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1 ar

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 ar or


Forms: ar, air, er, eir, air, er, ar, arin,, airind, air, airnaib, armo, aire, aratobarr, arandéntar, arambiat, ara, armbad, ara, arindepur, aridlabrathar, arna, áirium, erum, erumm, erom, erut, ærut, airiut, airut, airiut, aurut, airiu, airi, airi, erre, airri, airre, airthe, erunn, erund, erond, airiund, airriun, airund, airib, airibsi, airiubsi, airiuibsi, eruibsi, erru, erriu, erro, airriu, airiu, erthu, airthiu, airtho, airib, airaib, or(u)m, or(u)t, air, uirre, orainn, oirinn, oraib, orru, orrtha

prep., leniting, with accus. and dat. See GOI § 823 , Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 150 , Frazer, ZCP viii 5 , Williams, Celtica ii 305 ; IGT Introd. § 130 .

Usually spelt ar. air, Ml. 51c2 , 2d2 ; er, 122a16 , BB 449a10 ; eir, Ériu iv 180 § 39 . The spellings air, er, etc. (more freq. in later lang.) and the modern pronunciation show that O. Ir. ar as simple prep.was replaced by a conflation of airi and fo(i)r (3 s. n. of 1 ar and 1 for).

In Mid. Ir. 1 for and 1 íar are frequently spelt ar. See III, IV below and the articles on these words.

With article arin, -int, -a, etc. Note also airind, Ml. 31b17 , air ind, 53a15 . arndi (= arindí), Ériu vii 138.4 . airnaib, Ml. 110d9 .

With poss. armo (m'), -do (t'), -a, -ar, -far (-bar) etc. Note also ar mh'éigse, Content. ix 26 . aire slicht, L. Chl. S. 2 .

With rel. part. ara: aratobarr, Wb. 12d29 . arandéntar, 2a10 . cid arambiat , Ml. 56b9 . ara n-eperr, Críth G. 1 . With copula: cid armbad , Wb. 11a19 . cidar impotabis, Ml. 56a13 . cid arnabu son, ib. ardott áigthe, LU 5656 = arṅdotāigi, TBC-I¹ 1178 (taking áigthi as vbl. of necess.). ara trēn, ACL iii 239 § 32 . ara n-amra, ZCP vii 312 § 26 . Before inf. pron. arindepur, Wb. 5a31 . aridlabrathar, 7d2 . With neg. arna airecht, Sg. 198b3 . arnach faca, ZCP xiii 169.13 .

With pron. suff. Early forms. 1 s. áirium, Wb. 7a12 . erum, LL 286a25 . erumm, PH 1397 . erom, 1503 . 2 s. erut, Wb. 27d19 , 29d7 , YBL 326b42 , PH 6565 . ærut, Ml. 2d8 . airiut, Blathm. 569 , LL 289b30 . airut, LU 8086 . GOI § 437 also gives airiut, aurut without reff. as `old forms which occur only in later sources' ( p. 272 ). 3 s. m. and n. GOI § 437 gives airiu as the dat. form (cf. airiu, O'Dav. 22 ?), airi as the accus. airi is the usual form passim in the early language. Cf. áiri, Wb. 11b21 . f. (accus. and dat. not distinguished) erre, Irish Texts i 3 § 8 (sic MS. See Ir. Hist. Stud. i 347 ). airri, SR 405 (emended to airre, GOI § 437 ). airthe, LL 286a7 . 1 pl. erunn, Wb. 15d13 , Ériu ii 124 § 65 . erund, LU 597 . erond, 588 . airiund, TBC-I¹ 170 . airriun, ZCP xi 110 § 26 . airund, LU 593 . 2 pl. airib, Wb. 20a3 , 22d25 , 27c19 , Metr. Dinds. iv 232.33 . airibsi, Wb. 14d25 , a33 , 16a26 . airiubsi, 15c1 , 17a5 . airiuibsi, 16c23 . eruibsi, 27d7 . Ml. 2a11 . 3 pl. acc. erru, Wb. 4d20 , 11a29 ; ZCP ii 315.26 . erriu, Wb. 9c8 , 11a20 . erro, LL 289b30 . airriu, Wb. 15a23 , 21d11 , O'Dav. 985 . airiu, Wb. 11d11 , Laws iv 176.7 . erthu, LL 280a1 . RC viii 154 § 5 . airthiu, LU 4915 . ZCP viii 310.22 . airtho, TBC-I¹ 409 . dat. airib, Laws iv 162.2 . airaib, 114.21 Comm.

In later lang. all pronominal forms influenced by those of for, giving or(u)m, or(u)t, air, uirre (uirthe), orainn (oirn. oirinn, O'Gr. Cat. 556.25 ), oraib ( oirb, BColm. 100.3 ), orru (orra, orrtha), etc.

The presumed distinction between ar with accus. when motion is implied and with dat. when no motion is implied ( Zeuss 622 ; with reservations Vendryes Gramm. § 283 ; see also Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 73 - 74 , Williams loc. cit.) appears most clearly in the stereotyped phrases ar chenn towards, ar chiunn ahead of, before (see 1 cenn): ar beolu towards, ar bélaib before, in front of (see bél). The dat. is usual in ar cach láu daily (see ) and in ar thosuch ( Sg. 203a7 , see tosach). Usage is less clear outside fixed phrases, and that of the various collections of O. Ir. glosses differs (the available material is also much reduced by the frequent identity of form of a s. and d s. of nouns). The accus. is regular in Wb. in senses of taking away from and counting as , and also in glosses on Lat. ob, the dat. where the meaning is with regard to, instead of and in glosses on Lat. super. Both cases are found where the meaning is for the sake of, because of . In Ml. accus. is constant only in set phrases. The dat. is usual in meaning counts as , do-beir ar (for?) calls and in glosses on Lat. dat. without preposition (ar gentib gl. gentibus, 78a12 , 89c2 ) and where a Lat. compd. noun is treated as two words (arintinmlegun gl. promulgatione, 71c18 ). In general use the meanings saving from, instead of, in meaning of, in return for, on account of, because of, for the sake of, for the purpose of are all found both with accus. and dat. In Sg. the meanings instead of and on account of are found with both cases. See also IGT Introd. § 130 , Bard. Synt. Tr. 2 - 4 , 17 , 20 (where detailed rules are given for accus. and dat. both with simple ar and for compd. preps. such as ar aghaidh, etc.).


(a) Much less freq. in concrete or physical meanings than in more abstract ones. Perh. before, in front of in (case of follg. noun not certain): dá [n]dorus [n-]and, comla[e] ar ala n-aí, clíath ar alailiu (-e, MS.) `in front of' (Gloss.), Críth G. 100 . ar Tuatha Dé Danann `before the T.D.D.', Ériu xii 152 § 15 (TE). cethridoruis airri (recte airre) im-mach, SR 405 . ó beit fíanna fer nÉrenn ┐ Alban do Chonaire ar thig, BDD² 1416 . Cf. 1081 , 1400 , 1492 . ? airiu . . . iarmo in front of it . . . behind it(?), O'Dav. 22 . Cf. airber .i. frit anair bere .i. eter do dī lāim, ar is fort muin bere ere [n-]aile, Corm. Y 58 . Acc. to Binchy, SCano p. 33 , frequent in meaning east of, the only example cited being: acon loch ar Mag Aí `by the lake east of Mag Aí', Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 32 § 2 (`on'). Cf. Airbri .i. fri Bri Eli anair, O'Mulc. 70 = Dinds. 16 ( RC xv 308 ). ? a nAicill ar Temair, Anecd. i 17.1 . Cf. perh. Síd ar Femin, LU 7846 ( BDD 140 ), etc. (or for al?). Perh. orig. with concrete force also in: do té(i)t aitire ar ḟer feras in fuil, Críth G. 52 `goes surety for', Gloss. Concrete meaning is perh. also to be assumed in the phrases agaid ar (late, orig. for?), ar agaid, ar amus, ar beolu, ar bélaib, bél ar bél, ar chenn, ar chiunn, ar dorus, ar dreich, ar fed, ar gnúis, ar leth, ar medón, ar ṡúil, ar thosuch, ar thús, ar úairib. See under the nouns concerned. With more abstract force in ar aí, ar apu (see 3 aí, 1 apa). Here may also be included: doire acummisc arúir `of their being mixed with mould', Wb. 13d3 . úachtar ar lemlacht dó mixed with, Críth G. 63 . loim midc do chumasc ar usciu `to mix a sip of whey with water', Mon. Tall. 143.25 . ba fial ṅdō buith arnaib ōcaib, cēin dogēni calma among, TBC-I¹ 1266 = LU 5739 . ? tiucfa in mac cētna ar bar cloind, ZCP viii 563 § 27 (for?). Perh. for for in: ó fó-certa a ṡrúb ar géscoe against a branch, BDD² 349 (= ar gésce, 355 ). conadh ar x. míli cathrach do shiublaighdis techta Magnuis Cam . . . ō maduin co fescor `to ten thousand cities', Marco P. 96 .

Rarely of time. See ariu before .

(b) In the follg. exx. the meaning is also more or less concr., though the precise meaning of the obscure, and it would be possible to consider them as early exx. of the replacing of for by ar (see III, and fo-ceird III): arnarala for cubus áiri, Wb. 11b21 (see note). Cf. focheird mo menma airi `my mind is set on him', Ériu ii 92 § 2 . ón lá tarrla ar n-airi air, iv 220.27 . torala dia archeill do degnimu su `let God bring to mind thy good deeds', Ml. 43b15 . iscor lame ardodced buith ocairbiathad sainte gl. nam qui volunt divites f[i]eri, incidunt in temptationem, Wb. 29b18 . ? Cf. ni comarleiced (.i. nir cetaig) dó cor lamha aire (.i. dul do sacarbhaic) cin foghlaim, Trip.² 243 . mabeidní dirúnaib dothéi armenmuin indfir, Wb. 13a12 . Note also: arnaib réib ilib gl. et qui ascendit super omnes caelos, 22a8 .

(c) In compd. numerals (with dat., see Celtica ii 312 ): a n-óen ar fichit (fichet, MS) the twenty-one, Ml. 2d2 . cóic míli ochtmugat ar chét one hundred and eighty five thousand, 34b17 . a ocht deac ar chét, BCr. 32d2 . deichinbair ar dib fichtib ar trib cétaib, Trip.² 3104 . secht cathae ar chetharchait / ar secht cétaib is huilliu, ZCP viii 313.34 . cōicer ar ceithri fichtib, 219.29 . fer ar sheisir seven men, Celt. Rev. x 348.23 . fri re tri n-aidhche ar mís, RC xviii 162.32 . Note also: tāinic buiden mōr . . . dōig lim is ar trichaid cēt inti approximately(?), TBC-I¹ 3142 (text perh. faulty).

II In a wide variety of abstract meanings for the most part deriving independently from those given under I.

(a) for, for the sake of, on behalf of, etc. (often gl. Lat. pro) (with accus. and dat. See Celtica ii 309 ): cia dudrigni dia mór di maith erriu, Wb. 11a20 . innahí dorigeni Día ar maccu Israhel, 30 . mirabilia dorígeni Dia ar maccaib Israhel, 28 . massu arinbethid . . . dagníu, 13c11 . mor ní as dénti ní airriu, 15a23 (in sense of mod. déanaim rud ar I obey, see Thes. Suppl. 51 ). niarséuti . . . robcarsi tíamthe, 23d4 . ar erchru gl. pro defectu, Ml. 31a4 . dusrigeni dia erru amal robu thol doib, 54a34 . fri assaru ar maccu israhel gl. rerum gestarum (testimonio), 94d2 . ara bǽsaib som .i. ar denum a thule gl. pro suis ritibus laborantes, 87b20 . a ndorigēnai in rí / do ḟertaib ar ṡanct Brigti, Thes. ii 332.4 (Hy. v). or ar Bran nailither, 286.34 (inscr.). lānamain . . . nī fil etarscarad dōib acht ar Dia, Corm. Y 824 . léicfider cach bean do mnáib airiut thou wilt be preferred to all other women, BDD² 59 . ar ghaol for the sake of relationship, Studies 1918, 99 § 15 . dorindedh mainistreacha ┐ sepeil le ar anmain Gyi `for the soul of G.' ZCP vi 90.11 . See also under meince, 1 pairt. Freq. in sense of (praying) for, see airnigde, guide, guidid, oráit.

(b) for the sake of, by in adjurations and invocations: dilig dam . . . / ar Maire n-amra n-Ingin, SR 7820 . ar do chumachtae . . . tesaircc dam-sa mo chūrcha, BColm. 54.3 . ar do thrīnōiteacht, a Thrīnōit, ACL iii 241 § 2 . ar t'fhírinni riutsa, na furáil etc. by thy honour, CCath. 1659 . ar na deib rib, TTebe 4025 . síol Ádhaimh . . . / ar do thocht díobh slánaigh sinn, Dán Dé ix 22 .

(c) on account of, because of (with accus. and dat. Glossing Latin ob, pro, propter): ar ar comoicsi do bás on account of, Wb. 14b25 . aracethardese gl. quam ob causam, 31b24 . ob mirationem .i. airinn adamrugud, Ml. 61a15 . ar chosmaili ind fochuinn diaragbtha gl. causae uicinitate, 35b24 . ar ét im chrabud gl. pro zelo religionis, 36d24 . arna lithu gl. propter cultús diuini festa, 47b2 . arna pecthu immefolngat guasacht do anmin gl. propter animae pericula, 7 . cid arnaibhisiu .i. arnaib hi forodamarsa gl. ob ista, 58d13 . ní ar pianaib do thabairt forru `not on account of the infliction of punishments upon them', 114b7 . ara foirbthetu fadesin, Wb. 6c19 . tocombaig a ṡlán ara ḟornert because of, Críth G. 415 . ar ṡóethaib because of grievances, 581 . ar ilar a imarbus, ZCP viii 104.7 . Corco Bāiscind ar a nert / nī damaid cert d'Eoganacht, v 500.16 .

With a variety of nouns in more or less stereotyped phrases: ar na h-ádhbharaibh sin for those reasons, ML 58.11 . ar[a] airmitin som through respect for him, Ériu iv 30.23 . ar t'ḟuath, i 97.32 . ni diles ni doberar ar uathbas `nothing is lawful which is given out of terror', Laws iv 286.25 . See also under áis, cairde, 1 cúis, 1 écndairc, éicen, ecla, 1 gart, midlachas, miscais, omun, sant, serc, úacht, etc.

Common with abstr. nouns from adjj. in the construction: nīr fētatar a tōcbāil ar a truma because of her weight = because she was so heavy, Anecd. iii 9.8 . ar dúire a drochdelba, Ériu iv 102.16 . ar ḟebus na cuidechtae because the company was so excellent, BColm. 78.18 . ar a laechdacht, ZCP viii 318.12 . ar cumga in puill nír féd dul amach, Ériu v 49.7 . in senadh ic á adhradh ar a uaisle, CCath. 334 . ar ghoire do ghaoil, Dán Dé xi 11 . Without poss. or gen.: cona tisa . . . in dam tarais ar airdi (a fence), Laws iv 76.19 Comm.

Freq. in advv.and conjj. in O. Ir. glosses. 3 s. n. as adv. on account of it, therefore: fristemlighter cid ind aier airi, Ml. 73c2 . ni bad pronomen airi, Sg. 203b2 . isairi doroigu dia geinti hore . . . this is why . . . because, Wb. 5b12 . is airi inso rogabad som hi rige, Ml. 14a4 . cinid airi doberr desimrecht acht ar atrebthach nand, Sg. 35b13 . With article and i: arindi gl. eo, Sg. 190a4 . ni arindí . . . sed quia not because . . . but because, 5a4 . arindisin gl. ei, Ml. 54c6 . arndi furumai sár for cach toil, Ériu vii 138.3 . With se: ní nád ṁbed arse di chorp gl. ideo, Wb. 12a22 . arse gl. ob hoc, Ml. 18d15 , gl. qua re, 29d1 . isarse gl. quo circa, Enchir. Aug. 70b , 81b ( ZCP vii 480 , 484 ). airechas ceneóil airsiu (leg. airsin? edd. airriu, Ped. MS Index to Wb. glosses) ní airechas fidei, Wb. 1b12 . Later: air sin on account of that, CCath. 2350 . Note also: ar a smuaintighib do beith . . . a mbeat[h]aidh an tigerna so that his thoughts might be in, etc., BCC § 5 (cf. ara).

(d) instead of, in place of, as substitute for, in meaning of (meaning confined to O. Ir. glosses. With dat., occas. with accus.): arnab geintib huilib taken as referring to all the Gentiles gl. Iudeos et Grecos omnes, Wb. 2a15 . foirbthe ar anfoirbthu gl. decem milia, a perfect (number) for an imperfect, 9a10 . corda .i. arin duiniu huli lesom gl. a parte totum, Ml. 53a2 . todochide ar sechmadachtae n-anfoirbthe gl. commotatio . . . temporum `future for imperfect', 62a16 . arnaib bolcaib gl. pro uesicis, 99a4 . fogur cechtar de ar alaliu ┐ fogur na liter naile airriusom, Sg. 4a8 . ni roscríbad ar naill (leg. ar na aill, edd.), 6b3 . a ṡuidigud ar anmmaimm dílius, 27a1 .

Often with as-beir, do-beir etc.: dobeir inso arnab uilib cumactib gl. supra omnem principatum et potestatem et uirtutem et dominationem, Wb. 21a13 . epert innan (MS. inna) aisndisen arnaib gnimaib gl. dicit autem non quia talia locuti sunt Scribae . . . sed quia talia fecerint, Ml. 16d3 . a ndurigni duaid in gnim sin in tengad do airbirt ar gnimaib in choirp, 31b24 . intan asmbersom pes ┐ manus nochis arnaib gnimaib són dungniat som honaib ballaib hisin atbeirsom, 56b3 . tri suidigud dosom inna cluas arin chorp huiliu, 60b16 . arnaib fedaib sonartaib ardaib gl. pro terribilibus arbustís cedros possuit, 146a6 .

The idiom ad-rími ar counts as (with accus. and dat.) is prob. to be assigned to this section: ní ármisom ar chumactte, Wb. 6a1 . cenid ar chomsuidigthib adrímther inna fortórmach so, Sg. 202a5 . See ad-rími. With LA: petra les arin trediusa sís he takes petra as standing for, Ml. 60a7 . in loc lesom híc arnaib aitrebthidib gl. a loco habitatores intellegite, 144c3 .

(e) in return for, in exchange for, as price of, in payment for, as equivalent of (with accus.): airitiu lóge ar mo precept in return for, Wb. 10d31 . rotbīa a lōg airi you shall have a reward for it, TBC-I¹ 585 . is lá cach(a) tíre do-tét dlega(i)r aire `is due for it', Ériu xvii 70.4 . Freq. do-beir lóg etc. ar: ainm indlóge doberr domiledaib armílte, Wb. 3c1 . intan dobera Dia fochraicci ar degnimu, Ml. 90c14 . screpul doberar do gilli . . . ar comaitecht do neuch o pecad `a groat that is given to a lad for accompanying someone in a sin', Mon. Tall. 143.9 . nī tibur-so in tinnscra sin(ee) cid ar Meidb C. feissin I wouldn't give a brideprice like that for M. herself, ZCP iv 39.7 (cf. TBFr. 185 ). ní conrogab terochraic . . . ar forbrissiud fir truaig `reward for oppressing a wretched man', Ml. 36a32 . ni riat na dánu diadi ara n-indeb domunde sell for, Wb. 28c2 . ríthæ . . . ar ech ndonn, Thes. ii 240.1 (Ardm.). tale damsa a log ar epert do firinne lat, Ml. 36a32 . síodh Dhé 'gá ceannach ar chrodh being bought for herds, Dán Dé xxvii 33 . With vbs. of leaving, abandoning: ni dérsid for sóiri ar fognam, Wb. 20b10 . roleicc creitim ar in paganacht he left the faith for paganism, Anecd. iii 72.28 . as uime do trēig Temraigh / ar Chend Maghair, ZCP viii 108.19 . Denoting preference: ragaid duit aire . . . rígi hÉrend in preference to him, BColm. 68.18 . do mholfuinn fear an leithléighinn 'gá mbíadh beatha ghlan . . . arfhear láinléighinn 'gá mbíadh beatha némhthromdha, Mac Aingil 4782 .

(f) for the purpose of, in order to obtain (as far as the exx. serve with accus. in Wb. and dat. in Ml. The exx. from Wb. given here, however, could equally be referred to the preceding section): precept arbiad in order to obtain food, Wb. 10d13 . madarlóg pridchasa, 23 . is arnach nindocbáil móir fodaimim se inso, 23b12 . asberat isar indeb isdénti tol dǽ, 29b12 . arind etarimdibiu (arindetar imdibiu, MS.) gl. pro interfectione aduersariorum, Ml. 36b23 . ar chuindriug pectho gl. instrumentum est divinae iustitiae `for the correction of sin', 49b7 . gabthe dunad les fris arinoillus for protection, 55c1 . asberar ar thormuch pectha for the purpose of increasing sin(?), 76a5 . bliadain lán dano do M. [┐] a muindtir uli for usciu ┐ bargin ar tuaslucud anmae B. `to obtain the release of the soul of B.,' Mon. Tall. 133.29 . serc fochraici ara n-as[c]nam, piana do imchaisiu ara n-imgabail in order to avoid them, Ériu vii 138.28 . is rimsa . . . rohérbad ar eisnéis it is to me it was entrusted for relating, iv 144.21 . annsa lebur tuc sé dóib ar choimét a ndligid feín `for keeping', Maund. 61 . Also perh. in phrase ar olc fri, see olc (because of?).

(g) by virtue of, by means of, through (dat.): condenad fingail ar chuinged soinmige do gl. mercari peccato securitatem, Ml. 39a6 . ? ar gressaib gal / glenaid luch inna línsam `by feats of valour', Thes. ii 293.20 . ni ar lín óc brister cath, Ériu ix 47 § 18 . ar neart a n-engnama by dint of their prowess, ML² 286 . gaibsit tír and ar chlaideb by the sword, ZCP viii 313.21 .

(h) In general sense of in respect of, with regard to, in the matter of, relating to, etc. (appar. with dat.) (the ascription of some exx. to this section is tentative): desmrecht insin ar aimsir deirb that is an example of, Sg. 66b17 , cf. exemplum ara airiuc far diull tanaisiu, 106b20 , exemplum inso ara rangabalda asrubart, 39a5 . annsom hi taurgillib tairgille ar bechaib, Laws iv 162.1 . rucus tairgilli ar bechaib `für Bienen ist ein `tairgille' . . . zu stellen', ZCP xv 319 § 12 . ? isam ómun ar a aisnéis I am afraid to relate it, LU 5349 . is fon samla-sin . . /gníth . . . a cét-chumma / Temrach . . . / ar áibnius in beauty, Metr. Dinds. i 10.64 . fear feadhma deas ar gach ndān in every art, ZCP viii 562 § 16 . bean as ghloine ar ghníomharthaibh `purest in deeds', A. Ó Dálaigh xv 15 . issí eisimplair Crist . . . do lenfadís ar míne ┐ ar buaine, ar deirc ┐ ar trocaire, Maund. 123 . ro derscnaigh d'ógaibh a chomaoisi ar goil ┐ gaisccedh, Leb. Gab.(i) 200.7 . Also in phr. ar chuit, see cuit. For do-beir teist ar see teist. See airbág.

Common in phr. of type: teine . . . ar thes crabaidh (of a person) a fire . . . in heat of piety = a paragon of piety, Anecd. iii 5.19 . Muridach, ba muir ar crūa[i]s, ZCP viii 299.34 . deochain ar grādaib ┐ sacart ar ūaisle a deacon in rank and a priest in reputation, BColm. 82. 15 - 16 . ba laech ar gaisced, RC xxiv 184.4 . a éan choluim ar cheannsa, Dán Dé i 19 . mar lile ar lí, Dánta Gr. 30.14 .

(i) about (of stories, books, reading, etc. In late exx. only. Perh. orig. for in this meaning): iomda ar Lasair ferta amhra many wonderful miracles (are said to have been performed) by L., Ériu v 90.4 . is mebair linn . . . / in seanchus fil ar Mag Ráin the lore about M., iv 156.18 . Leabhar Oiris ┐ An[n]ála ar Cogthaibh . . . Éireann, i 78 . craoibsgaoileadh ar chath Cluana Tairbh description of the battle of C., 16 n. léighmid ar Alexander n-uaibhrech, etc., Mac Aingil 872 . léan ba sgéal ar fianaibh Fáil, Magauran 2790 . Cf. sgriobhthar ortha go . . ., Ó Héodhusa 68.16 .

(j) With verbs of depriving, stealing, hiding, lacking, etc. from (accus. and dat.): tri airchellad donaib sommaib a n-anae airnaib bochtaib, Ml. 90a11 . is amne asruluús airi, Wb. 17d16 . a manaig do béim ar Lommān, BColm. 84.16 . ní bēram-ne t'áthius ort we shall not take thy victory from thee, 74.22 . ni cumscaichthi cumachtae nairi gl. hoc potestatem literae motare non debuit, Sg. 6a5 . ni fil nach díchlith airi, Wb. 1a4 . tesbanat boíll aíriu, 11d11 . in dá ṡét tesbanat airi, Críth G. 130 . ní gette na brithemnachta becca erriu you would not snatch the petty judgements from them, Wb. 9c8 . nī gatar a forgall ar domun degmnā, Cáin Ad. 4 . a tellad errusom, Wb. 11a29 . dives cui (.i. isar) clam tollitur , Enchir. Aug. 76b ( ZCP vii 482.27 .)

(k) With verbs of protecting, saving from , defending against (accus. and dat.): ainsium Crīst ar cech nernbās, Thes. ii 352.4 (Hy. vi). Dīa dom chobair . . . / ar cech ṅgúasacht, 350.16 (ibid.). dia dítin ar in pecthach, Ml. 57c4 . dia diden . . . ar náimdib, Thes. ii 354.2 . airnaib imnedaib doneimni a dǽ, Ml. 110d9 . fri himdegail cuirp . . . ar demnaib, Thes. ii 354.4 . diar snádud . . . / ar gábud, 359.6 . for soirad ar senachrib, Ml. 33b21 . air ni bói numsoiradsa ar chumachtae ṅduini, 74b13 . Continuing a Latin construction: ar thes inna gréne són ┐ ara naimtib gl. quae etiam inumbraret eos et regeret, 97c4 . arnaib cumachtgaib gl. difensionem, 103c7 . arnaib hi sin gl. ut illis eripiat, 117b4 . defensionis . . . ar maccaib israhel, 124b10 . Note also: comad chādus ar cach ngúasacht that it might be a halidom against every danger, BColm. 96.10 . tucc dam a Dē mōir / . . . / ar pīanu na plāg / tonna dīana dēr, ACL iii 232 § 1 .

III In later lang. ar and for become a single preposition (often with surviving difference in follg. mutation, see the examples in Bard. Synt. Tr. p. 2 ff. ). The follg. are exx. of ar for earlier for. Of local relations (for I): imda gol gargc ar a brú many a fierce wail in its lap, BColm. 100.6 . ar saebchoire in a maelstrom, 94.12 . tarrúd úire ar airib / for leccaib ar láech-maigib, Metr. Dinds. iv 232.34 . seóit Cluana maic Nóis do foillsechadh ar Gallaib Luimnigh `were discovered with', RC xviii 53.12 . Of quasi-local relations, etc. (II). Of point of time (c): ar na tri soldomnaib `on the three chief feasts', Mon. Tall. 129.27 . ar notlaice ┐ caiscc ┐ cengciges, Ériu vii 150.30 . Of rule, sway, over (f): ba rī tenn ar Tūathmumain, ZCP viii 119.28 . flaithius ┐ forlamhus ar crichaib . . . na cruinne, CCath. 1 . In addition to (g): cotardda trá ar se mo chendsa ardo chend my head in addition to thine, RC iii 185.8 . credo ┐ pater . . . ar cech m-biait, xv 490 § 26 ( for cach mbiait, § 32 ). Affecting, afflicting, etc. (h): bíd oirb oman Dé do neim, BColm. 100.3 . trom orm a innisi, ZCP viii 200.25 . duaithnid ar dainib in domain incomprehensible to, Fen. 38. 16 . Subsisting on (j): ar geilt féoir feeding on grass, Ériu iv 156.12 . ar usci ┐ bairgin, RC xv 491 § 30 , cf. for usci ┐ bairgin, 490 § 26 . In a state or condition (k): na biad ar in mbreith sin `that she would not abide by that judgement', RC xxiv 196.1 . nírbo borg báeth ar bruidin it was not a foolish castle engaged in brawling, Metr. Dinds. i 32.46 . With vb. of motion: ge deach rī Conaill a ccēin / ar slūaiged rí Temhra tréin, ZCP viii 116.21 . To express the dativus incommodi (m): adbathadar uile thorad parrthais ar Adam `were forfeited by Adam', Laws iv 266.14 . adbathadar ar Aongus a thire, 15 . rogabsat tech air they stormed the house in which he was, BColm. 72.4 . ni cloifithir oirb bar cath, YBL 314b55 . Perh. also: ben clucc ar Cellach against, Cáin Ad. 18 . cogadh mór le Domnall . . . ar Brian, Ériu i 78.5 . In phrases (p): ar bith c[h]é on this earth, BColm. 100.3 . ar comairci C. under the protection of C., 86.28 . ar debaid in haste, LL 7493 . ar lár cháich in the midst of everybody, Ériu iv 222.28 . ar neam in heaven, Anecd. i 39.114 . ar ṡeilbh (sic leg.) éicsi, Sitzungsb. Pr. Akad. 1919, v 92 § 9 . With verbs (III): dorad min aire `put meal over it', Mon. Tall. 147.11 . dobert trian forcridi . . . ar chuid cach lae `added one third of water to the daily allowance', 7 . do thabairt geinti ar ireis, ZCP iii 22.6 .

Note also: rostatlaig ar thenn-medón he clasped her by the sturdy waist, Ériu iv 104.8 . roghabh nathraigh mbí ar bolgán `by the belly', CCath. 4194 .

IV Replacing ÍAR. Of time (I): ar cath Ch. after the battle of C., ZCP viii 314.18 . arsin, Ériu iv 132.1 . is ar sein anid sí co arnabárach thereupon she remains till the morrow, ZCP viii 309.20 . ar n-ēirghi grēine at the rising of the sun, ML² 1333 . sóaidh co brónach dia taigh ar marbadh a maic, RC xviii 45.31 . ar tteacht ór tticch, ZCP viii 219 § 13 . do bātar ar n-a crēchtnugad, ML² 386 . ar ngabāil gīall for Mumain, ZCP viii 119.31 . Of place (II): arsin t[s]eit along the way, Mon. Tall. 153.20 . ar slige Póil is Petair in the track of Paul and Peter, Ériu v 24.24 . According to (III): suidfither gach aon duine . . . ar miadh ┐ ar dligedh ┐ ar a sognim[r]adh, RC xxviii 22 § 49 . ar a fidhair fen do cruthaigh Día é in His own image, BCC § 408 .

For use as conjunction see 2 ar, 1 ara.

? 2 bair

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ? 2 bair or
Last Revised: 2019


Forms: bairi

adj heavy: b.¤ gl. (tulcubha) truma , Ériu ii 4 n. 70 . (leg. bairi, Stokes, RC xxvii 85 ). ? Adv. forraig friu Lindmaine co mb.¤ (? leg. b.¤) (: fair), ZCP viii 308.21 (Laud Gen.). fort dofīastar in b.¤ (MS mbair) / atotmiastar nach tain, Fianaig. 36.19 .

Cite this: eDIL s.v. bó or
Last Revised: 2019


Forms: boin, bou, bo, boin, baí, b, báu, b, bao, Báu, b, búaib, bai, báe, boin, boin, bó, ba, bai, baei, búaibh, b

n f. See GOI § 60 , § 72 , § 340 . a s. boin, Corm. Y 1103 , Vita Br. 24. g s. bou, Thes. ii 278.2 . bo, Vita Br. 24. d s. boin (cf. a mboi leó do bhú, Hugh Roe² 36.4 ). n p. baí, LL 33395 (TBFr.). ba, ML² 34 (see O'Rahilly, EIHM 462 n.2 ). b, Hugh Roe² 46.y . a p. báu, TBFr. 395. b, Ériu ii 20 § 1. g p. bao, Sg. 22b11 , Báu, LU 5373. b, Thes. ii 335.1 (Hy.v), bó, LL 33391 (TBFr.). d p. búaib, LL 22315. n du. di bai , Ml. 2b11 . a du. dí báe , TBFr. dā boin , Corm. Y 1082 (prob. a neologism, GOI § 340.2 ). b.¤ f., d s. boin, g s. g p. bó, n p. ba, bai ( baei: cnai, ex. 1623 ), d p. búaibh, a p. b, IGT Decl. § 86.

Ox, cow: inna mbao (innabao, MS.) gl. boum, Sg. 22b11 . bō nomen de sono factum suae uocis .i. ainm arna dēnam d'foghar in gotha uodēin, Corm. Y 134. b.¤ gl. vacca, Ir. Gl. 159. buachaill b.¤ gl. bubulcus, 583 . bō a boue .i. is coitcenn aní as bós, ut est duo juga bouum, non enim uaccas dixit , O'Mulc. 161. domaincheass ainm do boin .i. dammainchess .i. mainchess bō, ar is cotcend do ceniul a mbos, 321 . dicitur . . . redg frisin boin mir, Corm. Y 1103. coro dart boin dia búaib, LL 22315 ( Dinds. 113 ). rocuinnig seom boin co B., Thes. ii 340.17 (Hy. v Comm.). blegon inna mbō fo thrī, 335.1 (Hy. v). co tucad na bu co Loch L. . . . dia mblegon, 334.43 (Hy. v Comm.). carais forglu inna mbō, 340.1 (Hy. v). bo blegar fri fit, bo co ngalur, bo ciss flatha no eclasa, bo brothcain, Laws v 260.2 - 4 . turcreic bo cona timtach tricha set, ZCP xiv 361 § 19. ite ainmead bo ara n-athchuir etc., O'Curry 250 (H. 3.18, 145a). trí aithgine in domuin: brú mná, uth b.¤, ness gobann, Triads 148 . eacmaing a bhái ana . . . do breith dolēic, ZCP xiii 172.18 . oc tabairt tānae b.¤ húait, Sc.M² 11. i rrechtaib b.¤ ┐ dam ┐ ech (rhet.), LU 8367 ( FB 24 ). rucad láeg mo bo fadéin . . . uaim-se, CRR 3. co mblighfidhe ó na buaibh / sáith f[h]er n-Ēirenn re h-aon-uair, ML² 138. cethracha b.¤ mbreithi mbalcc `forty strong milch cows', Celtica iv 12.21 . buachaill ag na buaib, Laws iv 86.3 Comm. gur f[h]āgaib gach bō 'gā bōthar, ML² 1255. no-chennachtís na bú, PH 4494. no-chennaigitis na bai . . . isin tempul, 4510. ar boin cach naidche ailes `for he deserves (i.e. claims) a cow every night', Laws ii 136.8 . ansom . . . bai briugad . . . teora bae i muin na trissi bo cows of a briugu (of interest due for use when given as pledge), v 400.20 . trí haige bruithi and, a dauim, no a boin, co na timthach di saill no charna, i 48.3 Comm. cuic ba imorro in gach indligedh athgabala `five cows . . . (is) . . . (the fine) for illegal distress', ii 100.4 Comm. in t-airi ard .i. da ba deg a eniclann, v 46.11 Comm. Bríg . . . is lé tomlachta na bae fothrí i n-oenló, Fél. 56.15 . cain Daire ga[n] bú do marbad, 210.33 . lenaid b.¤ odar eisium, ┐ corbo isin in Odor Ciarain (hence the name of the Codex Lebor na Huidre Book of the Dun Cow), 202.33 . intan dono no gesed in tarb bai ocaib no thiagdais ba in tire comfoco[i]s, Dinds. 142. ro ghad boin o Ciaran . . . ro innto an buin go Ciaran doridhisi, BNnÉ 109 § 38 . ní bhean boin do baintrebhthaigh, IGT Decl. ex. 509. luaith na b.¤ do bheith ar n-a hiodhbairt, TSh. 437. i gcuibhreann na mb.¤ fán bhféar (of Nabuchadonosar), 3464 . ó tharlais gan bhrat gan bhú, Measgra D. 27.34 . mairg nach tabhair bloigh na b.¤ / [san] chró [a d]taraidh 'n-a boin bheo alas for him who does not give (to God) a portion of the cow (i.e. some of his wealth) for it will be a whole cow in heaven, DDána 42.39 . ná bíodh aca choidhche, daimh, ba, ná tréuda cáorach = kyne, RSClára 108a . b.¤ sa bhoin `a cow for cow', Eg. Gl. 739. In legal contexts frequently a unit of value (Plummer MS. notes), see Binchy, Críth G. (p. 106 ): secht seoit sin da tecait ceithre ba .i. bo mór and ┐ se samaisce ar trí buaib, in bo riu, conid ceithri ba, O'Curry 195 - 196 (H.4.22, 8). naoi marg xxit do bhuaibh no darget `29 marks . . . in cows or in money', Trans. RIA xv (1826) 33.25 .

Of land: ined da boo deac di thir, AU i 288.11 (see Mac Neill, PRIA xxxvi 286 n. 2 ).

In phrr. in various applications: b.¤ bainne, Laws ii 176.16 Comm. b.¤ blicht, Lat. Lives 103.2 . ár mbadh bhí bleacht, ZCP v 214.368 (Midn. Court). in bo derba `milch cow', Laws ii 162.8 Comm. (`cow of the (milk)-pail' (Thurn.), ZCP xx 199 n.7 ). b.¤ ḟind óderg white red-eared cow `often mentioned in early Irish literature as a choice breed of cattle,' Bergin, Ériu xiv 170 and Peritia xix 239-55 : roerbad iarom b.¤ find audercc dia taiscid ┐ ba slan di, Vita Br. 5. bo find ó. leo, LU 4410. secht mba finna ō-derga, ML² 34. dobert a máthair dí báe déc dó assint shíd, it é finda óiderga, TBFr. 5. b.¤ bháthair a stray cow , IGT Decl. ex. 1354. Note also: bo fri blícht, Laws i 122.10 .i. i n-aimsir lachtha isin tsamradh, 126.19 Comm. bó allaid (`stag', Plummer MS. notes), perh. hind: tuc fer boin allaid leis dia hidpairt, LB 152a58 . b.¤ féich: tighail .i. (sic leg.) crīch dédenach tairic in bō fēich cow paid as last payment of debt due (?), O'Mulc. 862. b.¤ ḟeisi (see Bürgschaft 66 , 78 ): ised slan ngell .i. ba fesi gell, tricha a lin . . . ┐ diabludh fiach for bidbuid cows of spending the night (part of compensation payable by defaulting debtor to his surety, kept in captivity by creditor), Laws ii 136.5 Comm. cu nícand dech mbu feisi ┐ logh einech, O'D. 87 (H.3.17, 73). b.¤ indláeg see indláeg and, Ériu xx 231 - 2 . b.¤ gabála a (beef-)cow levied as a due (see gabál): bo g. .i. mart, no in b.¤ méth, ut est athgabail b.¤ gabala . . . .i. in bo marta nó atgabail gabair im boin marta, O'Dav. 284. b.¤ lethgabála (expld. by O'Curry, Manners and Customs iii 519 n. 580 as `rate in aid of a cow (perh. half the cow's value) levied to meet the requisition of the officer for the relief of the poor' (i.e. the huaitne fonluing, etc.). dlighidh . . . boin lethgab[ala], 519.17 . b.¤ marta beef-cow , see 2 mart. b. threlóeg a cow having had three calves: .i. cuinnid co hobonn boin treloegh , Bretha 42 § 33.6 . .i. ni truma na inni ata ina thoirsiugud umpu na bo trelaog , 44 § 34.9 . tri ba inlaega ar da m-buaib tre laega , Laws i 102.19 Comm . b.¤ thúir see 2 túr.

In nn. loc. (see also Hog. Onom.): Campulus Bouis . . . Ached bou, Thes. ii 278.2 . o Inis bo finne, Fél. 184.18 . Bernas ṁ Bāu (= Báu, LU 5373 ) Cūailnge, TBC-I¹ 897.

Compds. With nouns: cin boainmead without bovine defect(justifying, if present, the cancellation of a purchase, Plummer MS. notes), O'Curry 250 (H.3.18, 145). bó-ár name of a cattle-disease, RC xii 428 § 17. boár .i. sgamach nó maolgarb (see bódíth infra) no galur righín, O'Dav. 291. iar dteacht do bh.¤ nó do bhó-dhíth chuca i n-aimsir C[h]ormaic mic Airt, Ériu i 89 § 36. bóbard seventh class of sóer bard, IT iii 5.10 . bobard dō, suithi ndebidi scarta la sen etir fod ┐ cuimri, etir trebrad ┐ sned, 28 § 67 . aisti bobaird . . . .i. debidi nimrínd ┐ debide scailti etir fot ┐ gair, 45 § 66 . Dond Cúalnge . . . / co ndernsat imme in mbó-brait ` Cattle-Raid ', Metr. Dinds. iii 370.8 . screpul cach bóbotha ` cow-shed ', RC xiv 430 § 56. Dari [.i.] bóchana, fedb, Gorm. Nov. 2. Cf. cain Darí, cen bú do gait, Thes. ii 306.28 , see Thurneysen, ZCP xviii 386. ro metadh blicht cacha bo-cheathra, MR 100.20 . See bóchar. go ndeachaidh do chosnamh a bhóichreche orra `to protect his cows against them', AFM iii 224.6 . crecsluaighedh . . . d'ar comairmedh secht cata deg do bochrudh of property in cattle, AU ii 506.20 . leisin mbréid sróllchon sénta / bóchrodh téid dá thaiscélta, IGT Decl. ex. 71. bruach do bhiadhfadh bóchuingir a yoke of oxen, Ó Bruad. iii 88.16 . ? ba flaith os chuan cach curaich / fo bái slúag in bo-chumaid, Metr. Dinds. iv 338.8 . ina bai bit a mbodaingen `cows should be in a cow-fastness' (i.e. at nightfall), Laws iv 96.25 . See bódela. at crothle garmilíne / at búanaind bodelbae in the shape of a cow (?), LU 8366 ( FB 24 ). bodibad mor fo Erind destruction of cattle, AU i 470.22 . doroine bo-dhibadh mór (of an invad- ing chief), ii 118.21 . (as epithet) Bresal Bodibadh, MacCarthy 302.9 . bo-dhíth mhór ind Erinn, dá ngoirthí Maolgarbh `murrain', AFM ii 1044.11 . earrach an bhó-dhíthe, ALC i 494.15 . bó-dún see badún. moch i.e. bo-erge lit. cow-rising (gl. buaroch), O'Dav. 215 (see Ériu xiii 14.29 ). no sechmallad . . . in ṁbeoḟeoil `the beef ', RC xx 262.19 (ACC Comm.). co tuc boghabhail moir a great prey of cattle, AU i 526.4 . nía boidb bógeimnech (rhetoric), LU 5326 (TBC). bōger ` beef- lard ', MacCongl. 79.23 . bogeltach faithche .i. fer meite coimse na teit tar crich . . . bogeltach .i. fer fogelta a bu a faithce ar cach nach déis etar coin allta ime . . . ni dligh dire na saire ` cow-grazier ', Laws iv 344.5 , 352.18 , 21 Comm. bóguin, see Wortk. 146 : (g s. as epithet) Enna Bōguine (B. ōtāt Cenēl m Bógaine, v.l.), Corp. Gen. 163.2 . Cf. Boguinig `the descendants of Enna Boghuine' (note), MR 156.10 . co ro slecht in buar uile, co n-ebert: "Is bo-guine andso ┐ bid [sed] (?) ainm na benni[se]." Unde . . . Beann Bogaine `a cow- slaughter', Dinds. 142. ingen in righ .i. Boguine a ainm-siden, ACL iii 324.7 . sinum lactis .i. genus uasis .i. bomilge `of cows milk', Thes. ii 48.30 . boogam .i. lilgach ar aicme bethi . . gamnach ar aicme huatha . . . samaisc ar aicme muine, Auraic. 5759. bō-otrac[h] cow-dung , Corm. Y 196. conamailt saill ┐ bōṡaill foa corned beef (?), Corm. Y 883 (76.11) . ethar bec . . . bōshaille `of beef-fat', MacCongl. 85.10 . boseiche ` cow-hide ', Laws iv 148.19 Comm. it séoit bóṡlabra[e] direnatar dó, Críth G. 120. tri cóecait cét boslabraidh ` dower-kine ', RC xvii 214.4 (Tig.) = bó ṡlabhra, Keat. iii 2243 . bo-ṡlechta `the law concerning cows', Ann. Inisf. 810. rith cana boileachta `des Rinder betreffenden Gesetzes', ZCP xviii 383.14 . cain boiliuchta (i.e. `the law that treats of cow-killing, cow stealing, etc.' n. 1), Laws iii 110.4 Comm. seacht cumala lana for fer nurradais mboslechta .i. iar marba buachalla, no airamhain. No is comlaithred deisi iar ngait, O'Curry 2440 ( Eg. 88, 36 ra. ) ` cattle-tracking ', O'Gr. Cat. 97 § 42. bosluaiged lit. host of cattle gl. mammona, Ir. Gl. 300. botheach ` cow house ', Laws v 514.35 Comm. bótháin cow raid : rohir dam . . . .x. mbuachailli botana, Ériu ii 3.14 . ron-íurusa im chét mbó bódána, BDD² 267 = bóthána, LU 6763. co n-immad ech ┐ bótháinte, LU 3911 ( SCC 42 ). no geibed Flidais . . . do bóthorud of livestock, TBFlidais 88 . co tí in bo dia botreib, BB 397b2 . in a bo-tuar (`cow dung ', Plummer MS. notes), Laws v 464.13 Comm.

With adjj.: bo-abartach, abairt amail in mboin `behaving like the cow', O'Dav. 316 ( Ériu xiii 29.10 ). brucchaid bó-cédach, BNnÉ 137.9 `with hundreds of kine', Keat. ii 4682. Bernngal Bóchétach, Acall. 5322.

With bú-: ? maccaim beca buaigelta (buaidhghela, v.l.), TTebe 1372 . Cf. bógeltach. a ccreachghabhala cruidh ┐ cethra broide ┐ búalmha, Hugh Roe² 204.32 . for buageltach ṁBreg (of Cú Chulainn), LL 12569 ` guardian ', RC xiv 398 § 1 . Buagelltaig, LU 9084 ( FB 83 ), cf. BDD² 1209.

See bárach, bóaire, bóbath, bólacht, bómlacht, bóraime, 1, 2 búarach.


Cite this: eDIL s.v. cúartugad or


Forms: cúartachadh

u, m. vn. of cúartaigid. cúartachadh (cuardachadh, v.l.), IGT Verbs § 106 (245.7) .

(a) act of going around, making a circuit, visiting, traversing; circuit, visit : grian a gyrando terram .i. a circuitu .i. on cuartugud, Corm. Tr. 88 . ar cuartugad an c[h]atha after he went round the battle, ML² 1792 . an doman do chúartugud tís ┐ túas ┐ ina timchill `to go round' (of circumnavigation), Maund. 155 . ag cúartugudh criche Connacht `wandering . . . through C.', BS 134.17 . nír fhéad cách a chuardoghadh `no man could have faced it', Aithd. D. 60.41 . Fig. visiting, penetrating, assailing, afflicting : truma ná gach trén-ghalar / a chumha gum chuartughadh, Miscell. Celt. Soc. 338.8 . doighthe cuartaighthe croidhe `pangs that search my heart', Bard. P. 35.4 .

(b) act of searching (a place), reconnoitring, exploring; search: do buí E. . . . a[c] cuartughudh na cathrach, Stair Erc. 2203 . C. . . . do dhul do chuartachudh a Muigh-Luirg `to reconnoitre M.', AU iii 40.2 . ní bhíodh ó chleasradh na con / . . . / tríocha céad gan chuardughadh `exploring' (Gloss.), Ir. Syll. Poetry 61 § 11 . lámh chúartaighthi Chlann gC. `hand that searches C.C.' (of a patron), Ériu ix 165 § 21 . an cuartughadh crith-eaglach search, hunt (fig. of confession), TSh. 2314 .

(c) seeking, searching, looking for (a person): co ndeochatar . . . do chuardughadh i sliab n-U. `to search (for him)', Laws i 68.9 Comm.

(d) act of examining, perusing (documents, etc.): gan na scríbhne d'fhaicsin nó do chuardughadh `not having . . . searched the records', Keat. ii 6169 . ag cuártughadh na sgriobtúireadh = examining, Acts xvii 11 . a nuáir do ní cúartughadh air fhuil = maketh inquisition for, Psalms ix 12 . cúartughadh nó rannsughadh do dheúnamh ar = examinandi (of vocation of postulants), Rial. S.F. 249 . gan Cuartughadh . . . do dheunamh cia d'ar Cóir é `without making an Enquiry . . . after the Owner', Donlevy 96.x .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. cummae or
Last Revised: 2013


Forms: cumbai, chumbu, chummai, cuma

io, n. vn. of con-ben. ? g s. cumbai, Corp. Gen. 203.5 . d s. chumbu, Críth G. 139 . On chummai, Ml. 115b3 see below. cuma f., IGT Decl. § 3 (coma proscribed form). Verbs § 67 .

1 act of cutting, carving, hacking, destroying , butchering : dá mér in[n]a chumbu chóir (of a flitch of bacon), Críth G. 139 . direnaiter crotha cummai `díre is paid for maimed figures', BCrólige 64 . brisiud cnama ┐ cumma tuinne, LL 13868 . cumbae hUae mBriuin `destruction', AU i 326.x . i[c] cummai ┐ oc letrad trénḟer, TTr.² 1529 . athcuma . . . .i. . . . cuma co aith, Laws i 234.26 Comm.

2 act of shaping, fashioning, composing : i doríndi uaím ┐ cuma ar tus, MacCarthy 286.23 . uaim, ┐ cumu, ┐ druinuchus `cutting out', Laws ii 154.7 Comm. in áirc . . . iarna cuma ┐ iarná cumdach shaped, LB 123a45 . dia chuma ┐ dia midhemhain na criche, RC xliii 68.13 . ica cumma ┐ ica certugud (of ship Argo), LL 30959 ( TTr. 140 ). mac in tṡaír . . . / do chumma in chláir ina chirt, Ériu ix 49.1 . cuigeal . . . aca . . . a (= do ?) chuma shægail cach duine (of fates), TTebe 1321 . celcc do chuma, BNnÉ 89.39 . gan an creidemh do chuma ré na chéill acht a chiall do chuma risan ccreidemh, Mac Aingil 116 - 7 . ? im chuma(id) bíd fris `preparing food', RC ii 388.2 . ? gan beith ag cuma re ced do sasadh attempting, undertaking , BCC 68.11 . mithid dam comma Ceilbe `to make verse on C.', Metr. Dinds. iii 54.1 . lucht cummæ in sceoil-si, CCath. 6160 . an bhrég do chor a ccuma / ar son na séd saoghalda, IGT Introd. § 60 . cuma a fheart ní fhéadainnse `I can not describe his wonders', PBocht 11.12 . clū a ceardcha na cuma, O'R. Poems 2068 ` composition ', Gloss. gan lucht cuma ar cráoib N., IGT Decl. ex. 170 . le cuma a aignidh féin `by means of the inventions of his own brain', Content. xvi 183 . gur chuirestair . . . glósnathe filedh fuithe da cuma ┐ da cumhdach, BNnÉ 265.26 . ? Cf. bíodh re gach cuma dar ceangladh / urra urrlamh, DDána 111.26 . ? ní da cuma i tarmforcenn, IT iii 28.5 .

3 shape, form, appearance : in cétach co cumma glan, Metr. Dinds. iv 220.15 . fuath ┐ cumma in choindelbra, LB 121a50 . doradsat cuma na Trae furre, Aen. 1208 . cetharochair a cuma `fouredged was its shape', CCath. 17 . aluinn cuma do da chos, BS 18.23 . cuma crut[h]ach, Marco P. 103 . ? cuicthi i cuic cummi, ar is cuma la .u. cinta dosliat . . . .u. cumbae cinad, O'Curry 811 ( H 3.18, 375a ). ba cruthach . . . eter méit ┐ chórai ┐ chummai, TTr.² 362 . gan locht cuma ar craoibh n-Aise, DDána 99.33 . ní chongbann a chuma anos, O'Gr. Cat. 555.z . ? dá mbeith Dia ag cuma (leg. a gcuma) fa cheart in His true form, DDána 23.1 . cuma, deilbh, Eg. Gl. 151 . imdheanta, faicsiona, cuma, 412 . a chuma ar gach neach a-nos / gomadh truma an bhreath bhéaras it is apparent on each one, Dán Dé xxi 25 .

4 In prep. phrases: ní bátar i nHére óic a cumma dóib like them, LU 1513 (MU). tolcha corra . . . / ar choma chíge cédmhná (proscribed), IGT Verbs ex. 578 . i gcuma báis, PBocht 4.47 . lecc lógmar . . . fó chuma grene ┐ ésca resembling, Todd Lect. vi 67.8 . ar cuma an oirnigh doníther don bradan `in the form of', BCC 108.28 . a ccuma na ccreach archena `like the rest of the prey', Hugh Roe² 208.14 . cumma cáich like (with) everybody else, LU 3110. 3163 . cumma cháich, Ériu iv 98.6 . i cumai caich, Lism. L. xx 16 . hi cuma chaigh, Leb. Gab.(i) 200.23 . hi cumaidh cāich, ZCP vi 259.2 .

5 In adv. phrases: foróenchummi gl. identidem, Sg. 14b1 . luid . . . C. fon cumma cetna similarly, LU 8874 ( FB 67 ). fon cumma cetna, CRR 26 . TTr.² 988 . a cumma cetno, IT iii 243.255 . dotháet ass fón cumma sin, TBC-LL² 2304 . fon cuma sein, Cog. 162.29 .

As predicate of copula in a variety of idioms.

6 is c.¤ x fri y x is like, the same as y: nitachummese friusom gl. mihi autem, Wb. 20c25 . ní c.¤ fri cach crieid, Ml. 85c14 . nídat chummai frisnammoltu dográes gl. nihil commone, 115b3 (artificial pl. form rather than attrib. g s.). nir chumma nech ris im chath `there was none to match him in battle', Metr. Dinds. iv 344.73 . gein bad chumma fri C., i 36.111 . nad rabi remaib . . . fiallach bad cumma gaisced frisin dínisin, LL 32166 ( TTr. 1355 ). Adv. is cuma no do gaib aire fri aithech `it affects the chief equally with the plebeian', Laws iv 68.4 . Note also: bá cuma dán dib linaib (Cú Ch. and Fer Diad), LU 6003 . ceall bes cuma a cill fein, Laws iii 76.4 Comm. cumma ┐ sed ┐ samail a tri cuaich, BB 35a16 .

7 With ocus: ní cumme et tuss[u] unlike thee, Wb. 6b25 . nicumme et messe, 7b13 . nicumme et sissi, 14a30 . ni cumme ┐ M., 34a6 . mad cumme imned á cheli et a imned fessin, 20c6 . ni cummæ ┐ vocatiuus , Sg. 208a11 . is cumma ┐ timthirecht bech i lló ánli, LU 7558 ( BDD 139 ). cumme . . . ┐ sengobi `like an old smith', Mon. Tall. 134.4 . mad cumma ech ┐ ech, ZCP viii 217.11 . With nó: beag nach cuma cuaille fáil / dhod chréachtnughadh . . . / nó sibh do chrochadh iar gcioth to hang you up after a shower is almost the same thing as rending you with a hedge-stake (to an old cloak), Hackett² xxxi 5 . With follg. clause: is cumma no cinged . . . ┐ no chessed fén he travelled just like a waggon, LU 6844 ( BDD 41 ). With follg. clause with vb. in subj. impf. it is just as if: is cumme et ní imdibthe gl. circumcisio tua praeputium facta est, Wb. 1d17 . Without conj.: is cumme bid pugnator asberad gl. pro: pugnator, Ml. 67a8 . iscumme nibad móidem, Wb. 2b14 . With amail: is cuma dhuille an ḟeadha . . . / amail nobeith grāin chatha, Ériu iii 164 § 20 .

8 As adv. antecedent of rel. vb. equally, in the same way : is cummae mbis menmae cechtar de fri togais alali gl. par ad dicipiendum, Ml. 31a23 . condibcumme donduccam uili gl. ut idem sapiamus, Wb. 24a22 . iscummae ṁ bis ualitudo enartae ┐ ualitudo sonartae gl. tam . . . quam, Ml. 61a33 . conid cumme aramber biuth huacechrét `equally', 69a18 . cumma arangairtís gortai ┐ íttaid díb na hubla repelled both hunger and thirst, RC ix 474.21 ( LU 1695 ). cumma no slaided riam ┐ iarma, LU 5921 (TBC). is cumma tégtis fir ┐ mná i cathaib, IT i 193.25 . is cumma gebes a rer, o rig ┐ o aithech, PH 4011 . Cf. cuma frisidngair `of equal status corresponding to him', Bretha 2 .

9 With forms of as-beir (ráidid) and follg. clause as he was saying it etc.: cuma do-bi aga radha ┐ ad-bert in læidh ann asa haithli, ZCP viii 548.12 . is [c]uma ro bui aca radh[a sin ┐ ro] leic, Grail 4103 . cumma dobátar oc a ráda ┐ doṡáidseat a slega, LB 274a21 ( SG 55.19 ). cuma dó oca ráda ┐ do scáil, SG 56.18 . as cuma do bhái aga radha, ┐ dorinne an duan so, BNnÉ 267.15 . Cf. 1 cuma (ant am, v.l.) rabadar-sum . . . ragreis, TTebe 4417 .

10 is c.¤ la x y x makes no distinction between y (and someth. else): coma .i. ab eo [quod est] communis. Inde . . . cuma lem .i. is coimdes cipē diib, Corm. Y 221 . iscumme lessom tect fosmachtu rechto et fognam doídlaib he makes no distinction between submitting etc., Wb. 19d11 . is c.¤ leissem bid. f it is the same, he holds, as though it were f, Sg. 10a11 . is c.¤ limm etir ph.f. , 4 . is cumma lem bed i taulchuba ḟína no beth mo chend I feel as if my head were in a vat of wine, Fraech 45 . Hence x doesn't care about y: cuma .i. inann no maith ut est cuma lium cid toll mo lenn, O'Dav. 365 . ben las(a)mbi cuma cip cia las fia a woman who will sleep with anybody, BCrólige 44 . couma lē cip srīan cotagaib, ZCP viii 103.z . cuma lē gan Iarla ann she won't miss an Earl, Aithd. D. 38.9 . cuma lim, for F., Airne F. 238 . conid cuma les bas ┐ betha d'fagbail cares not whether he lives or dies, TTebe 4019 . cuma leamh . . . / mo shaeghal, BCC 192.23 . is cuma leis tús nó deireadh, TSh. 865 . nír bhó cuma lá haon . . . cia haca las a mbeith ball dia bhallaibh `contended with each other', AFM vi 2370.17 .

11 is c.¤ do x it is all the same for x: cuma dhuit .i. ni meisde dhuit, O'Cl. is cumme dó bidimdibthe gl. nonne praeputium illius, in circumcisione reputabitur? Wb. 1d20 . nibu chumme dúib ce bad hé frisandénte it would be a different matter for you if you did it to him, 9c24 . is cumme duit legens est ┐ qui legit , Sg. 193b5 . nech dia mbi c.¤ eibirt ┐ aicdi, Laws i 118.22 Comm. is cumma dam ce bát é éc tíasur, LU 7882 ( BDD 147 ). is cumma dúit . . . Nī dīgēltar foraib, ZCP viii 318.24 . i gcruth gurab cuma dhó a bhás nó a bheatha, TSh. 96 .

12 Without follg. prep.: cuma a dteasda uan dom aois it matters not, Dán Dé xvii 5 . teagh ríogh Ch. cuma a luadh, DDána 119.23 `níor mhiste', Gloss. cuma(dh) dhe no matter, Luc. Fid. 4177 .

In n. loc.: Ath Cuma in tSheisir Ford of the Slaughter of the Six, AFM i 244.y .

Compd. cumagnais `equal customs', expl. of comaithces, Laws iv 68.1 .

Cf. caumu.


Cite this: eDIL s.v. dígaindecht or


n ā, f. (dígaind) abundance, stoutness: ba hingantach ailgine in croind meit ┐ truma ┐ d.¤ in blāith bulid luxuri- ance (?), LB 221b65 . re tul-buirbe na Tuaiscertach ┐ re digainndechta (sic) a duthchasa, MR 258 . a dualgus dígaindechta `as the price of indemnification', Ériu i 126.20 .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. dírím or


Forms: dirim, dirímh

adj (rím)

(a) countless, innumerable: dirim gl. innumeros, Gild. Lor. 234 . bá dírim leó in slúag, LU 3782 . slocht nd.¤ , SR 5102 . re slúag dírim, Fél. July 15 . buiden dírimh, TBC-LL¹ 5497 (St.). rancatar popul dírim ann as cech aird, PH 1122 . Fir Domnand d.¤ , Metr. Dinds. ii 46.19 . ní fhail cenn conní a ārim is drem dīrim, ACL iii 303 § 11 . drong dírimh dferoibh Ereann, AFM i 59 . Adv. roboi cáin Cormaic . . . co adbal ┐ co dirímh , ZCP i 472.4 .

(b) In wider sense of magnitude in general immeasurable, boundless, excessive: ri dorigne ilar mil | fond ḟairrce ṅdermair nd.¤ , SR 302 . is dírim failte muintire nime, FA 19 . ba hadbal ┐ ba d.¤ truma in chísa, ZCP xi 60.19 . ba hadbul ┐ ba dirim met ┐ aidble in craind, Grail 1459 . is dirím méit trocaire Dé, PH 6474 . ba dirim fúath Maic Murchada do lucht Átha cliath, Expugn. Hib. 23 .

As subst. d.¤ a tonn the multitude of its waves, CCath. 1240 . go rop hí tres d.¤ na tána 'na torchair leis díb one of the three uncountable things, TBC-LL¹ 4627 ; cf. 2656 . The phrase d.¤ slóig may contain this word or dírimm, q.v. See also dírraim, and cf. dirim .i. imad in gloss on dirmann, O'Dav. 653 . See dírma. a dirim slóigh, numerous host, CCath. 466 . RC xviii 290.4 (leg. dírim sluaig). tainic mac B. ┐ Dal cCais ina ndírim deighshluaigh, Cog. 216 . Cf. díríme.

1 do

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 do or


Forms: dond, donaib, dunaib, donab, dona, dond, donaibhí, dunaibh, donahí, dom, domsa, damsa, duit, dait, deit, det, dit, duid, daid, duitt, duitsiu, deitsiu, detsiu, détso, detsi, dutsi, d, do, dóu, dou, dáu, dossom, dosom, d, di, díi, disi, dúnn, dunn, duún, dúun, dún, dun, duin, dú(i)nn, dúnni, dunni, dúni, dúinniu, dúnai, dúib, duib, duíb, dib, dib, daoibh, dúibsi, dúbsi, dóib, doib, duaib, dáib, doaib, doibsom, dom, dum, dot, dut, dot, dod, do, do, dia, doa, diar, dear, dar, dia n-, doa n-, dua, dá, dia n-, da, dona, donach, do

prep. with dat., leniting (see GOI §§ 435 . 832 ).

Forms: do (usual at all periods); du often in O.Ir., Wb. 5c14 , 33b6 ; Ml. 15a16 , 16a7 , 90a7 , b13 ; Acr. 13b3 ; Thes. ii 240.16 , 241.4 , 242.10 (Ardm.), 294.4 ( SP ii 16 ), 45.29 ; du Chaissil, AU 714 ; du for fogail, SCC § 13 . dó, Ml. 15d3 . dú, Wb. 5d19 .

In Mid and early Mod. Ir. often da, dá, esp. before cech: da cech tráth, LB 261b38 ; dá cech duine, PH 3985 ; dá bar n-óid, 5963 ; da gach nduine, Keat. iii 2087 (poem).

Vowel generally elided before vowel of f: d'agbáil, SCC § 29 . d'is cech réta, § 32 ( do facbail, Laws iv 206.14 ; do foghnumh, 250.6 Comm. ).

Freq. confused with 1 de, di, q.v.

With article: sg. dond irsolcoth, Wb. 22d27 . dond lethtomus, BCr. 31b3 . dund fercach, Ml. 22d13 . Thes. i 498.21 (Ardm.). dund insi, SCC § 17 . dunt foirbthetaid, Ml. 14c8 . dunt imluad, 15a17 . don chomursain, PH 2748 . don fhairind, 4959 . pl. donaib, Wb. 7b1 , Sg. 69b7 . dunaib, Acr. 8a2 . Thes. i 497.16 (Ardm.). dundaib (archaic), Thes. ii 247.12 ( Cambr. 38a ). donab, 33.28 . Mid. and mod. Ir. dona.

With art. and í: dond, Wb. 3c31 . pl. donaibhí, Sg. 156b7 . dunaibh, Wb. 2c10 . donahí, Ml. 46c7 .

With pron. suff.: 1 s. dom (usual in Wb. and Sg.), dam (in Ml.). domsa, Wb. 3c33 , etc. damsa, TBC-LL¹ 1110 . 2 s. duit (usual in Wb. and Sg.). dait common in Ml., TBC-I¹ 1056 , 1209 , 1334 (LU). deit, Wb. 6a11 , 12 ; 28d15 , etc. LL 275a50 . det, Wb. 5b29 . dit, 5b32 . Sg. 179a4 . TBC-I¹ 1056 , 1209 , 1334 (YBL). duid, TBC-I¹ 531 . daid, 1042 (YBL). duitt, PH 7915 . duitsiu, Wb. 6b14 . deitsiu, 30a8 . detsiu, 32c12 . détso, 6c7 . detsi, IT i 130.27 . dutsi, PH 4092 . 3 s. m. and n. commonly d, Wb. 1c12 ; 1d20 , etc. do, 2a2 ; 2c6 , etc. dóu, Trip. 218.24 . dou, Todd Lect. vi 57.10 . dáu, Trip.² 2862 . Trip. 338.22 . Thes. ii 294.3 ( SP ii 15 ). With emphasizing part. vowel usually short: dossom, Wb. 6d10 ; 9d8 . dosom, 3b7 , etc., Ml. 14a4 . f. d, Wb. 11c13 , etc. di, 7b3 . díi, Fél. 4.9 . With emphasizing part.: disi, ACL iii 309.10 . 1 p. dúnn, Wb. 2d13 ; 25c9 , etc. dunn, 26b1 . duún, 3a12 ; 4b10 ; 25c10 . dúun, 4b11 ; 10c21 . dún, 14c8 ; 20d15 , etc. dun, 14c9 . duin, FB § 49 . In later lang. dú(i)nn. With emphasizing part.: dúnni, Wb. 1a3 ; 3c15 . dunni, Ml. 110d12 , 13 . dúni, 121b13 . dúinniu, IT i 129.2 . dúnai (: clūdhai), ACL iii 298 § 58 . 2 p. dúib, Wb. 3b8 , 12 ; 6c25 , etc. duib, 13b3 ; 33b8 . duíb, 24a26 . In Mid. Ir. also dib, PH 761 , 1075 ; dib, 1433 . In later lang. daoibh. With emphasizing part.: dúibsi, Wb. 3b13 . dúbsi, 15d8 (a prima manu). 3 p. dóib, Wb. 6c24 ; 30d8 , etc. doib, 1d6 ; 12b2 . duaib, Thes. ii 238.13 ; 240.17 (Ardm.). dáib, PH 7392 . doaib, Sg. 50a3 . AU 687 , 797 . SR 7272 (sic leg.). With emphasizing part.: doibsom, Wb. 13a31 . ¤sem, 28d19 .

With poss. 1 s. dom: dum, Thes. ii 241.12 ; dumm imdídnaad, 13 . 2 s. dot: dut, Ml. 2d5 . Mid. Ir. dot, dod, do do. 3 s. dia; doa, Anecd. iii 48.5 ; 58.9 . 1 p. diar, Wb. 2d2 . dear (archaic), Thes. ii 245.8 (Cambr.) Mid.Ir. also dar: dár ṅdeeb-ni, PH 709 . 2 p. do far fírianugud, Wb. 3b27 . do bor mbrethugud, FB § 57 . do bar taig, SR 4829 . dia bhar saighidh, BNnÉ 303 § 12 . 3 p. dia n-. doa n-, Fianaig. 34.12 . Mon. Tall. § 59 , 62 . dua, RC xi 452.141 . Later also dá. See ZCP xxiv 227 ; xxv 254 .

With rel. dia n-: indí dia ruchretsid-si, Wb. 8c11 . intí dia ndílgid-si, 14d24 . secht mbráthre dia mbo . . . carcar, Fél. July 10 . dua mberar, Mon. Tall. § 11 . See 1 is. Mid. Ir. also da (dá): dontí da tucus, IT i 124.22 . With neg. dona, donach: dona-robu gnath, Ml. 129d3 . fer . . . dunar-ructhae act oentuistiu, Thes. ii 241.9 (Ardm.). do nach bis on to him who has it not, Laws iv 240 .

With alaile (araile): dialailiu, Ml. 87d13 . IT i 67.8 . díarailiu, FB § 55 . diaroli fir, PH 1483 .

To, for, etc. Used in O.Ir. Glosses (a) to translate Lat. ad, Wb. 3b14 ; 30d10 ; 16b5 (cid do uáir gl. etsi ad horam, the Lat. being literally translated), Tur. 35 . Ml. 15a16 ; 16a8 . Sg. 3b30 ; 67b10 ; 188a18 ; 217a7 . Thes. i 498.23 . (b) to render a dat., Wb. 9b8 ; 18c2 ; 28a5 . Ml. 2d10 ; 15b8b ; 17c11 . Sg. 20a6 ; 41b12 ; 69b7 ; 193a3 ; 209b6 ; 214a3 . Acr. 8a2 ; 13b3 . PCr. 65b2 . Thes. ii 34.29 ; cf. Caeur .i. do Chaieur (Cáieur being explained as dat. of Cáier), Corm. Y 698 . Hence:

A Introducing the terminus ad quem; in phrases expressing purpose, etc.

I Of destination after vbs. of motion, etc.: cumtach don fothu building to the foundation, Wb. 8c18 . téicht do Róim, Thes. ii 296.3 . lotar dia crích, FB § 56 . eirg dot thoigh, BS 44 . ho persin do persin, Sg. 209b12 . o thír do thír, SR 6835 . a inad d'inad, Laws iv 36.12 . With ellipse of vb. of motion: co cúalatar culgaire carpait dund insi (coming) to the island, SCC § 17 . Hence with pron. 3 s. n. expressing motion, see 2 dó. With abstracts: massu thol atomaig do that drives me to it, Wb. 10d26 . adcuiretar do hógi they return to integrity, Sg. 73b2 . Similarly in expressions like téit do applies to, téit do láim, gaibid do láim; dabeir d'a óid, etc. (see 1 téit, gaibid, lám, etc.).

II With follg. vn. in phrases expressing purpose.

(a) Prec. by vb.: is do immarchor chóre dotíagat it is to carry peace they come, Wb. 5a5 . todiusgadar ind anim do dénum maith, 5c18 . ní du for fogail dodeochammar-ni, SCC § 13 . dul d'fhios na sagart dá nglanadh, TSh. 375 . Cf. further: indíi adchobra-som do hícc those whom he desires to save, Wb. 28b1 . cid comarlecther foraib do daul immach that leave should be given them to go out, Mon. Tall. § 53 .

In prayers, wishes, etc., with ellipsis of vb.: Día dom chobair ar cech ṅguasacht (may) God (come) to my aid, Hy. vi 3 . cíall Dé dom imthus, Thes. ii 356.8 . dó (do +3 s. neut. pron.) to that end, for that purpose , anticipating a follg. vn. or clause or referring to a foregoing one: is do arroiéit-sa gratiam, do precept do chách, Wb. 6d14 . dó dobreth biad la Duid, | dia nertad, SR 6450 . acht má dothisad Arddrí secht nime dó ní reg-sa I will not go though . . . should come to force me, Trip.² 1355 . is do dodeochadsa . . . con-écius duib a scel-sa, Ériu ii 104 .

(b) Prec. by noun: dliged remdeicsen do dechrugud etir maithi ┐ ulcu a law of providence to distinguish between good and bad, Ml. 19d2 . huare nád robatar suin do shlund in dúildetad, Sg. 45b1 . nidat uain dia n-airlegunn thou hast no leisure to read them, Anecd. v 2 .

(c) Prec. by adj.: irlaim do dul bais, Wb. 16a3 . gilla comadas do faire dūine ríg, FB § 89 . is saidbir in spirut nóeb do thídnocul cecha maithiusa, PH 5454 . ni bfuil rí . . . is fearr do thabairt tuarustail, Ériu viii 136 . Cf. also: batar inricci du báas worthy of death, Wb. 5c14 .

III In follg. in sense of Eng. as (lit. for the purpose of being, to serve as): bíid-son do thogarthid this then is (for) a vocative, Sg. 78a2 . pauper laṡuide do fhemun he regards p. as a feminine, 64b5 . bíit a triur do anmaim ind eiúin gl. vultur et vulturus et vulturius, 93a2 . non fit do anmimm díles, 31b21 . conid riagolda caro dond ainmmnid c. is regular as the nominative, 93b5 ; 104b5 . mōrthar occa Cathluain . . . do rig foraibh, Todd Nenn. 140 . daine chaithit do biudh they eat human beings as food, RC xxxiv 308 . ó taoi dam' iarraidh d'óglách since you want me for a servant, A. Ó Dálaigh l 16 .

IV With vn. to express the idea of entering upon or continuing in a state or action: a mbátar do lepthugud when they were (on the point of?) going to bed IT i 67 . cid 'mo atai diar lenamuin? why art thou pursuing us? SR 1722 . mun beith cailleach an mhuilinn d'atach Christ frim, BS 122 . Impers.: do muintir in fhir atathar do crochad, PH 3172 . Used redundantly: int Ísu oc a raba Hiruath d'iarraid, 2841 . in banliccerd occatathar d'iarraid, Anecd. iv p. xvi = oc atathar cuingidh, p. 93 .

With poss. in passive sense: an uair bhíos dá chor amach when he is being evicted, TSh. 794 . go raibhe dá ilchéasadh so that he was being tortured, 564 .

V The construction subst. + do + vn. In sentences of the type (a) ansu liumsa ind oís anechtir dia fius it is more grievous to me that the outland folk should know it, Wb. 16d12 (where ind oís is virtual subject of the vn.) and (b) ní date leu in coimdiu do crochad it is not agreeable to them that the Lord was crucified (lit. to crucify the Lord), 8a6 (where in coimdiu is virtual object of the vn.), the O.Ir. construction is identical; in both sentences the case of the nouns oís , coimdiu is determined by their syntactical relation to the whole sentence, that of subject, while do + vn. stands in syntactical relation not to the whole sentence but to the noun, its function being that of a gerund. Similarly in the sentence: cocarad chaingnimu du denum he loved to do good deeds, Ml. 14a8 , the subst. caingnímu is the object of the sentence while du denum has the meaning for the doing, to be done. Exceptions are, however, frequent, see below. In each of the sections 1-4 the subsection (a) consists of exx. where the subst. is the virtual subject of the vn., (b) of exx. where it is the virtual object.

1 Subst. is subject of the whole sentence and therefore nom. case.

(a) dofórmaich fochricc dosom sochude do creittim tria precept that a multitude has believed through his preaching increaseth the reward for him, Wb. 1b5 . issed as brig la Dia menmae do biuth hi figraib that the mind should be in the symbols, Thes. ii 255.13 . saoth lem int aos leigind do dul ind ifern, ZCP viii 470 . ba lonn lais in mnai cuil do bith oc Hiruath he was indignant that the adulteress should be with H., PH 861 . (Infl. of Lat. accus. and infin. constr.?)

(b) is maith int óis éula do accaldam, Wb. 3c4 . is bésad leusom in fid do thóbu, 5b42 . nipu techta in briathar diadhai . . . do scriphund ind oenluc, Hib. Min. 96 . is cóir ind almsu do thabairt, PH 6136 . With accus. of subst. (in first two exx. perh. dat. for nom.): is ferr dó in almsain do thabairt, PH 4969 (= melius est elimosinam dare, LB 47b55 ). dlegar dínn ar n-imcaissin do thimorcain, PH 6870 . ba machtnadh lasna Felistindaibh na fioru nomarbdais d'faicsin do cathughadh friu, Leb. Gab.(i) 146 .

2 Subst. as object of sentence (rarer in O.Ir.).

(a) nisn-águr dom díchill I do not fear that they will neglect me, Hy. v 105 . rocúala in n-eress cetna do fhorbairt, Thes. ii 311 . ni fitir in mnai dia brath he knew not that the woman was betraying him, SR 3207 . rocuala Sattan in uli noemu do shubugud, PH 3819 . With nom. for accus.: cuirfid [diabul] na boill d'fhognum do fén, 7799 . atfét Lucás aingil do thidecht do nim, 3043 .

(b) cocarad chaingnimu du denum, Ml. 14a8 . itconnacabar bar náimtiu do bádud, PH 1713 . forcongair D. cnamu do thabairt hi cuthi, 1219 . With nom. for accus.: atbert fria múintir int apstal do thuarcain, PH 2141 . atbert Ner na hapstail do cúibrech, 1858 . atcondairc-som ind figeill . . . do dílgud, Mon. Tall. § 22 .

3 Subst. is governed by a prep.

(a) for riaguil do buith isnaib anmanaib-se dotėt híc he touches on the fact that there is a rule, Sg. 108a3 . fre terci . . . do tecmung, Mon. Tall. § 12 .

(b) hua anmmaim ailiu do thórmuch friss, Sg. 30b4 . Cain Patraic . . . cen chleirciu do marbad, Thes. ii 306 . tria doirse . . . na cathrach do forbrissiud, SR 5348 . ar meisge ó chaoraibh na fíneamhna d'ithe, TSh. 8421 .

4 Subst. in genitive relation to sentence.

(a) cui[n]chid flaithiusa Dé do thuidecht, PH 7907 .

(b) cen imcabáil `cum nobis' do epirt, Sg. 203a8 . ruc leis tásc a muintiri do marbad do E., FB § 69 . tar cend cissa ┐ indmussa do thabairt do, PH 51 . ré linn choróine do chur ar an impire, TSh. 661 .

5 The construction subst. + do + vn. may be used absolutely with force of the Lat. gerundive: ind .u. do accomol frisin fers ṅdédenach the `u' is to be added, Sg. 136a2 . um do glanad i nderiud ferso `um' is to be elided, 136a1 . Hence in continuation of prec. clause: dia n-oscailter in chomla sa ┐ diabul do ligad istech if . . . and the devil be admitted, PH 7797 . is mairg thic annsa saegul-sa ┐ na huilc-si do thecht trit, 7791 .

6 Subst. + do + vn. replacing finite tenses (esp. in annals): Góidil immorro do rad dib o Goediul Glas they are called G., Thes. ii 316 . Lugaig du gabail rige nErenn took the kingship of Ireland, MacCarthy 306 . bellum do madhmaim for hU Fiachrach, AU 815 .

B Introducing a dative.

I Introducing indirect object (generally name of a person).

(a) With trans. vbs. denoting giving, granting, assigning, offering, etc.: do-beir, daimid, do-indnaig, dálaid etc. (see under individual vbs.). With vbs. of telling, revealing, promising, etc.: in-fét (ad-fét), as-indet, (Mid. Ir. indissid), do-adbat, do-airchain, etc. Under the same head may be placed cases like: hore doninfedam etargne Crist do chách we inspire in all, Wb. 14d32 ; do Christ cachain ailli unto C. he sang praise, Fél. Apr. 26 . Exceptionally with as-beir says: asbert G. do na feoldenmaigib, PH 1432 . With vbs. of ordering, commanding, advising, etc.: lasse forcongur fírinni dúib, Wb. 19d25 . rohordaig in guth dona nemdaib, SR 606 . ro erb don mac mebrugud a aiccepta, Fél. p. 12 . molaid do advises (but molaid + acc. praises ). With vbs.of forgiving, remitting: dorolaig Dia do in n-uaill dorigni, Ml. 50d15 . romaith C. a dá trían . . . dá thigernu, LL 111b40 ( RC xiv 430 ). With vbs. of asking, entreating, praying, etc.: frecre do neoch immechomarcar duit, Sg. 197b10 . condartin do arrogáid dom what he asked of me, 209b26 . cech ní rochuinges do Dia, Thes. ii 318.39 . With vbs. of ascribing, referring, imputing, etc.: a n-adruirmed do Abracham what has been reckoned unto A., Wb. 2d7 . duaisilbi do a scribend, Thes. ii 225.28 . So also with as-beir ascribes; assigns (a name), calls: asbeir-som a n-accobor don spirut, Wb. 4b3 . ní eperr acht hilar dóib do-gres (referring to Gemini), Sg. 73a11 . is airi asberthe emisarius don buc the goat was called `emissarius', Tur. 110e . Similarly with vbs. of naming, gairmid, ainmnigid. With vbs. of allowing: issamlid léicfimmi-ni doibsom aisndis, Ml. 14d10 . nir fulaing d'ēnduine a glacudh, ZCP ix 248 . With vbs. of causing, doing (someth. to someone): imfolngi comrorcain do sochaidi, Ml. 56b9 . dogní trumai ndo causes heaviness to it, 20a19 . Of comparing, adapting, etc.: ithé sidi conṅdelggaddar do persanaib, Sg. 39a11 . dligid is entitled to takes do (later de) of pers. (see dligid).

(b) Freq. in intrans. constr. with vbs. denoting to serve, yield, obey; rule; oppose, injure, offend; satisfy, please; believe, trust; thank (atluchedar buide); assent; greet; answer, correspond; suit; indulge, spare, pity, etc.; deny, refuse (a number of these verbs show other constructions also, see s.v.): bad dú Dia fognem gl. Domino servientes, Wb. 5d19 . roirladigsetar genti do hiriss, 7c16 . sléchtid Isserninus du Pátricc, Thes. ii 241 . Currech Life . . . is terc rí dia rodamain to whom he yielded, Metr. Dinds. iii 234 . tigernaigit ┐ follamnaigit do na cóic gradaib, PH 6242 . cor urchoidigh a truma dóibh, CCath. 2075 . manu toltnaiged do, Sg. 72b6 . rochreitset do precept, Wb. 24d23 . atluchur do Dia, 3b19 . an olcc dia cocéitbani to which thou consentest, 1c10 . co robennach cach díb dia chele, Thes. ii 335 . frisgair in testemin-se dondaib dligedaib, Sg. 193b6 . immidaircet do Christ which are appropriate to C., Ml. 2d4 . arcessi do neoch bes meldach less, Wb. 4c19 . dlomis Fíacc dóib, Thes. ii 242 . Also with vbs. of happening, befalling, meeting, etc. , including certain cases of intrans. vbs. of motion: ni do cach brethir tecming persona not all vbs. have personal inflection, Sg. 161a1 . is ann dorala dosom a denam, Thes. ii 299 . amal forcoémnacair do Loegairiu, FB § 83 . doroacht saegul sír damsa, Ériu iv 132 . intan tanic dó lobrai, Thes. ii 318 .

(c) With many adjs. and abstracts denoting proximity, likeness, equality, identity and their opposites; relationship; figurative relations (fitness, propriety, possession, etc.) and feelings (in sense towards, Lat. erga). In many cases it is hard to decide whether the ex. belongs to this or the following section (II): is nesa do geintib, Wb. 2b17 . fri praenomen cosmail do, Sg. 28a15 . is cotarsne don dúalig in sualig, Wb. 9b8 . immar-bdais meic dó, PH 4097 . húere atta mbrāthir dūnd since they are kinsmen of ours, ZCP viii 316 . combat irlithi geinti do hiriss obedient to the faith, Wb. 7c14 . is do is dír anní is psalmus , Hib. Min. 281 . is foluss dún it is evident to us, Sg. 40b14 . rop trócar rí nime dún, Hy. vi 23 . do bhádar cennsa do Chiarán, SG 3 . serc Dǽ dúibsi et for serc-si do Dia `God's love to you' (rather your love for God, etc. , see III (c) below), Wb. 18b21 . is miscuis do Dia, 3d33 . écennais . . . do na pecdachaib, PH 3478 . do marbadh iad ó esgcáirdib dhóib by enemies of theirs, SG 7 .

(d) After certain interjections: monuar dhamh, BS 40 . ach ach do ail alas for the stone! LL 181a32 . ach do phéin, ACL iii 236 § 10 . uch d'aithis, LB 106b57 . uchachan . . . don gabad fil ar mo chinn, ACL iii 233 . fochen duit a Loig, SCC § 16 (cf. fochen Conall . . . fochen Cet, IT i 103 , 104 ). mochen duib, IT i 99 .

II Introducing the person (or thing) interested in an action, state, event, or circumstance.

1 Dat. of interest in strict sense (including the dativus commodi vel incommodi) after vbs., substantives, and adjs.

(a) fo besad fir trebuir crenas tíir dia chlaind, Wb. 29d23 . condaig indocbáil dia thigerni et non sibi ipsi , 8d20 . roshuidig . . . manistir dó (= sibi monasterium conlocavit), Lat. Lives 91 . tafnetar coin alta dí wolves hunted (it) for her, Hy. v 60 . ni accim maith dúib I see no good for you, TBC-LL¹ 1780 . noco treciub duit . . . immāin tāna bó Cualṅge I will not abandon for thy sake, 1661 . dona hurtroighib rodolba Banba do macaib Miled which B. fashioned for (= against) the sons of M., Corm. Y 949 (dat. incomm.). nech diuscai debuith dia brathair who stirs up mischief against, Ériu vii 162 . cuimnigidh . . . do clandaibh Cuinn a n-anuabhar remember against, ZCP xiv 229 .

Freq. with parts of body, somet. in combination with a poss. pron.: ní forroim cid drisiuc for toind dó, TBC-I¹ 1206 . co rogab sonn in dúne dóib dar sróin, Metr. Dinds. iii 82 . gebid dúrna dar a gnúis dó, PH 2331 .

The dat. incommodi is freq. after vbs. (both trans. and intrans.) denoting a hostile movement, attack, etc.: dosleic dóib he shoots at them, SCC § 7 . focherd N. aurchor dó, TBC-I¹ 1292 . rodibairg in ngai dó, RC iii 178 . atraig cech fer di alailiu, IT i 67 . dús in fagbad . . . taidbsiu (leg. taidbsin?) do thir na talmain, SR 2584 , cf. 5823 . mairfit Ulaid a mblechtach do gressaib ┐ glammaib . . . dar cend a n-enig the U. will kill their milch-kine (to ward off) attacks and lampoons (in Folge von Beleidigungen und Satiren, Wind.), TBC-LL¹ 1737 .

(b) After nouns and adjs.: rop ámm tusmeda do mnái in rig, Lat. Lives 66 . oénach diar n-ócaib a gathering-place for our youths, Metr. Dinds. ii 80 . lx bliadan robo lān do Patraic, Thes. ii 313 . ba terc cach n-adbar dó, Imr. Brain i 52 . in lám is dílmain dom my disengaged hand, Fél. p. 200 . Esp. after a subst. employed as pred. with the copula: sóire do chách ar sóire-ni, Wb. 14b11 . togu damsa aní sin, Thes. ii 225.18 . issi in bānmartre du duiniu, 247 . ní lesainm dait Cuculaind, FB § 11 . anas muir glan don nói . . . is mag meld . . . damsa, Imr. Brain § 34 .

Note also: attroilli dúnn delegi (= diligi) a nobis he deserves of us to be loved by us, Wb. 2d13 . is doib-sin rochan in senchaid of them the shanachie has sung, Fianaig. 4 . sir in baile . . . don litin search the town for the porridge, SG 243 . do bhatur . . . ag iarraidh Erenn do scela Tana, ZCP ix 244 . atcondairc-siom ind figeill . . . do dílgud i Tamlachti do Chaindech excused for (in honour of) C., Mon. Tall. § 22 .

2 After the copula folld. by an adj. or abstract denoting what is desirable, advantageous, usual, fit, lawful, right, indifferent, necessary, etc. , or the reverse, for a person, the virtual subject being generally a vn., infinitive phrase or clause, e.g. is áil (maith, olc, mairg, bés, gnáth, cet, cóir, dliged, geiss, cumme, écen, etc.) dó; further in a variety of expressions such as: is fír (gó) dó; is cian (éim, fota, mithid) dó. For exx. see these words, and cf. further: nír fhírda dó dul don chath, SR 6903 . ba féliu duit th'immfholuch oldás teiched it were nobler for you to hide yourself, TBC-LL¹ 1973 . is col dúin dia foirglem it is a sin for us to assert it, Fél. Ep. 98 . cathugud ceilgi as clē dūind, ACL iii 327 § 30 . ni hidan lais dondhí da taberr a thaechtad he does not consider it clean dealing for the person . . . to keep it, Mon. Tall. § 41 . Contrast: is maith dom it is good for me with is m. limm I deem it a good thing: is lesc lim-sa inní sin, bar C., teiched ria n-oenfer . . . Ni lesc ám duit-siu ón, bar F., dáig techfet-sa remut-su, TBC-LL¹ 2875 . ní ba fochen leu a forcital the teaching will not be welcome to them, Wb. 30d7 . is fochen dóib they are welcome, IT i 99 . is ced dó a bith marb masa ced ra Dia let him die (lit. he has leave to die) if God permits, Moling § 62 . in annso is áil duit airisiumh? — Massedh as áil le Dia, as ann, BNnÉ 17 § 30 . in tol damsa . . . anadh sunn? is it (God's) will for me to remain here? 79 § 152 .

3 Used as the Lat. dativus ethicus (dative of pers. interested in a statement) with an imperative; only with pronouns: an dún we pray thee to wait, CRR § 6 . apair dam fri mac Saráin, Ériu iii 96 § 1 . teilg-su dún orchur forru, Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 32 . ling dūinn lēim dona lēimennuibh sin rolingthea, BS 62 .

4 Used with subst. vb. to denote loosely possession, appurtenances, etc. ; freq. with an adv. of place, in which case it is hardly to be distinguished from cases given under II 1 (a) above: issed file do hodie this is (the form) it has at present, Sg. 140a3 . ataat ilsenman dosuidiu it has many sounds, Wb. 12c46 . dechor inna pían bete donaib pecthachaib, 13c26 . fail a mor-abba dam I have good cause, TBC-LL¹ 219 . ni bia tarba do draidechta duit, PH 2187 . ni be mundteras dó fri banscala let him have no friendship with women, Mon. Tall. § 61 . Exceptionally with copula: ? combed doib foraithmet bed torbach that there should be to them a profitable recollection, Ml. 23a2 . bid duit rige Lagen co brath, Thes. ii 341.19 . céinmair dia mba findchride, Imr. Brain § 28 .

5 With subst. vb. in the idiom: atú dó I am concerned with him, have to deal with him, generally with hostile significance I am angry with him, have something against him; oft. in impers. constr.: ished inso romboth dossom that is why they were angry with him, Wb. 19a9 , cf. 5b31 . is hed dathar dún gl. maledicimur quod speramus, 28d4 , cf. 21c9 . ni nach cin aile notaid dom it is for no other fault you are hostile to me, 19d26 . cid tai-siu don mac? what have you against the lad? TBC-LL¹ 1041 , cf. 940 , 1144 . rohinnisedh dó in fāth 'ma rabas dó, Moling § 51 . cidh 'ma bfuile damh?, ZCP x 10 . tacram a scel . . . atái dam `the matter with which thou reproachest me', Ériu vii 225 . The idiom: cid di atái? what ails thee? LL 202a9 , where do is used with neut. rel. pron., may perhaps rather be explained as an elliptical construction under the head A II; as also the later idiom: gá táim dó (why should I dwell on it?): furtacht Banba . . . gá ttá mé dho . . . ag so an té dar tairrngireadh, 3 C 3, 633.11 .

6 Used with ellipse of copula in the interrogation cid dó . . . ? why (does) he . . . ? (lit. what is it to him? with emphasis on pron.): cid dait gan a gabail aní gabas cách? why dost thou not take . . . ? TBC-LL¹ 3042 . cid dún can techt i n-agid Conculaind? why should we not go? TBC-I¹ 1484 (LU). cid duit mo ṡarugadh-sa do dhenamh?, ZCP viii 553 . cid dait-siu ná bad lat in curathmír why shouldst not thou have the champion's bit? FB § 8 .

7 Often used in impers. constr. after the copula to introduce the virtual subj. when the predicate is (a) an adverbial expression, or somet. (b) an adj., or (c) an interrog. adv.

(a) ní úainni duib-si ye are not from us, Wb. 18b9 . ní i n-óen diaithir doib they are not in one orbit, BCr. 18d5 . fora fóessam dún may we be under their protection, Hy. v 106 . bá doigh leo comad a sídib di, TE § 5 ( IT i 120 ). fa righ ┐ sagart Melcisideic ┐ mar an gceudna do Chríost, Eochairsg. 26 . Especially after DE followed by noun in pl. to denote class to which the virtual subject belongs (see Bergin, Ériu xi 149 ): de Iudéib do Barnaip, di geintib do Thit B. was a Jew, T. a Gentile, Wb. 18d6 . di Grecaib dóib huili, Sg. 31b2 . robo do mnáib glicca in domain di, Acall. 7426 . Note also: is de corpore dissi (i.e. the eye), Wb. 12a26 . Freq. joined with expressions of time, the copula being omitted: bliadain lan dó oc tinól na flede, FB § 1 . for tuili doib . . . cethracha lá ┐ aidche, SR 2523 , cf. 4820 .

(b) ní segda dom, Trip.² 1765 . madh calma duitsiu inā dósom if thou art more valiant than he, Ériu v 152 . conadh treisi don toictiu inas duin that Fate is stronger than we, CCath. 4072 .

(c) can duibse? whence are ye? Sg. 242a2 . can deit a ingen? TE § 5 ( IT i 120 ). cinnas do a rad . . . ? why should he say . . .?, Thes. ii 311.19 . cinnus do sluagh tire Temrach? how is it with the host . . .?, Snedg. u. Mac R 12 .

8 Freq. used after vbs. in impers. construction, esp. compds. with imm- denoting reciprocal action: ní 'manacige dó frim-sa he shall not see me, Ériu ii 194 . comorogaib dóib a ndís the pair grappled with each other, Metr. Dinds. iii 82 . imatarla doib, Anecd. v 11 . imatarraid dūn, ib. immotaéth dóib both sides will fall, LL 275a30 . immacomsinitar dóib, FB § 38 . With intrans. vbs.: ó thánic dóib co dérgud, FB § 80 . ó do chomraic dóib i n-aeninud when they met, SG 360 . anais don Caillin i Tul[aig] C. remained, Fen. 180 . With subst. vb.: fil dún ó thossuch dúle cen áiss we are without age, Imr. Brain § 44 . fochtus Diarmait innus na bé ndi, RC xi 129 . Cf. further: robá-sa i n-imṡnim mor . . . co roglé dam till I arrived at a decision, IT i 98 . co roglé dó a caithim uile, BNnÉ 300 . co tair damh-sai aislingi . . . d'indisin duit till I have finished telling you my dream, MacCongl. 117 . With ellipse of vb.: as tir duit get thee out of the country, RC xx 24 . dún sís dond ath down with us to the ford, TBC-I¹ 1193 . dochum na chuchdiri dóib, Mon. Tall. § 12 .

III Introducing agent after passive (finite), verbal of necess., and (most freq.) vn.

(a) After pass. vb.: imberthar fidcella dún let us play chess, SCC § 3 . toirimt[h]er tōraind in lis don mnái, Corm. Y 502 . doberar dam duid gid ni nar chuindgis thou shalt receive from me, YBL 167a4 . doces do co roba ben he perceived (it seemed to him?) that it was a woman, Todd Nenn. 210 . cumachta na flatha dia tardad in fín, LL 282b3 `by whom the wine was given', Meyer, GJ iv 217 .

(b) After verbal of necess. and participial adjs. compounded with in-: ní tabarthi dímess do neoch for nach n-énirt, Wb. 6c19 . ni denti duib-si anisin, Ml. 82a7 . connarb inríata dó in chonar, FB § 36 . is inchreidte dóibh they ought to believe, Eochairsg. 21.34 .

(c) After vn. both of trans. and intrans. vbs.: airitiu colno do Christ, Wb. 31d2 . tre atlogud buide donaib nóibaib thanksgiving by the saints, 17a3 . slige dund aingiul inna nAssar the slaying of the A. by the angel, Ml. 16c12 . rena richtin du Pool before P. reached it, Thes. i 495 ( Ardm. 107b ). fer do marbad do Moise, SR 3726 . scrin Dochoma do briseadh doaibh, AU 797 . (Intrans. vb.) magthad lasuidiu cretem do geintib, Wb. 5a1 . oc techt dam dar Maig L., SCC § 34 . buid domsa i n-iriss, Wb. 5b20 . iure feidligthe disi i n-ógi by the principle of its remaining in integrity, Sg. 16a14 .

With IAR and vn.: iarna grísad dond araid on being urged on by the charioteer, FB § 43 . iar ndiultad do Petar a thigerna, PH 605 . iar mbeith ceangailte d'ár lámhaibh (= ligatis manibus), TSh. 6762 . ar gclos a anma d'Éirinn, SG 1 .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. dochraite or
Last Revised: 2019


Forms: dochraide

n f. (dochrait) dochraide f., IGT Decl. § 3 .

(a) want or badness of friends, friendlessness (opp. to sochraite): nad airillet i nuidib d.¤ .i. . . . cia ro beitis i ndicairdigi ime, O'Curry 435 ( H 3.18 235b ). for rinn sochraite (.i. fo taeb geilfine) na d.¤ (.i. cid uatha imbrathar) . . . .i. on fir dicairdech no degcairdech, 436 (236a). nem-lega tighi do tur, dochruite nduine no truma tuarasdail, dethbir iter in d.¤ ndaine ┐ in truma tuarasdail, in d.¤ ndaine ni fagbann lucht fira, O'Curry 2618 ( Eg. 88, 52 (53)d ).

(b) state of being oppressed, misery, hardship (esp. of a humiliating nature), indignity: atcota daidbre dochraite (i.e. the poor are oppressed), Anecd. iii 12 . dochraide ríg Temrach, BDD² 1057 , 1065 . am din gach dochruiti, IT i 142.3 . tri ái nad eplet faill: ái dochuind ┐ d.¤ ┐ anfis, Triads 153 . d.¤ luirg unrelenting pursuit, Rawl. B 503, 22d . ba mór d.¤ Chairinne oc in rigain ┐ ba hé méid na dochraiti corbo héicin di usce . . . do tharraing, SG 326 . éigim dochraiti . . . fothugud do ríg hErenn form thír, RC xxv 26 . cech dochruide rodāmair | o shil Adaim, Ériu i 41 § 6 . luid . . . do haccāine a dochraite (referring to an ignominious mutilation), ZCP viii 316 . fál dochraite `barrier of oppression', Laws iv 376.16 . i ndoere ┐ i ndochraite ┐ i cumalacht do Eogan enduring slavery and oppression at the hands of E., RC xiii 444 . rogabh toirrsi a cenel fen rempa ar mét a ndocraide dóib the oppression they suffered from them, BB 417a31 . fri hosnadhaigh ban . . . ic a ndochraidi, Leb. Cert. 18 = aga saragud, BB 267a20 . Folld. by FOR (AR): oc imbert écni ┐ dochraite for lucht na críche, Moling § 57 . With Ó indicating source: boī dochraite mōr for clannaib Nemid ... .i. ō Morc mac Deled ┐ ō Chonand mac Febair, ITS xxxix 122 § 242 ( LL 632 ). do innarbu na dochraite robui for Laignib o Mumnechaib, Rawl. 127b41 . ca fáth fá raibe dochraide (docraaide, MS.) ó echtrannaibh orra , Expugn. Hib. 26 . bai dochraitte adbalmor ar Erinn ... ó genntibh ... ocus ó dhanaraibh, Cog. 2 = dochraiti, 221 (LL).


Cite this: eDIL s.v. gleccaid or


v (glecc) wrestles, struggles: impers. co rogleac doib (of bulls), Dinds. 66 ( RC xv ). co rogleacsat, ib. gleacsat le truma a tarta | gur' ḟacsat a n-adharca, Acall. 1269 . is suairc immar glecaitsiumh | tuile is aithbe co n-uaire, Anecd. ii 23 § 3.


Cite this: eDIL s.v. lámaigid or


Forms: lámaid, lamhaigh, lámugad, lámachtad

v (lám) also occas. lámaid. touches, handles : mairg nosgrádaig, nos lámaig `caresses' (of women), Tec. Corm. 54.122n . tainic chugumsa / neach romlámhaigh-si, BS 94.6 . creach dh'iath Luighdheach do lámhoigh he had in his hand, O'Hara 2009 (`a creach raided L's Land'). caidhe an cion náchar lámhuigh / mar chion Bhaile an Bhruthmháluigh the spoils which he did not handle, LBranach 1663 (? leg. lamhaigh: Bhruthmhalaigh). as maith an truma atá san maothail-si ┐ ni laimheóchatt féin go maidin í I will not touch it, RC xxix 220.5 (`I will not venture'). sguir diom, a duibhdiabail / . . . na lean me, na lamhaigh, ZCP i 133.w . tig trú dhuaibhsech . . . ┐ lámhuighidh go heasaontach na deóraidh handles roughly, TSh. 3743 . bean do lámhaigeadh Leith Cuinn who controlled, Gleanings from Irish manuscripts 29.1 . ro lámhaigheadh Sémus las an Ridire impisidhe (i.e. an uaimh) go ro gabhadh lais é was roughly handled with respect to it, AFM vi 2262.2 (`this [cave] he seized on J.').

Also attempts, undertakes (influenced by lamaid): fāth far lāmhoigh . . . beith re daonnacht, Sitzungsb. Pr. Akad. 1919 v 92 § 5 . fleid Belcon rolamad / cetguine Cet maicc Magach, RC xxiii 308 § 19 (taken as rolāmad: Māgach, Wortk. 179 ). ní lámhóchaid Teach M. dó fhágbháil attempt, Atlantis iv 184.34 . a rú co crích nír cuired / clú líth arar' lámuiged `her purpose was not brought to completion wherein fame for feasts was sought', Metr. Dinds. iii 56.40 . See lamaid.

Vn. lámugad, lámachtad.


Cite this: eDIL s.v. lobaid or


v (a) decays, rots, putrefies; wastes away : biid im chorpu . . . arna lobat in sepulcro (gl. murra), Ml. 65c3 . ní lobfat a thaissi, Fél. Ep. 220 . ní loba a chorp i talam, Trip.² 1805. co mbrenfat ┐ co llofat, LU 8090 ( FB 6 ). ro legai ┐ ro lobai aingces cech galair, LU 9642 . nira lob a chorp, LL 2339. ro lobhsatt apaighe na n-echradh, CCath. 3483 . Inis Gluair . . . ni lobann cid in feoil . . . cen sailliud inti, Todd Nenn. 192.z . fūaratar tīr nā togat, / fīr co lobat, co leaghat (of dead), ZCP vi 265 § 21 . do lobh an síol fáoi na fóduibh, Joel i 17 . toguidh sé crann nach lobhann, Isaiah xl 20. Of clothing, etc. cor lobsat . . . a n-étaige impu fri truma na hanbthine, LB 155a4 . nir críon ┐ ni ro lobh aon ní dia édach, AFM v 1490.15 . do truailletar ┐ do lobhatar na lebair (through being in water), BCC 452.29 (§ 433) . Of water, becomes foul : an t-uisge ná corruíghionn . . . go loghann sé, Párl. na mB. 1335 . Fig. loibhfighidh ainm an drochdhuine, Proverbs x 7.

(b) In legal sense, neglects to comply with; cf. lobad (c): tascrat .i. astat, ut est fer lobhas ria nadhmaim tascrat .i. laobas ria tobach no cin tobhach co fastaid[er] fiadain fair `they stay the man that defaults as to his bond', O'Dav. 1525.


Cite this: eDIL s.v. maille or


n , f., (mall) slowness; tardiness: cen mailli speedily , SR 7179. moille fri clocc, Lism. L. 4537. m.¤ cumscaithi slowness of motion (oppd. to: luas c.), ITS xiv 16.4 . luas in bar lamaibh . . . ┐ m.¤ in bar traigthib, MR 138.14 . ní fhoil da mhoille nach feirrde the later the better, Ó Héodhusa 213.7. Rate (of speed): is é is aimsir ann .i. moille siubhail na hequinoxium (i.e. time is measured by the [sun's] progress through the equinox), Corp. Astron. 4.8 ; cf. an mhoill doghní an ghrían ag siubhal ` time ', 8.10 . In fig. sense: moille an radhairc (= visus obtusus), R.I.A. 23 K 42, 41.3 . do eadargnudad cacha cesta . . . fo [a] moille ┐ a ndeine, fo a truma ┐ a n-etruma non-urgency (?), R.I.A. 23 Q 6, p. 5 a ( O'Curry 1606 ). modhailleacht as m.¤ dignity (of bearing), stately motion, R.I.A. 23 B 37, 45 .

1 mám

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 mám or


Forms: maam, mám, mod, mām

n u, m., freq. written maam in Glosses. mám, IGT Dec. § 95, p. 127.24 .

(a) a yoke: fon m.¤ nuu, gl. sub iugo novo, Ml. 2b11 . Generally fig.: máam firinne . . . máam ind soscéli, Wb. 18c6 . airde n-éelutha máma a sign of evading the (marriage-) bond, 11c11 . is étrom . . . m.¤ in Choimded, Ériu i 197 § 14. ar truma in císa ┐ in mama Romanaig, Todd Nenn. 72.14 . Esp. in phrase: fo m.¤ under the yoke (of), subject (to): fo maam (gl. subiecti), Ml. 103d20 . inna ní nu bitis fo maam inna rig (gl. subditorum), 85d7 . 27d7 . fo m.¤ pectho, Wb. 3c38 . fri orddugud caich fo m.¤ , SR 4545. fo dóermam, 1776 . fót m.¤ midedar de ilṡluagaib . . . fot chommus tabairther, LU 5476 = TBC-I¹ 998 ; cf. mochean Cuind comarba . . . bid fo [leg. foa?] mam medethar d'ilsluagaib, YBL 181a5 ( SG 254.25 ). d'argain na crích . . . rabátar fo m.¤ Priaim, LL 242a30 = TTr. ro tairberead Persa fó mam daíre, Alex. 366. is fo mam ata cach urlabra . . . do fir in berla bāin, Laws i 18.9 . fo m.¤ tomais in full measure: gach olc doronsat tarras orro fo mam [sic leg.] tomais all the evil they had done was avenged on them in full measure, Cog. 116.4 . taris [leg. tarrus] forrtho son in [leg. 'sin] cath sin fo mam tomais, 36.16 . mam .i. cubus [= commus?] ut est fo mam an[a]mcharut, O'Dav. 1277. mam .i. cumas no cumhachta, O'Cl.

(b) an obligation and by extension a service, duty, function; for transition of meaning cf. Laws v 516.28 : ci asingba in ben as a mamaib though . . . fail in her duty (cf. Wb. 11c11 quoted above), and iv 50.24 : in tan geibius in rig ina mama so `when the king gets these submissions' (i.e. hostages and payment of rent and fines). Freq. in Laws (text): aire eisindraic nad oiget a mamu who do not fulfil their duties, i 54.9 . cach moga a mam . . . cach memur ina mamaib coirib, v 36.5 . mac . . . bis a mamaib gaire dia athair (i.e. who is bound to support his father), 364.17 . in mam sin ro gabais-siu . . . gētair orut the office you have undertaken (to a king), ACL iii 315.3 . dia mbo epscop . . . geib do mamb do leir, 313.2 . foratha áiritiu oighedh do cach ina moam `a guest's maintenance is due to every one according to his function', O'Dav. 68. Hence O'Dav. 1243 : mam .i. tochus ut est a tesbann dia mamaibh tesbann dia lóg enech (i.e. any shortcoming in one's duties involves a corresponding diminution of honour-price; the definition is a false inference). Cf. further: aenfear i mam deise ┐ dias i mam aenfir `when one man is legally considered as two' (lit. one man in the function of two), Laws iii 140.26 . Hence the expression fer máma mod (where máma and mod are respectively g s. and g p.) a substitute, a locum-tenens , Laws i 130.6 Comm. , iii 472.6 , 538.9 ; in v 120.24 we should perhaps read: do cach mama mod [d'] eclais.

The follg. obscure ex. may represent g p.: o Adam co Abrām n-án | co ngradaib glanmām comlán | tri mili . . . cethri bliad[na] is noi fichit, SR 2302.

3 ol

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 3 ol or


Forms: oldaas

conj. than , after comparatives; prob. an extension of the adverbial use, see 1 ol. Ol is always combined with an absol. form (rel. in 3d pers.) of the subst. vb., which it eclipses. In O.Ir. (a) the subst. vb. after ol generally represents the copula and agrees in number and pers. with a follg. subject, its tense being determined by that of the main sentence; but already within the O.Ir period (b) the form oldaas (ol+3 s. rel.) ` than he (she, it) is ' comes to be regarded as a conj. = ` than ' and may be followed by another vb. in the absol. form. Finally in Mid.Ir. oldaas (oldás) `than' comes to be used without distinction of person, number or tense, though the older inflected forms frequently occur down to the close of the Mid.Ir. period. See Pedersen Vgl. Gr. § 511 Anm. 1. Already in O.Ir, ol- begins to be replaced by in- (in Glosses found only in Ml.), which before the close of the Mid.Ir. period supersedes it.

1 Exx. from Glosses:

(a) is bec as máo oldáu-sa, Sg. 45a15 (gl. quam ego sum maiuscula est). is sochrudiu láam oldó-sa hand is comelier than I, Wb. 12a21 , cf. 25 . ni airegdu a persan- som oldaas persan na n-abstal olchene, 18d14 . móa oldaas óenṡillab, Sg. 68b8 . oldate ind aingil, gl. melior angelis, Wb. 32b5 . oillu oldate cóic cét fer, gl. plus quam quingentis fratri- bus, 13b2 . oldatae, Ml. 131a6 . ni pa gliccu felsub ola-mbieid- si acuter than ye will be, Wb. 26d26 . ba deidbiriu dúnni . . . ol ṁboí do-som it were more reasonable for us . . . than it was for him, 9c10 . air robtar lia sidi ol ṁbatar maicc israhel more numerous than the Children of I., Ml. 123a8 .

(b) is follus . . . téte aitherrechtaigthe ní as hire oldáta maic that a patronymic goes farther than sons, Sg. 30b12 (where a vb. is implied after oldáta). is móa dongní-som oldaas dontlucham he does it more than we ask it (gl. superabundanter quam petimus), Wb. 21d9 . bid mó dongenae-siu oldaas ro- foided cucut (super id quod dico facies), 32a25 .

2 Later lit.:

(a) is ansu limsa mo thech oldás mo trebad, FB 26. ba siniu oldás Cu Chulaind, 83 . uair bam siniu oltás I was older than he, LB 113a16 ( MacCarthy 68.24 ). ba ḟeliu duit th'immḟoluch oldás teiched, TBC-LL¹ 1973. cumba mesa dúib oltás dam-sa, PH 2042. in tan bas giliu in grian . . . oldaas innossa, Ériu ii 142 § 155. athnúigfither in uli dúl i ndeilb bus áille . . . oldás in a form fairer than at present, 200.17 . ní théit immach . . . as diliu lind oldammit fadessin any one dearer to us than ourselves, TBC-LL¹ 199 = inā sind fein, St. don tí ata ina ṡinser indíu oldáim-ne who is older to-day than we, LL 133a43 . at lia Greic oldáthe than ye are, TTr. 319 . bit lia ar mairb oldáte ar mbí, FB 5. is truma smachta geimrid oldaiti smachta samraid, Laws iv 88.25 . narb andsa la cristaigib he oldait geinte not dearer to Christians than to Gentiles, PH 311 ; rectius oldaas (O.Ir. ol mboí) la geinte. cach óen . . . as sinu olmbí older than thou art, ACL iii 312 § 4 (olnambe v.l.). ba hamru delb Fothaid ol baí Oilill acht ba hamru ben Oilella oldas ben Ḟothaid, Fianaig. 6.14 , 15 . nir bo mailli dolotar olmbatar in charpait (the men) came not more slowly than the chariots, TBC-LL¹ 3537 (where olmb. takes the place of another vb.). nir uo lugha mioscais na nGaoideal lasna Gallaibh olttáitte the Irish were not less hated by the English than they (the Burkes), Hugh Roe 110.6 (f. 30 a) , i.e. the English hated them as much as they hated the Irish; the construction is confused.

(b) folld. by another vb.: bid mó bas loscud don tig oldás bas suillse don teglugh (i.e. the house is more likely to catch fire than the household to get light), FB 92. is toisechu ro cet in coecatmad psalm oldas ro cet in tre[s] psalm, Hib. Min. 6.200 . comtis annso a phiana oldas mar ata fo secht its tor- ments would be seven times worse than they are, Ériu ii 142.3 . The vb. follg. may be understood: is tusca ro tusmed tu fen oltas Adam, LB 110b19 ( MacCarthy 50.15 ), cf. Sg. 30b12 cited above.

(c) Used absolutely: glainidir gol (.i. is glaine ol na dér), ZCP iii 223 § 6 (Amra Senáin).


Cite this: eDIL s.v. scáth or
Last Revised: 2013


Forms: scáith, scatha, sgátha, sgáithe, scáth

n o and u, n. g s. scáith, LU 9060 (see under I (c) below). scatha, Laws i 234.z Comm . sgátha, PBocht 24.20 . sgáithe, Oss. iii 272.4 . a p. scáth, Sg. 108a2 .


(a) shadow, shade : conoscaigther du scath immut la cumscugud inna grene, Ml. 118c12 . inna s.¤ gl. figuras `the shadows', Sg. 108a2 . co scathaib scoth for cach maig (Paradise), SR 971 . delb hiruphin . . . | co scathaib a scíath scailte (: fathaib) with the shadows of their outstretched wings, 4316 . ós cionn na háirce [do bhádar] ná Cherubini glórgha, ag cur sgátha ar fholach na háirce, Heb. ix 5 . ar ba léir s.¤ a asna trianablai, Goid. 168 § 101 (ACC). trefoclai . . . cen s.¤ dofairce cuitbiud obscurity (?), ACL iii 293.7 .

(b) reflexion, image : sgath .i. sgáile, O'Cl. ar nach aiced a scath i n-uisce reflexion, Laws i 72.30 Comm . is i aimsir a dechana in scatha, 234.z Comm . seacht scéith co s.¤ na gréni reflecting the sun, Leb. Cert. 74.24 . gion go glan mo sgáth sgáthán | gnáthfhál dhamh sgáth a sgíthéan though my reflection is not clear (?), DDána 24.30 . an sgáth bréige the false image (of a dead body to which life is about to be restored), 69.16 . [f]ri scatha(ib) uachtair bainne 'to the sheen (?) on the top of milk ' Angus Matheson Essays 102 § 5 .

(c) phantom, spectre : co nn-aca in scath chuci aníar . . . ba úathmar laiss [ ] in scáith ar indar lais rosiacht co rrici ethíar a arddi, LU 9058 , 9060 ( FB 81 ) = a met an scaith, IT i 295.x (Eg.). scáth, LU 9113 (87). is comlunn fri scath, IT i 124.16 (Tochm. Ét. Eg.). bid imguin fri s.¤ imguin friu, BDD² 782 . As Sciath ┐ Scath, imtar da shiabar, IT iii 243.4 .

(d) mirror (cf. scáderc, scáthán): is cumme adciamni na rúna diadi et adcíi nech ní tri scáath gl. per speculum, Wb. 12c11 . in ruthen des isin leith cli in scáith gl. dextrae porro partes que sunt sinistrae uidentur in eisdem speculis, KZ xxix 373.17 (Bodleian glosses on Chalcidius).


(a) shelter, covering : clúdadh, folach, s.¤ , Eg. Gl. 155 . duralad sliab inna scath antuaid `to shelter it', Ml. 67d9 . ? batar da ech aigi oc a n-ailimain do a Sid E. a scáthaib aba C., ZCP iii 241.6 = i síth, Comp. CC 36.18 . ag so an sgáth criadh ar gclaonadh (the body compared to a sheepfold), Aithd. D. 50.12 . gur gheabh sgáth fan [mbrugh] 'n-a mbíoth `took shelter', PBocht 11A.24 . do ghlés an Tighearna Día pailms.¤, ┐ thug sé air teacht ós cionn Iónah súas chor go mbeith na s.¤ ós cionn a chinn, Jon. iv 6 . isé an Tighearna do s.¤ air do láimh dheis, Psalms cxxi 5 . ag iarraidh sgáithe na truaill-chléire `shelter', Oss. iii 272.4 .

(b) protection : sgáth a dheirbhfhine an séimhfhear as suilbhire, L. Cl. A. B. 146.4 . gabhar sgáth mh'ainbhis agam let my ignorance be my excuse (notes), DDána 7.15 . As vn.: biaidh dhod sgáth ar na sé sluaghaibh protecting thee, DDána 30.14 .

III In phr. ar s.¤

(a) in the shadow of, near, beside : eirg ar scath in chairthi cloichi ucut = juxta, Lat. Lives 104.13 . ? ni raba-sa riam can ḟer ar s.¤ araile ocum (Medb), TBC-LL¹ 41 . ar ba doinmech dó a betha for s.¤ a fhogluma engaged in study, MacCongl. 9.9 .

(b) under the protection of: raba daiṅgen dithoglaithi beith ar s.¤ arm Hectoir, LL 243ay ( TTr. 1976 ). ar mbeth-ne . . . for a s.¤-som under his protection, PH 7901 . is e ro naidm Muiri óg for scath Íoseph, LB 145b13 . dul ar a sgáth is díon damh (of the Cross), DDána 23.20 . ar do sgáth . . . | mairg a-tá, a shaoghail shanntaigh, 53.9 . ar sgāth a sgēith, ML² 1253 . comhrādh firscarde (?) ar scáth a sg[ē]ithe, Feis Tighe Chonáin 276 .

(c) protecting, shielding : ar s.¤ a féili . . . | tucsat duille na fiche, SR 1359 = tucsat duille na pailme for a s.¤ a fheli, MacCarthy 56.12 (Adam and Eve). co ros-anaic T., co tabairt scéith ara s.¤ , TTr.² 732 . nit gonfaidhthar do ghres gin bes in sciath ar do s.¤ , RC vi 183.11 . ? trí máidme clúanaigi: ató ar do s.¤, rosaltrus fort, rotfliuchus com étach (`I am on your track'), Triads 104 . gan ar a sgáth achd sí `with none to guard Him but her', PBocht 13.11 . ar mo sgáth 'n-a sgáth dhíona | . . . | go rabh . . . | San D., Dán Dé iv 7 . robidh a cruinniugudh . . . na curp . . . ara s.¤ aga imdhiden ar urcuraibh a escarnamud to protect himself, ZCP vi 57.6 . In pl.: colomna cloch do thócbáil eturru ar scáthaib a n-ech, eturru ┐ in snechta to shelter their horses, MU² 309 .

(d) in compensation for, in lieu of, in exchange for: na ranna atait ar scath colla no aithgena, Laws iii 100.4 Comm . is amlaid comruinter in eniclann, a leth ar scath tochusa, ┐ a leth ar scath indracuis `in right of', v 34.12 Comm . in tan . . . ni ro dibait seoit ar scath a trebuiri in return for (?), O'D. 757 ( H 3.17, 546 ). ma benadh colladh air; no dono cona beth ni ar s.¤ a cotalta mana milledh in imcisin acht coirpdire fo truma na cneidhe (of a wound), O'D. 1965 ( Eg. Plut. 90, 8ra ). cumal ar scath toile comcluithi in compensation for, O'Curry 2374 ( Eg. 88, 29rb ). robo maith leo (lind?) ar [a?] scath in t-en bec ut do bith ocund in exchange for it (a chain which Brigit had given away), Lib. Hymn. 122 gl. on l. 127 (Broccán's Hymn, cf. Thes. ii 343.14 ). an té tug | bláth diombuan dúisgeas formud | . . . | ar sgáth mholta mharthonaigh `who exchanged for', TD 31.9 .

(e) for the sake of: go dt[iobhar]thaoi dhamh | grás ar sgáth Mhuire mháthar, A. Ó Dálaigh xxiv 12 . caoin ar fhulaing ar do sgáth | Críost, Measgra D. 65.9 . fer . . . fuilngthe ingreama ar sgáth an Choimdedh, BS 2.12 . Note also: co tuc Aichia a feranus do Elena ar scath a meic `for behoof of his son', Aen. 127 .

(f) under pretext of: ní ar sgáth sgéimhe mo dhána | téighim d'iarraidh eadrána, Content. viii 25 . tug Diarmaid . . . Dear-bhorguill . . . ar élódh ar s.¤ eigin leis on some pretext or other (?), Mart. Don. xxvii 16 . ar s.¤ síthe do shír (leg. shir) cogadh, Keat. Poems 1213 . inghean H. . . . do bheith 'na leannán leaptha ar sgáth a beith pósta aige, TSh. 5506 . tángadar . . . ar s.¤ ceannaidheachta `on the pretext of trading', Keat. iii 2901 . do chum an phoboil shimplidhe do mhealladh ar sgáth a ughdardháis, Desid. 4635 . Perh. also in: beg mo chuid o thig laa, | ni thaét ar scath lá noa | barr biorair Chluana Cille `it comes not as a new day's right (?)', BS 32.2 .

IV fear, fright : gur tharngair Sgathaighe gan sgath | mise air ath do thuiteam leis, RC x 337 § 9 . coir sgath re sgelaibh t'aicme the stories of thy people are to be feared, Irish Texts ii 103 § 55 . crithir bheo . . . | gan sgáth a ngleo, L. Cl. A. B. 88.26 . biaidh 'n-a sgáth ar Mhuire . . . | do ghuidhe, Dán Dé xxviii 19 . a agra ní hadhbhar sgátha, PBocht 24.20 . triall as do cengal gan sgath, BNnÉ 141.34 . Of horses act of taking fright, shying : in tan ocrus se sin a scát[h] na a preapa, Laws v 154.25 Comm . O D. . . . do thuitim dia eoch . . . gan ansocracht gan oilbeim gan sgeinm gan sccath, AFM v 1606.16 .

Compds. ? ¤bricce: do scoraib sciathcha scáthbricci, TBC-LL¹ 4025 . ¤cheilt: ba thuaidh dá ngráin ar scáithcheilt mh'aingilse dhóibh concealing, Hackett xii 2 . ¤derc see scáderc. ¤díden: conach raibhe d'edragain etarra achtmadh a scéith 'ga scathdhiden, ITS v 64.2 . ? ¤odar: `derc' suil fri suairc son | ┐ [d]erc in scathodhar (v.l.; scathobor `the mote', text), RC xx 154.y ( ACC 4 Comm . ). ¤uaimnech: nírbo coinne sgíth-beg sgáth-uaimnech timorous, ML² 1903 . ¤úaine: tarraid a scíath scothamlach scáthūaine green-flashing, Fianaig. 84.z . scathuaine, CF 251 .

1 serb

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 serb or


Forms: serbaib

adj o, ā

(a) of flavour, bitter: frissa lind s.¤ in chúrsactha `with the bitter drink of the reproval', Wb. 7d9 . huare as s.¤ ┐ nad ṁbí ní du ailgen indi, Ml. 94c8 . fo thonda searba sāile, Ériu ii 26 § 9 . tuctha ubla serua dosam corusbennach iat comtar millsi, Lat. Lives 111.9 . níis seirbe gl. amarior, Ir. Gl. 1132 . sruth s.¤ saile i sūilib (of tears), ZCP vii 299.16 . cach biad . . . cona somillsi .i. narub searb, Laws ii 234.4 Comm . lossa serua in díthreba, PH 873 . ro-s-gab dig seirb hi crand crochi ar biad milis n-áilgen craind an imarbois, 2394 . deoch shearbh, DDána 3.21 . tairrngid teasbac na greine an cuid as [s]eime ┐ as millsi duisci na fairrgi suas . . . et facaid tis an rann is truime ┐ is reime . . . ┐ is serbhi, 42.12 . sioróipe searbha, TSh. 8195 . Of acid soil: an tuisci bis a talmain s.¤ an a mbi clocha sulfuir no ailimi, Ir. Astr. Tr. 40.19 .

(b) in abstract sense, bitter, hurtful, grievous, disagreeable: serbaib gl. amaris (gemitibus), Ml. 31c13 . sechip ed arabera biuth in duine is s.¤ les acht ro[b] bronach, 86d12 . tiachair ┐ s.¤ , 94c6 . snechta serba sírgnathchi, IT i 190.29 ( FA 30 , LB). s.¤ cach borb, Tec. Corm. § 13.13 . nidat úati slega serba, MU 401 . is s.¤ cach gnáth, LU 3915 ( SCC 43 ). rochísit cáoi s.¤ ina fīadnaisi, BColm. 96.6 . na trī mnā serbha siblacha sīdhe, ML² 1651 . felbas .i. fel-fes .i. fes s.¤ a fel dondī is fellis , O'Mulc. 509 . Cf. fealbhas .i. droichḟios, O'Cl. isat somilis fiad borbaib, at sérb imorro fiad ecnaidib, PH 4662 . bean ler shearbh a hiarraidh d'fhior, DDána 32.28 . an cás searbhso a bhfoilim `bitter plight', Ir. Review 1913, 623 § 7 . féach gurab olc ┐ gurab searbh dhuit do Thighearna Dia féin do thréigean (amarum), TSh. 9481 . Adv. snaidfea na sluagu co s.¤ `du wirst die Schaaren bitter zerhauen', TFerbe 376 . bas-gaire co s.¤ écnech etuailngech, PH 394 . toibéchar fair co s.¤ ┐ co dichondirclech fa-deoid o Día, 4113 . Compar. maigen . . . serbiu ina neim, IT i 190.30 ( FA 30 , LB). adeirim-se gurab roisheirbhe easbaidh na glóire ioná í = maxime amarum, TSh. 6395 . Adv. int serbu gl. amarius (queri), Ml. 24c10 .

(c) of sounds, harsh, discordant : sgealparnach le téadaibh searbha, Tribes of Irel. 46.11 . Compar. is seirbhe ná an searbhán goirt | an duine bocht ag déanamh ceóil, Dánfhocail 25 .

(d) as subst. Of a warrior: fosropart in s.¤ slegrúad, SR 6778 . Of weather, harshness, bitterness : suidig sine s.¤ , RC v 201 § 20 .


(a) with substantives: ¤airlech bitter slaughter : maidm nitha muáid nimṡlóig serbairlech, Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 10.2 (`of bitter counsel', Glossary) = maidm netho mōith n-imdai slūag searbairlech, 12.16 . ¤chaer: searbhchaora na fíneamhna fiadhánta, TSh. 3329 . ¤charcar: iar serbcharcraib cuimrech, Fél. Oct. 15 . nīmreilce isin searbcarcair `the bitter prison' (of Hell), Ériu iii 30 § 17 . ¤chath: s. Slēbe Eblinne, Arch. Hib. ii 59 § 12 . ¤chlár: Manannán tar searbhchlár sáile, Hackett xl 270 . ¤chroch: iar serbchrochaib síraib, Fél. May 13 . ¤deug: tria shæbreacht shuain serbhdhighe, BB 392b28 = sirdige, LL 213b22 . geir go mblas seirbhdhighe sin, TD 37.2 . ¤dremm: s. i rechtaib rúad-mucc `a baneful drove', Metr. Dinds. iii 404.10 . ¤gábud: iar serbgáibthib gortae `after bitter dangers of famine', Fél. Dec. 2 . ¤gaeth: ceithre searbhghaotha iar slait Raoileann | . . . | tug ar laithibh gréine glas, DDána 110.19 . ¤glaedach: searbhghlaodhach a mbeann mbuabhall `harsh calling', TD 4.32 . ¤loimm: sergfait srotha serblomma the bitter drops of the streams (?), SR 8209 . ¤los?: rothecht Fergus filte, | do ṡerb-lus a ṡainte `crafty F. acquired land by dint of his bitter greed', Metr. Dinds. iii 300.30 (cf. a llos, de los). ¤lus hop : tá an searbhlus agus an bhraich caillte, GJ i 207a15 . ¤maíth bitter sorrow : missi sund os leptha tra | fri serbmaid fri sirguba, LL 192b50 . ¤ṡál, ¤ṡáile bitter brine : tar serbhshal, Caithr. CC 50 § 87 . ac ól a fola féin maille is in serbṡaile in glasmara, CCath. 2009 . ¤ṡrón sharp-pointed (?): mór senlaech sirduilech (?) serbsrón `sharpnosed (?)', 6027 . roboccbertaich-sium in sleig searbsroin `bitter-nosed', TTebe 3262 . isna seicneadhuibh sēitreacha searbhróna do ficheadh do chēin, CMT 502 . do mhionsad seinbhearn cēd isin chath ar comhair a chloidhimh ┐ slighe shearbhróin da sleaghaibh rompa, 819 (Ed. suggests reading slighidh searbhróin `he cuts a bitter track'). ? Cf. searbhrúan .i. searbhshráoineadh .i. briseadh searbh, O'Cl. ¤ṡruth: searbh-shrotha, TSh. 6628 . ¤thoirse bitter sorrow : bendaighthe lucht serbthuirsi, | biaidh sólás fá dheoigh aca, Ó Héodhusa 227.14 .

(b) with adjj.: ¤domain: eirgid ar in sáile s. amach, Acall. 6253 . ¤dúr: romessad ónd albín | tri chét sessar s., Metr. Dinds. iii 220.58 . ¤garg: cosin slóg serig s., SR 4758 . ¤glas: in sal s., CCath. 3351 . ¤goirt: bidh s. a n-aithrighi `bitter and harsh', Ériu iii 30 § 9 . oirfitiud s. cen cheol cen áinius, PH 8138 . co nguilet co serb goirt, IT i 191.23 ( FA 30 , LB). ¤lonn: Saúl slan s. sirthech, SR 6372 . ¤rúad: tres an saile serbruadh, Cog. 98.28 .

In an adj. derived from a compd. noun: serbglórach harsh-voiced : siansan serbglorach . . . na sruthann `harsh', Stair Erc. 784 . na trí mná sáobha siúbhlacha searbhghlóracha, ML 124.18 . eugosg serbhghlórach senmhná ag coimhéd an tobair, L. Cl. A. B. 4.1 .

(c) in vb. derived from compd. adj.: cor lobsat ┐ cor serb-goirtset a nétaige impu fri truma na hanbthine wasted away (?), LB 155a5 .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. serc or
Last Revised: 2013


Forms: Searc

n ā, f. A dependent gen. is usually objective but object may in later lang. be introduced by DO ( Fél. Prol. 148 , Stair Erc. 1140 , PBocht 5.34 ); also once with FOR ( Stair Erc. 1169 ). Described by GOI § 721 as `vb.n. of caraid (cf. Pedersen Vgl. Gr. § 677 ) but see GOI p. 683 (Translators' Notes 157 ) ; see also Stud. Celt. ii 92 .

love (both sacred and profane): mór in ts.¤ condechuith in crucem pro nobís, Wb. 22b11 . cid intain ronmoitsem ní bo ar seirc móidme, 17a13 . s.¤ dáe dúibsi et far s.¤ si do dia gl. caritas Dei, 18b21 . móa léu sercc a tuile quam dei, 30c11 . coro fessid méit for serce lemsa gl. ut sciatis quam caritatem habeam habundantius in uobís, 14d16 . is uisse a sercc dorat mór di maid duún it is proper to love Him, 4b10 . húise a ṡ.gl. amandus, Sg. 59b5 . amal as n-ed as moam s.¤ linnai adchotadsam triar saithar saindiles, Ml. 92c5 . arnach corathar i mmoth ┐ machthad dia seirc ┐ dia n-accubur, 68b9 . combad cutrummae frisin seirc rocar Crist inn eclais, 65d5 . inna sercae gl. affectionis, 53c10 . nī bu ūarach im ṡeirc Dé (of St. Brigid) Thes. ii 332.2 ( Hy. v ). s.¤ mór do Macc Maire `great love for Mary's Son', Fél. Prol. 148 . ar ṡeirc ríg ro charsat (rocarsat, rotcarsat, v.ll.) `for affection towards the King whom they have loved', May 8 . foruigenai dia Coimdid itir homoint ┐ abstainit . . . ┐ seirc nDé ┐ chomnesom, Trip.² 247 . do s.¤ am anmuin, do grad im craidhe (a prayer), Ériu ii 90 § 12 . ro char sercc tecmuis, RC iii 345.4 . ní frith luth seirce sóerligi | . . . conom thicse, LU 8328 (rhetoric). as descaid serci sírsilliud, 10728 . fo chosmailius Con Culaind ┐ ara seirc for love of him, 3260 ( SCC 5 ). ro charas tusai ┐ tucus seircc ┐ inmaine duit, IT i 120.23 ( TE 5 ). is grád do macalla | mo grad-sae, ┐ mo ṡercc ┐ m'inmaine dontí da tucus, 124.21 ( TE 9 ). miscais in chenntuir s.¤ ind altair `hatred of this world, love of the world to come', Ériu vii 138 § 1d . do urail a seirci fuirre `to press his love upon her', Laws v 294.z Comm . na ba machtad la nech comdire don[a] athlaechuib . . . mad beith dia seirc la Dia ┐ di met a saethair, iv 366.19 . is mac faosma ar searc `adopted from affection', 288.y Comm . altrumu seirce cen iarraith `fosterage of affection without fosterage-fee', ii 168.z (glossed: in taltruma do ni nech ar se[i]rc (sic leg.?). asbertsi frimsa dombérad seirc mblíadnai damsa, TBFr. 334 . ar met a seirci leis for the love he bore her, ZCP xiii 262.17 . fer díb cech lái fri seirc sét | dia ṅgeilt is dia lan-chomét, Metr. Dinds. iv 338.19 (`to guard the stock from sickness'). ? g pl. fada a ghúbha re saoth searc (: righfheart), ML 22.11 . ba eth as[c]nam isin flaith | . . . | in ri berus breit[h] for cach, | a s[h]erc ┐ a omun, MacCarthy 134.g . impait o sheircc in domain-sea forab airchindech diabul, PH 7118 . is e ro-mid ar nefní na huli ar mét serci Crist occe, 1674 . tanic s.¤ ┐ sirinmaine doib innd fir robai ar echtra, TTebe 223 . cuiridh Íosa . . . | briocht seirce san té thoghas `the charm of attractiveness', Aithd. D. 37.3 . la truma a seirci for E., Stair Erc. 1169 . co roibhe s.¤ siradhbul aigi do[n] mnai, 1140 . dá bhrígh budh dleacht dúnn | searc do rígh na ríogh, PBocht 5.34 . i mbeirt chumhadh | do sheirc Iarla Urmhumhan, Aithd. D. 36.7 . dáil a seirce `the bestowal of her love', TD 29.17 . tibhre seirce 'na silleadh `a smile of love', 13.8 . searc mná Ír dhuit, Aoidh, ná léig a bhfaill, 35.1 . g s. used attributively: ic torrachtain lennain ┐ mna serce `lady-love', RC xiii 222.38 . do thuit a dleacht-scéimh sheirce | dá gnúis álainn inniolta, Keat. Poems 1121 .

As the name of a group of tales: mad ferr lat . . . fisi ┐ serca ┐ sluagid, Anecd. ii 45.20 . Serc Crede do Canann mac Gartnain, 46.3 . As npr. Searc (a hound's name), Oss. iv 20.13 .

a beloved person or thing (cf. sainṡerc): asbert Findabair iarum ba hē a céts., TBC-I¹ 2914 . is tusa mo cedghradh-sa ┐ s.¤ mo chridhe, Stair Erc. 525 . a shearc m' anma (to the Trinity), Aithd. D. 70.1c . clereach gen ni | ni searc ri neach, IT iii 84 § 76 . ? To this: airer sula s.¤ , O'Dav. 178 .

Compds. ¤ball: Aigi sáir co serc-ballaib `of the love-spots', Metr. Dinds. ii 66.16 . ¤betha: mór mo shúil ré sheirc-bheathaidh `delightful life' (sc. in Heaven), A. Ó Dálaigh xxxi 9 . ¤bla: fria serc-bla sláin `loved spot', Metr. Dinds. iv 84.63 . ¤blad: ar bar serc-blaid sír-éistid `loved fame', iii 16.192 . hi flaith Nechtain . . . | co serc-blaid co sith-rúin, 218.30 . Damairne co serc-blaid sain, 282.71 . ¤brath loving betrayal (?): gabhaim oram mar iúl ghlan | senchus bhur sean do dhearbhadh, | dar searcbhrath séd mo sheisi | san séd shearcach shuirgheisi, L. Cl. A. B. 277.143 . ¤chluthair (see clithar, Meyer Contribb.): suadhach shámhghlan shármhaith shearc-cluthair (of a fair woman), Hackett xii 11 . ¤ṡiur a loving sister : brathar duit M. | sercsiur duit in mathair dan mac, Cog. 122.6 .

In adjj. derived from nouns: ¤gnásach: n pl. serc[g]nasai boairec `a 'bōaire''s favourites (?)', BCrólige 54 . ¤thnúthach desirous of love (?): do charas tar aon an Déirdre dheagh-ghnúiseach | . . . shaor-ghlan shearc-thnúthach, Keat. Poems 63 (`love-envious, exciting envious love', Glossary).


Cite this: eDIL s.v. smacht or


Forms: smaicht, smachtu

n u m. Cf. also n. p. smaicht, O'Curry 903 ( H 3.18, 401 ). IGT Decl. § 95 (127.14) .


(a) rule, ordinance, regulation, command, stipulation (freq. in pl.): tect fo smachtu rechto `to go under the rules of the Law', Wb. 19d11 . pridchibid smactu rechto fetarlicce `institutes', 26a8 . nachib berar i smachtu rechta fetarlicce `be ye not borne into the institutions of the Law of the Old Testament', 27a24 . isnaib smachtaib hisin gl. (cur) in illis pactis (non manserunt quae apud patres in lacrimarum ualle firmata sunt) under those conditions (i.e. in that state), Ml. 105a5 . inna smachtu gl. (uictis) condiciones (pacis dabunt) conditions (of peace), 135c3 . In sg.: do chosnam in smachta gl. habundantius aemulator existens paternarum mearum traditionum `to contend for the rule', Wb. 18c18 . huan s.¤ gl. ea pactione (ut omnes Iudeos in Gentilium scita traduceret) on this condition, Ml. 73b6 . huan s.¤ gl. á condicione (foeni) (prob. a misunderstanding of the Latin text, where conditio means a state of being), 113a1 . uair do-chuabar dar mo s.¤ since you have transgressed my commandment, MacCarthy 58.21 = recht, SR 1443 . dorónta cluiche chointe dó amal robái i smachtaib ┐ besaib na Troiandae according to the institutions and customs of the T., TTr.² 1230 . do dímicin a smachta som ┐ a rechta ┐ a mbésa, LB 144a17 . ní ro gabhadh uadh an taons.¤ sain na Cascc . . . go nuige am bliadhainsi (Adamnán) that ordinance regarding Easter, TFrag. 114.14 . s.¤ an Choimdheadh . . . | . . . mairg do bhris, DDána 26.6 . With follg. vn. constr.: tucatur maigestri na sersenach s.¤ cen duine do marbad gave orders that none should be killed, Ann. Conn. 1235.14 . is é cets.¤ rigi doordaigh-sium andsin .i. can duine . . . d'adlucadh . . ., TTebe 4586 .

(b) sway, dominion, rule (of a king, chief, etc.): na túatha cen s.¤ rig, LU 3440 ( SCC 21 ). a bhfuil dod s.¤ | . . . ar ichtar Chonnacht, Irish Texts ii 101 § 37 . laoich fhearchonta as fhíorghlan s.¤ , Studies 1920, 566 § 9 . beir do bhreith smachta, smuaintig do recht rig give judgement according to thy power, MR 160.8 . mac Coisi ar nách cúala s.¤ `sway over whom I have not heard of', Ériu ii 168.71 . Commonly with prep. FO: dorad iathu Erenn ┐ Alban fo s.¤ flaithiusa Muman subjugated, RC xxiv 186.7 . osnadu na n-iltuath bitís fo s.¤ ┐ dáire ocaib, Alex. 40 . do-s-ber diabul fo s.¤ fen iat, PH 2356 . ríghe Érenn árdaoibhne | cuirfet fo s.¤ a bfine, Irish Texts iv 86 § 47 . fo s.¤ ┐ fo geilsini, Cog. 48.10 .

(c) control, restraint, discipline; punishment : s.¤ féig fíadnach `government', Ériu iv 94 § 11 . ón ghrás do ghabh s.¤ He allowed mercy to overrule him, PBocht 5.22 . aingeal re haghaidh smachta (Michael), Dán Dé xiv 4 . Usually with follg. prep. AR: ár ní thabratsom s.¤ no recht no ríagail ar denam a peccaid they sin without restraint, LU 2377 . s.¤ ar colainn, snige dēr (duties of ascetic life), ZCP vii 297.11 . s.¤ ón ghaoith ar a ghruaidh, RC xlix 173 § 28 . ar an uisge gur fhéad s.¤ , PBocht 20.31 . go s.¤ uaidh ar chach, Atlantis iv 160.29 . In chevilles: dían in s.¤ , LL 27a32 . borb an s.¤ , Irish Texts i 39 § 22 . an té fhúathuighios s.¤ `he that hateth reproof', Proverbs xii 1 . s.¤ an Tighearna `chastisement', Deuteronomy xi 2 . nach gabhann beadhgadh tré s.¤ dá ndéanann Dia orra are unmoved by God's punishment, TSh. 1928 (cf. 1922 ).


(a) In Laws penalty, fine for breach of law, trespass, non-payment of debt, etc. See Cóic Con. 6 . Bürgschaft 38 . In some passages the amount of the s.¤ is fixed in terms of bó, cumal, sét: aic macu ara-[m]bera boin smachta ┐ imdechta `die Kuh der Tarifbusse', Cóic Con. 14 . in tan is trian eneclainne is trian smachta . . . in tan is lan eneclainne is lan smachta .i. leth secht cumala, O'D. 833 ( H 3.17, 595 ). But cf. secht cumala do s.¤ . . . dona huaisli a marbadh for a comairci a s.¤ of seven cumals to nobles for killing of persons under their protection, Laws iv 232.7 . is inann . . . a smachta .i. cuic thseoit, ii 20.12 Comm . noca nairilltnighinn feich ann .i. s.¤ metha gi(a)n co ructhar iad for folach notrus[a] `the penalty for omission (to provide nursing)', Ériu xii 10 § 8 gl. 2 (BCrólige). cach [n-]ecubus cona dire ┐ a fuilliud ┐ a smachtaib, ZCP xiv 346 § 7 (here = s.¤-ētaim `feste, in ihrer Höhe unveränderliche Busse', Thurn. ib. See also § 29 , and cpds. below). In Cóic Con. Fug. the s.¤ for offences during the hearing of a law-suit is fixed at one `bó' (see Cóic Con. p. 62 , 63 , 81 ): inannus smachta riu uile . . . is é int inannus smachta in bo i nemaithne na conaire, 23 § 22 . inunn in s.¤ fil i-nne[ma]ichni [na] conaire re ngabail tacrai, 15 § 2 . Cf. bo sin in (leg. isin) tuisled don conair fora [c]ele for lapsing into a different form of legal procedure, 58 § 137 . s.¤ urchlaidhe (leg. urchrai?) `Tarifbusse des Vereitelns des Termins', 14.17 . Cf. ZCP xv 259 , xvi 210 . In other cases the s.¤ appears to have been variable: gaimorgain mbruigrechta da trian a fochraice is e a s.¤ `for winter trespass . . . two thirds of the rent is the s.¤-fine', Laws iv 88.2 . smachta cacha raithe, ni cuma dono s.¤ samfuachta ┐ gaimfuachta . . . it truma smachta geimrid oldaiti smachta samraid, ar i[s] sruithe bes (sic leg.) beatha na mbo oldas a ngeart, ar it geinither fer i samradh. ni tha imurro ní a ngeimre (i.e. the s.¤ varies according to season), 88 - 90 . smachta samraidh; miach cach airlime . . . leth meich ma fri athbrondad . . . it da miach . . . fri geamfuacht, 90.16 . In a table given O'Curry 1022 ( H 3.18, 431b ) of trespasses by pigs the s.¤ is always double the aithgin. re s.¤ cāna (sic leg.) `inbetreff der Tarifbusse für (Verletzung der) cāin (des gesetzten Rechts)', Cóic Con. 19.2 . Cf. 49 § 95. 73 . cia meid smachta fil a comiceas?—a dó; s.¤ ime ┐ ceathra genmota caithe, Laws iv 138.20 .i. cenmotha in s.¤ uil o na dainibh do niat ris in ferand .i. brised in aile, 140.15 Comm . cia lin fris a tabar smachta i comaithces `how many things are there for which `smacht' fines are paid in the co-tenancy?', 140.11 Comm . s.¤ comhaithchiusa do rith riu iar tabairt na ngeall so amail ceathra eile (of bees), 162.24 n . do lomrad smachta ┐ cáiche, 68.3 .i. na méich, 12 Comm . s.¤ a fidh neimhedh no co mbentar uile, ┐ eneclann ind o bentar (of the cutting down of trees in co-tenancy), 150.16 Comm . cach bail is dám beag ┐ s.¤ mor . . . cach bail atá in dámh mór ┐ in s.¤ beag, O'D. 521 ( H 3.17, 423 ). comdiles cach s.¤ fri colainn a feich `gleich "eigen" sei jede Busse wie der Gegenstand der betreffenden Schuld', Bürgschaft 15 § 51 (b). caite s.¤ .i. trian cach féich, O'D. 776 ( H 3.17, 556 ) (according to the Comm., if a debt was not paid at the stipulated time, a s.¤ equal to one third of it was inflicted for every three days' delay, so that at the end of nine days the debt had doubled). fon indus sin dona gradaib feine fo uaisle a smachta, O'Curry 1008 ( H 3.18, 428b ). cach uair is [s]macht ictar ann, is a ic fo aicned in ti icas, Laws iii 496.8 - 10 Comm . munu muintiur na neche sin doib, da trian na hiaruta ar s.¤ ann don aithir `a fine of two thirds of the price of fosterage', ii 152.14 Comm . smachta tairgilli . . . Treidib miach miter cach nethemain, miach i nathlumpaire, lethmiach fri monai ar airlim, iv 78.1 ff .

In the follg. exx. taken as meaning requirement, requisite (i.e. the tools which tenants of land must have for fencing): smachta ime, rama fri clais, soc fri coraid, biail fri dairime, fidbad fri felmad `the requisites for the fences are . . .', Laws iv 72.1 .i. is e ní smachtaigther acu ac denum na híme, 13 Comm . cateat smachta imi . . .? .i. rāma fri clais, etc. `Erfordernisse', ZCP xv 314 § 8 Comm . (Caratnia), see p. 315 . But note: smacht ime, Laws iv 138.21 .i. in ní smachtaigter i ndul tar an ime `'smacht -fine of fence, i.e. the thing which is commanded to be paid for going over the fence', 140.12 Comm .

Used apparently of the offence itself in: iss é in(n)sin im[m]a-thoing smachtu m(b)ruigrechta, Críth G. 38 `breaches of m.', p. 100 . See Ir. Recht 84 .

(b) penalty, fine, tribute in general: cána ┐ smachta ┐ císa fer nErend, LU 4207 . gnim, nad lugu s.¤, | orggain Eogain for which the penalty is not less, IT i 70.19 . oc tobhach a císsa ┐ a smachta rígh, CCath. 740 . cradh Cindfaelaid in smachta, MacCarthy 416.y . naomhad gacha toraid . . . d'idhnacul . . . gan dul a nairiumh chána ná smachta and not to be counted as rent or fine, RC xliii 54 § 55 . cīsa Mumhan . . . .i. s.¤ ┐ biathadh ┐ turgnumh ┐ faesamh, Leb. Cert. 60.14 . cid ar nar cinded s.¤ loigi ar na h-aistibh sea? fixed payment (?) (for bardic compositions), BB 297a2 . an s.¤ ríogh rug ar an bhféar | . . . | do ghlac mé an crodh dá c[h]omholl the fine imposed for the eating of the grass (story of Mac Con), L. Cl. A. B. 62.89 .

Compds. ¤bann: smachtbhann .i. smachd dlighidh, O'Cl. tucsat s. imruma forra `a regular oar-stroke', CCath. 1931 . ¤cháin disciplinary law, sway : smachtchain . . . na hairdríghi Etalta, CCath. 288 . ar trebhurdaingne na smachtcána [sída] bói occo, 484 . robhaoí dna cóicceadh C. . . . fó s. síodha don dias `under the peaceable government', AFM vi 1934.15 . ¤chomartha sign of discipline : ar in cloich sin ro bói in smacht chomarta sida is fearr ro bói a nEirinn, Acall. 4467 `official test', SG ii 209 . ¤chumachtaid a keeper of discipline : smacht-cumachtaighi in tsída, Acall. 6900 v.l. ¤etaim (étaim?). According to Thurn., ZCP xiv 346 § 7 n . a fine or penalty of fixed amount : cenmotha smacht-etaim meth n-aigillne `neben der Tarif-Busse für die "Ausfälle" der Unfrei-Genossen', 386 § 51 = Laws ii 320.4 . See also under II (a) supra. ¤gille. Exact meaning not clear. Perh. pledge for payment of a fine or penalty (see Cóic Con. 63 , 75 f . ). Usually folld. by the attrib. gs. sechtmaid, and therefore prob. one-seventh of the fixed `smacht' ( Cóic Con. 9 ): s. .uii. maid na bo (.i. a n-urlaim coitcinn) fri cert, Cóic Con. 23 § 21 . glethir cert [co s]machtgilli ` cert wird mit einem s. (Siebentel-Unterpfand) geklärt', 20 § 12 . cid fotera . . . conid inunn in smachtgilli ria ṅgabail tacrai [┐] iar ṅgabail tacrai? `Tarif-busse-Unterpfand', 17 § 7 . Laws Comm. draws complicated distinctions between s. and other types of pledge: it cetheora fodlai fil for gellaib: langille, ┐ lethgille, triangille, ┐ s., Laws i 260.19 , and see p. 276 - 8 . In fasting (see troscud) apparently the pledge given by the debtor to the creditor as a guarantee that his claim will be attended to, and which brings the fast to an end: s. sechtmaidh do scur troisci im nesam, 276.6 Comm . s. ecinntecha do sgur troiscte, s. cinntecha ria mbreth, ┐ triangille iar mbreth, 23 Comm . na ceithri s.; s. sechtmaid do scur troisci feich nesaim toiscide urradais i nurfuigell ┐ s. sechtmaid i nuirfuigell i cain patraic, . . . s. sechtmaid do scur troisci i cain adomnain . . . s. sechtmaid ar treis don filid . . . Fuilledh risin s. sechtmaid co roib langille iar mbreithemnas, iii 324.1 ff . See ZCP xv 267 .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. taidbsiu or


Forms: taidbsiu, taibsiu, taidbse, taidbsin, taidbsin, taidbsiu, taidbsen, taidbsin, taidbsiu, taidbse, taidbsen, táidbsenaib, taidbsib, taidhbhse, taidhbhse, taidbsi, taidbsin, taidhbhsina, taidhbhsedha, taidhbhsionna, taidhbsi, thaidbhsitibh, th.

n n, f. vn. of do-adbat. O. Ir. forms. n s. taidbsiu, Wb. 13b1 . 14d1 . Ml. 42b9 . taibsiu, Sg. 209b28 . taidbse, 211b4 . taidbsin (sic leg.), SR 5823 . a s. taidbsin, Ml. 40a15 . SR 2207 . taidbsiu, 2584 . g s. taidbsen, Ml. 128c7 . 128d11 . d s. taidbsin, 39c22 . 56c11 . 145c8 . Sg. 6b5 . 183b3 . 200b3 . taidbsiu, Wb. 6d6 . 10d37 . 19b14 . Sg. 173a8 . taidbse, Ml. 30b11 . 94c10 . Sg. 40b15 . 140a4 . 149b4 . 151a5 . Similar forms occur in Mid. Ir. g s. taidbsen, LB 107a29 . d p. táidbsenaib, PH 8009 . taidbsib, LU 4038 . In Mod. Ir. forms in -n are unusual in sg. while surviving in pl.: n s. taidhbhse, Content. xiii 23 . a s. taidhbhse, v 152 . g s. taidbsi, MR 302.14 . n p. taidbsin, SG 316.13 . taidhbhsina, CCath. 4793 . taidhbhsedha, TTebe 3693 . a p. taidhbhsionna, Comp. CC 97.13 . g p. taidhbsi, CCath. 901 (taidbhsin, v.l.). d p. thaidbhsitibh, Comp. CC 91.15 . IGT Decl. § 3 (dental pl.).


(a) showing, pointing out (in O. Ir. Glosses generally in more abstract sense manifesting, demonstrating, proving): do thaidbsin in daee infolngithi `to manifest the hidden God,' Wb. 10d37 . ar thaidbsin nihelsa far .u. `for shewing the nullity of u,' Sg. 6b5 . th.¤ gl. argumentum, Ml. 42b9 . cosin tadbse il gl. cum multa ostencione, 30b11 . hi taidbsin gl. in ostentationem, 128d12 . Cf. Hib. Min. 8.255 . With foll. clause: do th.¤ as fírdia, Wb. 6d6 . du thaidbsin nad ndichil ní ar dia, Ml. 56c11 . do thaidbse rombói for .r. `to shew that it was in r' (faciatur), Sg. 140a4 . ni do taidbsin aigillne fair not to prove that he is liable to (?), Laws ii 224.16 Comm. do thaidibsin dun is tre metur ro ceta, Hib. Min. 6.193 . Outside the Glosses generally showing, giving to view in physical sense: conid taibsiu aidmillti do Choin Chulaind la háes sidi sin showing spells to C.C., LU 4034 (SC). rí rorádi co dána | fri Móise t.¤ a lama, SR 3818 . tinait ┐ feodaigit ... iar n-a taidbsin (of fruit in the reign of an evil king), PH 4244 . re taidbsin a n-ecosca, Fél. 46.34 . cuinghidh deilbe in righ do taidbsin doibh ara caimhe, LL 393b9 . la taidbsin fainni a show of weakness (?), SR 6547 . cia ris nach comartha taidbsi thiug-bhása dam-sa is debhaidh sea léodh ma leath-láma a manifest sign (?), MR 302.14 . taidhbhsin .i. taisbénadh, O'Cl. nimtha aon gníomh dibh sin uile do taidbsin `to exhibit ,' TFrag. 38.6 .

(b) Hence appearance, look, seeming, seeing: (doadb)adar in t.¤ hi siu `this appearance is manifested,' Wb. 13b1 . dús in fagbad ... | t.¤ do thir na talmain (the dove sent from the Ark), SR 2584 . taidbsi baisi, Laws ii 76.20 Comm. dosberad fo thaidbsin troch `would make them seem like men doomed to death,' RC xiv 404.26 . ba lía a n-aiream ana taidhbhsi they were more numerous than they seemed (?), BB 32a39 . Cf. uille a tharbha iná a thaidhbhsi (of a book), Ó Héodhusa 3.4. is bia-su ro (? leg. re) taidbsin toi | acum frit aimsir d'oenmnai, Rawl. 82b17 (cheville). dobēr-sa taidbsi trī cath fort `I shall make it appear as if thou hadst three battalions,' BColm. 92.27 . oc aisneis do'n taidbsin telling about the appearance (of Christ after Resurrection), PH 6689 . taidhbsi theinead, dín ar tréd (of a shield), ZCP viii 227 § 4 . taidhbhse mheala millse a sreabh `the sweetness of her rivers is a vision of sweet honey,' TD 13.2 .


(a) ostentation, display, proud appearance: an cúigeadh sin cloinne hÍr | chuire mar thaidhbhse i nbhar dtír `which you claim as a proud possession,' Content. v 152 . a dhuine théid i dtaidhbhse | ar bhláth bhréige an domhain-se `O thou who growest proud of the vain beauty of this world,' A. Ó Dálaigh xl 12. conach ó[i]r na airgid na taibhsi in domhuin(?) brégaidh, Lib. Flav. i 22d21 . da rabhuid beag ┐ a mbeith ag dol i ttaidhbhsi parvae et admodum eminentes (suppurationes), 23 K 42, 203.8 . Of persons: uchán, as mé an taidbse truagh spectacle , ACL iii 305 iv § 7 . a thaidhbhse ár gcrú `our race's ideal,' Ó Bruad. i 20.

(b) vision, dream, phantasm: dēnum a aircetal do Ébir ┐ do Dund co taibsenaib ilardhaib, Anecd. v 23 n. 9 . ni roibi d'Aenias don sceol sin adconnairc acht taibsi ina menmain amal bis duine iar n-aislinge, Aen. 1454 . na taidbsensa (the Transfiguration), LB 107a29 . taidbsi do p[h]ecdachu `warning visions,' MacCongl. 73.22 . cridenbas na taidhbsi donarfas doibh, CCath. 901 . tucsad aithni fair gurub taidbsi tugad do, Lib. Flav. ii 4a39 áit i bhfuilid taidhbhseana ┐ tadhbháis, TSh. 6678.

(c) ghost, apparition, image (of a particular person or thing): conid frisna taidbsib sin atberat na haneolaig síde, LU 4039 . ni crand acht t.¤ ṡidi, LL 27b44 . atchonnac na tailchenna | is t.¤ na naem, SG 367.14 . scuchad fri scáth ┐ táidbsi be startled by a shadow and an apparition (?), LB 157a61 . ionmhuin taidhbhse táinig sonn | aréir trem chodladh chugom, TD 39.2 . taidhbhse anma gan anam, Dánta Gr. 47.16 .

Note also: scraiph sceas tonn taidbsi lir `the foam(?) cast up by the mighty wave of the sea,' Ériu ix 47 § 15 . no ma truma tarrastur tanuise do tiuglaithi taidbhsi teora tonn .i. do ni triar la innraic a fuil for innraic na la eisinnraic for eisinnraic, H 3.17 col. 438 ( O'D. 556 ). taibhsi ag mnáibh na ccíghibh corra | láimh re mílidh Dhroma Deirg, IGT Decl. ex. 1980.

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