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baithis, baithes, bathais

Cite this: eDIL s.v. baithis, baithes, bathais or dil.ie/5268
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: baithis, batis, baitse, baiste, bhaistte, baithius, bathais, baithes, bathais, baithis, baithis, baithes, baitsi, baithis

n m. and f. (Lat. baptisma, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. i 220 ) a s. baithis, Thes. ii 242.10 (Ardm.). g s. batis, LU 2998 (H). baitsi, Trip.² 76. baitse, Ériu xx 160.7 . na baiste , Trip.² 97. in bhaistte , Lism. L. 2835. d s. baithius, Wb. 12c39 . bathais, Blathm. 170. baithes m., IGT Decl. § 38 (87.20) . bathais baithis f., § 150 .

(a) baptism; the order of baptism, the baptismal rite; in looser sense, faith, creed: cerudglanta (leg. -glante ? edd.) tri bathis, Wb. 4a6 . tre baithis, 14c19 . tris in iris fosissetar i mbathis, Tur. 43. husce . . . asa ndénad in bathis, Trip.² 91. ro erlég in mbathais, 94 . baithes Pátraic faith, religion, Fél. Apr. 5. bathes már Maicc Maire, Jan. 6 (bathais, baithis, baithes, v.ll.). Pól i mbathis brethae, 25 . tria muir na baisti ┐ na der[g]martra, BColm. 104.22 . baithes ┐ comna, Laws iii 32.30 . o baithiss by baptism (a name), LL 371c3 . ro tréigsiot . . . a mbaithis Críostaídhachta, TFrag. 126.19 . téit fo baithis is baptised, is named: intain diagmani fo baithis, Wb. 3a15 . Tur. 55. ceni teisi fo bhathais `though he had not been given a name', Blathm. 668 (MS). Cf. in drema bui cen baitssed riam . . . tancutar chuice fo bathis, PH 247. do-beir baithis (do) baptises: ar ba Patric dubert baithis du Ch., Thes. ii 242.10 (Ardm.). Cf. nī mad tardad baithis tonn / tairthī caithis ind-úairib, ZCP xii 296 § 4.

Attrib. g s. Pátraic . . . athair baitsi ┐ creitme fer nErenn, Trip.² 76. mo c[h]enn battsi, BColm. 82.28 . Eoin baitsi John the Baptist, Lism. L. 3325. Eoin Baisde (: gaisde), Dán Dé xiii 7 . IGT Introd. 14.29 . comus ṗingni baisdi baptism fee, Hy Maine 78.7 . bond baistte (a tribute payable to clergy), BNnÉ 265 § 230 . screaball baithis Pádraig, Keat. iii 377.

As quasi-vn. oc baithis na hi Brigti, Vita Br. 2. a mbai Patraic oc bathis Lugne, Trip.² 827.

Of a heathen rite: gur chansat an mbaithis ngeintlidhe, Cóir Anm. 251 (p. 392.29) . atbert in drui triasin ṁbaithis . . ., ZCP ii 134 § 5.

(b) By association crown of the head: mullach cinn .i. a baites, Bretha § 2A . ó mullach mo baisti / go hingin mo coisi, Laud 615, 55 (cited Contribb. 187 ). o bathis coa bunn, LL 30592. o bhonn go bháthais, TBC-LL¹ p. 369 n. 5 (H, Eg.) = o mullach co talmain, text. in baithis gl. uerticem, Gild. Lor. 248. in baithes gl. cephale, 83 . benais a bricín da baithis ┐ sgáilis a folt, Fianaig. 72.30 . robuail builli . . . a mbathais an doirrseora, ZCP vi 276.14 . mo chathbarr . . . / gach én gébus má baithis / ní bia fó aithis móile, SG 248.26 . gríos beo do bháidh ar dtreise / do-cháidh tre bheo ar mbaitheise cut us to the quick, DDána 81.1 . bonn a chos ris an aird soir ┐ a bhaitheas ris an aird siar, TSh. 5758. For the phr. lann baithise the fontanelle , see 1 lann.

décdae

Cite this: eDIL s.v. décdae or dil.ie/14868

Forms: nóidécdae, -décde, -decde, -décdi, -decdi, -décdu, -decdu

adj io-iā, derivative of deac, déc, in tris-décde tertius decimus: eadem materia est psalmi praesentis quae tertii decimi .i. in trisdecdi, Ml. 72 c 8 . nói-décde decennovennalis.

(a) adj. in cicul n. the decemnovenal cycle: d s. isin c. noidecdu, Thes. ii 40. 32 . in cétbliadan don chicul náedécdha, Tig. A.D. 1045 .

(b) subst. nóidécdae io, m. circulus (κύκλος) decennovennalis. a s. -décde, BCr. 32 a 8 . -decde, Thes. ii 39. 23 . g s. -décdi, BCr. 3 c ; 45 c 6 . -decdi, 32 b 9 . d s. -décdu, 45 c 2 . -decdu, 45 c 5 .—Cf. deichde.

fo-sisedar

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fo-sisedar or dil.ie/24092

Forms: fosisiur, fosisedar, fob-sisimar-ni, fosisetar, fosissetar, fosisider, -fosad, fosisefar, furoissestar, fuissither, forruised, fotisir, fotṡisiur, forruisistar, rosfaisit

v pres. 1 s. fosisiur, Laws i 10.23 . 3 s. fosisedar Acr. 13b1 . 1 pl. fob-sisimar-ni, IT ii2 228.42 . 3 pl. fosisetar Sg. 140a2 . fosissetar, Ml. 132a1 . subj. pres. 2 s. fosisider su, Ml. 66c1 . [ -fosad, Corm. Y 799 (= fossad LB) is possibly past subj. of this. See fossaid under wh. the form is provisionally placed]. fut. 1 s. fosisefar, Ml. 58c17 . perf. 3 s. furoissestar, 46d15 (cf. Bürgschaft § 63 cited below). For vn. see faísitiu and fáes(s)am. Cf. fuste, fusti.

(a) in lit. sense stands under, possibly in follg. ex.: issi innfine ... a tir i fuissither the land on which (the water) stands (i.e. is gathered into a pond) Laws iv 206.8 , cf. fáes(s)am (a) and the pass. perf. ba doib forruised in praind, LU 1716 ( ICM xi ). But perh. this is a miswriting of foruired.

(b) confesses, acknowledges, admits: gl. fateri Sg. 140a2 , confiteri Ml. 46d15 . fosissetar a pect[h]u, 132a1 . fosisefar mo pecthu, 58c17 . forusestar Loegaire ógréir Patraic undertook (to fulfil) LU 9738 . ... a ḟirḟolaid fo-rrúisesthar `die er ... anerkannt hat' Bürgschaft 21 § 63 . ? fosisiur fofetar fis deoda, Laws i 10.23 . gell taisic iar frepaid fosisedar derosc, BCrólige 60 . (i cele fuiseten) .i. fo-sisithar celsini ar seotu. no fo-sesedar flaith hi cele ... do `acknowledges himself a client in return for goods, or whom a lord acknowledges as his client' Ir. Recht p. 26 (§ 26 Comm. 7) . See also under (d) below.

(c) professes, avows: transl. profiteri Ml. 66c1 . tris in iris fosissetar i mbathis, Tur. 43 . is ecen do neuch fosisedar dán inna grammatic ... who professes Acr. 13b1 .

(d) in legal sense `stands under or for,' acknowledges, goes bail for, becomes responsible for: cf. fotisir, RC iii 346x , which Father Shaw, Aisl. Óeng. 63 , would emend to : fotṡisiur `I undertake your protection.' ni cobrannaide dan finnteda acht ni i fuisedar cuir bēl save what verbal contracts support (lit. in which ... stand as basis ?) Laws iv 284.17 . ise mac faesma ... fosisiter ilar fine (.i. faoisitnighit imat na fine amuigh) whom the majority of the `fine' acknowledge O'Curry 2246 ( Eg. 88 f. 18a ). digal fir foseisiter fine .i. ... in mac faosmadh, H 3.18, 219a ( O'Curry 390 ). Cf. in ndlighe foessamh etir no ... in ndlighe fosister itir, H 3.18, 258b21 ( O'Curry 510 ). foesam .i. fo-sisithar tar crich, Ir. Recht 6 . Supports (?): im boin fosisethar carra .i. iman mboin faisitnigeas imad don tuaith ┐ in brathair ro leig a chuid ara cheile di, H 3.17, c. 405 ( O'D. 499 = fosuidethar carrudh, Laws i 124.8 , with diff. comm.).

In : cuir neich fosisedar, H 4.22, 28 ( O'Curry 1998 ), there is not enough context to determine the sense. Similarly fosisiter orba .i. tir dibaid ┐ sealb .i. ferann athar ┐ senathar, O'Curry 2247 ( Eg. 88, p. 18 ). guithir dāl o C. da A. ... ┐ basisestar A. ar feraib hErend ... ┐ basisestar C. ar Ultaib guaranteed it on behalf of TBC-I¹ 3416 . fosesegar in bandscal tar cend na geni `makes confession on behalf of' (of prenatal baptism) Rule of Tallaght p. 76 § 49 ( LB 11a47 ). Cf. fo-b-sisimar-ni `wir stehen euch bei' IT ii2 228.42 ; 229.53 .

With acc. of pers. : táet in drúth ... ┐ fasisidar di chéin Coin Culaind ar nachan-aithgné, LU 5869 ( TBC-I¹ 1400 , `let him stand at a distance from C.' [?] Faraday. Perhaps this belongs to next sect.).

(e) declares, asserts, makes known (?) : foruisedar in rechtairi na briathra-sa do Mac Con, ZCP viii 311.32 = forruisistar, x 423.7 . Cf. me rosfaisit is rosforgaill, LL 45b4 = MS. Mat. 488 , RC xxvi 264 ; possibly a late pret. form.

fothraicid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fothraicid or dil.ie/24195

Forms: fo-truic-, fóthrúicther, foilc, fothraic, dotfothraig, not-f.

v i (usually treated as simple vb., but originally a compd.: fo-truic-, cf. Fél. May 8 cited below) bathes, washes , generally of total immersion, less often of partial ablution; trans., refl. and intrans. pass. pres. s. fóthrúicther, Thes. i 4.25 (Southampton Psalter 47a ). anais co foilc ┐ co fothraic, LU 4782 (in the vocab. to his Stories from the Tain Strachan took foilc and fothraic as acc. sg. and through over-sight the error remained uncorrected in the subsequent editions). fothraic in cétna culén i fín ... forḟothraic in tanaise i corcair, LL 319c38 . sruth tened, sruth snechtaide ... is intib sin nos fotraicet slúaig ... na ndemna LU 2237 ( FA 30 ). nofothraic Lugaid ... il-loch L. ros-fothraic dano Fial ... sind abaind ..., LL 13a7 . ni rosfoilc ┐ ni rosfothraic, CCath. 1170 . fothruicfídh é féin a n-uisce, Levit. xvii 15 . a chuithem ... i na fothraictís na demnu PH 8270 . inna fuil fo-truicset, Fél. May 8 . With A(S) of liquid, etc.: atnaig usce ina chúach ... ┐ fothraicis ass, LU 4262 ( SG 84 ). robhennach ... uiscci ┐ ro fothraiccit an rioghan ass, BNnÉ 14 § 8 . dotfothraig [ = not-f.] eissi (i.e. in the well), Cóir Anm. 251 . With FOR: ro delbad ... .ccc. bo craind cona línphattaib dubodraib ... ┐ fos fothraicit iar sin for dubrota, LL 169a28 (= rofothraicit, Dinds. 46 ). Immerses, plunges: meni fothraicthe sin choire fola ... hí (of a spear) LL 267b28 ( MU² 742 ). By extension, of plunging or thrusting into solids: gur ḟothruicheadar an da laighin ... san laochmhileadh, ML 126.28 (... fothraicedar, etc. ML² 1686 ). Cf. fosnessa sleig culind i n-a bond traiged coras fothraic eter feoil ┐ chnam, TBC-LL¹ 2187 = cur rusfotraic St; Windisch's expl. (as = rus-fothraigd = ro thregd, see tris-gata) seems unjustified; possibly the infixed pron. is reflex. so that it plunged i.e. ran between flesh and bone. rofotraicsidar ... an mbrath luirg ` brandished ' TTebe 1002 = quassabat Theb. ii 619 is evidently corrupt.

Vn. fothrucud, q.v.

fri

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fri or dil.ie/24329
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: frimm, rimm, frim, frím, frium, frimsa, friumsa, frit, fritt, friutt, fritsu, rut, rutt, fris, friss, frissom, f., frie, friae, frise, frie, frinn, rinn, rind, friunn, riund, frind, frinni, raindi, frinnai, frib, frithib, fribsi, friu, friú, friu, friü, frithiu, friithu, friusom, riom, rum, riot, rut, ris, ria, rinn, ruinn, ribh, ruibh, riú, r, frim, frit, fria, friar, fribar, fria, frim, frim, frim, ram, frit, frit, frit, rit, rat, rot, friar, friar, fribar, fribar, fria, fria, fria, re-na, rena, fria, fris(s)a, frisi-, risi-, fris-, ris-, frismbiat, fris-mbruchta, fris, fris, fris, risa, frisin-, frisnid, risnad, ris, fria, frisa, re n-, fria-, re, ra-n-adh, re, re, ré, freisin, FRI

prep. with acc. For etymology see Thurneysen, GOI § 839 , Fraser ZCP viii 37 , J. E. C. Williams, Celtica iii 126 . In later spelling prefixes h- to following initial stressed vowel; does not leníte following consonant (cf. frinna aill, Sg. 45a16 . fri nnach ..., Ml. 75a9 , fri nnech 23c20 ; but fri nech further on in same gloss and regularly elsewhere); the initial s- of the article following fri is preserved. In Middle Irish gradually replaced by the forms RI, RE (already in Ml: oc eregim re Abisolon, 44b4 , cf. fre, 90c27 ); RA (common in some LL texts, see CRR 54 , TBC-LL¹ 499 , 602 , 740 , etc.); rarely RO ( SR 1990 ZCP xiii 204 15 ); FRIA, RIA, RE also common. Hence in Early Mod. Ir. there is occasionally confusion with , RÍA `before', see Bergin's note Stor. Keat. p. xix , and section IX (e) below. Apart from this the latter prep. sometimes replaces FRI after fáilid, fáilte and kindred words (as in Mod. Ir.). On the parallelism of some of the pronominal forms of FRI with those of LA see GOI l.c. (with Translator's n. 178 ). Though FRI still appears in some later texts, especially those of the archaising type, it had become obsolete in the classical language. Its later form (RI, RE) remains down to the end of the Early Mod. period and is recognized by the grammarians as distinct from LE (LA), see IGT, Introd. § 75 , 24 P 8, 194 ( IGT VI , Bard. Synt. Tr. p. 7 ). In the modern spoken lang. it is replaced partly by LE, partly by CHUN (O.-Ir. dochum). For a contrary development cf. Engl. `with,' originally `against,' which has absorbed the functions of A.S. mid `(together) with.'

In development of meaning generally FRI shows a remarkable parallelism with Engl. ` with '; it also agrees with ` against ' in several senses.

Forms: With suff. pron.

sg. 1 frimm St. Paul Codex Thes. ii 298.17 . rimm, IT i 123.24 . frim, SR 1422 , 2049 . LU 5228 . LL 110b26 . frím Ml. 38c19 . frium, Ml. 71b9 . frimsa, Wb. 26d17 . Ml. 33a18 . friumsa, Ml. 127a2a .

2 frit, Wb. 5a31 . 10a29 ; Ml. 103d14 . SR 1425 . fritt LL 93a10 . 249b1 . friutt, PCr. 62b2 (= ḟrit, Sg. 151a3 ). fritsu Ml. 91d8 . 112b8 . rut, SR 2031 IT i 123.15 . rutt, LL 110b27 .

3 m., n. fris, Wb. 14c37 . 15a1 . 22c15 . ACL iii 304 [: [Mael] mis]. (: eisleis). SR 6109. 6317 . ([mēt] anfis) LL 33b21 . friss, Wb. 2c24 . 3c6 . 6a4 . 8a12 . 14d22 ; Ml. 91a21 . frissom Wb. 5d39 .

f.¤ frie, Sg. 72b1 . Ml. 40c15 . 67d15 . friae, 130c9 . Wb. 28a20 . cf. frise, Ml. 74c21 , which Ascoli corrected to frie ( Thes. i 722b ).

pl. 1 frinn, Wb. 4b12 . 17b10 . 19d22 . rinn, Ml. 54a3 . SR 1821 . rind, SR 1905 (: herḟi[o]nd). friunn, Ml. 38d20 . riund TBC-LL¹ 1874 . frind, LL 177b39 . frinni, Wb. 17b32 . 17c5 ; Ml. 32c15 . 93a13 . 106c12 . raindi, BColm. 68.9 . frinnai Ml. 91c9 . 114a8 .

2 frib, Wb. 17b16 . 22d9 . 24d26 . cf. frithib, Ériu iv 162.13 . fribsi, Wb. 14c42 . 17b14 .

3 friu, Wb. 4a10 . 4c37 . 24a4 ; Ml. 54c23 , 72b22 , 110c9 . LL 35a21 (: fiú) friú, Wb. 17b9 . Ml. 74a2 , diss. friu, Hy. V. 54 , cf. friü: at-chiü, ACL iii 294 § 10 ; frithiu, Blathm. 94 § 17 ; friithu, LU 4671 (see further GOI 515 ). friusom, Wb. 20c25 ; Ml. 17c5 , 54c18 ; 26 .

For forms found in later texts see citations below.

In the Early Mod. Grammatical Tracts the forms given are: riom, rum; riot, rut; ris; ria; rinn, ruinn; ribh, ruibh; riú, r, 24 P 8 194 ( Bard. Synt. Tr. p. 7 ).

With following poss. pron.: frim, frit, fria, friar, fribar, fria, e.g. frim ort. Wb. 29d2 . frim peccad, 28a14 . frim foraithmet, Ml. 23d9 ; ram anmain, TBC-LL¹ 3692 (rem St.). frit adrad su, Ml. 136c11 . frit c[h]ele, 70d2 ; frit laim, SR 5854 . rit láim, TBC-LL¹ 3055 . rat láma, 3052 . rot chlaind, SR 2031 . friar corp, Wb. 15c22 . friar fochric, 33a9 ; fribar n-ícc, Wb. 24b3 . fribar pecthu, 13b19 ; fria mbriathra, Wb. 31b30 . In Mid. Ir. the form `fria' is often used for the simple prep., hence occas. fria a = prep. + 3 s. pron. In Early Mod. Ir. 3 s. and pl. form re-na sometimes appears: rena ardnaem, BCC § 12 (see III c below). fria n-a, Fl. Earls 214.4 . Cf. the n- prefixed to poss. after le, ó, tre in Mod. Irish.

With rel. pron.: O. Ir. fris(s)a n ...; Mid. Ir. also frisi-, risi-, fris-, ris-: frismbiat, Sg. 202b3 . fris-mbruchta, Fél. June 21 . fris n-agar, E. 406 . fris-reith, Prolegomena 302 . fris-tarddam, Thes. ii 293.19 . risa n-abar, Acall. 53 , etc. With cop. frisin-, frisnid, risnad ail, LB 257b9 . ris na duthracht 256a44 . fria ndechraiged (= frisa nd.) Sg. 28a14 may be a mistake. In later MSS. the form re n- becomes common: fria-cosmailend, PH 7674 . re ndubairt, 7464 . ra-n-adh KMMisc. 156. 124 . re n-abar, Acall. 1241 , etc. re rāiter, Ériu viii 139.4 . ré raibhe, Keat. ii 4467 , etc.

Composition.

(a) In vn. and prototonic verbal forms, before a vowel, frith-; before a cons. fre-, e.g. frecre, fretech; with syncope of a follg. vowel, fres-, e.g. frescsiu, fresndid, fresndís, fresngabal. In Glosses fri is often used in compos. with a vb. to represent Lat. ob-. Later frith- is used before cons. with or without lenition of following cons.: see frithgnam, frithsét, etc.

(b) In deuterotonic verbal forms fris-; before an infixed pron. in rel. construction frith- or friss-: fritum-chomart-sa (= frith-dum-) Wb. 33a12 ; but friss-idn-oirctis, Ml. 39a20 (see Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 147 and cf. Strachan's OIPG⁴ ed. Bergin, p. 27 n. 2 ).

SYNOPSIS OF MEANINGS.

N.B.—The classification is perforce somewhat arbitrary as, perhaps in the majority of instances, the meaning could derive from the original sense in I. Cf. J. E. C. Williams Celtica iii 122 ff .

I Of local relations

(a) towards, facing, turned to ;

(b) against (touching; cf. d); alongside, down along, by ;

(c) against (implying violent or hostile action);

(d) next to, at, in contact with (cf. b).

II To express association, along with, beside (both of local and mental relations).

III To express figurative direction

(a) aim, purpose (cf. VI), frequently of function, specific purpose;

(b) after adj. in sense of Lat. gerund or with ad or supine in -u;

(c) to express direction of feelings, behaviour towards (cf. I a);

(d) of prayer, etc. to ;

(e) of opposition to, hostile feeling, attitude towards ;

(f) to express protection, guard, watch against, also limitation, boundary;

(g) in elliptical sentences with these meanings.

IV

(a) after adjs., nouns or verbs expressing resemblance, equality or comparison;

(b) to express difference, distinction from .

V

(a) with respect to, with regard to ;

(b) on account of:

(c) on behalf of ;

(d) according to, in agreement with (cf. II).

VI To denote occasion

(a) with vn. or other abstract after subst. verb or equivalent;

(b) denoting the occasion (event, cause, etc.) on which something takes place.

VII To denote mental subjective attitude, in the opinion of .

VIII

(a) to denote agent;

(b) to denote instrument through, by means of .

IX In expressions of time

(a) in O.-Ir. in locatival sense;

(b) to denote period during which something continues or takes place;

(c) fixing a limit within which something takes place;

(d) of point of time;

(e) used for RIA ` before .'

X In regular or occasional construction with many verbs.

A classified list of the instances in Wb is given by Fraser ZCP viii 37 ff .

I Of local relations

(a) towards, facing, turned to: do rosc frisna nemdaib = looking heavenward SR 1604 . a n-aiged fri Dia facing God LU 2048 ( FA 12 . Cf. III c). a lām chlē fri muir the sea on their left SR 4074 (see lám). do cumlaiset for fairgi ┐ dochorsatar aurlunn fri tir, Corm. Bodl. s.v. prull . bai D. 'sa druim fri fraig D. had his back to the door SR 6053 . is amlaid bai in gilla ┐ a druim fria thigerna, TBC-I¹ 2327 (see druim(m)). Ethne ... fria chossa E. (standing) at his feet (i.e. at the foot of the bed) LU 3300 ( SCC 10 ). Carpre ... 's a hucht ra hág, LL 32b49 (see ucht). a druim re dimsachaib, a des fri deiblenaib, ZCP viii 204 § 26 . an let[h] bis rinne don rē the side of the moon turned towards us ITS xiv 90.19 . fri bun cruche at the foot of the gallows Mon. Tall. § 1 . síl nÁdhuimh ... re sáluibh a senathar at the heels of (i.e. following) Ériu iv 118 § 33 . níor chubaidh tigearna ... d'ḟágbáil re caladh on the beach [i.e. when about to land; perh. fig. cf. beirid i gcaladh brings to safety, see 1 calad] viii 139.23 . dā traig .x. ... a [sic leg.] fot fri dún its length towards the stockade (of the internal slope of an earthen rampart) Laws iv 336.23 . dā dúncladh ... ré dá taebh na clasach along both sides of the fosse CCath. 1747 . ní thurcaibh crand ... cét míle fria taebhaibh within a hundred miles from (lit. towards) its sides Marco P. 11 [cf. the temporal use IX (c)]. See also phrases s.v. agad, ais, enech, gnúis, sáil, taeb, ucht.

This use is regular in Old-Ir. in stating relative position: fri Grecia aniar ... fri Etáil anáir west of Greece ... east of Italy Wb. 6d17 . fri Alpai ndesiu (gl. cisalpina) Sg. 217b8 . frie anall ... frie desiu (gl. ultra ... citra) 71b1 , 2 . fri Ath F.D. desiu, TBC-I¹ 2183 . frie anechtair outside it Ml. 40c15 . fri Pardus amuich outside Paradise SR 111 . ra chuala sa fri hEmain andess I heard it (as I was) to the south of Emain LU 5056 . altoir fri dorus antuaid, SR 4261 [cf. la taeb ind rigthaige aniar, LL 3810 (30a) ]. a mmag fris anair the plain in front of him LL 122a33 . co ndechaid [in gai] triana chend ┐ co ro marb nónbur ris aníar behind him 121a21 . frit aniar, LU 4134 . is e a chorp in taitneamach rit anall the shining one opposite thee RC xxiv 60 . Also fig. : foscichret i crandchor ... fáicebthair Lugaid fris anechtair they will cast lots for it... L. will be left out of the chance RC xiii 444x ( LL 289b8 ). See also s.v. lám (fri l.).

It is doubtful whether: i mbae neach fri hopair immuig BB 362a21 (= Dinds. 20 ) is an instance of this construction; the literal meaning here is was anyone at a work outside ? The Rennes `amuig' is perhaps merely a late spelling.

After verb or vn.: tan turcbad E. a di láim fri Coimdid nime, SR 5085 . suidig do da laim fri ... clasp thy hands (in prayer) to ... 1606 . rosecroth a chend frisin slúag brandished his (severed) head at the host LU 5269 . crothad in chind frisin slóg, 5280 . donnochtat a mbruinni fris bared their bosoms to him 5199 . rochoraig fri tenid he arranged [them] before the fire RC xiii 6.21 . roscóraig gnúis fri gnúis (see gnúis) LU 2046 ( FA 12 ).

Cf. tuídhleach ind óir frisin ngréin the glistening of the gold against the sun BDD 1 . crand airgit ris tatin grían LU 3700 ( SCC 33 ).

(b) against (touching), alongside, down along by: doesetar ┐ a nglūne fri talmain, TBC-I¹ 3164 . éc fri hadart death against a pillow i.e. a natural death Lib. Hymn. i 62.72 (see adart). fri etnu dam ... bátár fedmand la firu Herend = [till then] the loads had been harnessed to the foreheads of the oxen LU 10816 (= Ériu xii 178 ). tennait a n-ette fria curpu press their wings against their sides LU 2281 ( FA 33 ). cf. doimmaircet ind eoin a n-ette friu ┐ a cossa can scibud ette ná cosse co tairic in precept the birds fold their wings, etc. LU 1361 . dosnimthasa i llai a broit fri a bruinde `gathered her to his bosom in the fleece of his cloak' Ériu xii 154y . co tard a druim frisin liic leaned his back against the stone LU 3284 ( SCC 8 ). dossleced fria thoeb he let them (i.e. his arms) fall to his sides SR 5091 = no thimoirced a lama fria thoeb, LB 124b29 (cf. LU 1361 above).

In local sense of attached to or pending from: úathroic ... cona cimais do banór fria having a fringe LU 6421 . beilge óir friu golden bits on them TBFr. § 3 . srian ... fria graig, LU 3649 . Cf. srian do thabairt fria thoil to bridle his passion PH 4990 (see srían). Cf. la I (a).

Here perhaps: i ngialnai fri fraigid in hostage-ship at the wall LU 7015 ; 7295 ( BDD 66 ; 94 ). (of the brazen serpent, Numbers xxi 9 :) turgabar fri crann ... uasin [t]slúag fri sirsellad let it be hung on a pole to be gazed at SR 4163 .

Cf. an carracc ard ar cuiretar ... an Tigerna da teilgen ría sís to cast him down from it Maund. 106 . tuitim sioss re beinn an ailt, Fl. Earls 86z .

(c) against (implying violence or hostility; cf. III e): rop saiget húan fri demnai, Hy i 20 . friu conuccaib ind oub, Hy v 54 . conéracht Glaiss Ch. friu the stream C. rose against them (= to bar the way) LU 5362 . Cf. conocbath in carpat fris ... ┐ concligtis ind h[e]ich fris the chariot would tilt up before him and the horses would spring at him Ériu vi 134.21 . bēim a cinn fri cloich, Ml. 139c3 . beim cind fri hall, LL 225b38 (see benaid). esarcain cind fri hallib, 176b33 . aiges (feras) in tond frisin mbruach, Anecd. i 12.19 (21) . cf. FB 44 , see fri. See also phrases with cúl, druim(m), lám).

(d) next to, at: folt dond fri toind a chind, folt croderg iar n-airmedon, LU 2564 . dond fri toind cind, 6542 . lene de sról ... i custul fri gelcnes ... dó, 6296 . léne ... sita fria gelchnes, 1810 . cona luirigh ... ria cnes ... ┐ lethan sciath fria gualaind, Stair Erc. 1243 . In this use frequent with ais, cnes, taeb.

II To express association, along with, beside (of local or mental relations, cf. V d): ní bí friu hi comasndeis it is not with them in apposition Sg. 212a5 . in tan mbís nihelas do .u. fri .g. when u is silent beside g, 6b11 . nobiad fri femen `it would be [used] with the feminine' 207b2 . ní biat remsuidigthi friu `there are no prepositions with them' 215a5 (cf. biit remsuidigthi ... cen briathra leo ib. 6). See also s.v. comṡuidigud. is tabarthi `bonum est' fri cechtar in da fersa so, Ml. 112d1 . cen tabairt anman trén fríu, 30a9 (see do-beir). ni bai crand dond indsi fri aroile (i.e. the walls were shattered) Anecd. i 2.5 . ar choibnius frisna comaccomla sa, Sg. 203a10 . in oentid fri Crist, Wb. 15a12 . ni ba suair[c] comlepaid no comaentu frissi, TBC-LL¹ 2079 (fris St) In: ni reid bith fris im longud no im ligi, LU 5957 , the meaning may be different; see atá (fri). toeb fri toeb ata in ri is Eocho F. side by side LU 2839 (see taeb). comaitecht re hairdrigh, ZCP viii 116.5 . méraid ra cách a chumne TBC-LL¹ 740 (here perhaps: meraid hua chlaind fri claind Ml. 100b4 ). is frit mo chairde `with Thee is my compact' Fél. Ep. 534 . (see cairde). iar corai fri I. after making a pact with I. SR 5946 . Cf. córe fri Dia, Wb. 2d16 . is core doib fribsi (gl. salutate invicem) 18b19 . bad chore dúib friu, 7b4 ; - 14 (`lit. let it be peace to you towards them' Thes., but the original meaning of córe points to `with' as the sense of the prep. here). Cf. also: biid pax libsi fri cách (gl. cum omnibus hominibus pacem habentes) 5d33 .

Here probably: isi no beired teora pōc fria cach copān ... dō, TBC-I¹ 2218 . Cf. further: hi cocetul fri Eman in unison with Hib. Min. 4.12 . do dlommad E. is A. ... fri gorta, SR 1419 . ara toimlid fri sid sain | toirthi Parduis, 1085 . taed as fri sidh ┐ fri subha `let him go ... in peace and happiness' AFM 979 .

In this sense with verbs of joining, connecting, also occasionally with verbs of motion and in nominal phrases, such as imma llé fri, immaróen fri, see s.v. , óen (cf. Ériu xiv 142 n . ) also cos, taeb.

In: crithnaigset ... immar bocsimin fri sruth the meaning of the prep. is doubtful. curtar a fuigill re sruth ┐ re fairgi `be the remnant cast out to be carried off by the sea-tide' O'Gr. Cat. 182w . Cf. perhaps: Drochet Atha do dhul re sruth `D. was carried away by the flood' ALC i 260.7 , though these may be exx. of the confusion of re (FRI) with le (LA). curcas fri sruth, FB 44 ; `against a stream' Strachan ZCP iii 419 . Cf. Ériu i 194.4 . See 1 téit and la I (d).

Passing into sense in addition to: tris fer friu (gl. te tertium) Sg. 2a5 . cethri chet bliadan ... a noe sechtmogat fri sein, Rawl. 68b31 ( ZCP iii 18 ). Cf. is fri ni dona salmaib dognid a figild, Mon. Tall. § 5 . fris sin moreover, besides , Leb. Gab.(i) i 88.1 . Hugh Roe 114.1 (f. 30b) . Cf. mod. freisin. For a special sense of with see Mon. Tall. cited under V (d).

III To express fig. direction (cf. V a);

(a) aim, purpose, freq. of function, specific purpose: cen nech dim chlaind frim foraithmet to preserve my memory Ml. 23d9 . ce notechtad ilgotha fri inchosc in mrechtraid sin `that it should possess many sounds to express that variety' Sg. 197a11 . ní fris arícht fri slond persine it was not for that it was invented, to signify person ib. (cf. cid arna airecht pronomen ... dia ṡlund, 198b3 ). in bríg frissa ndéntar a saithar sin the value for which that labour is performed Wb. 11a9 . am loor fri cach reit (gl. ego ... dedici, in quibus sum, sufficiens esse) 24b16 . altoir ... | fri loscud n-edpart an altar for burning [ = on which to burn] offerings SR 4162 . dá magh ... do ṡlaidhi ... co rabad do grés fri geilt do ceithrib ┐ fri trebad do daīnib, Ériu xii 150.6 . primepscop ... accu fri huirdned a n-oessa graid, fri coisecrad a n-eclas ┐ fri hanmchairdes do ḟlaithib, etc. Ériu i 218.2 . sechtmoga fer fria cobair to aid them SR 4196 . drong ngilla ... fri timthirecht, 6280 . ra ergitar ... dalemain fri dail, LL 173a27 ( CRR 13 ). mōr salm | fri hindarba plāg-tedmann, BColm. 70.8 . slóged hi crích ... fri indnaide slogid tairse a hosting into a country to delay a hosting (coming) across it Críth G. 511 . fergniae fri forngaire ndoirseo, 591 . In this sense perhaps in: fót fri haltóir, see 1 fót (d). pars de feoil fri foimtin terci as a precaution against scarcity Mon. Tall. § 12 . Here perhaps: dognith Saul intleda ... fri Duaid used to lay snares against D. Ml. 30a3 . techt do Roim ... fri foglaim n-ecnai, Trip.² 241 . roairis re sloind senchasa he remained to relate Ériu iv 152.6 [or remained relating ? See VI (a)]. cid frisi farcbad int id for what end the withe was left LU 4752 (= cid imma ndernad int id, TBC-LL¹ 597 ). cid frisindrolais in cloich why hast thou thrown the stone ? LU 5092 . o tancamair friss `since we have come for it' ( = for that purpose) Fél. 72.24 (cf. inní imo tainic ib. 30 ). co ndernur inní fris tánac LU 4347 . Cf. doluid Saul fri tāirsin David i fus, SR 5959 . lurech imme ... fri cathugud, SR 5757 . treb Leue ... immon eclais fria immarchur, 4883 . docúaidh B. frissan umaloitt sin gusin muilenn `on that service' BNnÉ 26 § 19 . téit féin re toisc ┐ re túrus a crichaib na hEspáine on business CCath. 1806 , cf. do chuaidh gach aon rea dtoisgibh ┐ rea dturasaibh féin, ML 26x (= le tosgaib fein, ML² 347 ). The follg. perhaps are elliptical: the idea represented is anticipating, forestalling: dogniad pars de feoil fre terci do t[h]ecmong = as a provision against the occurrence of scarcity Mon. Tall. § 12 . do na .u. gaiscedaib dec no bitís ... hi tegluch C. fri maidm n-airm no fri gabáil ngasced do neoch LU 5046 . Cf. Fél. Nov. 14 cited VI b.

(b) after adjs. in sense of Lat. gerund with ad or supine in -u: leiscc .i. fri fognam, Wb. 31b23 . conid mesc fria rim so that it is confusing to count it LU 4794 . ba gnim ṅdangen fri himluad, SR 7229 . ingnad fria innisin, LU 2074 ( FA 15 ). adhbal rea n-innisi prodigious to recount ZCP viii 204 § 26 . cenco beth ... and acht C. ba lór fri immarbaig, LL 107a19 ( Ériu iv 28 ). lia iná rúainne ... re n-áireamh, IGT, Decl. ex. 1201 . Cf. atait ... re a ttaispenadh go follus are plainly to be seen Fl. Earls 50.12 . In this use modern Irish has le (LA).

(c) to express direction of feelings; behaviour towards, after nouns or adjs., both of persons and things (cf. I a and V a): conroib deserc leu fri cách, Wb. 26d22 . fáilte fri noíbu, 7b2 (see fáilte). ar formut fribsi, 12c29 (see format and formtech). ropat ḟáilti frimsa, Fél. Dec. 18 (see fáilid). hissel fri hard, sleman fri garb, ZCP iii 447z . anmne fri fochaidi, 449.15 (see ainmne). mailli fri cloc slowness at (answering) the bell ib. 21 . dána fri tōla tromsluaig daring in face of an army SR 5778 . uair ná dernsam huimli fri forngaire, 1854 . ar gart friu for generosity to them ZCP viii 313.12 . créd nach frim atā a maithe ? why is not their bounty bestowed on me ? ACL iii 296 § 38 . ní ar maith friu it is not for their good Wb. 4b37 . ar ulc friu, Ml. 72b22 . tar aesi n-uilc huai[m] se friusom, 74a2 (see also s.v. maith, olc). bad chert do cluchi frim play fair with me LU 5228 . ar ngabáil bāide ... dō rena ardnaem having conceived affection for his high saint BCC § 12 . lére duit frí ríg ngréne ┐ réde fri doíni, Ériu i 193 . is buide linn frib (gl. rogamus vos) Wb. 25a39 (see 2 buide). is maith robai Dia rind, SR 1905 . ní maith ro mbátar frim they have not treated me well LU 4891 . Cf. is maith ro ngabus fritt, TBFr. § 11 . bad faitig frisin foirin sin (gl. observate eos) Wb. 24a23 (see faitech). bid cennuis a gnuis risin lucht ra-nadh (= frisndid) rathmar to whom he is gracious KMMisc. 156.124 . in maith frit menma ind airdríg whether the king is well-disposed to thee SR 6114 . ba fearr di frib menma bar mathar, RC xxiv 56 ( YBL 206a47 ). Cf. is beite duit menma fris `thou must take heed of him' Ériu xii 176.16 . Similarly in expressions like: do-gní maith (trócaire, etc.) fri (see do-gní). nech no comaildfed fir fer frimb uime RC xiii 29.6 .

(d) of prayer, etc. to: irnigde fri Dia, Wb. 4d18 . cf. abstanait fri Dia, PH 4988 . ro throiscset ... fri Dia im a ḟurtacht, 7258 (see troiscid). im aīne fri Dia cora faillsigthi dō ... fasting towards God, that ... might be revealed to him Ériu v 120.12 . Similarly: frit, a rí ..., mo dēr | conom thī ... Mīchēl, SR 2091 . co ndēraib frisin coimdid, PH 6292 . (cf. use with ad-teich). cossoít a thuaithe fri Dia, Wb. 5a23 (see cosaít). Here, perhaps, should come such expressions as the following: ar Christ frit, aithirigh pēin dam, Cáin Ad. 13 . ar do chubus riut, a ingen, crét tuc ort ?, Acall. 6012 . ar bar cubus rib..., crét..., 5476 . ar fir do chubais riut..., 5824 . cf. 4544 . ar t'ḟírinne riutsa, nā furáil, CCath. 1659 .

(e) of hostile feeling, attitude, conduct towards: fri aicned contrary to nature Wb. 2c25 . ba fri aicned ... in talam ... do indluch, Ml. 129d8 . frisin n-uall (gl. adversum inflationem mentis) 68c1 . trifar pecthu fri Dia through your sins against God 115b8 . Common after verbs of opposing, hindering, fighting: hóre nád comeicnigther nech fri toil no one is constrained against [his] will Wb. 28b1 . tuidecht fri toil Dé resistance to God's will 4c23 (see do-tét). cf. o dorala ... | frim thala mac I. | duit ... | niba céle SR 6014 , where opposition seems implied despite the similar phrase cited below under V (d). soud a gnuso fri nech frisa mbi ferc do (gl. ne auertas [faciem tuam] a me Ml. 47d8 (`to turn his countenance from one against whom he cherishes anger' Thes., but surely `fri nech' here must also mean either against ... or towards ... ? See soïd). fergach fris Fíadu, SR 6837 . iar ndebaid do fri Duid, 6994 . na cathaig frim do not contend with me 2877 . ni sirsan do Ch. a n-imned i tá a óenur fri firu Herend not happy for C is the trouble in which he is, alone against the men of E. LU 5995 . Cf. do thoitim fria Cu | ba dirsan sad that thou shouldst fall by [ = fighting against] C. (?) TBC-I¹ 2715 (see also III g). Mairg fris ticfa a ḟerg ... Mairg ticfa re cert, Fen. 200 (see do-icc). ar bruc fris `in displeasure at him' Mon. Tall. § 58 . namthi garga fri sluagh nA., ACL iii 297 § 55 . atat frim hi cotarsnai, SR 1520 . Cf. ni bia th'anim fri fugall | ind ríg hí laithiú brótho, Ériu i 196 § 13a . With adj.: cotarsne fri Dia, Wb. 26a18 . is torcda ┐ is díchéill notaí frim, LU 10831 (= Ériu xii 172 ). is bairnech mo menma frit, LU 10832 (= ib.). is tromda atai rim, RC vi 183.13 . olc roba rim, Ériu v 208.8 (see III c). Here perhaps: tromde ... ro buí frisim ind chaillech oc atach Dé, Mon. Tall. § 7 (= do bhí sí roliosda ar Dh., Rule of Tallaght § 41 ). But cf. VII below.

(f) To express protection, guard, defence, watch against: gabthe dūnad les fris, Ml. 55c1 . inna cathrach conrotacht la Duaid fri Ebustu, 48d27 . múr trén ... fri dóini, fri demnai, Fél. Ep. 152 . tocuiriur etrum ... inna huli nert so fri cech nert n-amnas in ..., Hy vii 49 . cor gabad Sinann friu the Shannon was held (defended) against them RC xviii 10.28 . gébtaít ar tír frind, LU 4634 (see gaibid). iadad Caisil frim eochu the closing of C. to my horses Anecd. iii 63.4 . cóir duit arechus ri siút, TBC-LL¹ 1280 (aire do tabairt fri ... St; see 1 aire). Dia lem fri cech snīomh, Ériu iv 236 . Crist credal fri demnaib, ACL iii 221.12 . dín ... re holcaib, ZCP viii 202.18 . Of limitation, boundary: nā bí crích la nech fri peccad that no one sets a limit to sin Ériu i 218.9 . Cf. samaiges crích fri aidchi, Hy ii 55 , corresp. to contra noctem terminum pones, Ardm. 8a1 . See also s.v. inillius.

(g) In elliptical sentt.: leic ... in fognam, ol se; ni lamaim, ol sī, frisin rigain = I dare not disobey the Queen RC xxiv 192 (but perh. FRI here = because of; see V b ). ro an ... ina aenar ru remained alone to oppose them ZCP vi 56.31 . rofetursa a n-as maith dúib fris I know a good way for you to deal with him LU 5934 . tarmairt mo Dia dil frisin tuaid ... a cor fo leittreib lethglenn = my dear God had well nigh (in His resentment) against them cast them down ... SR 4718 . Cf. lām fri idal to renounce idolatry SR 4845 (see lám).

IV

(a) after adjs. and nouns denoting resemblance or equality (esp. those compounded with com-) and vbs. of resembling or comparing: cosmil fri cethir (gl. animalis) Wb. 8b14 . cutrummus fri Dia, 17c8 . i cutrummus fribsi 17b14 . ɔodernain hi cutrummus frim cheliu `to do like my fellows' PCr. 2a2 . (pariter) fri, Sg. 77a2 . i tomus fri nech Wb. 17b11 . intamail ... fri nech, Ml. 22c1 . cen a chondelg fri nech, Sg. 42a6 . cosmaili tuisil `sui' fri tuisliu `ego' ┐ `tu', 200a12 . (similiter) fri, 203a5 . cf. (eandem significationem habens) .i. fri `cum', 218a1 . diatā oenḟolaid ... frissin Athair, PH 177 . ba cudruma re core mōr é, RC xviii 183 . ni caithedh acht coibeis fri gach manach he used to eat only as much as any other monk BNnÉ 300 § 3 . nir chumma nech ris im chath, Metr. Dinds. iv 344 . ru boí i comré ri Cormac, LL 3796 (30a) . i comhrē ris coeval with him Moling 4 . rogheanair i n-aenuair fria was born at the same time as she BB 406bz (= Dinds. 111 ). Cf. IX (b).

Replacing O. Ir. construction with equative: comdhub fri hec, Thr. Ir. Gl. 36 (prull) = duibidir éc, Corm. Y 1059 . Bodl. comard fri fid, Ériu iv 138.26 . meidithir fria hasal as big as an ass Marco P. 10 . corbo chomfota frisin sroin LU 6472 .

See also verbs and adjs. of comparison, e.g. 1 do-ella, samlaithir, in-samlathar; cosmail, 2 cutrummae, etc.

(b) to express difference, distinction from : frissaní immeraidtis (gl. longe aliud) Ml. 61c12 . sain fri .c. `different to c' Sg. 6b7 . do dechor fri praenomna aili, 28a13 . huare nád deligedar fri praenomen , 28a15 . do dechrugud persine fri alaili, 202a4 . is allail pronomen aní sin fri `sui' (gl. `is' aliud pronomen...) 209b10 . (differentia) fri, 213b15 , gl. contra 214b4 . Cf. nipo choím less frinn He was not dear to Him compared to us (?) Wb. 4b12 [Fraser l.c. suggests this rendering, ZCP viii 41 n . `in our case (?),' Thes.].

See s.v. 1 dechor, dechraigidir, deiligidir and other words of similar meaning.

V

(a) with respect to, with regard to (cf. III c) : is sain fri cath sain fri scor different for battle, different for unyoking (of trumpet-call) Wb. 12c46 . idain fri cach réit faithful as to 31c13 . cen chinaid n-uaim fri nech, Ml. 54d16 (see cin). nach é Dia is ciontach riú is to blame for them TSh. 10499 . as eola fri aidgne ind Athar, Wb. 19d9 . it maithi a arilti frib `He deserves well of you' (`literally good are his merits as to you' Thes.) Wb. 16c11 . airle Dé fri Herind, LL 49b13 ( Hail Brigit § 2 ). .iiii. seóit a dire ... is fechem is fiadnaisi friu `four seds are his `dire'-fine ... he is a suitor and witness for them' (i.e. he is liable to that extent) Laws iv 308.2 ( Críth G. 138 ). is amlaid in t-athair frisin mac ngor; ... nimtha in t-athair frisin mac n-ingor thus the father acts with regard to the dutiful son; ... not so with regard to the undutiful one Laws iii 56. 22 ; z 0 . ba fria as-breth: cruth cách co hÉtaín 'of her was it said, 'every woman is fair till compared with Étaín'' BDD 43-44 , Celtica xv 57 . 'fer hi lorcc so,' ol in fer deginuch fri Nero 'a man is following us,' said the last man with regard to Nera RC x 216.48 . conidh ed isberdís cách fris, Cóir Anm. ii § 150 .

Cf. further: crādiis Ultu fri Cethirnd guin Fécc the slaying of F. imbittered the U. against C., ZCP viii 305.32 . ferdha a cathuibh iat, ar is friu ronnaltadh oc imairecc fria geinnti, Marco P. 189 . ro alt ... ind ingen co digrais fri légend ┐ gaís, LL 279a47 ( SG 413 ). Possibly the last two exx. belong rather to III (a), also : is me is cintach fris ni he is cintach frim, BB 479b14 (see cintach). See also : a lleth fri, s.v. leth.

(b) on account of (cf. VI b) : ro lega in snechta ... fri meit brotha in miled, LU 5858 . ba lond F. friside (-suidi), RC xxvi 12 § ix . saeth mār fri luga dige great distress from [?] lack of drink Fianaig. 12 § 20 . cid mís no bheinn gun ríg thess | ro-fess ná bíad mo scís fris, ACL iii 304.20 . ní ḟaicim-si ... ni rís budh choir t'obadh for which it were right to refuse thee Ériu iii 154.5 . atchess ... na haīble tened ... uasachind re fiuchud na ferge, LU 6466 . ba mertnech Moisi fri hilchaingni ... fri orddugugd cāich fo mām, SR 4542 . batar toirsech fri Moisi, 3886 (in these two exx. fri = oc of prose LB 122a etc.). féimdid sim imt[h]echt fri scíss he cannot go on from weariness BColm. 94.16 . ni ro chotail C. fri himṡním, LB 274a55 . ni faict[h]e ise fri feidm a léiginn she used not be seen because of her duty of study ACL iii 308 VI 13 . Cf. la III a.

(c) on behalf of: aitchitt an C. ris comad he noberad, etc. they beseech the Lord for him that it might be he BColm. 98.15 . dogníther airnaigthi frisin ríg co nambed fot saegail do, MacCongl. 59.23 . ica cantain fria Cianoig chanting (a prayer) for C. ZCP vii 308.7 . Cf. also : ata mo briathar ┐ mo comairghi fria ar Tuatha D., Ériu xii 152.9 . o doratsat briathair fris, CCath. 1236 . in tī bes rí is fris beimmi, ZCP viii 316.3 . See do-beir, gell, and ráith.

(d) according to ; in agreement with, with pers. somet. = in obedience to: ni ni nach breith nā bi fri canoin cumtastar [sic leg.] no judgement is valid that is not framed according to the canon Corm. Y 1224 . cf. manib fri fasach fuirmider, Ériu xii 199.23 . fri mes airechta adrimter, Laws iv 298.25 ( Críth G. 22 ). fri saltair nogebad ... a salmu by the psalter (i.e. with the psalter before him), Mon. Tall. § 39 , cf. ni lugae mbis ind menme hisin cheill dia gabail ind tsailm de memur indas cid fri saltair ib.). fosernd clothri Connacht ... fri senchus ... fri buaid ┐ breatha in conformity with (the claims of) pedigree, with prowess and legal decision ZCP viii 108.10 = Ériu v 234 . bid som iarum fria toil (= they will be able to do as they like) Mon. Tall. § 35 (= go mbid ... aca ara ttoil fein, Rule of Tallaght § 35 ). fri tala ind rig ... domrala I am about the king's business SR 6187 (Rex praecepit mihi 1 Reg. xxi 2 ). cia ro delb fria thuil a ndath who coloured them to please himself (?) SR 7675 . For FRI TOIL in a different sense, see III (e). Cf. nitattorbi fri toil Dé (gl. non omnia expediunt 1 Corinth. x 22 ) `against God's will' Thes., Wb. 11b 17a . Also : ind tí dogní ní do maith fria menmain fadesin ... ar ind bo neoch gabti he who does a good thing in accordance with his own inclination ... should openly proclaim it Mon. Tall. § 21 (= chuirios ní maith ... do dheunamh uaidhe fein, Rule of Tallaght 71 ).

VI

(a) with vn. or other abstract after subst. vb. or equivalent = to be at, engaged in or about to engage in (some occupation, process ; cf. III a) : in tinscanfam .i. in biam fris (gl. incipimus ... commendare ?) Wb. 15a1 . ní uisse do mug Dae buith fri debuid to be at strife 30b26 . cf. ní bethe fria acre, 9c20 . ni piam fri aithirgi, 30b17 . ni biat som fria togais adi (= non fallacia ad quoscumque loquuntur) Ml. 31a17 . cechtar nathar fria saindān `each ... at his special art' Thes. ii 293.14 . feib donrala fri comrad, SR 1214 . indí ... bíte fri tnúith `those that are given to lust' Mon. Tall. § 11 . nebbuith fri éthech not to be lying Ériu ii 64 § 6 . céin bete fri soíthar while they shall be at work Fél. Ep. 298 . in tan natbi fri frestal na n-anmand when he is not attending to LB 110b43 (cf. SR 1199 ). ní mo chean ... tarrla re freastal ... na fairrgi sin, CF 42 . amail do beith se re goibhnecht ríam as if he had always been at smith's work BCC § 92 . na saoithe do bhí re seanchus, Keat. i 74 . cuirim suas don ghrádh, | ní fiú é bheith ris, Dánta Gr. xiv 3 . Cf. boí a ben fri idna in travail LU 105.86 (see 1 idu). Similarly without subst. vb. : nachitochthad fria choscc `let him not wear thee out in admonishing him' Wb. 31d11 . conus tarttsat fria ttoghairm chuca an lucht they set about calling the people Hugh Roe § 8 . Cf. airfitech re tetaib, ACL iii 223.23 (= Keat. ii 5358 ). dias fri cerdacht, SR 190 (perh. III a). dá mbeinn re héagnach `had I purposed to revile' Content. v 7 (cf. le hóradh bhriat[h]ar da mbeinn, Ó Héodhusa 4 ). In class. lang. `re' is used with vn. to express futurity : an chathair atá ré teacht ( = civitatem futuram) TSh. 2751 . i n-oirchill na n-olc bhíos ré tuirling orra, 532 .

(b) denoting the occasion (event, cause, etc.) on or from which something takes place (some of the exx. could be explained as extensions of other uses (cf. V b ; IX a) ; often the construction is elliptical) : gaibed cach a greimm ... | fria brethir in primsacairt, SR 4400 . ba huisse soillse fri éitsecht na noeb at the death Hy ii 60 . Cf. co mbidis i nd-aenmaigin fria n-ég, Corm. Y 1233 (fri héc LB. ria n-ec LL 179b ). fri gein Críst ... tindscan lechsa léri, Fél. Nov. 14 (cf. III a). ro eirgis fri breithir Isu, PH 2780 . ret[h]it daim ... ri dorddan na damgaire, Ériu vii 2 § 1 . phreab as G. risan gair, Ériu i 18.33 . ac cantain cheóil ... fris coteltais Síl Adaim, LL 3305 ( Ériu xiv 156 ).

VII To denote mental subjective attitude, in the opinion of (cf. similar use of Lat. apud, and see la) : ni cumdabairt fri Cirine is tre metur Jerome does not doubt Hib. Min. 6.187 . nad maith fri C. ciasperthar ..., 7.235 . frithir frisin mac i n-ebras riss, Ériu vii 225 ( LL 209a16 ). ba bind fri cach na canaind, LU 1301 (`sweet to all was what I said' Imr. Brain ii 298 . But this may be ex. of : canaid fri). bid inmain fria cách a ainm loved of all PH 4299 . ba hingnad mor frisin popul sin, 2959 . ba mo a grad fri Gargán oldait a uli cethra G. loved him more than all his cattle 7178 . Cf. Mon. Tall. § 7 cited under III (e) where the meaning seems different. gurbh annsa ré hEóin Críost ioná ré Peadar Christ was dearer to John than to Peter TSh. 10327 .

VIII

(a) to denote agent (a late use, mostly in texts in artificial style). ar na bennughadh fri sanctuss Silvester consecrated by Fl. Earls 196.19 . laech ... frisimbia mo thiglecht (= who will cause my death) Metr. Dinds. iv 360 (but perh. this is ellipt. and belongs to III (e) ; cf. TBC2 cited there). romarbtha na maithe ... frisna crechairib LB 154a63 . in lucht frisa tucad in digal .i. Uespiam ┐ Titus ib. 16 . Constantiana ... .i. eclas rocúmdaiged fri Constantin 157b48 . Of parenthood : trī meic Medba fri Fergus, Corp. Gen. 279.33 . sē meic do Mīlidh fri Scota ┐ dā mac frisin nEspānaig 'Míl had six sons of Scota, and two sons of the Spanish woman', ITS xliv 64 § 424 . do chomthusmed clainni fri hA. to have children by A., Alex. 512 .

(b) to denote instrument, through, by means of, by dint of (cf. similar uses of Engl. `with') : sénais Brigit fria bachaill with her crozier Hy v 58 T = lia F. fria noebainm ... séntae cech slóg subach by [or at ?] his holy name every happy host was sained Fél. Prol. 99 . ícaid [Tipra C.] gallrae ... fri troscud aici, BColm. 52.15 . argain fri daigid (destroying by fire LL 107a21 ( Ériu iv 28 ), cf. multi nobiles ceciderunt ... fri daigidh ro horta uile, AU 900 (see RIA Dict. s.v. daig). go nach deachaidh neach re siúbhal ... as no one escaped by flight ML 88.31 . re dán nglas ... dán breaghdha do bhréagnachadh with a simple poem to refute an elaborate one Content. vii 13 . ro ēirigh fri nert seoin ┐ solaid, Moling § 4 (possibly = with here cf. dol ar fairrge ... ré cóir na gaoithe = with a favourable wind ML 36z = le ML² 466 . cuir me ... chum seoil ... re cóir ghloin, Measgra D. 48.16 ).

IX In expressions of time :—

(a) in O. Ir. in locatival sense in phrase : fri dē by day, in the day-time Ml. 121d8 . Wb. 6a30 . fri dei, 9a5 , 24d14 , 26b17 . Cf. in gabail fri dei ... in gabail cech ráithi a catch (of fish) daily (?) Trip. 250.14 (2950) . fri díe, Mon. Tall. § 55 . fri haidchi by night Trip. 208.25 (2452) . gl. contra noctem Lat. Lives 18 . re lá, Ériu iii 148 § 3 . arna imbreth ... i n-aidchi cía nosgonad fri dé, LU 5609 .

(b) usually to denote period during which something continues or takes place : 'na fuair frisna secht ṁbliadnaib SR 3394 . fri a n-aimsir in their time Laws iv 210.28 . niro chotail C. frisin ré sin, LU 6337 . fria ré hi fut a saegail for their lifetime SR 5932 . bai cocad mor etarro fri re ciana RC xxiv 186 . batar ... fri re secht la amlaid sin, ACL iii 225.1 . conosrala for sechrán fri re bliadna co lleith, LU 1279 . bá-sa i Tul T. fri ré inna dílenn, Ériu iv 144y . maith graig dorat damh rem lá in my day ACL iii 304.23 . D. ba talchar fria ré in his day Metr. Dinds. ii 40 . dorumaltsa ... m'aimsir fri hamsir Nemid, LU 1276 . nir siubhuil in conuir-so re bliadhain aenridiri for a year past ZCP vi 104 z.

(c) fixing a limit within which something takes place : ni ba marb-sa fri sin I shall not die before that ZCP i 105.4 (co sin v.l.). Cf. also the locative use in Marco P. 11 cited I (a). tanic ... uidi na .xii. mís fri .xii. laa made the twelve months' journey in twelve days LB 139a31 . icuis fri teorai nomaidhe within thrice nine days RC xii 66x . nos ithend ... friha brathad sula in the twinkling of an eye LU 1895 ( RC x 56 ; fri b. v.l.) do imredar ... re trí lá, ┐ ní ruc G. énchluichi rissin, Acall. 1348 .

(d) of point of time ; in some cases approaching VI (b) above. fri dead n-aissi, SR 2829 . in tan nadbi fri húair i fos | frithalmi when he is not here at the hour of attending ... 1199 (cf. LB 110b43 cited under VI (a) above). cech dūil ... rosdelb fri oenuair, SR 7864 (similarly 7234 , 7386 ). grend Muman ... grend Connacht ... ra hóen-úair at the same time Ériu i 130.36 ( LL 46b ). buaidh ... damh fri deiredh mo ṡaoghail, ACL iii 231.1 . ra dered flatha Domnaill, LL 185a48 ( Arch. Hib. ii 85 ) = Rawl. 154a52 . Rí dorat na deich plāga | forthu fri huair combāga, SR 3942 . ? cid fri geld bāis nobeth `though he were at the point of death.' Mon. Tall. § 48 (see gell). re húair nfaicsiona at the time of looking RC xxix 128.13 . fri huair tacrai do ghníma, Ériu ii 228.7 .

(e) in follg. exx. perhaps used for ria before: na buidne ... robatar fria Crist...rofhogain don Choimdid fria tuidecht soscela (= turbae quae praecedebant ... ante evangelium) PH 4573 . dorad som a cuibidil fria mbass made his confession before death RC xviii 53.19 . Cf. co ro muid fri maccu Israel, LB 122b47 = re, YBL 293b40 (corresp. to mebaid remib SR 4765 ).

(f) In later lang., 3 s. ris occurs as adv. bare, exposed, uncovered : mar do leig ris a n-aoinfheacht 'how it left [her] uncovered at once' Duan. F. ii 332 § 9 , Éigse ix 228 . do theilg Ercuill a bhrat de ┐ ro leig a lorg ┐ in croicenn leomainn ro buí re cnes ris, ITS xxxviii 997 (Stair Ercuil) . chonarcadar a ccroicinn go coirtighthi buídhe ris, Smaointe B. Chr. 150 . ó bhí mo chroiceann-sa nochtuighthe síos reis, 160 . cia d’innis doit-se a bheith nochtuighthe síos reis (leis, v.l.), 161 . See also la VI (d), léicid.

X In regular or occasional construction with many verbs (and nouns of cognate meaning with them), e.g., those of speaking, addressing, boasting, complaining, asking, thanking ; meeting, touching, striking, rubbing, grinding ; listening ; waiting, expecting ; entrusting ; co-operating, associating, helping ; visiting ; resembling, comparing, differing ; parting, severing (from) ; doing (something to), acting (towards), giving, distributing, apportioning ; requiting, paying, selling ; refusing, rejecting, denying ; hindering, restricting, opposing, combating, etc. See especially : ad-cosnai, ad-gair, ad-teich, ad-tluichethar (attlugud), aigid, 1 anaid, ar-báigi, as-beir, benaid, beirid, 1 caithid, canaid, 1 cingid, comalnaithir, 1 con-clich, con-delca, con-gní, con-ricc, con-sní, con-túaisi, crenaid, dálaid, dlomaid, do-beir, do-gní, do-icc, do-rogaib, do-slí (tuillem buide fri), do-sluindi (diúltad), do-tét, dúnaid, 2 erbaid, fáiltigid(ir), feraid, fo-gella (2 fuiglid), fo-rig, fris-oirg, fris-tairissethar, fris-taít, gaibid (fris-gaib), gellaid, íadaid, 1 íccaid, imm-beir, imm-fogni, imm-fresna, in-samlathar, in-túaisi (éistid), labraithir (labraid), laigid, 1 ligid, lingid, 1 luigid, meilid (con-meil), naiscid, ráidid (ol, ar), rannaid, renaid, saethraigidir, scaraid (and compds.), soïd (do-soí), 1 téit, tongaid.

2 ? gabal

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 ? gabal or dil.ie/25033

n tribute, tax ? (A.S. gafol, `rent tax, due'). ro boí rodgabáil ┐ salanngabal for Árainn, Anecd. iii 60.24 . a lethgabol étaig do brutt no da léinid no inur `half of clothes for mantle or for shirt or for tunic,' Ériu i, 220 § 14 and 224 note ( H 3.17, c. 854 ). leth-ghabhul diabalta d'íc ris (for example, in the relation between a `flaith' and a `céile' if the fief consisted of stolen property and if the `flaith' knew, but the `céile' did not know, the latter is entitled to separate, and the `leth-gabul d.' is to be paid to him in addition to `eneclann,' apparently a specific fine), O'D. 2262 ( Rawl. B 506 f. 21c ). See also Laws Gl. s.v. leth . May be cpd. of gabál, q.v. sét gabla, a minor chattel, MacNeill, Law of status 275, n. 3 . A sét of the lowest value, contrasted with the normal sét (= a samaisc) and the highest (clithar-sét = a milch cow or a ploughing ox). aen set gabla diri fochlaccain, Laws v 58.16 . Defined : sēt gabla ... is e as laigheam and .i. dartait firend ┐ colpac[h] bonend, nō colpach firend ┐ dartaid boinend, Corm. Y 209 (s.v. clithar sēt). cach tris sēt sét gabla, samaisc alaili, lulgach nō dam timchill arathair araile (i.e. the three séts in rising gradations, of which the highest is the `clithar-sét' or `king's sét'), ib. Same definition, Ir. Recht (Dīre) § 6 . Cf., however, set gabla .i. samusc ┐ colpthach firenn no cetloegh ┐ colpach boinen, O'Curry 506 ( H 3.18, p. 257 ). brosna do setaib gabla, Laws i 478.25 Comm. Cf. cuic seoit ..., acht it seoit gabla, Laws iv 144.32 Comm. Often gl. in Comm. by gablaigid, q.v. Cf. v 58.16 , 18 ; 388.4 , 14 ; O'Curry 618 ( H 3.18, p. 299 ) ; O'Curry 1454 ( H 3.18, 658a ). gabhla flatha forbach .i. ate forbuain gablaighthear don fhlaith sech gach duine is isle inás levy-shares are the taxes of a lord, O'Curry 1623 - 4 ( 23 Q 6, p. 7b ). O'Gr. Cat. 81.6. The earlier examples here may be attributed to gabál and the remainder to gabul, so that the word is doubtful.

in-coisig

Cite this: eDIL s.v. in-coisig or dil.ie/28297

Forms: incoisce, incosaig, inchoissig, inchosaich, inchoisig, inchoisget, inchoisged, inchoisc, incoisc, incoisce, in- coississed, inchoissised, in-coisis, inchoisc, incoissegar, inchoisechar, incoisgedar, inchoisciter, inchoisecht, inrochosecht, incoiscthi, inchoiscid, incoiscid, inchoiscidh, -edh, ioncoisg, incoiscithur, hincoiscedh

v (in(d)-com-sech) indic. pres. s. 2 incoisce, Laws iv 108. 1 Comm. 3 incosaig, Sg. 208a9 . inchoissig (rel.), Ml. 59a7 . inchosaich, TBC-I¹ 623. ní inchoisig , Sg. 9a16 . pl. 3 ní inchoisget , Sg. 202b3 . impf. s 3 inchoisged, 9a16 . ipv. s. 2 inchoisc, Trip.² 1140. incoisc, LU 4864. subj. pres. s. 3 ? incoisce, Laws iv 144.1 Comm. subj. past. s. 3 in- coississed, Ml. 24c22 . rel. inchoissised, Wb. 2c7 . Ml. 56a13 . fut. s. 2 in-coisis, Bürgschaft 28 § 76b . pret. s. 3 ro inchoisc , Trip.² 1186. Pass. pres. s. incoissegar, Ml. 127d14 . inchoisechar, Sg. 198a3 . pl. incoisgedar, 29a2 . inchoisciter, PH 3066. pret. s. inchoisecht, Ml. 16c10 . inrochosecht, Ériu iii 142.233 . Part. pl. incoiscthi, Ml. 49a7 . Later declined as an i- verb, inchoiscid: indic. pres. s. 3 incoiscid, LB 251a3 . subj. past s. 3 co ro inchoiscidh (leg. -edh), RC xlvi 228.9 . pret. s. 3 ro ioncoisg , Leb. Gab.(i) 10.15 . Pass. indic. pres. s. incoiscithur, Laws ii 154.5 Comm. pret. s. ro hincoiscedh , TTebe 3589 .

(a) signifies, indicates, points out: conrobad inna chorp ní inchoissised tóbe uitiorum `so that there might be in his body something to signify ...,' Wb. 2c7 . a cétna n-etargnae inchoisechar per ille `the first cognition which is signified,' Sg. 198a3 . áram inchosaig dede `the number that signifies a pair of things,' 71a2 . suin do ṡlund ind úildetad inchoisget, 45b1 . dind intliucht inchoisget, 53a10 . incoissegar deacht ┐ doinacht críst tris in loc inna aisndísen, Ml. 127d14 . son inchoissised longud, 56a13 . is ed inchosaig a frecndarcus `it is that which indicates His presence,' 116d3 . atcoisged amal bid hi frecndairc nobeth `he used to point out him as though he were present,' 24c15 . is tremfeidligud suthin inchosig permaneo non sic maneo, 21d4 . ro inchoisc Pátraic dó altóir chlochtha ... fo talmain `indicavit,' Trip.² 1042. ro inchoisc Pátraic dóib cosmailius in luicc cona méur ó chill Garat, 1186 . incoiscsiu damsa ced leth atá Emain, LU 4864. crích íncoisce ail adrada `a district which a stone of worship marks,' Laws iv 142.16 Comm. crich insin nad incoiscet nach comarda ┐ nad cuindrighther senchaide, O'Curry 33 ( H 3.18, p. 13 ). gillfai ┐ in-coisis `dass du Unterpfand stellen und anzeigen (aussagen) wirst,' Bürgschaft 28 § 76b . is ed inchoisciter dúin-ne triasin ernaigti thrédai do-roine Ísu ..., PH 3066. conadh ime rofaid Dia an lucaist co ro inchoiscidh (leg. -edh) do ... that he might show him, RC xlvi 228.9 . ised inchoisces qāil ind ḟocail as locusta .i. loco sta , ZCP xii 370.12 . issed inrochosecht tre sodain (sic leg., Ed.) sladi muintire Coirpri what was signified was, Ériu iii 142.233 .

(b) teaches: incoiscithur do marcuighecht `he is taught horsemanship,' Laws ii 154.5 Comm. is amne íncoisce doib scor ann `thou instructest them', iv 108.1 Comm. as eadh ro ioncoisg-side doib, long do dhenamh, Leb. Gab.(i) 10.15 . cia ro incoisc dhuit sin olse mo druidh ol in righ who thus instructed you?, BB 210b30 .

molad

Cite this: eDIL s.v. molad or dil.ie/32490
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: molad, molath, molto, molta, moltai, mmoltu, molthu, molta, moltae

n u, m., vn. of molaid. n s. in molad , Wb. 8d22 . molath, Sg. 59b4 . g s. in molto , Ml. 126b18 . molta, 145c2 . n p. moltai, 115 b 4 . a p. tris na mmoltu , 115b2 . molthu (.i. molada T, .i. molta F), Hy. vi 17. LL 132b14 . g p. inna moltae , Ml. 122b9 .

(a) the act of praising; praise: gl. laudare, Ml. 53b13 , Sg. 59b4 ; psallere, Ml. 24a3 . moladh, gl. adulatio, Ir. Gl. 902. in m.¤ doínde human praise, Wb. 8d22 . m.¤ Dǽ, Ml. 24a4 . m.¤ Pátric, Fél. Nov. 27. fer certa fri m.¤ ┐ aír, Laws i 18.8 . dúan molta, LU 327. ind m.¤ ┐ ind nemeli no ferfad frisind rig, Mon. Tall. § 1. Cet mac Matach ria molod | ro la in cloich for Conchobar to win praise (?), LL 48b20 . bás meic Loeguire Lugdach | cen moltho thall na sund de | de forchu thrum thentide winning thereby praises neither in the world to come nor this world (?), 132b14 = gan molbhtha, AFM i 164.4 . íodhbhartha an mholta, Psalms cxvi 17. molta Dé the praises of God, TSh. 10264.

(b) a song of praise; a panegyric: gl. hymnus, Ml. 55b14 , 83b9 ; psalmus, 122b9 ; carmen, 115b4 . asbert Sechnall fri Pátraic: Ciachiuin dogen-sa molud duitsi?, Trip. 242.14 . ro fiarfaigh cach do Dallan . . . an raibe moladh aicce do C.C., BCC § 336. gonadh `amhra' ainm an molta, ib. doroine [David] tri coícait molta do Dia, PH 1092. canfa mé molta, 2 Samuel xxii 50.

(c) approbation, approval; decision, fiat (late): m.¤ druadh, Irish Texts ii 66 § 25. do mholadh hÍ Neill according to the decision of, ALC ii 242.26 . molumh [= moladh] Taidg I Ceallaigh ` adjudication ', Hy Maine 161.23 . This is possibly the orig. sense of the phrase: do m.¤ na hEclaise (= fortified by the rites of the Church): do lesaidh C.C. Becc do m.¤ na heclaisi, BCC § 129 (128.5) , cf. p. 106.22 . fuair bas do moladh De ┐ na heguilsi, Fl. Earls 238.24 .

(d) gramm. an adjective: ar mholadh ┐ ar fhocal, IGT Introd. § 19. re hucht . . . molta ┐ bfocuil, § 16.

tinnrem

Cite this: eDIL s.v. tinnrem or dil.ie/40901
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: tinnram

n ā, f. vn. of *do-indrimi. Also tinnram; cf. ZCP x 323 .

I

(a) act of performing, carrying out: tris in tindrim gl. per exsecutionem, Ml. 33d13 . comram Echdach mic Darfind, fil a thindrem issin glind, ZCP iii 43 § 16 . ised ro canadh int én sin o madain co medon laí .i. tinnramh an betha re n-innsin ┐ re tuismeadh na ndul, KMMisc. 316.5 . teora cinel ind duinebath indso di thindrem, Flower Cat. 492 § 71 . tinrumh uile thoisci ┐ timthirthecht an tighi, Fl. Earls 182.16 .

(b) undertaking, beginning: tinnremh .i. tinnsgital, O'Dav. 1602. et is e sin tindrem genemna U., TTebe 4808 .

(c) behaviour: in corugud no in tinrum tucsat forro, Acall. 6088 . cindus ata do thinnramh, Flower Cat. 481.33 .

(d) course, voyage; adventure, story: cat in stiurad nó in tinrum doberisi?, Acall. 5279 . ... co h-Erinn na h-aine | ro toghsat a tindremh | gobhsat inber Slaine, Todd Nenn. 134.67 . tuargaibset a tindrem | sund a n-inbeir Bonni, 146.155 . tinnriumu (tinnruma, v.l.) na laechraide, CCath. 4309 . indisfet mo thindram det-siu, MacCongl. 105.18 . tindrum .i. sgél, ut est; tindrum mac Miled dochum n-Erenn, 197 s.v.

(e) course (of action) : cinnus atá do thinnrem…? 'what is your course of action…?' Ériu lviii 8 § 1 . tinnriomh .i. criochnugadh, O'Cl. do reir rechta na toicten ata tinnremh in cinedha daenna, CCath. 4071 . do innisin do tinnriuma duit, 4283 .

II service, attendance: tindrem, cancelled gloss on siren, Sg. 63b17 , which perhaps the scribe at first mistook for servitium (Plummer MS. notes). buadaig muintir Dareraca ri tinrem, Fél. 68.18 . selfaid fri tindrem tromsluag, SR 5230 . ninanais fri tindremm tinn, 5999 . fria tindrem, fria timthirecht, 6280 . o ro indis forru a tuirtechta ┐ a tindrium ṅdíles, Three Hom. 116.z . Badb is Macha ... Mōrrígān ... tindrema ind āga amnais | ingena ána Ernmais `Dienerinnen harten Kampfes,' ZCP xiv 176.8 . cath Feä feib tindrem, xii 436 § 10 .

? sceoo dalaib tindrime, ZCP viii 103.22 . ? admestar hūir asa tindremaib hi torath tecail, xi 95 § 43 .

1 tiug

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 tiug or dil.ie/40991

Forms: thioghleachta

adj. occurring only in compds. with nouns or adjj. last : tiugh .i. deireadh, no deigheanach, amhail atá tiugh-laithe ... .i. laithe deigheanach ┐ tiughchodladh .i. codladh deigheanach, O'Cl.

¤ail latter end ? (? leg. tiugdáil) : tig .i. gach forcend, ut dicitur ; tighail (.i. crich dédenach) tairic in bo féich, O'Mulc. 862 . ¤anál last utterance ? : hirt bás, amail rongab isin tiganail Morainn maic Maein `dath don dich irt,' Corm. Y 37 . isin tris tiganail Morainn maic Múin, 1197 . ¤báig final contention : ni raib mo chend, a Chríst cháid | trell fo thríst is fo thiugbáig, Metr. Dinds. iii 398.34 . ¤breth last command : rotócbad tor, ba tiug-breth, Metr. Dinds. iii 410.22 . ¤chelebrad last farewell : rogab siabrad do delbad | is dirsan in tiughcelebrath, Fianaig. 36.17 = rogab súainiud do delbad | bá dirsan in tigcelebrad, RC xiii 465 § 70 . ¤chotlud last sleep : ni hingnad cidh tiughchotlud, Lism. L. 402 = ni hingnadh lind cia mad tiugchotlud, Anecd. iii 40.27 . ¤dál last tryst, death : co a tigdāil batar lūait[h], Fianaig. 10 § 10 . tabair a rig-cleirech cáid | bec nach tanic do thiug-dail, YBL 315b56 . ma's a n-Erind mo tiughdhál, BCC 286.19 . im chrodh a chille iar na chrádh | is dé tháinig a thiughdhál, Content. vi 248 . gan tuisledh gan tiughdhail, Hugh Roe 150.28 . ¤ḟlaith last prince : Dair ... ba tigflaith Pers, Rawl. 74a8 . i torchair Fergus Foga tiugfhlaith Ulad, LL 21a3 . Eochaidh mac Erc ... tiughfhlaith Fher mBolg, Geneal. Tracts i 55.10 . ¤ḟlaitheas end of rule : de thanic a thiugfhlaitheas, Lec. 272va48 . and tainic a thiughfhlaithus, BB 22b55 . ¤laige last resting place : hi Cabraid a chomnaide | i talmain a thiglaige (: inmaine), Metr. Dinds. iv 320.10 . ¤laithe last day of life : faichill tiuglaithi, ACL iii 311.y . tangadur a tíulaithe, BNnÉ 186.36 . gabais serg galuir [e] co táinic a thiughlaithe, Maund. 117 . acht namá na cumhaing neach tiomghabhail écca cecib tan dusficc tiughlaithe neich, AFM vi 2184.20 . ¤lecht grave, tomb ; death : co fuil ōs mōin a tiughlecht, Fianaig. 66.z . na tair chucum dar fircert | is limsa atá do thiglecht, TBC-LL¹ 3492 . is eicen do neoch a thecht | cosin fót forsa mbí a thiglecht, 3666 . romerad immut cen acht | fogéba sund a thiglecht, TFerbe 538 . a ingen, ro scáich mo nert | súail nach táinic mo tiuglecht, RC xxiii 410.13 . In pl. : a ccath mór Muighi hEalta | tángadar do thioghleachta , Goedheer, Sources of Battle of Clontarf, 45 § 1 . ¤mire final madness ? : ní gó taithme tiug-mire (acht tigmire v.l.), Metr. Dinds. ii 66.4 . ¤rand last stanza : tiugrand Aedha Aldain so, AU i 202.14 . tiughraind Bhécáin ... do Cholum Cille, ZCP viii 197.1 . ¤ṡuí last sage : tiugsūi tīre trī Finn Flann (: midsūi), ACL iii 308 § 31 . tigthine, see tiuglomrad. ¤thol last wish : iar mbeith sund saob a thiugthol | taistel Milcon mic Oncon, Auraic. 5296.

See also the permanent compds. tiugba, tiugbás, tiuglomrad, tiugmaine, tiugnáir, tiugrad, tiugradus.

1 tre

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 tre or dil.ie/41608
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: tri, tre, tri, tre, tré, trí, -i, thr, thrempi, tria, trie, tríd, tríd, trit, trit, tres, tre, tres, tresin, tresind, tresan, trésan, trisin, trissin, triasin, triasand, triasan, tresa, tressa, tres, trisa, trissa, triasa, tresna, trésna, trisna, triasna, trium, tríom, triut, triut, trit-su, treot, treót, thréodsa, thriodsa, tríod, triit, tríit, tríit, triitt, trit, tríd, th-, thrít, thríd, tree, trée, treæ, trea, tre(i)the, -i, trithe, trithi, tríthe, th—, thríthi, thríthe, triunni, tríonn, trín-ne, th-, thrínn, thrín, triib, triuib, tribh, treu, tréu, treo, tréu, tréo, treothu, treotho, treotha, tretho, tretha, trithu, tritha, tríotha, thríotha, trithibh, treamhum, tréamham, treamham, tremut, tromud, tromhat, tre(i)m(h)it, -d, treimheit, treimhid, trempi, troimpi, thrempi, trempu, treampa, treampa, treompo, trompa, triomhtha, tríom, tromham, treamham, tríod, tríot, tromhad, treamhad, tromhat, treamhat, tríd, troimhe, treimhe, tríotha, trithe, troimpe, treimpe, troimhid, treimhid, troimhit, treimhit, trínn, tromhuinn, treamhuinn, tríbh, tromhuibh, treamhaibh, tríotha, trompa, treampa, trem, trim, triam, trit, triat, tret, tred, trét, tria, tría, triánn, trea, tr, thre, tré, triana, trena, trina, tréna, treimhid, trīd, triar, trear, tre, trénar, tri, tri, tre, tre, tre, trialaile, trinaroile, trenaroili, trít, tremi-, tris-, tre-

prep. with acc. (later also with dat. Cf. tri suidib, Ml. 56b15 ), leniting (see GOI § 856 ). Apart from Ml, tre is the commoner form in the O. Ir. Glosses. tri, however, is frequent in Wb, and is the usual form in Ml (tre, Ml. 16a25 , 96a6 ). It is also found (much less commonly than tre) in Sg. (27a2 , 188a8 , 189b2 , 195b1 , 197b4 , 201b3 , 213b8 ). tré is written with length-mark at Sg. 159a1 , and frequently in the later language. trí (with length-mark) occurs at Wb. 12c34 , Tur. 103 , Acr. 11c5 , Ml. 2d5 , 14c16 , 22b1 , 30a9 , etc. The form in -i is infrequent after the Old Irish period ( tri, Sc.M² 5 , Rosa Angl. 196.23 , ZCP vi 63.12 , 70.8 ). With lenition of t- thr, LU 10606 (cf. thrempi, PH 268 , and the Mod. Ir. forms with pron. suff. infra). The form tria is fairly common in all periods outside the O. Ir. Glosses: Thes. ii 300.9 , 331.4 , Hib. Min. 244 , Laws ii 374.12 , Mon. Tall. 154.4 , IT i 19.37 , PH 7431 , BDD² 1295 , Maund. 57 , and is the usual form in SR (168 , 1926 , 3128 ). trie, IT i 267.24 . The form with pron. suff. 3 s. tríd is used as simple prep. in Mod. Ir.: tríd fhear, IGT Introd. 19.5 , trit stól, 23 K 42, 404.19 , trit na scelaib-sin, ZCP vi 72.21 , most usually with article and possessives, see infra. Note also tres gach, DDána 66.1 ; cf. tre gach bhfear .l., tres gach bhfear .c., Bard. Synt. Tr. 3.6 .

With art.: sing. m. and f. tresin, Wb. 20d13 , 30a13 , Sg. 59b18 , 138a1 , 161b1 , 188a26 , 201a2 , BCr. 32a8 , 34c2 , TBFr. 238 , PH 8086 . tresind, Mon. Tall. 141.z . tresan, TBC-LL¹ p. 837 n. 5 , IGT Decl. ex. 1121 . trésan, TSh. 190 , Ó Héodhusa 46.1. trisin, Wb. 5b20 , 10b19 , 12d20 , Tur. 43 , 48 , 55 , 68 , Sg. 209b31 , Ml. 19b11 , 29b8 , 33d13 , 37a22 , etc. trissin, Wb. 12d39 . triasin, SR 7580 , Sc.M² 22.6 , PH 5137 . triasand láim, BDD² 1511 . triasan, ZCP viii 114 § 14 . neut. tresa, Sg. 32a8 , 197b2 . tressa, Wb. 32c20 , tresṅgné `by the species,' Sg. 73b1 . trisa, Wb. 13a10 , Ml. 20a6 , 30d19 , 37b7 . trissa, Wb. 4d33 , Ml. 15a13 , 37d16 , 42c23 , 54c15 , etc. triasa, BDD² 1435.

Note also trit an firt, BColm. 88.2 . tríd an sgéal, Dán Dé xxviii 31 . trit an talmain, Maund. 8.

Plur. tresna, Hib. Min. 445 , PH 4164 , Feis Tighe Chonáin 779 . trésna, Fél. Prol. 44 , TSh. 601 . trisna, Wb. 4a6 , Tur. 65 , Ml. 25b7 , 36c19 , 38d18 , etc. triasna, PH 4657 , BColm. 106.2 .

With pron. suff. 1 s. trium, Wb. 23b30 . tríom, DDána 3.16 . 2 s. triut, Ml. 44c11 , 88a16 , 17 , Sc.M² 9 (tréot, v.l.), Fél. Ep. 438 , IT i 70.14 , Ériu iii 137.55 . triut, LU 3255 . trit-su, PH 2664 . treot, RC xxvii 276.3 . treót, LU 8139 ( FB 10 ). thréodsa .i. thriodsa , O'Cl. tríod, TD 14.20 , DDána 110.47 . 3 s. m. and n. triit, Wb. 1d4 , 2b15 , 8d11 , Ml. 51b10 , Sg. 73b7 , 76b7 , Críth G. 549 , SR 172 , IT i 76.6 . tríit, Ml. 51d1 , Sg. 43a3 , 148b7 . tríit, TBC-LL¹ 1184 . triitt, BColm. 66.12 . trit, Wb. 27c2 , Mon. Tall. 156.10 , PH 7792 , Laws i 44.1 Comm. , Rosa Angl. 40.3 . tríd, DDána 32.35 , Content. vii 15 , TSh. 9831 . With lenited th-: thrít, TBC-LL¹ 3264 . thríd, Ériu ix 165 § 25 , TSh. 10785 . 3 s. f. tree, Wb. 2c4 , 5c17 . trée, Sg. 25b14 . treæ, Ml. 88b15 . trea (trethe, v.l.), BDD² 1231 . tre(i)the, -i, Sc.M² 1 , ZCP viii 104.18 , TBC-LL¹ 1946 , Laws i 144.2 Comm. , 24 P 8, 196.y (IGT), tréthi, PH 2385 . trithe, Fél.² lxxvii 29 , Maund. 80 . trithi, Stair Erc. 2493 . tríthe, TBC-LL¹ p. 651 n. 5 , DDána 54.28 . TD 10.25 (condemned in IGT, see citation below). With lenited th—: thríthi, TD 13.8 . thríthe, IGT Decl. ex. 1065 . 1 pl. triunni, Wb. 14c16 , Ml. 129d20 . tríonn, Dán Dé x 9 , DDána 40.17 . trín-ne, 40.28 . With lenited th-: thrínn, Dán Dé xxvii 32 . thrín, Studies 1921, 589 § 7 . 2 pl. triib, Wb. 3b22 . triuib, TTr.² 1766 . tribh, DDána 30.15 , TD 14.37 . 3 pl. treu, Wb. 28c18 , 30c13 , Ml. 42b13 , 42c11 . tréu, 42d2 . treo, Sg. 4b4 , 138a4 , Críth G. 540 , BDD² 1278 (treu, tréu, v.ll.). tréo, TBC-LL¹ 3448 . treothu, SR 327 , 4311 , PH 1216 . treotho, AU i 578.7 . treotha, Laws i 44.10 Comm. tretho, iii 362.22 . tretha, Ériu xii 190.y . trithu, PH 4637 , MR 194.15 . tritha, Marco P. 145 . tríotha, TSh. 8342 . thríotha, A IV 3, 771.x . trithibh, BNnÉ 324.6 .

In Mid. and Mod. Ir. also with infixed -m-, and -o- instead of -e- (infl. of ré n-): 1 s. treamhum, DDána 39.23 . tréamham (: dhéanamh), Ó Bruad. iii 22.5 . treamham .i. thriom, O'Cl. 2 s. tremut, PH 2424 . tromud, YBL 149b7 . tromhat, SG 69.34 . 3 s. m. tre(i)m(h)it, -d, PH 2645 , BColm. 78.23 , Laws v 172.z Comm. , DDána 101.8 (: dtig), AFM iii 128.x , CCath. 3944 . treimheit (: dheit), Content. ix 7 . treimhid .i. trid, O'Cl. 3 s. f. trempi, TTebe 3287 , MR 202.1 . troimpi, IGT Decl. ex. 1124 (treimpi, v.l.). With lenition thrempi, PH 268 . 3 pl. trempu, PH 8155 . treampa, Hugh Roe 94.18 . treampa .i. triotha, O'Cl. treompo, TTebe 1909 . trompa, 24 P 8, 196.y (IGT), Leb. Gab.(i) 104.16 , Lism. L. 4609 . triomhtha, Ó Bruad. ii 190.10 .

The following forms are given for syllabic verse in Bard. Synt. Tr. 7.21 : tríom, tromham, treamham; tríod, tríot tromhad, treamhad, tromhat, treamhat; tríd, troimhe, treimhe; tríotha, l. a ghearradh, trithe, l. a shíneadh, troimpe, treimpe; troimhid, treimhid, troimhit, treimhit ...; trínn, tromhuinn, treamhuinn; tríbh, tromhuibh, treamhaibh; tríotha, trompa, treampa.

With poss. adj.: 1 s. trem, Wb. 17b33 , 23b23 , 30a25 , TBC-LL¹ 3132 , TD 39.2 . trim, Ml. 44b29 , 89a2 , 127a3 . triam, RC vi 176.59 . 2 s. trit, Ml. 62d4 , 87a9 . triat, SR 1484 , 1727 , TBC-I¹ 2811 . tret, Sc.M² 11 (triat, v.l.), DDána 101.8 . tred, TBC-LL¹ p. 617 n. 10 , DDána 56.9 . trét, PH 2599 . 3 s. and pl. tria, Wb. 1b5 , Ml. 37b23 , Sg. 211b5 , Críth G. 214 ; f. Wb. 10a3 ; pl. Wb. 8a14 , Ml. 28d15 , Sg. 3a11 . tría, Ml. 30c5 . triánn drochgnímu, 84c14 . trea, Wb. 29d29 , 33c7 , Hib. Min. 214 ; f. TBFr. 234 (treda, MS.); pl. Wb. 19a12 , 29a7 , Fél. Jan. 4 (tria, v.l.). tr, TTebe 1017 . thre, Ériu i 28.193 . tré a, TSh. 472 . triana, SR 5201 , BDD² 1164 ; f. IT i 125.24 . trena, LU 3292 ; f. DDána 16.6 ; pl. PH. 7056 . trina, Maund. 44 ; pl. TBC-LL¹ 3616 . tréna, TSh. 8343 ; f. Dán Dé xxv 49 ; pl. Studies 1924, 242 § 11 . treimhid a tromaibh, TBC-LL¹ p. 315 n. 2 . trīd a (sic MS.), Feis Tighe Chonáin 1705 , O'Cl. s.v. tré. 1 pl. triar , Ml. 83c11 , 100d14 . trear, Wb. 26a27 . tre ar, DDána 10.5 . trénar, Dán Dé xxv 18 . 2 pl. tri bar, Wb. 9d24 . tri far, Ml. 115b8 . tre bar, Wb. 14c17 , 27a1 . tre far, 23d16 . tre bhar, DDána 95.22 .

With aile: trialaile, Wb. 10a4 . trinaroile, Stair Erc. 2156 . trenaroili, 809 .

With rel.: trisa mbí, Wb. 3d21 . trissa nétatsat, Ml. 57a3 . trisnansoirthae, 124a8 . trisá netar, 126b19 . trisin-damrobae, 126d11 . tresa mbí, Wb. 23b5 . tresindippiat, tresindabia, 25d8 . tressa naithnuigther, Thes. ii 253.12 . tresambed, Mon. Tall. 164.7 . tres-in iumfhoilngither, PH 6250 . trias-a roichet, 5904 . triasradībdad, Cáin Ad. 21 . tríasa n-agailledar, RC xiii 269.13 . tre' tig, PH 7792 . tré dtuillmid, Donlevy 152.12 . tre a bhfuil, DDána 107.6 . tre ar fhás, 10.17 . tré nach faghar, Content. xvi 85 . trina tic, ZCP vi 272 § 11 . trinar marbh se, 279.2 . tríd nar bh'oircheas, DDána 46.1 . thríd nach fuighinn, 25a.4 . tremit ar harced, Ann. Conn. 1236.12 .

I In local senses.

(a) through . Of countries, territories, etc.: dia luid duaid ... tri glenn iosofád, Ml. 58c4 . rethid ... tré airechtu athluma, | tre buidnib ban ..., | tre cholltib, tre chathracha (of the writer's thoughts), Ériu iii 14 § 3 . do hionnarbadh inn | tre Chlár ... bhFéilim, TD 15.9 . along roads, across bridges, fords, etc.: trisna cemmen i nandais beus gl. hii psalmi graduum dicuntur qua in ascensu Templi canebantur per ea interualla ... `through the steps on which they continued to halt,' Ml. 133b4 . trisna foirthiu ailitherdi gl. peregrina per marmora `through the foreign fords (?),' Tur. 65 . ni bhaoi conair ... act trésan droichet, Hugh Roe 94.18 . triall ... tré bhealach bhriste na cána, TSh. 2589 . Of apertures, doors, etc.: ol in spiurt noib tri giun in fatho, Ml. 74d13 . do aircechain tria ginu na fer fireon, Laws i 16.6 . cethri drolaim ... | asind airc ... | dá drol treothu, SR 4311 . bid indtechta tria críathar n-átha bar ṁbrúar, BDD² 1295 . tria tholl na comla, ACL iii 308 vi 20 . nos tairnged tria ladraib a choss, TBC-LL¹ 1408 . trit in dorus sin, ZCP vi 284.32 . through the midst of a crowd of people, army, etc.: acht mad treo docoí `except he have gone through them (the enemy)' (note), Críth G. 540 . culu tria neit ... .i. amal teit carpat ... tria chath, ACC 2 . dolen Sir Heront trit in cath e, ZCP vi 69.22 . dol trempa gan airisiumh, AFM vi 2162.x . Of buildings: cóic shéoit i ndul tria thech tria lías, Críth G. 214 . ragaid ... tria choimtig inn rígthaigi (a sword), BDD² 1248 . secht sligeda trethe (of a bruden), Sc.M² 1 . Of garments, shields, etc.: co tregda in fer tria scíath, Críth G. 555 . atconnairc Cu Chulaind ... a gualaind tresin cochull, LU 3788 . ro gonadhsan cach tairsí ┐ treithi ┐ séici (bricht comga), TBC-LL¹ p. 359 n. 7 . Of the body or parts of the body: ? rog[lan]ad són tria deis gl. arcton [dextra tenet] (simile of the four parts of the Cross and the four cardinal points), Tur. 142 . bróenán fola ... | tria thóebán, Fél. Ep. 352 . triam taebh, RC vi 176.59 . triana chend, TBC-LL¹ 1268 . budh iomdha ... tre chneas ... | soighead, TD 16.66 . Of a surface, skin, the earth etc.: cach luib tricc ticc tria thalmain, SR 1926 . nocha bhí clúmh trés an gcreig | nach creid ... dhuid `there is no verdure on the rock but trusts ...,' Dán Dé xxix 26 . Cf. co faisctis a drucht ┐ a uanfadh tremit so that its dew and foam were squeezed from it (of the moon), CCath. 3944.

Various: anadchither tri themel, Wb. 12c12 . ni forcmat óin chomsuidigud trea nuili aimsera `through all their tenses,' Sg. 157b9 . arbeittet bairtni bindi | tri laith linni ainm nAeda `melodious bardisms modulate through pools of liquor the name of Aed,' Thes. ii 295.17 . condelgdar tresna thri grad `it is compared through the three degrees,' Hib. Min. 445 . atracht iarom trena chotlud, LU 3292 , `he arose then out of his sleep,' SCC² 82 . ionmhuin taidhbhse táinig sonn | aréir trem chodladh chugom, TD 39.2 . íar ndul triit after it has leaked (of a cauldron), Críth G. 549 . comhradh leanb ar luaidheadh thrín `all that we uttered was childish talk' (lit. all that was mentioned among us), Studies 1921, 589 § 7 . re dul thríd in going through it (a book), Donlevy iv 11.

(b) Implying mixture, mingling, etc.: imchomarc co naithisib triit `a question with revilings through it,' Ml. 54c13 . snechta tria shín lūades gáeth `through a snowstorm,' Thes. ii 331.4 . fuair Dia ... | domblas aoi tre fhíon arsuidh, Aithd. D. 98.30 . fuaim a sruth ... | tre ghuth ainglidhe a healtan, TD 13.5 . an clúmh ┐ an luaith do chor tréna chéile, TSh. 174 . In phrases corresponding to the Mod. Ir. tré theine on fire: atā trē doiger derg-lasrach donn-ruaide (of a burning wood), ML² 958 . cáer theinntidhe dfaicsin tre lasadh ó mhullach an tighe, ITS xvi 8.28 . fuair a réghlés féin tré choirthir smáil teineadh ┐ tennáil, Ériu v 76.24 .

(c) Personal forms ref. to object of verbs of cutting : co treghdfad in tsleg trithi hī (a pig), Fianaig. 66.12 . gur comraind in imdaig ... trempi co talmain and cut clean through the couch, MR 202.1 . roscris in t-eideth ara druim ┐ rogerr in dilat aluind oraighi trithi cut through the saddle, ZCP vi 70.28 .

(d) 3 s. trít in adverbial phrases. t.¤ sís, anuas, siar throughout: ┐ a n-illradh tríd sís, IGT Decl. § 42.11 . greagh, cert lethan tríd sís as .c. aige, § 45. inann ghabaid [uile] tríd anúas (of nouns declined in same way), § 37 . a lán féinneadh feadh an tighe, | tríd siar `all through the house,' TD 11.17 . t.¤ amach absolutely, completely: aderim gurub é is lan and trit amach `absolute fulness,' Rosa Angl. 40.3 . Note also : ni triit tarsnu toimsideir not diametrically is it measured (the earth), SR 172.

(e) téit tre lit. goes through (of an attack, battle-charge): rachthair thairsiu is tréo, TBC-LL¹ 3448 . docuatarsom foithib ┐ tríthu ┐ tarrsa, D IV 2, 45ra44 . is trithu nach tiaghar, MR 194.15 . violates, breaks (an oath): arna te nech tria lugae, Ml. 36a23 . dul tria aitiri, Críth G. 306 . Cf. nach ccuirfeadh féin ... trīd a mhionnuibh é (sic leg.), Feis Tighe Chonáin 1705 . ? cid fín bárc do-téised treut (treu, treothu, v.ll.), BDD² 740 (see note).

II In temporal senses.

(a) tri rei ciana `for long times,' Ml. 90d14 . condib tria nuile ṁbethaid ón dano ┐ nib cuit ree `that it should be so through their whole life,' Tur. 71 . do toscelad áiss aescai ... tri bliadni incholnigtheo `through the years of the Incarnation,' Thes. ii 41.24 . isintt urtt chetna biae tre cach oena `(thou) shalt continue under the same rule through each fast,' Mon. Tall. 154.3 . tres-in sechtmain-sea throughout this week, PH 461.

(b) In adverbial phrase tre bithu, tre bith sír, etc., for ever, everlastingly: tre bithu, Fél. Mar. 31 . do gress doib, ... tria bithu coa airfitiud, SR 684 . tria bitho, Snedg. u. Mac R 12 § 52 . tria bitha sír, ZCP viii 108.17 . tre bhiotha síor, TD 15.18 . tria bith sir, PH 1938 . tre bhioth síor, TD 13.39 . tria bithu betha, TBC-LL¹ 2704 . tre saeghul na saegal, Ev.Inf. (LFF) 171 § 24 . tré shaoghal na saoghal in saecula saeculorum, TSh. 2052.

III Indicating the medium or attendant circumstances of a communication, action, etc. (in many of the follg. exx. the meaning approximates to that in tre IV infra).

(a) tri insci redi ... duadbat som ... `through speech ...,' Ml. 51c11 . dufornditer ... a ngnimae inna rig sin tri delba ban, 65c16 . tri throp ` figuratively ,' 65b14 . in moltai dogniín se tri bindius ┐ chlais, 136a8 . rosluinter ... tre rangabáil in persan hisin, Sg. 189b2 . doasilbthaer triit som gníim ... do neuch (of the word sui), 209a1 . in tre prois ... roceta int[ṡ]ailim, Hib. Min. 175 . titul do scribend ... tria litrib Ébra, PH 2877 . cennsa ... ┐ 'áilgeni tuicther tres-in snechta is understood by, 3386 . cōic anmand dēc tre blaid mbinn | fil d'anmanaib for Bōïnn, ZCP viii 106.1 . tuic let ... na Tiabanda taetencha i sidh in[a] cathrachaib ... trésna helaib understand by the swans ... the Thebans, TTebe 1233 . coic cetfada ... rotidhnaicedh o Dhia don cinedh doenna ... d'fegad De trompa, Lism. L. 4609 . nolabraidis na ceithri tre glor ndaenda with a human voice, CCath. 886 . adbeart ... trē bhogāssaigh urlapra ┐ trē dhānacht glōir ... go raghadh, Fl. Earls 50.3 . Note also: ata dedi ara scribhtar in tituil tria derg in red ink, Hib. Min. 241.

(b) Introducing the particular language of a communication: trí ilbélre gl. linguis loquens, Wb. 12c34 . co n-epistlib immdaib ... tria Goedeilg, IT i 19.37 . berla na filed, triasa n-agailledar cach dib a chele, RC xiii 269.13 . bennaighes tre n-a thengaid fein doib-sen, KMMisc. 317.12 .

(c) With abstract noun indicating the attendant circumstances of an action: isber Mói[d]ógc tria ocla móir `in great wrath,' BColm. 74.7 . do sloind tre medhair mhileis `told with sweet gladness,' Ériu iv 116.16 . roboi cinniud tria chombáig `a comrades' covènant,' RC iii 183.7 . adeirid cách liom tré rún | go bhfuil ..., TD 22.20 . "cuin do bhí againn t'éara" | cantar uainn tré aithmhéala, DDána 29.25 . do gluais fein tre mire ┐ tre mormenmain ... roime in anger and haughtiness, L. Chl. S. 4.1 . Cf. adeirim ris an saoghal cromadh trésan déirc to resort to almsgiving, TSh. 190.

(d) Introducing the authorisation of an action, the person or thing invoked, etc.: is tri ísu predchimse, Wb. 1d9 . guidmit-ne ... tu-sa ... tré-t miadamla, PH 2599 . soghuidhe an rí tres an rí tres an ríoghain, DDána 30.27 . do bheannaigh[ea]dur damh tresna déibh, Feis Tighe Chonáin 779.

IV Instrumental and causal. These two meanings merge into each other, and in O. Ir. particularly many exx. will bear either interpretation (cf. Fraser, ZCP viii 61 f. ).

(a) Instrum. through, by means of: condagaibtis int ais amprom tria nintleda `through their snares,' Ml. 31c6 . adchotadsam triar saithar, 92c5 . amal is trí accomol nildule conterissedar in domon sic imfolangar oínmolad do dia tri chocetal inna nule ṅdule, 145c4 . á híc tria fuil, Wb. 2b11 . ce rudglanta tri bathis, 4a6 . in tan dombeir in dea aithesc tre chomthoud talmaidech, Sg. 162a4 . tre airde ┐ firto, Thes. ii 253.4 . is tre trocuiri ... dotaegar hi cresiniu, Hib. Min. 356 . ro promtha tré martrai, Fél. June 27 . donrat fri saeth tria aslach, SR 1342 . niba hicc deitsiu tre Findio `thou shalt get no cure through Findio,' Mon. Tall. 154.15 . do sarughadh tria firta ┐ mirbaile `overcome by the great signs and miracles,' Laws i 14.19 . tri neim ... no-bíata co-ralta ár fer n-Ērenn impe (of a pig), Sc.M² 5 . cia ... nách greisfider im dénum maithiusa trias-na mírbulib-sea, PH 4657 . rob ingnadh le cāch a ceird | ... | triasa fa[g] badais crodh cain `whereby they won goodly treasure,' Ériu iv 174 § 9 . co findud slondud trit beos `he discovers the name by this means,' Laws i 44.1 Comm. braighde Ēirenn ... | gabhais tre rīghe is tre nert, ZCP viii 108.22 . foillsighthir do triana eochraib écsi ... E. do bith i sith B.L., IT i 129.22 . do fhionnfuinn thríd do threisi `I should learn thy strength by it,' Ériu ix 165 § 25 . dá raibhe ní sa mheasa ... dheallruigheas tréna ghné specie sui, TSh. 8343 . Cf. rohicait a crecha ris dona buaib tremi⃛ ar harced he in the matter of which he had been plundered, Ann. Conn. 1236.12 .

(b) Causal on account of, by reason of (frequent with follg. vn.): combad mou de la dia a serc tri epert dosom adruthreb side indib, Ml. 92c4 . amal dundechutar doinmecha dunni triar pecthu, 111c14 . is tria hiris rambái cach maith, Wb. 2c13 . is hed dotheít de tre ilar na ndáne i nilur na persan `through the multitude of the gifts in the multitude of the persons,' 22a11 . tre thesbaid naich baill dind deilb, Sg. 5a5 . cid tre étged rop othar, Críth G. 61 . tré chin drochmna, IT i 75.6 . co n-éigit na haingil co sérb ... tria mar dho-míllset na dáine in gáel glaine do-bí doib ríu, PH 7431 . tresna ceōlaib sein ar sein | do creit Grigair in Comdid, ZCP viii 114.18 . is treothu na mortlaidi (faults of a prince), ACL iii 315 § 36 . do chogadh tre chloinn nUisnigh `to avenge,' Aithd. D. 6.31 . tre bheith do shluagh flatha Fáil | re luadh gcatha, TD 4.37 . is glór tré dhlús dighe soin `they (i.e. words) are inspired by hard drinking,' Content. xxv 4 . ba cara do-sam cech oen dib trena athair ┐ tremit fein on his father's account and on his own, Ann. Conn. 1225.6 . adubairt go crochfadh a muinntir uili tre bas in dithrebaig, Maund. 128 . is í cúis uma dtáinig Partholón ... tré mar do mharbh sé a athair `because he had slain his father,' Keat. i 160.74 . na sagairt ghlacas leagáid ... tre ghuidhe orra in return for, on condition of , TSh. 4513 . tángadar teachta ó rígh Laighean ... do thairgsin séad ┐ maoine dhóibh ... ó Laighnibh tré thilleadh don Mhumain tar a n-ais `if they returned,' Keat. iii 3146 . In phrase trít sin therefore: as tridsin do impoatar Ulltaigh ... airsium, RC xviii 268.24 . tríd sin, Keat. ii 654 . treimit sin, Fen. 302.15 . tremit-side, Ann. Conn. 1284.2 . do-icc tre is brought about by, is due to: is triuib tháníc cech n-olc, TTr.² 1766 . na huilc-si do thecht trit, PH 7792 . nó go ndéanann mo chlí cionnta | ní fhéaghann sí a dtiocfa tríd, Dán Dé x 5 . is tromhat táinic lot ... mu ríghisea, SG 69.34 .

In compds. tremi-, tris- with vbs., tre- with nouns and adjj. (often as intensive prefix), see separate articles.

tregtaid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. tregtaid or dil.ie/41736

Forms: tris-gata, trisgataim, trecatim, trisnagatat, drisrogat, tregat, tregtad, tregtae

O. Ir. tris-gata, later treated as simple verb, see Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 301 , 536 , O'Rahilly, Ériu xiii 168 f. pierces, transfixes, wounds: trisgataim gl. foro, Sg. 54a1 . trecatim, Thes. ii 42.21 . trisnagatat gl. configere, Ml. 75b9 . drisrogat gl. confodit, 86a6 . is in deniu aibritid tresngata na huile dúile súas coricci riched `traverses quicker than a wink of the eye all the elements up to heaven,' Mon. Tall. 162.37 . is de ata tresgata .i. t.¤ mac dligedh .i. naidm, O'Curry 56 ( H 3.18, 20 ). is fodb trescada cách an instrument which pierces everyone (of a warrior), TBC-LL¹ 5290 . fer fororggaib forggab for a chomlonn co tregda in fer tria scíath, Críth G. 555 . ro-treaghdsat na piasta in dara choduil inichtaracha `pierced through one of the two lower hides,' RC xiv 54.17 . amal tregdas anmain duine fōebur trīa corp, is amlaid tregdas rinn na fergai in anmain, ZCP iii 26.27 . nostregtais conart chalma `a bold pack of hounds used to rend it,' Metr. Dinds. iii 304.19 . co ro thregda a chridi na chliab, TBC-LL¹ 2307 . ratregdastar mar thregdas fodb omnaid he has pierced thee as an axe pierces an oak, 3790 . rod threaghdadabh amail a treghdas rodhb omna, p. 881 n. 1 . nom thregtaifet benna na n-aigi, 1342 . co treghdfad in tsleg trithi hī, Fianaig. 66.12 . ro treaghd mo chorp an gháoth ghlan, BS 118.22 . co rotregdastair a craideada, TTebe 2782 . teidhm as tinne do threaghd mé, DDána 73.45 . beag thrá nár threaghd mo chroidhe, Measgra D. 50.9 . treaghdaidh mo chroidhe fearg do chur ort, Parrth. Anma 384.1 . gor' treigh lia a erball iád (brisidh, v.l.), Aisl. Tond. 109.18 .

Vn. tregat, tregtad, part. tregtae.

trés

Cite this: eDIL s.v. trés or dil.ie/41821
Last Revised: 2013

n ā, f. Abstr. of tréith. IGT Decl. § 38 (87.16) Abstr. Nouns 68 . weakness Celtica vi 62 . bag cen treis (: Dominationés), SR 667 . (: aisnéis), 7247 . co torchair in chéis chalad, | nirbo thréis in timscarad, Metr. Dinds. iii 438.19 . a maise taise tréise tibride, EIS 154 § 52 . Cf. ? trís .

2 tress

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 tress or dil.ie/41835
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: tris, triuss, tresi

num Perh. orig. o,ā (see Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 135 ), but usually undeclined. O. Ir. tris . d s m. triuss, Wb. 7c8 . g s f. imm iarmerge ... na tresi aidche, Thes. ii 311.29 . In some cases in O. Ir. may form compd. with follg. noun ( GOI § 395 ).

(a) third: int oéntu inna áeccalsa déde insin et hésom triuss `the unity of the church, that is two, and he himself as the third,' Wb. 7c8 . coll go n-uath an treas re [a] dtáebh 'lenited c is the third one along with them', Celtica xxvii 59 § 5 . is trí fer robói in tris diltud dosom, Tur. 103 . tris accuis, Ml. 118d16 . tris fer, Sg. 2a5 . tris litir immurgu hi tosuch syllabe `the third letter, therefore, in the beginning of the syllable', 20b3 . foxlidi tresdiil inso sís `these below are ablatives of the third declension,' 104b1 . mad eirr ind aithgin iar tres cinud `if he pay restitution after the third crime,' Laws ii 188.9 . in tres adaig dano luid Cu Chulaind isin sudi, LU 9082 ( FB 83 ). conúargabad dano Pól apstal cosin tres nem, LU 1954 ( FA 2 ). co dorus in tres nimi, LU 2100 ( FA 16 ). i cind in tres laithe, BDD² 1497 . iarsin t.¤ troscud, Mon. Tall. 157.12 . dorumalt Moisi ... | ann tresraind a aimsire, SR 3784 . conarraid in tresechlach comrád ḟorru, TBC-LL¹ 124 . is-in t.¤ uair ina óidche, PH 1490 . tres gné de randaigecht, IT iii 16.20 . .x. mili .xx. sa treas corughudh `thirty thousand in the third division,' Stair Erc. 1043 . caínim fan treas osnadh é, IGT Decl. ex. 1070 . an treas glún ó Chonn, TD 26.51 . ar shliocht an treas taoisigh, Keat. i 202.3 .

(b) one of three: is i trisfintiu in so confodlaiter fo chobdaili crich (`the third tribe-property'), Laws iv 164.13 . is triut atá in tres anim fil for mnáib Ulad, LU 3255 ( SCC 5 ). cosin tres mac imlesan na hoensúla, BDD² 641 . ro marbhsat in tres taisech is ferr do bí isin Roim `they had killed one of the three best captains' (the third best?), CCath. 1589 . tres ṅ-dírime na tána, TBC-LL¹ 2656 . atbert in tris clerech =unus ex illis dixit, Lat. Lives 67.16 . comad breth cach tres brīathar atberad `that one of every three words he might say should have the authority of a judgment,' BColm. 98.3 . in treas sét is ferr fuair Find, Acall. 20 . an t.¤ gaisgedach na Tiabanda `one of the three Theban heroes,' TTebe 4879 . muna fhuilnge ar meas do Mhuire | ní fhoighbhe an treas duine dhínn `unless He allow Mary to judge us, He will not get even one out of every three of us,' Dán Dé x 3.

(c) In compd. ord. numerals: ha tris timchel deacc thirteenth , Thes. ii 33.23 . in treas rann sesgat ind uile `sixty-third part of the whole,' Laws ii 370.22 Comm. ro ṡuidig in tres cuibrend x. cor ba mou he indás cech cúibrend, IT i 40.12 . Kl. enair for Mairt ┐ tresfichit fuirre `January 1 on a Tuesday, and the 23d (day of the moon) thereon,' RC xviii 194.9 .

Compds. ¤glórmar thrice-glorious: tri pearsanna treas-ghlórmhar na Trinoide, ZCP iv 428.20 v.l. ¤gonaid wounds a third time: gonais Eōgan, ┐ ath-ghonais ┐ tres-gonais Eōgan eiséin, ML² 1895.

tríar

Cite this: eDIL s.v. tríar or dil.ie/41892
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: tríur, tríallaidtríar, triúr, triur

n o, m. (trí + fer, GOI § 388 , but cf. Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 136 ). Originally disyllabic: Fél. Jan. 24 , Oct. 11 , etc. d s. tríur, later used as n s. (triúr). tríallaidtríar, IGT Decl. § 76 . triúr, § 96 .

(a) three persons, trio: tigerne trír gl. trium vir, Ir. Gl. 399 . foxla triar do cethrur, Laws ii 122.y . biathad trir, v 60.10 . nabad lia diis no thriur, Wb. 13a4 . ar is dochruth comirsire ndesse nó in tríir `unseemly is the barking (?) of two or three at the same time,' 6 . it ána a ndírmann | in tríir imradam, Fél. Oct. 11 . cona thriur dedblén, Jan. 24 . ind locáin ro gabtha | déssib ocus trírib, Prol. 210 . ní thudchatar in t.¤ ucut, LU 8971 ( FB 72 ). im chomuaill in trír chaurad, LU 8746 ( FB 56 ). don tríur láth ngaile, LU 8719 ( FB 54 ). can tris fer ... frisna triru, RC xi 450.11 . acht mad oen-triar do doeneib, SR 448 . fo deilb tríir, 2803 . is hé in triar irdaircc tri derbráthir, TBFr. 109 . triur ri cach n-amus, TBC-LL¹ 22 . is iat sin in cetna triar, PH 6412 . co mbia triur óigred oc fir husarachta, 7587 . triar talchar trenfher, TTebe 2880 . rothoit in triur-sa dib les, 2835 . tainic Calcus ┐ a thriar ban, Stair Erc. 1952 . triúr ar n-éag do aith-bheodhaigh, Dán Dé iv 25 . triúr mac do bhádar ag Brian, TD 21.20 . an triar easgcarad, TSh. 2127 . do thoisg an trír chéadna, 2141 . na trí trír-si this (band of) nine men, LBranach 2659 (see note).

Appositional dat. with poss. pron.: biit a triur do anmaim ind eiúin, Sg. 93a2 . comtis ainmmnidi a triur, 7b2 . lotar dó a triur churad co hEmain, LU 9033 ( FB 78 ). is hé ba sinser dóib a tríur, LU 9057 ( FB 81 ). Boind a ssídib a mmáthair a triur, TBFr. 111 . arusrainic-side a oinar a triur `alone he met them all three,' RC xi 450.6 . do-rónsabar bar triur me-si cúnntabartach, PH 1805 . Without poss.: a bíathad triur `he is entitled to refection for three' (Gloss.), Críth G. 166 . do éimdheadar ... triúr dol, TSh. 7512.

Of the Trinity: triar óen-fer, Lib. Hymn. 114.36 . buime trír is í na hóigh, A. Ó Dálaigh ii 6. aobhdha an triar a trí dhalta, DDána 9.2 . triur i n-aoncholainn amh-áin, 3 . go bhfuilid na dtriur ó'n tsíorruidheacht, Donlevy 24.21 .

In phrase tech an trír as kenning for Tara, later Ireland . Cf. do Themraig in trír, LU 9913 : braithim fós do tigh an trir, ZCP ii 335.7 . ag guaillnibh ríogh tighe an trír, 340.28 . 's mo chroidhe ronnta ar a rannaibh | bronnta ar chlannaibh Toighe an Trír, Hackett xliv 8.

(b) three things: comtis ainmmnidi a triur 'the three of them would be nominatives', Sg. 7b2 . is ē crand in rīg-Easa | ba hannsa lind don triaar, ZCP v 22 § 19 . an trīar-sa thuirmim-si, viii 215.18 . ro tirchanait in triar sin don cur-sa isin Roimh `those three things were then foretold in Rome,' CCath. 834 . conid sí sin in tres saobh-sanus Lethe Cuinn, ┐ is hi Cluain Eraird doronta a ttriur iad, BNnÉ 302 § 9 . gaibid Senchan tri hairchedail. nosgab Cummaine a triur `Cummaine repeats the three,' Ériu v 32.17 . iul agus aoibh is aithne | dhaoibh 'n-a dtriur ní tiobhairthe `those three gifts ... would not be thine,' Aithd. D. 37.11 .

Note also: ro marb sí triur mor do muintir Gargan, PH 7218 . Atkinson suggests =four, on analogy of mór-feiser; perh. merely famous trio .

tris

Cite this: eDIL s.v. tris or dil.ie/41952

x see 2 tress.

? trís

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ? trís or dil.ie/41953

ind cluinem uait cen tris, cen tlas | ind ḟís cinnas dotarfas, SR 3315 . Cf. tréis ? tríst ?

tris-gata

Cite this: eDIL s.v. tris-gata or dil.ie/41958

v see tregtaid.

trúaige

Cite this: eDIL s.v. trúaige or dil.ie/42089

Forms: tróg(a)e, trogai, thrógi

n , f. (trúag). O.Ir. tróg(a)e. IGT Abstr. Nouns 62.

I

(a) misery, wretchedness, affliction: in trogai gl. erumnam, Ml. 87b1 . meit inna trogae `misery,' 62d9 . du thormuch cecha trogae for alaili, 96b7 . aisndís dia throgai, 40b8 . flaithem nime lócharnaig | ardonroigse diar trógi, Thes. ii 303.4 . inna trogai roigthi `the protracted miseries,' Ml. 33b1 . etir na trogai gl. inter erumnas, 38d13 . dianaigthiu tris na trogi `caused to hasten through the miseries,' 91a13 . inna trogae gl. erumniarum, 44c29 . du dumugud ... inna trogae fodaimet ` miseries ,' 77d2 . honaib trogaib gl. aerumnis, 20a1 . indí nad ocmanatar ho throgaib, 54a12 . dia mbai i troga na daille (Tobit), SR 7390 . don-remat ... | dogrés ar cech trógi, Fél. Feb. 3 . i tróge ┐ i todérnam, LU 2110 ( FA 17 ). dí derbshiair. tlás ┐ t.¤ , Triads 133 . tosach trōige torrsige, Anecd. iii 16.17 . lor a truaidi da teaglach `heavy the sorrow of it for his house-hold,' Metr. Dinds. iii 364.z . conda timart athach gaithe ar troige ┐ lobrai `in misery and weakness,' Ériu xii 156.14 = thrógi, LU 10649 . mór an truaighe mar tá sibh-se, DDána 43.7 . ba mor a truaighe `great was his sorrow,' TTebe 4653 . dorindi iarla Aimistir truaigi ┐ tromgeran trit na scelaib sin lamentation , ZCP vi 72.21 . Of a person: léigim mé féin an truaidhe bhocht ar mo ghluinibh wretch , Mac Aingil 15.17 . As vn.: golgaire na n-anmand oc tróge ┐ oc neméle frisin Comdid (sic leg.), LU 2227 ( FA 30 ).

(b) thinness, leanness (of animals and human beings): teít ... cona muccaib caelaib leis, issifechtain ro siachtatar less ar throgi, IT iii 244.23 =ar a troige (`ihres traurigen Zustandes wegen'), 236.36 . cléirig ┐ mna ┐ mec .i. ni etait guin ar a truaige ┐ ar a tlaithe, Laws i 244.27 Comm. dororchair ... lupra ┐ truaigi ... for Connall, ZCP i 103.15 . doni gach fuacht urcoid do lucht na heitici ar son a truaighi, Rosa Angl. 102.5 . go n-airemthai lorcc a asna trian a édach ... ar truaidhe a cuirp, BCC 440.10 .

II Pity, compassion, sympathy: ? rom-sóerae ... | ar iffern co trógi (`with misery'), Fél. Ep. 482 . troíge do thinnius compassion for illness (?), LL 371c43 . dia ro troeta cen truáge, 156b25 = co t.¤ , Metr. Dinds. iii 314.11 . coi cen slemnu, cen trógi, cen airchisecht, PH 4328 . ar dia nime, ┐ ar buide, ┐ arm (sic leg. ?) troigi rib, Aen. 148 . do thruaighe dá tighearna from pity for, DDána 27a.24 . buille dá nach bia truaighe `stroke giving no quarter,' PBocht 3.1 . budh cúis truaighe ... | búithreadh na mbiasd ` piteous ,' TD 4.33 . ro eirig tróige ... mór ina cridib ic a ndecsain, CCath. 2852 . is truaighi lem ... an digal, TTebe 855 . aitchimit fort for dheirc ┐ troighi, Marco P. 25 . cuinghis for Abán ar déirc ┐ troighe furtacht fair, BNnÉ 10.1 . an té agá mbí truáighe don bhocht, Proverbs xix 17 . gabais truaighe an terlamh sin | fa mnaoi na tuirse truime, BNnÉ 199.33 . an tan do chunnaic sé an slúagh, do ghabh trúaighe ghér dhóibh hé, Matthew ix 36.

In phrase mo th.¤ alas ! pity !: mo thruaighe an t-adhbhar aitheisg, DDána 12.1 . mo truaigi mé féin im phectach, SG 39.19 . mo thruaidhe ! ticfaid goill go Clúaine, BCC 84.24 . mo thruaighe na trocha nach tuigid ..., TSh. 526 . Cf. a thruaighe, a dhuine, tuig ... gurab iomdha bliadhain bhíos duine i bpéin, 4375 , `the pity of it, alas,' Gloss. (leg. thruaigh ?).

tuirem

Cite this: eDIL s.v. tuirem or dil.ie/42381

Forms: tairem, turem, tuiream, tuirme, turma, tuirme, turaim, tuiredh, tuirimh

n ā, f. vn. of do-rími. Also o, m. in Mod. Ir., and occas. in Mid. Ir. Cf. a d s. tairem, Metr. Dinds. iii 94.7 . turem, LU 8416 ( FB 28 ). tuiream, Anecd. ii 7.10 . ? g s. tuirme, Metr. Dinds. i 22.123 , SG 75.3 = YBL 171b45 . ? n p. turma, Anecd. ii 70.5 . tuirme, Auraic. 940 . Note also: fri turaim (: Coinchulaind), ZCP iii 42.1 . tuiredh, Études Celt. i 78.13 , 85.1 . m., IGT Decl. § 101 . tuirimh f., § 150 .

(a) act of enumerating, recounting, telling, relating; number, account, list: ní ail a th.¤ (sic leg.) dúib `to recount it to you,' Wb. 24c7 . tris in tuirim gl. per exsecutionem, Ml. 33d13 . ri cen tuirim, cen aisnéis beyond computation, SR 324 . iar tuirim a fele `after reckoning their feasts,' Fél. Ep. 231 . manod-techtaid désheirc | cona tuirim téchti `with its due attribute (?),' 390 . a fhiru Muirid ... | do nach tuirim tailmire whose impetuosity cannot be computed (?), Metr. Dinds. ii 26.2 . is tuirim mesta cu mór | nuimir na slóg, LL 32a43 = is tuireamh mescdha go mor, BB 56a6 . as lia a thuiream na mar indistear, BB 20a19 . is de aisnedid .i. do turim cin forus fethem (sic leg., Plummer MS. notes), Laws i 292.z Comm. mall uile a thuiremh tresan Ebrai a n-aisniter ann `to recount through the Hebrew,' Ériu ii 104 § 15 . turma ine (ane, anni, v.ll.) cine[oi]l Eogain the reckonings of the wealth of Cinél E. (?), Anecd. ii 70.5 do beth ní dia chomrumuib gan turim some of his triumphs would be left unmentioned, ZCP viii 111.19 . oc in dreim atám tuiremh those of whom I am speaking, SG 349.7 . gan tuireamh a ghnímh, IGT Decl. ex. 1794 . níor fhéad riamh neach gus a-niogh | a leath ... do thuiriomh, DDána 23.21 . Íosa Chríosd led thuirimh tú Thou art called (?), Dán Dé xxvii 36 . ré a dtuirimh, TD 32.13 . ni horsa a thurium ina innisin ar marb B., Cog. 60.20 . nir furail aingel ... do turem a testa, MR 190.19 . In chevilles: turim gan tnucha, BB 33b55 . ? tuirme glonn `with numbers of deeds,' Auraic. 940.

Frequ. with comparatives: móo turim .i. quam potest homo eum narrare , Thes. ii 331.3 . moo turim ... an ro bói do sciathaib and, Ériu iv 28.12 . a ṅdorigni ... | is lia tuirim more than can be recounted, SR 7248 . bid lia turim a chath, IT i 98.2 . Occas. also with equative: at lir turim ... frassa na saiget, LU 2212 . as lir t.¤ a scel o sin amach, ML 166.5 .

(b) In Mod. Ir. lament, dirge, threnody . This may also be the meaning in the follg. exx. from Met. Dinds.: ba fáith fri tairem cech thuir; | rosbáid aided óen-urchuir, Metr. Dinds. iii 94.7 , `sing dirges for,' Corr. fúair a tairnem, a tuirim | i nArd Ch. ` dirge ,' iv 238.3 . ní hí mo thuireamhsa an tuireamh nach fuighbhidh | cuidiughadh céad de chéadthaibh caointe my dirge is one that will find response in hundreds of other lamentations, Hackett xxxix 69 . sdriongan cumhadh ┐ tuiriomh, Abbott-Gwynn 188.17 . Tuireadh Aodha ui Ruairc, Oss. v 134.1 . tuireadh Eibhlin n-i Arthnain, Hard. ii 258.1 . ? Of a song of praise: o ro cantae ... in turem frisngaired in chlas dicens caebo ... .i. molad do Ioib, O'Mulc. 213.