤ bháidhe as ann do éirigh | clann táidhe arna déinimh dhínn, IGT Decl. ex. 1209 . do dhoirt tuinn dá thrócuire, Dán Dé xx 29 . i n-ainm ... toinne an teasbaigh ... tug ar lasadh guth na n-apstal, Ó Bruad. iii 78.5 .

(d) sea: co ro gésetar tri tonna hErend, TBC-LL¹ p. 866 n. 1 . síl qind co traig tuinde, IT iii 14 § 27 . im chaithem tascair do thuinne, Laws i 166.25 .i. in tascair do cuirither do tuinn, 170.12 Comm. síothmhagh gá tarbha na thuinn, Content. xxx 28 . do ní tráigh do thuinn leabhair, Dán Dé xxviii 39 . Erind tuath o thuind co tuind from sea to sea, Laws iv 344.19 . Hence: conid tregdad o thuind co tuind teachtas ` from end to end ,' Auraic. 1726 . fáiltíghis tonn ┐ tír roimhe, ML 40.3 . ní thuigim, ar tuinn ná ar tír, Dánta Gr. 3.14 . for tuind ro élai a lluing a athar, Arch. Hib. ii 72 § 30 . asbert ... téssed for tonna, Thes. ii 310.1 . ro ḟacaib hi forsin tuind, Metr. Dinds. iii 206.13 . fos-raemet ind eóin forsin tuind, BDD² 141 . seantraigead fo tuind `an old bridge under the water,' Laws iv 142.27 Comm. ar thóchim do thír fo thuind, Metr. Dinds. iii 236.22 . gá goire dhúinn dul tar tuinn across the sea, DDána 60.40 . fer tuinne salmon (?): fil cend fir tuinde foltcha, Hib. Min. 47.19 . fer tuinn[e] .i. brattan, ut est fil and cenn fir tuinne, O'Dav. 1014. torc na tuinne porpoise?: stáec thuirc na tuinne, RC xiii 46.15 .

(e) abundance: cáin tonna [tige] hui Eogain, Corm. Bodl. 20.5 . a th.¤ do cheōlaib clērig, Bruchst. i § 83 . atbath ar t.¤ indmais, § 129. bruiden t.¤ ┐ tened, § 144.

(f) bog, swamp: cuithecha ┐ tonna crithe, O'D. 1570 ( H 5.15, 5a ). cechair .i. tonda crithir, O'Dav. 514. fo cechair .i. tondach for a huachtar .i. tonn crithech .i. crandach, Laws v 138.18 . an tan thuiteas an t-asal i dtuinn, TSh. 4400 . Cf. 2 tonnach.


(a) surface: gach deghnáemh ro-chés | os tuind talman tíos, Ériu iv 236 § 10 . ón ló ro thuit ar tuinn talmhan, ML 86.26 . t.¤ ḟeóir tar a himdhadhaibh, IGT Decl. ex. 1655 . ná tuadaig tond talman torut, LU 9302 = ná tudchaith tont talman tarat, Anecd. iii 52.2 . fo thuinn talman, SR 4124 . a cur fo tuind talman, RC xxiii 428 § 50 . fo tuinn uill ūire, ZCP vi 265 § 19 . atāid anu do nos Ailella ... na tri trēighe fad thuind menma, ZCP ii 341.2 .

(b) land, earth: ala t.¤ ... .i. alaili tir .i. ala ferann, O'Curry 416b ( H 3.18, 229a ). bíadsum gach t.¤ toraidh, ZCP x 347 § 15 . lecht meic Cuind atchíd | co tuind dar a thaíb, LU 9988 . ocht n-ech ocht carbait ar tuinn, BB 28a37 . a pheacaigh atá ar an dtuinn on the earth, A. Ó Dálaigh xlii 8.

(c) With gen. of description: gu raibi Eiriu na h-aéntuind crithigh da'n coimeirghi sin, Hy Maine 137.3 . baoí Ére for a chiontt na héntuinn choccaidh ┐ cendaircce, AFM v 1680.19 . na h-én tuinn fhiataile ┐ fasaigh, 1784.3 . coicceadh Uladh ina linn lain ... ┐ ina thuinn teccle, vi 2142.11 . ina h-en tuinn bróin ┐ basgaire, 2264.3 . bheith don Bhanbha ... 'na héantuinn fhaghla, TD 7.28 . atá sé ó sin i le | fa aontuinn fhíochmhair fheirge, 8.29 . do bí Ere 'na tuinn técht, Anecd. i 33 § 63.

(d) skin: nosdītin ... conná riacht toind nó foéschum fair, TBC-I¹ 1681 . nī forroim cid drisiuc for toind dō, 1206 . tri fuilt batar air, donn fri toind ..., 2025 . allus tiug ar toind cen tinne, Corm. Y 179 . māt .i. muc, unde est isna Brethaibh Nemed: forrūachtatar māta mo t[h]uinde torgabāil , 876 . ┐ ní aidleth toinn ná féoil, TBFr. 127 . brissiud cnama cumma tuinne, LL 119b52 . do thógoibh tonna mo chinn | faídh in gadhoir is binn guth, Duan. F. i 83 § 16 . ro chuir a thuind ┐ a srebhann úadh, Sc.M² § 17 (R) . lith ┐ tond lanamain (.i. gene) na traiged, Auraic. 1816 . prionnsa dearbhtha é t.¤ is tairbhfhéith `hide and sinew,' Ó Bruad. iii 80.5 . fo thuind under the skin, secretly: mebal fo tuind fosluide | cid fiada fuilt ḟindbuidi, ZCP vi 267 § 3. is serc bo báidiu fri bliadain mo sherc | is cuma fo thuinn, IT i 124.11 ( TE § 9 ). do shearc go dtara fam thuinn, DDána 60.18 . Conall Cernach, crúas fo thuind, Metr. Dinds. iii 442.31 . a-tá an gol is-tigh fam thuinn | ag cor libh gin go labhruim, Aithd. D. 10.14 . ag fadádh istigh fam thuinn | iomdha agra nach admhaim, Dán Dé iv 3 . atá an tuirrsisi fam thuinn | mar thoirrcheas n-elphant aguinn, Studies 1918, 453 § 16 .

Compds. ¤aile fence against the sea, dyke: atait secht n-aile ... tond aile, tracht aile, Laws v 270.14 . tond aile .i. donither risin tuind mara, 23 Comm. ¤balc strong of surface: cein bidh leo talamh tonnbalc, Anecd. ii 35 § 10 . ¤bán white, fair-surfaced: im thoebu talman tonnbain, SR 6162 . dorigned talum tondban, KMMisc. 154.102 . roleblaing talam tondbán, LL 169a50 . ¤band sea exploit (?): bioth nir bo toi a tonnbann .i. nír bo tostach a buille for tuinn, Leb. Gab.(i) i 60.1 . ¤benn wave top: rith tar tuinnbennaibh Duine Sobhairce, BS 92.17 . ¤bláth of fair surface: Temair tonnblath, Fél. 226.23 . ¤blechtach with waves of milk: um chlar toinnbhleachtach Tailtion, Gleanings from Irish manuscripts 18 § 26 . ¤borb of fierce waves: ana treithibh taibhtheanna tonnbhorba, CF 200 . ¤bras of strong waves: co haigen na ttroscc ttonnbras, Leb. Gab.(i) i 96.4 . ¤búan firm surfaced osin Temraig tailc tondbúain, LL 129a45 . ¤buide yellow; surfaced: rosmarb in teidm tondbuide (sic leg.), Arch. Hib. ii 92 § 6 . dāeine in talman tonnbuidhe ` yellow-visaged ,' Ériu iii 144 § 10 . ¤chith copious shower: na toinncheatha bréana briomstóin, TSh. 6198 . ¤chlár surface: tonnchlár in talman, CCath. 1116 . ¤chrithid trembles like a wave: do thonnchrith m' inchinn, ITS iii 110.5 . ¤ét wave of jealousy: do neartuigh ... i gceannaibh na toinnéada, Ó Bruad. iii 16.9 . ¤gáeth wave-wind: mar thrasgarthar an teach le tonn-ghaothaibh tréana, TSh. 9137 . ¤gairthe bright-skinned: dá ghnúis thonnghairthe, Studies 1918, 452 § 3 . ¤gel bright-skinned, bright-surfaced: Dauid tonngel, SR 6270 . ocon tsāle thondgel, Arch. Hib. ii 83 § 13 . traighthi toinnghelu, IT i 120.7 ( TE § 4 ). ar aonach Teamhrach toinnghile, Studies 1929, 593 § 1 . ¤glan pure-surfaced: tipra tondglan, Anecd. i 61 § 93 . im Themraig tond-glain, Metr. Dinds. iii 442.34 . a thoebh go tonnghlaine Acall. 1476 . ¤gnúis surface: tar dreich in domuin ┐ tar tondgnuis in talmun, BB 236a6 . ¤luascad act of tossing in waves: ag tonnadh ┐ ag tonn-luasgadh mheanman an pheacthaigh, TSh. 9497 . ¤maigrech salmon-waved: a lind báin tonn maigrigh thigh, Ériu iv 224 § 43 . co Drobhaois ttorcharthaigh ttonnmhaighrigh, AFM v 1590.11 . ¤mín smooth surfaced (?): cona ffiodhbhacaibh tailce toinnmhíne, Hugh Roe 212.28 = AFM vi 2126.19 . ¤phort wave-bank: ar in slis os tonn-port des, Celt. Rev. iv 218.14 . cen time fri tonnportuib | os grian mara, RC xiv 62.13 . ¤thaidbsenach wave-displaying: comsiledh comramhach tonn-táibhseinach, CCath. 265.


Cite this: eDIL s.v. tort or
Last Revised: 2013

n [a, f. ?] (Lat. torta) cake; loaf: t.¤ .i. bairgen .i. nomen de sono factum i.e. torténi .i. bairgenēni, Corm. Y 1200 . Fiacha t.¤ .i. Fíacha bairghinach, nam t.¤ bairghin dicitur , ar is é cétna las ra cummadh bairghin prius , Cóir Anm. 172 . in ri robenndach fēin na tortea sea, MacCongl. 127.9 . Compds. ¤gabál loaf tax The Kingship and Landscape of Tara 112: Fiachra Tort ... is lesidēn cētna rónas tortgabail Conaille Murthemni, Corp. Gen. 415 (LL 333 c 18) = Fiachu Tuirtri .i. tort ríi ar is leis cētna ro (s)nas torgabail Conailli, 139 (Rawl. 141 a 8) .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. turcbál or

Forms: turcbalae, turgbāil

n ā, f. vn. of do-furgaib (see GOI p. 341 , Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 530 ).

I Trans.

(a) act of raising, lifting: turgabail .i. togbail nó gein[e]amain fos, Lec. Gl. 271 . turgbhail .i. tógbháil, O'Cl. la turcbail a mátan fair raising his club against him, LU 8524 ( FB 38 ). dorat ... triam[nai] dia turcbáil (a house), LU 8397 ( FB 27 ). mad truṁmi turcbáil a ndub-í too heavy to be raised, MU² 972 . taurcbāil a coss (in walking), TBC-I¹ 3313 . deil telchinni ... | fri torgbáil na drumslaite to support , SR 4272.

(b) Extended meanings: a t.¤ treo fesin `their production by themselves' (of vowels), Sg. 4b4 . iar torgbail Hierusalem | os cech dándíne ... | il-lánrige n-Israhél, SR 6702 . donafíb ... no fáemtaís a n-anmchardine dó la turcbail soscelai by embracing the gospel (?), LU 2262 ( FA 32 ) (`at the rising of the gospel,' Stokes FA p. 19 ). turcbāil catha fri mac Cuind, Fianaig. 32.16 . tuirthi tenna ... tuinide, turcbala, tamnaigthi, ocus tarb-redigthi treas-laithrech in talman supporting ... pillars of the battles of the world, MR 150.3 . ro tinnscains[e]at na cnuic ... turcbáil a cenn began to appear, CCath. 2373 . M. ... tercbail cell ┐ cadhus establisher of churches, AU ii 222.20 = tocbháil, ALC i 192.14 (see turcbálaid). ar turcbail a inaid accession (?) (of a king), Leb. Cert. 6.11 . seoid ar turcbail a inaid, 22.5 . baile i m-bidis ardnaímh ... ic turcbail a trath `were used to chant their vespers,' MR 118.21 . le turcbail gacha tinnscedail for making every beginning, 92.9 . turgbail ┐ tinnṡcetal ar d-treasa `the design and project of our battle,' 98.3 .

(c) In Laws raising, exacting (a fine, tax, etc.): cain dorncliath .i. a denam ┐ a turcbail ┐ a nadbaill fuirri, O'Curry 870 ( H 3.18, 391b ). ? dia n-elo fine ┐ ni gaibh fechium toicheda gell in cinuidh o ghiall, acht a turgabail i n-indlighidh, Laws ii 140.15 Comm. Cf. Bürgschaft p. 76.

II Intrans.

(a) act of rising: inní sin fudumain ... is ansu t.¤ essisi ara rigni `it is more difficult to emerge from it,' Ml. 85c14 . in turcbal .i. in soirad gl. emersio, 75b19 . turcbalae gl. emergendi, 85c13 . gaoth adhbal do thurccbhail oidhche nodlac steill, AFM iv 1108.19 . is leis cētna rosnas torgabail Conailli for Maig Murtheimne establishing (?), Rawl. 141a8 . Of Colum Cille: turcbāil án adamrach, ACL iii 217.z .

(b) Of heavenly bodies: turgabāil na grēne sunrise , Corm. Y 1216 = Corm. 42 . turgbāil, Corm. Y 605 . la turcbáil ṅ-gréne at dawn , TBC-LL¹ 634 . la turgabail ngrene, PH 6368 . cach duine ... no toithchead re torgabail greine, Todd Nenn. 82.5 . re turggabail na greine, TTebe 1210 . Hence the east: on tercbal gl. oriens, Tur. 139 . áis fil oc turcbail grene gl. qui primi hominum solem uident, Ml. 94b18 . t.¤ ┐ funed, 119d9 . ó thurcbáil [co fuined], Thes. ii 256.6 . tri treba ... anair | greni fri turcbail, SR 4434 . o turcbáil co fuinud, LU 2458 . dámadh tír go turgbhāil gréini `as far as the sunrise,' SGS iv 64 § 16 . sliab P. ettorra ┐ in turccbail samrata. Sliabh O. ... ettorra ┐ in turcbail geimretta, CCath. 3805 - 6 . Of the moon and stars: da esca do turcabail, Three Hom. 104.24 . is gnád bróen ┐ fliuchaidatu oca turcbáil ┐ lia fuined (sidera), BCr. 18c2 . macam gidhnither atuaid | ag turcbail na mbidhtó, BCC 12.3 . See also targabál.