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airdirc

Cite this: eDIL s.v. airdirc or dil.ie/1842
Last Revised: 2013

 

Forms: airdairc, -erc, airdr(a)ic, urrdraic, urrdhairc, uirrdhreic, uirrdhearc

i(2 derc). Also airdairc, -erc and later airdr(a)ic. urrdraic, urrdhairc, uirrdhreic, uirrdhearc, IGT Decl. § 170 , oirdherc (see below).

I Adj.

(a) well-known, obvious, manifest: is airdircc í cach thír rocretsisi do día `it is well-known in every country', Wb. 1a3 . is irdirc for n-iress i cach lucc, 24c15 . hóre is irdircc far clúu `because your renown is conspicuous', 7c3 . erdairc gl. celebre, Ml. 25a13 . ruclé .i. erdarcai gl. conspicui, 36a10 . a ligi no a lecht and so / ni bad airdairc a Chruacho, LU 2846 . is e side romarbad la athair tria het amal as irdairc, Rawl. 124b51 . amhail as errderc ina beathaidh fein `as is evident in her own Life', AFM i 172.3 . brethnaigit . . . gur uo droch-spirut buī ag inotacht innti amoil ba hoirrderc i n-a dheghaidh `and that became evident afterwards', Fl. Earls 132.30 . cach éan mar a adhbha / oirrdhearc so is ['s] é leantar, DDána 98.1 . an sgēal-sa, do bhí rofhollus óirdheirc a Saxain an uair sin, Mac Aingil 1376 . In cheville: aurdairc rád, SR 5553 . airdirc scél, 5121 . Adv. ro cinded . . . do co urdairc, Laws i 238.17 Comm.

(b) renowned, famous, celebrated: Éndae airdirc (erdairc, irdraic, airderc v.ll.) Árne, Fél. Mar. 21 . in macc amra airdirc, Trip.² 2670 . is airi ni hairdeircc in F., 855 . úair bíd airdairc ic feraib . . . an dá gein sea, LU 4254 . bid airrdric (airdairc, LU) inti gebas gaisced and, TBC-I¹ 569 . ic taffund na hailiti urdaircc út .i. Conculaind, TBC-LL¹ 1404 . na hilbuidni airrdrici, TTebe 1444 . macoem án aurdairc, TTr.² 1582 . ceithre uaithne oirdraca oirechais A., MR 248.9 . saii fial urdaircc aithesach, Ann. Conn. 1412.11 . dochum an uasail fhíoroirdheirc Tomáis de Rís `right honourable', O'Gr. Cat. 667.9 . ód ghairm onóraigh orrdhairc (to a bishop), DDána 90.15 . trí pearsain aoinDia oirrdheirc, 25.13 . canam molta don mhac oirrdhearc, 17.31 . dīa n-dernad in marbnaid erdraice, MacCongl. 91.26 . an bhfuil éinní oirrdheirc eile san mainistir as fíu a fhaicsin, Desid. 3217 . sosadh orduirc oiregda na hEirenn (i.e. Tara), `noble', Ériu iii 150 § 1 . In pejorative use notorious: in pheist irdairc úathmar, LU 2428 . ro brised in cath irrdairc uathmur ar O., RC vi 178.134 . an fhoghail ordhruic, Desid. 3681 . na .x. plága . . . irdraca, LB 118a25 . in lá erdraicc .i. lathi bratha, PH 3616 . Compar. airdercu laechaib Loegaire, LU 8294 ( FB § 22 ). cia bad irdarcu a mbeó . . . no a mmarb? . . . airdarcu a mbeó, LL 8709 (TBC). is airdarcu dúin sanas ná da neoch aile éigem, MU² 280 . nocun urdraca in air oldas in molad, O'Curry 1878 (RIA 23 P 3, 21(23)b). airdarcu epirt (lit. clearer than speech) perfectly obvious: is irdurcu epirt lim són air rofetar ní biedsi hi cobodlus la suidiu, Wb. 9b17 , cf. 28b32 . 31b4 . Ml. 122d7 . Sg. 23b3 . Superl. ni hiad is lanorrdraicea (of names), BB 39a9 .

II Subst. famous person or place: in t-airdirc (terrdraic, taurdairc v.ll.) a hAfraic (St. Augustine), Fél. Aug. 28 . a n-aird ┐ a n-airdirc `their celebrities', CCath. 4409 . adfēd dō . . . a nīathu ┐ a nāthu, a nairdrici (a nairdirci, LU) ┐ a treba famous places, TBC-I¹ 622 . Perh. also: ardharc .i. suaitheantas, O'Cl.

attá

Cite this: eDIL s.v. attá or dil.ie/4927
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: attá, Fil, fil, faeilfit, fil, fil, atóo, attó, attóo, ató, -táu, -ttóo, -tó, atái, atái, -tái, adta, ata, at, atáa, attáa, ataa, att, -tá, -ta, -táa, -dathar, ataam, attaam, ataid, ataaith, ataaid, ataad, -taid, ataat, ataat, -tat, -taat, tathum, tathut, táithi, táthus, táthunn, taithiunn, tathuib, tás, fil, fil, feil, fel, fail, fil, file, fel, fele, feil, fail, biuu, -bíu, -bí, biith, biid, bíid, -bii, -bí, robīi, -rubi, -rubai, -ruba, bíis, biís, bis, bís, bithir, bither, -bither, -rubthar, bímmi, -biam, bimme, biit, bíit, robiat, -biat, -bíat, -rubat, bíte, -bíinn, -biinn, -bíid, -bíth, -bid, -bith, bithe, -bímmis, -bitis, -bítis, b, bíth, bíith, bíid, biid, bíd, bithom, biid, bith, biat, beo, beu, -béo, bee, b, -bee, robhe, beith, beid, bed, beth, -b, -bée, bethum-sa, rob, robe, rubé, rob, robbé, -roib, bess, bes, bethir, bether, -bether, bemmi, beimmi, -bem, -robam, beithe, bethe, -beith, -beid, -robith, beit, rubet, be(i)t, -bet, -robat, bete, -beind, -beinn, -betha, nobed, nobeth, -bed, -beth, -robad, -rabad, -bethe, -bemmis, -beimmis, -bemis, -bethe, -betis, -[ro]ibtis, bia, bie, bieid, bied, -bia, -bia, -bia, -bía, bethiumm, bethib, bias, bies, beithir, -bether, bemmi, beimmi, -biam, -piam, bethe, bethi, -bied, -bieid, biet, bieit, biet, -biat, -bíet, bete, beite, nombeinn, nobiad, -bíad, nobemmis, nobetis, b, -bá, bói, bái, -bói, boie, boithius, boíthi, baísu, both(a)e, botha, -both(a), bamar, bámar, -baid, bātir, -batar, batar, rob, -roba, -raba, rob, robói, rambái, robui, -robae, -robe, -rabae, romboth, rombod, -rabad, robámmar, -robammar, rubaid, -robaid, robatar, robbátar, -rabatar, -robatar, -rabtar, buith, buithi, atáu, atú, itu, it, atú, ataim, -t, -tái, -toi, taoi, -t, atá, attá, ata, at, atáthar, dáthar, atass, -das, itám, tám, ataum, ataim, atamaoit, atámaoid, atám, -taum, -dtám, atathai, atathi, atáithi, -táithi, -dathai, -taidh, itāt, atáit, ataut, táid, -táit, itat, atat, fil, -fhile, -fhuile, -fuili, -ḟoili, -ḟuile, fail, fail, fuil, -fail, -fuil, -uil, -ḟil, -ḟuil, -ḟoil, fil, fail, fail, filter, -fuiltear, fuilemm, -failmet, -ḟuilmíd, -ḟuilmíd, -ḟoilmíd, -ḟuileam, -ḟoileam, -bhḟuilti, failet, filet, fuilet, -failet, -filet, -fileat, -fuilet, -fuilid, failet, failet, fuilet, filet, bim, bím, -bím, -ruibim, -bi, bíd, bíd, -bí, -bíonn, -bind, bídh, -b, bither, -bithar, bímit, bídmaid, bímíd, -bímíd, -bíom, bíth, bīd, -bíat, -bít, -bíd, bit, bít, bhínn, nobīth, robíth, bhíodh, bhíoth, bithi, -bithi, bithea, naboitis, nobīdis, beitis, bitis, bhítís, bhídís, bír, b, bīdh, bíodh, bíoth, bíom, bíthe, bídh, bidhí, bíod, ber, uér, beor, bheith, bur, -rabor, -rabhus, rabasa, bear, rabhar, -bear, -rabhar, bé, beir, -rab(a)i, -rabha, -rabhair, -mbéis, -beis(se), -rabais, beis, rabais, -beis, -rabais, beth, -b, -raib, -rab, -raibhe, rabh, raibh, -bé, -raibh, -rabh, bess, beas, bethur, beme, bemmit, bemait, -bém, -beam, -ruibem, -rabum, bheam, rabham, bethi, rabthai, beit, -bet, -beat, -rabat, -rabut, -rabhait, -rabhaid, -rabheid, beinn, rabainn, beithi, beithe, bethe, beitheá, beith, nobith, mbeadh, -mbeath, -rabad, -bethe, -bette, rabtha, mbiadh, nobeitis, nobeidis, mbeith, bíat, biat, biad, bhead, bed, bét, bett, -biu, -bhiú, biad, -bi, bía, biae, biaidh, bía, -bía, bethair, bied, biaid, biáid, -bia, bíes, bés, bes, bess, bhias, biass, beither, beithir, bemit, bemait, -bem(ni, beimíd, -biam, -biaim(ne), -ben, bethi, beitte, bete, -bed, biait, biat, beit, beiti, beti, betit, beidid, -bīat, beidíd, beid, -bíad, no-béind, dobeind, do beinn, -beinn, bheitheá, biadh, -bied, bífad, rot-fiadh, biath, bhiadh, bethe, bheidīs, ro-bádus, bhádhus, bhí, -rabus, -rabhas, -rabadhus, bá, -raba, bádhus, -rabadhas, basa, bhádhuis, bhí, -rabadais, -rabhais, bhádhuis, -rabhadhuis, bae, bóe, baei, búi, -bae, -buí, robai, robae, robói, bí, robuidh, bí, bhói, bhaoi, -rubai, -roibe, -roibi, -roba, -raba, -raibhe, -rabha, -robha, bí, -raibi, baí, -rabha, -rabhustair, boí, bāi, būi, bae, buí, baí, boí, both, rombatha, robās, rombas, robás, -rabus, rabas, -bádus, -bás, bás, bas, -rabas, bas, bhás, bāmur, bámar, bhámair, -rabamar, robabair, -babhair, robadbair, bhábhair, -rabhuir, -rabhabhair, bādar, -bátir, badar, bádar, bídur, -rabadar, -rabhadair, baisit, -rabhsad, bátar, bátar, bheith, beitte

(ad-tá) subst. vb. is . The distinction betw. subst. vb. and copula is in the first place syntactical, and cases are found where there is no distinction of form. Cf. the type, common in ACC: boe sab he was a leader, ACC 26 . See further below, and the discussion by Bergin, Ériu xii 208 - 211 (cia taísiu, cia bé, etc.), who refers to cases like: is uera pictura ro bai sin, Thes. ii 6.32 as emphatic. See also Ériu xvi 46 , GOI 475 . For nimtha laám, Wb. 12a21 , nímptha fírion, 8d24 (copula ?) see GOI 487 . Note also the form of the pron. in (later): matait tall iat, Laws iv 86.8 Comm. , atá ar conair é, ACL iii 216.z . bí N. eices cecinit, RC xvii 175.14 is perh. a mistake. In follg. use of subst. vb. perh. due to infl. of Latin: mar nobéind athair doib = pater eram pauperum, PH 6107 . ata in innsci ordugud etc. = oratio est. . ., Auraic. 591 .

Apart from the ordinary indic. pres. all forms of subst. vb. are from a root beginning with b-. In indic. pres. the stem tá (in absol. position attá) is used in non-rel. sentences without conj. particle, after conj. particles with inf. pron. dat. and when the conj. particle consists of a preposition and rel. (s)a n-. Absolute inflexion of tá- is found in oldaas, indaas, etc. than (is), in meaning is angry, and with follg. suff. pron. The uninflected form fil (with accus.) is used after conj. particles where no dat. inf. pron. is present, in leniting rel. clauses and often in answers to questions containing subst. vb., and in archaic texts in absol. position in meaning there is . For fuller details see GOI 476 - 483 and exx. below. See also Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 419 ff. , Strachan, Phil. Soc. Trans. 1899, 1 - 82 , Ó Máille, Ériu vi 1 ff. , Études Celt. xxxiv 143-44 . Forms of gaibid, do-coissin, díchsnigidir and 1 ad-cumaing also have the force of the subst. vb. in certain uses, see separate entries.

Note further that attá is usual after hóre (see Wb. 19a19 , 22d14 and compare GOI § 781 ) and occurs later after amal ( LU 7072 , Laws iii 90.18 ). Fil is somet. found in sense there is in mid. Ir.: fail crois d'ór in cach dorus, SR 361 . TBC-I¹ 2561 . Note also: fil derg it is red, Marco P. 173 .

The use of accus. after fil continues into the classical period, see IGT Introd. § 129 , Bard. Synt. Tr. 92 - 93 . A few exx. of forms other than fil with accus. occur: ni raibi deilb, TTr.² 1664 , ní raibi . . . mhnái, 370 , ní bhiadh mnaoi, Ó Bruad. ii 252.z (with assonance). Note also with inf. pron. rosṁbai inna tass, SR 5107 . ? nim tha maith . . . do chath fri firu, LU 3343 ( SCC 13 ). From the mid. Ir. period on fil takes personal endings except in 3 s., and occurs occasionally as an independent verb: faeilfit (fut. 3 pl. absol.), Caithr. Thoirdh. 120.26 . In rel. function attá is found side by side with fil from an early period: is heiside attá hi S., Trip.² 534 , a lucht atá istig, RC vii 298.131 , the form fil finally disappearing in this use.

In mid. Ir. fil occurs for earlier -tá with dat. inf. pron.: nichar fail tlacht, SR 1560 , ni-s-fil biad, PH 1310 . Also in rel. clause after prep.: bale hi fail, LU 7516 , fors fil, Imr. Brain 43 (see also Strachan, Stories fr. Táin 3rd ed. p. 1 note).

The consuet. pres. 1 s. conj. -bíu has in classical Ir. the force of a future: biad ní biú, IGT Verbs § 7 , see also TBC-LL¹ 882 , Acall. 6179 , Duan. F. i 43.4 .

Early forms (for fuller lists see Strachan loc. cit.). Indic. pres. 1 s. atóo, Wb. 12a21 . attó, 21c19 . attóo, 26d8 . ató, 26d17 . -táu, 32a10 , -ttóo, 17d24 , -tó, Ml. 92b8 . 2 s. atái, Wb. 5b27 . atái, Ml. 110d15 (sic MS, see Ériu xiv 30 ). -tái, 5b38 . 3 s. adta, Laws v 390.10 (see ZCP xxv 247 ). ata, Wb. 13c26 , at, 27a11 , atáa, 6a19 , attáa, 32a6 , ataa, 26b31 , att, 4b11 . -tá, 31c7 , -ta, 2b12 , -táa, 13a35 . Impers. -dathar (see GOI 477 - 478 ), Wb. 21c9 . 1 pl. ataam, Wb. 15a13 , attaam, 32a28 . 2 pl. ataid, Wb. 4a4 , ataaith, 20b16 , ataaid, 23c28 , ataad, 22d14 . -taid, 19d26 . 3 pl. ataat (trisyll.), Blathm. 471 . ataat, Ml. 55d11 , 37a10 . -tat, 42b10 . -taat, Sg. 71b3 .

With suff. pron. tathum, Metr. Dinds. iv 284.3 . tathut, Fél. July 24 . táithi (tathai, v.l.), Críth G. 197 . táthus, Fél. Feb. 5 . táthunn, Prol. 217. taithiunn, Thes. ii 293.19 . tathuib, Rawl. 88b51 .

For rel. s. without preverb (taas, tás) see atás, indaas, 4 ol.

The form fil, etc. As conj. form: fil, Wb. 16b9 , Ml. 92a8 , Sg. 193b7 . feil, Wb. 24c4 . Ml. 60b2 . fel, Wb. 3c38 , Ml. 27d10 . fail, 44b10-11 , Sg. 32a1 . As rel.: fil, Ml. 121c8 , file Wb. 23a5 , Ml. 51d11 , Sg. 151b7 . fel, Wb. 4c1 , fele, Ml. 93c7 . feil, Wb. 33b18 . fail, BCr. 18c4 .

Consuet. pres. 1 s. biuu, Wb. 16d8 . -bíu, 20a3 . 2 s. -bí, Ml. 135d1 . ACL iii 312 § 4 . 3 s. biith, Wb. 29a26 . biid, 4d33 . bíid, Sg. 150b4 . -bii, Wb. 28b25 , -bí, Ml. 103c3 . With ro: robīi, TBC-I¹ 1730 . -rubi, Wb. 11c17 , -rubai, Ml. 20d4 , Sg. 7b3 . -ruba, 3b28 . Rel. bíis, Wb. 13a12 . biís, 28b28 . bis, Ml. 61a33 . bís, Sg. 140b2 . Impers. bithir, Ml. 56b15 . rel. bither, 108b4 , -bither, 100c21 . -rubthar, cited GOI § 784 . OIPG 69 . 1 pl. bímmi, Ml. 15a4 . -biam, Wb. 16a8 . Rel. bimme, Wb. 12c11 . 3 pl. biit, Wb. 29a28 . bíit, Sg. 217a1 . robiat, 138a5 . -biat, Ml. 59d7 . -bíat, Sg. 148a4 . -rubat, 138a5 . Rel. bíte, Wb. 9d28 .

Indic. impf. 1 s. -bíinn, Ml. 108b1 , -biinn, 58d9 . 3 s. -bíid, LU 5080 (see Ériu xvii 121 ), -bíth, Sg. 148b6 . -bid, Ml. 33a5 . -bith, Vita Br. 12 . Impers. no bithe , CCath. 3971 . 1 pl. -bímmis, cited GOI § 785 . 3 pl. -bitis, Ml. 86d6 . -bítis, Sg. 5a15 .

Ipv. 2 s. b, TBC-I¹ 2391 . 3 s. bíth, Wb. 10a8 , 25 , bíith, 8d9 , bíid, 5d33 , biid, Ml. 74d3 . bíd, Wb. 3a14 . With suff. pron. bithom, Fél. Ep. 404 n.17 . 2 pl. biid, Wb. 23c11a . bith, 22b26 . 3 pl. biat, Ml. 51d13 .

Subj. pres. 1 s. beo, Wb. 23b41 . beu, Ml. 53b8 . -béo, Fél. Prol. 273 . 2 s. bee, cited OIPG 70 and see GOI 482 . b, ZCP viii 311.z (see xxiv 122 ). -bee (perh. absol.), ZCP vii 494 (Enchir. Aug.). -bē, Fing. R. 82 . With ro: robhe (restored as ro-bé), Blathm. 92 § 9 . 3 s. beith, Ml. 108a11 . beid, Wb. 14c23 . bed, 3c10 . beth, Thes. ii 245.34 (Cambr. Hom.). -bǽ, Wb. 22b14 . -b, Sg. 29b14 . -bée, Wb. 12c43 . With suff. pron. bethum-sa, Fél. Ep. 384 n.14 . With ro: rob, Wb. 5d30 , robe, 18c4 , rubé, Ml. 20d4 , rob, Wb. 28a23 , robbé, Sg. 169a1 . -roib, Wb. 16c24 , Ml. 118c5 . Rel. bess, Wb. 5d14 . bes, Ml. 77d3 . Impers. bethir, Wb. 5d33 . rel. bether, Ml. 107d8 . -bether, Wb. 10a18 . 1 pl. bemmi, Wb. 31c11 . beimmi, 19a16 . -bem, 24a10 . -robam, 26c10 . 2 pl. beithe, Wb. 18b16 . bethe, 24b13 . -beith, Ml. 46a10 . -beid, Wb. 27c9 . With ro: -robith, Wb. 26a28 . 3 pl. beit, Wb. 10b5 . rubet, 26a23 . ro be(i)t , Vita Br. 35 . -bet, Wb. 9d27 . -robat, 11d9 . Rel. bete, Wb. 10c22 .

Subj. impf. 1 s. -beind, TBC-I¹ 1856 . -beinn cited GOI § 787 . 2 s. -betha, Wb. 4c24 . 3 s. nobed, Wb. 3b10 . nobeth, Ml. 27b1 . -bed, Wb. 9d1 . -beth, Ml. 88b15 . -robad, Wb. 17a13 . -rabad, 34a4 . Impers. -bethe, Trip.² 2828 . 1 pl. -bemmis, Wb. 9a3 . -beimmis, 29d23 . -bemis, Vita Br. 23 . 2 pl. -bethe, Wb. 9c20 . 3 pl. -betis, Sg. 138a9 . -[ro]ibtis, Wb. 28a1 .

Fut. 1 s. bia, Ml. 137b7 . 2 s. bie, cited GOI § 788 , OIPG 70 . 3 s. bieid, Wb. 4d6 . bied, 14c1 . -bia, 5d35 . -bia (disyll.), Blathm. 572 . -bia and -bía, GOI § 788 . With suff. pron. bethiumm. Ériu xiii 20.6 . bethib, ZCP viii 316.5 (see xxix 174 ). Rel. bias, Wb. 23b38 . bies, Ériu iii 102 § 32 . Impers. beithir, TBFr. 248 . -bether, MacCongl. 61.4 . 1 pl. bemmi, Wb. 9c10 . beimmi, 21b7 . -biam, 15a1 . -piam, 30b17 . 2 pl. bethe, cited GOI § 788 . bethi, Trip.² 1589 . -bied, Wb. 9a21 . -bieid, 26d26 . 3 pl. biet (disyll.), Blathm. 472 . bieit, Wb. 4c40 . biet, 9d27 , Sg. 198b6 (also bíet, GOI § 788 ). -biat, 9c28 . -bíet, 40b14 . Rel. bete, Wb. 13c26 . beite, 4c40 .

Condit. 1 s. nombeinn, Ml. 59a22 . 3 s. nobiad, Ml. 32d5 . -bíad, Wb. 9d1 . 1 pl. nobemmis, Ml. 134b3 . 3 pl. nobetis, Ml. 100c7 .

Pret. 1 s. b, LU 9407 . 2 s. -bá, cited GOI § 789 , OIPG 71 , see perf. 2 s. below. 3 s. bói, Wb. 31c18 . bái, 27a16 . -bói, 17d17 , Ml. 78a4 . Rel. boie, Thes. ii 242.11 (Ardm.). boīe (MS. ba), Ériu xvi 46.10 (see n. 0 and Celtica vi 223 ). boíë (MS. baoí), Ériu xxvi 67, 85 . Cf. cech nóeb bói, fil, bías, Fél. Ep. 289 (where six sylls. required). With suff. pron. boithus, IT i 137.8 = boithius, 21 . boíthi, Sc.M² 3 . ? baísu, Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. i 37.5 . Impers. *both(a)e, postulated GOI § 789 , botha, TBC-I¹ 1572 . -both(a), Vita Br. 33 . 1 pl. bamar, SR 1558 . bámar, 3286 , Imr. Brain i 48.5 . 2 pl. -baid (baïd ?), cited GOI § 789 , OIPG 71 . 3 pl. bātir, TBC-I¹ 217 . -batar, Ml. 55c2 . Rel. batar, Ml. 123b5 . See GOI § 789 .

Perf. 1 s. rob, Wb. 28a9 . -roba, Ml. 44c4 . -raba, TBC-I¹ 3068 . 2 s. rob, LL 14442 . 3 s. robói, Wb. 5c10 . rambái, 2c13 . robui, Ml. 93c3 . -robae, Ml. 41a5 , -robe, Wb. 18d7 , -rabae, Ml. 28d3 . Impers. romboth, Wb. 19a9 . rombod, 5b31 . -rabad, Ériu iv 146.4 . 1 pl. robámmar, Wb. 20d12 . -robammar, Ml. 105b16 . 2 pl. rubaid, Wb. 3b19 . -robaid, Ml. 46a8 . 3 pl. robatar, Wb. 24c5 . robbátar, Sg. 57b1 . -rabatar, Ml. 100c11 . -robatar, Sg. 45b1 . -rabtar, Ml. 37a16 .

Vn. buith.

Vbl. of necess. buithi.

Later forms (see also Ó Máille, Verbs of Existence in Irish, Ériu vi 1 ff. ; Mulchrone, Verbalformen der Vita Tripartita, ZCP xvi 440 ; Falconer, Verbal System of LU Táin, Ériu xvii 116 ; Strachan, Verbal System of SR, Phil. Soc. Trans. 1895, 1 - 76 ; O Daly, Verbal System of LL Táin, Ériu xiv 80 ; Mac Eoin, Verbalsystem von Togail Troi, ZCP xxviii 125 ; Sommerfelt, Le système verbal dans In Cath Catharda, RC xxxviii 41 ; Nuner, Verbal System of the Agallamh na Senórach, ZCP xxvii 272 ; PH Glossary; Lloyd, Impersonal passive forms of the Irish substantive verb, Ériu i 49 ff. ; TD Introd. lxxv ; IGT Verbs § 7 ).

Indic. pres. 1 s. atáu, Trip.² 1412 . atú, 2578 . itu, SR 1187 . it, TBC-LL¹ 434 . atú, IGT Verbs § 7 . ataim, Fier. 14 . -t, Acall. 4516 . 2 s. -tái, SR 3102 . -toi, TBC-I¹ 937 . taoi, TD 15.48 . cia doaisiu mac?, RC xxvi 30 § 128 . 3 s. -t, Trip.² 744 . atá, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. attá, Trip.² 534 , ata, SR 7708 etc., at, Acall. 429 . Impers. atáthar, TBC-LL¹ 3316 . dáthar (: máthar), IGT Verbs ex. 99 . atass, Ériu iv 114 § 17 (:as). -das (: as), IGT Verbs ex. 104 . 1 pl. itám, SR 1727 . tám, 3493 . ataum, PH 1556 . ataim, TBC-LL¹ 874 . atamaoit, TBC St. 121 . atámaoid, atám, IGT Verbs § 7 . -taum, PH 1506 . -dtám (: ár), IGT Verbs ex. 111 . 2 pl. atathai, PH 2734 . atathi, 597 . atáithi (: fáithi), IGT Verbs ex. 105 . -táithi (: sáithi), ex. 96 . -dathai, Alex. 190 . -taidh, Ériu ii 118 § 53 . 3 pl. itāt, TBC-I¹ 3132 . atáit, CCath. 1215 . ataut, PH 1064 . táid, TD 8.5 . -táit, CCath. 1701 . Rel. itat, Trip.² 882 , atat, SR 7949 . For later forms in meaning than (is) see atás, indaas, 4 ol. See also II (d) below and daas.

The form fil. 1 s. ni ḟuilim, ni ḟoilim, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. -fhile, PH 8116 . -fhuile, 3335 , -fuili, Acall. 3217 . -ḟoili, -ḟuile, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. fail, TBC-I¹ 60 , SR 353 etc. ro fail , TBC-LL¹ 263 , fuil, 3072 . -fail, Trip.² 2764 , -fuil, 872 , -uil, PH 3181 , -ḟil, Acall. 3709 . -ḟuil, -ḟoil, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. fil, Trip.² 842 , fail, SR 392 , no fail , 933 . With impers. ending: filter, MacCongl. 31.25 . -fuiltear, TD 2.42 . 1 pl. ra fuilemm , TBC-LL¹ 2971 . -failmet, SR 6320 , -ḟuilmíd, Acall. 5101 . -ḟuilmíd, -ḟoilmíd, -ḟuileam, -ḟoileam, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 pl. -bhḟuilti, Acall. 962 . 3 pl. failet, SR 345 . filet, 477 . fuilet, TBC-LL¹ 4739 . -failet, Trip.² 1119 . -filet, TBC-I¹ 1848 , -fileat, CCath. 1270 . -fuilet, 427 . -fuilid, TD 7.23 . Rel. failet, SR 400 . ra failet , TBC-LL¹ 5225 . fuilet, 4709 . filet, PH 435 . See also do-fil.

Consuet. pres. 1 s. bim, PH 6393 . bím, -bím, IGT Verbs § 7 . ? -ruibim, SG 373.29 . 2 s. -bi, SR 2035 . bí, ní bí, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. bíd, TBC-I¹ 1453 (LU). biid, SR 4537 . bíd, 4588 . -bí, TBC-I¹ 472 . -bíonn, TD 22.12 . -bind, RC xlix 37.13 . bídh, -b, IGT Verbs § 7 . Impers. bither, PH 7441 . -bithar, Laws iv 234.2 Comm. 1 pl. bímit, Acall. 886 . bídmaid, 5481 . bímíd, -bímíd, -bíom, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 pl. bíth, Acall. 6139 . 3 pl. bīd, TBC-I¹ 1075 (bít, LU). -bíat, TTr.² 330 . -bít, PH 4189 , -bíd, TD 5.5 . Rel. bit (= bíït), SR 7259 . bít, TBC-LL¹ 1320 .

Indic. impf. 1 s. do bhínn , TD 23.7 . 3 s. nobīth, TBC-I¹ 593 (nobíid, LU cited above). robíth, TBC-I¹ 1903 (LU). do bhíodh , TD 14.23 . do bhíoth , 26.12 . Impers. bithi, Auraic. 5286 = -bithi, RC xx 150.y (ACC Pref.). no bithea , Acall. 156 . 3 pl. naboitis, TBC-I¹ 855 LU (nobitís, Y). nobīdis, 3621 (Y). bítís, 1898 (LU). no beitis , LL 407a27 . ro bitis , PH 1957 . do bhítís , Acall. 830 . do bhídís , TD 15.18 . Rel. tri cnuasa bítís ann, Acall. 455 .

Ipv. 1 s. bír (: gním), IGT Verbs ex. 94 . 2 s. b, Parrth. Anma 3871 . 3 s. bīdh, ZCP vi 271.z . bíodh, TD 16.2 . bíoth, 17.1 . 1 pl. bíom, Dán Dé xiv 17 . 2 pl. bíthe (: -chíthe), IGT Verbs ex. 95 . bídh, ex. 109 . bidhí, Luc. Fid. 3430 . 3 pl. bíod, TD 16.19 .

Subj. pres. 1 s. ber, SG 172.15 . uér, Ériu ii 92.9 . beor, v 222.46 . bheith mé, TD 8.9 . -ra bur , TBC-LL¹ 1112 . -rabor, ZCP xii 401.30 . ? -rabhus, ZCP v 523.27 = rabasa, Ériu xii 144.12 (TE). -rabar, ZCP iii 32.37 . bear, rabhar, -bear, -rabhar, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. bé, SR 1607 . beir, BNnÉ 288.29 . Acall. 592 . -rab(a)i, BDD² p. 80 . -rabha, Irish Texts iv 75 § 16 . -rabhair, Fing. R. p. 13 note 86 . -mbéis (: Céis), IGT Verbs ex. 100 . -beis(se) (: meise), Dán Dé xiv 20 . -rabais, Fing. R. 86 , BDD² 363 (see ZCP xxvii 75-8 ). beis, rabais, -beis, -rabais, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. beth, TBC-I¹ 270 (beith, v.l.), IGT Verbs ex. 101 . -b, TBC-I¹ 1671 . -raib, Trip.² 2753 . -rab, TBC-I¹ 1430 . -raibhe, Parrth. Anma 2616 . rabh, raibh, -bé, -raibh, -rabh, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. bess, TBC-I¹ 1104 (beis, Y). beas, IGT Verbs § 7 . Impers. bethur, Laws ii 36.20 Comm. 1 pl. beme, Snedg. u. Mac R 9.14 . bemmit, TBC-LL¹ 2137 . bemait, Acall. 5478 . -bém, CCath. 1124 . -beam (: leam), Dán Dé xii 10 . -ruibem, SR 5540 . -rabum, PH 7899 . bheam, rabham, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 pl. bethi, SR 1233 . rabthai, PH 1977 . 3 pl. beit, Trip.² 1653 . -bet, TBC-I¹ 1053 . -beat, Lism. L. 4702 . -rabat, Laws iv 42.29 Comm. -rabut, PH 994 . -rabhait, BNnÉ 269.4 . -rabhaid, Parrth. Anma 2836 . -rabheid, RC xxix 136 § 51 .

Subj. impf. 1 s. do beinn , do rabainn , IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. no beithi , Trip.² 2972 . no beithe , 2983 = no bethe , Trip. 252.21 . do beitheá , TD 1.44 . 3 s. no beith , Trip.² 2967 . nobith, TBC-I¹ 3543 . dá mbeadh , TD 29.6 . -mbeath, IGT Verbs ex. 97 . -rabad, RC iii 184.24 . Impers. -bethe, Trip.² 2828 . -bette, Metr. Dinds. iii 382.19 . rabtha, TBC-LL¹ (C) 1675 . 1 pl. dá mbiadh sinn, TD 28.25 . 3 pl. nobeitis, SR 7855 . nobeidis, TBC-I¹ 3557 . dá mbeith siad, TD 26.36 .

Fut. (see Bergin, Ériu ii 46-8 ) 1 s. bíat, TTr.² 89 . biat, PH 1244 . biad (bíatt v.l.), CCath. 5137 . bhead, Parrth. Anma 6378 . bed, ZCP vi 41.10 . bét, 69.2 . bett, BNnÉ 52 § 42 . -biu, TBC-LL¹ 882 . -bhiú, Dán Dé xiv 20 . biad, -bi, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. bía, Trip.² 1593 . biae, SR 1599 . -bíai, BNnÉ 291 § 2 . biaidh tú, TD 1.26 . bía, -bía, IGT Verbs § 7 . bethair, ZCP ii 225.4 . 3 s. bied, LU 10362 . biaid, Trip.² 1071 . biáid, TBC-I¹ 169 (LU). biaidh, -bia, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. bíes, Trip.² 2671 . bés, CCath. 300 , bes, 657 . bess, PH 4666 . bhias, TD 3.50 . do biass , L. Chl. S. 1 . Impers. beither, Acall. 5259 . beithir, ZCP x 415.11 . 1 pl. bemit, LU 9753 , PH 1501 . bemait, CCath. 1467 . -bem(ni, LU 9753 . beimíd, -biam, IGT Verbs § 7 . -biaim(ne) (: siairni), ex. 108 . ? -ben, BCC 396.19 . 2 pl. bethi, SR 3083 . beitte (: eiti) (beththi, bete v.l.), IGT Verbs ex. 102 . -bed, Trip.² 1590 . 3 pl. biait, Trip.² 2665 , TBC-I¹ 2057 (beite, LU). biat, Trip.² 1288 . beit, TBC-I¹ 80 . beiti, TBC-I¹ 2078 . beti, SR 8157 . betit, SR 853 . TBC-LL¹ 246 , TTr.² 760 . beidid, ZCP x 338 § 1 . -bīat, TBC-I¹ 1132 . beidíd síad, BCC 290.12 . beid, -bíad, IGT Verbs § 7 .

Condit. 1 s. no-béind, PH 6107 . dobeind, 7489 . do beinn, -beinn, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. do bheitheá , TD 19.13 . 3 s. no biadh , CCath. 3754 . -bied, TBC-I¹ 504 . ro bífad , TBC-LL¹ 5112 . rot-fiadh, IT iii 320.4 ( Cóir Anm. 70 ). do biath (: sgiath), IGT Verbs ex. 97 . do bhiadh , TD 2.54 . Impers. no bethe , TTr.² 533 . 3 pl. do bheidīs , Parrth. Anma 5227 .

Pret. and perf. 1 s. ro-bádus, PH 699 . do bhádhus , TD 23.6 . do bhí mé, 5 . -rabus, Acall. 7913 . -rabhas, 1584 . -rabadhus, 356 . do bá , -raba; do bádhus , -rabadhas, IGT Verbs § 7 . do basa ( : bádusa; proscribed form), ex. 103 . 2 s. ro bhádhuis , CCath. 553 . do bhí tú, TD 28.6 . -rabadais, PH 3725. 8121 . -rabhais, Acall. 123 . do bhádhuis , -rabhadhuis, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. bae, SR 7608 . bóe, 6265 . baei, BDD² 127 . búi, CCath. 95 . -bae, SR 4975 . -buí, Trip.² 1505 . robai, SR 2229 , robae, 2262 . robói, PH 2572 . ro bí , CCath. 1302 . robuidh, Ériu iii 198 § 22 . do bí , CCath. 278 . do bhói , Acall. 58 . do bhaoi (: draoi), Dán Dé xii 22 . -rubai, SR 1241 . -roibe, BDD² 498 , -roibi, 1393 . -roba, 251 . -raba, 1533 . -raibhe, TD 2.25 . -rabha, 8.36 . -robha, 1 . do bí , -raibi, do baí , -rabha, IGT Verbs § 7 . With depon. ending -rabhustair, BNnÉ 322 § 31 . Rel. boí, Trip.² 626 . bāi, TBC-I¹ 1277 . būi, 630 . ro bae , Trip.² 288 . ro buí , BDD² 287 . ro baí , 1451 . ro boí , 1517 . Impers. both, Trip.² 2264 . rombatha, Ériu ii 20 § 3 (-a added later). -rabad, iv 146.4. robās, TBC-I¹ 2147 . rombas, SR 7564 , robás, TTr.² 151 . -rabus, Trip.² 54 . rabas, Laws iv 212.22 Comm. , -bádus, MacCongl. 43.22 . -bás, 61.3 . do bás , do bas , -rabas, IGT Verbs § 7 . do bas (: as), ex. 98 . do bhás (: fhás), Dán Dé xxvi 9 . 1 pl. bāmur, TBC-I¹ 399 . do bámar , Acall. 1283 . do bhámair (: Ádhaimh), Dán Dé xv 17 . -rabamar, TBC-I¹ 2495 . 2 pl. robabair, Anecd. ii 14.9 . -babhair, Blathm. 23 (see notes ). robadbair, TBC-I¹ 2502 . do bhábhair , TD 22a.1 . -rabhuir, Acall. 114 . -rabhabhair, TD 22a.2 . 3 pl. bādar, TBC-I¹ 472 . -bátir, TTr.² 1308 . ro badar , CCath. 573 n. ro bádar , Acall. 75 . do bídur , 5942 . -rabadar, TBC-I¹ 3108 . -rabhadair, TD 26.10 . ro baisit , O'Dav. 728 . -rabhsad, TD 16.21 . Rel. bátar, Trip.² 591 . BDD² 505 . ro bátar , 543 . Vn. an bheith , IGT Verbs § 7 . Vbl. of necess. beitte, TD 28.30 .

Cf. cenmothá, íarmothá, óthá.

Used in meaning is in a large variety of contexts. Normally replaced by copula (see 1 is) in certain fixed syntactical patterns (classification, identification, etc.), and when used in these cases exceptional (see above and II below).

I Expressing existence.

(a) Used absolutely is, exists, there is, etc.: ata in coimdiu gl. Dominus in cælo sedis eius, Ml. 30b27 . nabad hed a méit nádmbǽ `let it not be only that it is not' gl. nec nominetur in uobís, Wb. 22b14 . ní fil aimsir nad mbed ref. to fuit et est semper, Ml. 17a15 . ní torménmar-ni ara mbetis in gnimai sin gl. præter spem nostram, etc., 115b1 . ni fil chumtubairt gl. indubitabilia, etc., Sg. 154b2 . ma nubed `if it existed', 31b21 . ro baoi siomh re tuisdinsiú `he existed', Blathm. 632 . as e as soithcerndomh fil, 773 . ma rombe is maith if it is, it is well, Laws iv 2.14 Comm. ni rabi uair . . . nad ro bai `there was no hour . . . that He existed not', Ériu ii 106 § 16 . a cin for athair .i. uair na bí mac, Laws iv 240.16 Comm. Columb [ro]baoi, Columb bīaas, ZCP viii 198 § 20 . tar ēis a mic . . . / nī raba acht dā aenbliadain `was alive only two years', Ériu iii 198 § 24 . as a rad ata a nadmaim cin co be by saying there is a covenant though there is not, Laws iv 52.30 Comm. ni tha . . . ní a ngeimre in winter there is nothing, 90.1 (with petrified inf. pron. 3 s. n. in dat. sense?). ní bía terca bíd there will not be a scarcity of food, BColm. 52.5 . bid dno maith, ┐ ni bi derrscugud de `yet there is good, and nothing to surpass it', Auraic. 703 . is tré ómun bíid serc, Ériu i 195.1 . céin beti neóil im gréin ngil, Metr. Dinds. ii 38.z . i céin raibh nemh is talamh as long as . . . endure, BNnÉ 314 § 8 . bai cocad mor etarro, RC xxiv 186 § 19 . In phrase (acht) atá ní (chena) but, moreover, see 1 ní (e).

In periphrasis when emphasis on some element other than the verb is required: bieid nach dréct diib hícfider, Wb. 4d6 . bieid bes ferr de, 32a13 . do budh cusmail rit co robuis uair ecin, ┐ co n[d]ingenta rét feramail `that thou wert once such an one that thou couldst . . .', ZCP vi 87.13 . ba-sa tan / nī folabrainn ilach gamh, Ériu ii 95 § 3 . ata[a]t .iii. cáini nad chumgat comarbai do chumscuchud, Ériu xvii 68 § 9 ( Laws iv 210 ). Note further: atāit teora brīathra / ata lōgmaire for nim, ZCP vii 312 § 25 .

With words expressing time: bieid aimser nad creitfider, Wb. 28c14 . aidchi robuī `one night', Ériu ii 222.25 . fecht robai `once', Mon. Tall. 147.2 (§ 52) . biaidh uair 's . . . a time will come when, Dán Dé vii 31 .

Introducing a statement: cia beith ara rogba bóairechas riasíu ropo chúairddulchach though it be that he assume, Críth G. 67 . dá mbeith fós go mbiadh an Fhraingc comh líonmhar ┐ adeir seisean `granted that', Keat. ii 933 . má tá go seachnoid síol Éibhir . . ., TD 29.7 . ci(d), gi(d) bé whatever, whoever (see Ériu xii 210 ): ria flaithaib, .i. rias na flaithib, cibe flaithe iat `whatever chieftains they be', Laws iv 154.17 . gidh bé lá cheannghar an chairt, Dán Dé xiv 17 . cidh bé do bhean díbh an dúthaigh, DDána 26.1 . bíd (ipv. 3 s.) co n- although: admhuim . . . mo pheactha . . . bīodh gomadh é mo mhīan a bhfolach though I should wish to hide them, Parrth. Anma 4625 . bīodh nach gcaoifithea go spesialta fá gach peacadh though you might not weep specially for each sin, Mac Aingil 235 . bíth gur gheallas . . . though I promised, Ó Bruad. ii 212 § xiv . In constr. manibed x ní bíad y were it not for x y would not be, see má II (b).

(b) The subst. vb. is usual with predicates consisting of adverbial phrases of all kinds (prep. and noun, adjj. and nouns used adverbially, etc.) and thus enters into a large and varied corpus of idioms. A select list follows. Reference should in all cases also be made to the nouns, adjj., adverbs and prepositions concerned.

With CO: atáthar sund chucut your adversary is approaching, LL 10300 ( TBC-LL¹ 3316 ).

With CO N-: atúsa com thegluch there is myself and my household troop, TBC-LL¹ 437 .

With DI: im chaingin robui de muintir Tamlachti friss `about a business that arose between the monastery of Tallaght and him', Mon. Tall. 157.7 (§ 72) . masu de chlaind Echdach aird / atāi, ZCP xi 108 § 1 . ní bia debaid . . . de, Ériu iv 108 § 69 . Of materials: an crann dobí na sesam ... dobí sé do cepresus was a (lit. of) cupressus, Maund. 9 . In phrase a.¤ di such is: roboi du meit a pecthae `so great were their sins', Ml. 98c6 . má beth tra do hūaite ind āessa gráid `if the ordained folk be too few', Ériu i 220 § 13 .

With DO: biid do anmmaim cathrach `(Samnis) is as the name of the city', Sg. 104b5 . nád robatar suin do ṡlund in dúildetad inchoisget `there were not words (enough) to signify . . .', 45b1 . manusbeth tenga dia relad `if (the sun) had a tongue', Ériu ii 126 § 81 . ata eric a fogla do dul a ruradh o duine, Laws iv 50.5 Comm. Expressing possession, etc.: con roib core dúib fri cách so that you may be at peace with all men, Wb. 26b30 . in fochricc file do i nnim, 29b29 . cach ngrád asid n-ísliu bíid dó i céilsini, Críth G. 374 . robi timna in ríg don Comdhe, RC xviii 182.5 . nico mbái dó acht bás there was nothing for him but death, Vita Br. 32 . fecht robúi damsae domchaomnacuir `once it happened to me', Mon. Tall. 144.7 (§ 45) . atá damhsa ris an dáimh / gan ísliughadh neith dá gcáil it is my duty in regard to the sages not to belittle . . ., Content. xiv 8 .

With FOR (later AR): as ṅdath glas roboi forsind sl[é]ib the mountain was green, Ml. 84d4 . cech dath is maith ré neach bid forro, RC vi 183.9 . cēin beó ar in mbith mbuide, Ériu ii 92.16 . nocha cuinnghim bethaid mbí / ōtú ar sīth mo Rīgh amuigh since I am outside the palace of my king(?), ZCP vii 301 § 10 . scríbend menmman .i. robbói for a inndṡliucht-som `it had been in his mind', Sg. 178b4 . in sét atá form aire on which I am intent, Ériu vi 115 § 6 . a mhacnas orm gidh eadh raibh though I greatly desire to do so, Dán Dé xix 6 .

With FRI: nobiad fri femen `it would be (used) with the feminine', Sg. 207b2 . ní biat remsuidigthi friu `there are no prepositions with them', 215a5 . ni humhal robabair rim cen erghe rónn you were not submissive to me, Anecd. ii 14.9 . ba [mait]h ro mboth friu they were well treated, TBFr. 145 . is throit ra bass risin fer út that man was quickly dispatched, TBC-LL¹ 2986 ( LL 10035 ).

With I: is hi tuaisciurt slebe sióin ata in chathir, Ml. 67d8 . ataam ar ndiis i cuimriug, Wb. 32a28 . is and . . . bieid finis, 13b29 . is sunt bia-sa i n-eilithri, Ml. 137b7 . nach dú i mbí isnaib salmaib iustitia, 109a2 . bēti a scēla illāidib, ZCP iii 37.32 . dēna torba airm i mbī, vii 311 § 9 . ro-bas i lurg an madma la clannaibh Néill the Clanna N. pursued the rout, xiv 234.16 . adh bes fiu da trian na samuisce atá isín focreic, issed ata isin fogail doníther ris na ferandaib cétna i fuacht an geimridh `a calf which is worth two thirds of the `samhaisc'-heifer which is paid for the rent, it is it that is paid for the trespass', Laws iv 92.16 Comm. cínta do niad na cethra . . . leth a mbia ina nairlim isedh bias ina tairsci `half of that fine which lies for their `airlim'-trespass . . .', 74.8 Comm. cod a midídar ruire trachta ┐ raite? Nin; co rabadar ocht nurcora dec and do fhleascach, 138.4 Comm. ní bhíadh na ghoin é d'oighedh / toil Dé muna deónaighedh His wound would not be enough to cause His death, IGT Decl. ex. 378 . Common in form with suff. pron. 3 s. n. ma beith nech and tra labrathar ilbélre if there be anyone, etc., Wb. 13a4 . ar atá brithem and cenut-su `a judge is there apart from thee', 6b25 . ataat alaaili interiecta and it coitchena do cach ceniul, Sg. 10a1 . attaad teora bliadna and. Niconcomracamar díoblíonaib `it is three years since we two had intercourse', Mon. Tall. 134.26 (§ 21) . For phr. cid fil and trá see trá. In idiom tá sé i n-a fhear he is a man (see Dillon, ZCP xvii 307 ff. ): is amlaid . . . atá in rigsudi sin inna chathaír chumtachta, LU 2005 ( FA 7 ). cidead bes ina bibdaid `even though he be a caitiff', Ériu v 22.20 . gu raibhe 'na cholum ghel, Acall. 1080 . ce raib se i n-a fhír, PH 7324 . do bí 'n-a mnaí grádaig ac Find, Acall. 2018 . do rígh gion go rabhthá id mhac, DDána 91.15 . Note also: tuc . . . aithne gurbh e righ Eirenn do bí ann that it was in fact the king, Ériu iii 152 § 6 . ro innis do gur 'uo he Isu ro ui ann, RC xii 344.15 .

With IMM: ni baitir, ni loisctir cein beit immo `he is not drowned or burnt as long as they are on him', RC vi 183.8 .

With LA: gan bheith le Dia is ann bhus aithreach if we are not on God's side, Dán Dé x 27 . Expressing possession and related ideas: is lib atá a rogu, Wb. 9a23 . is derb lium attá latsu gl. certus sum autem quod et in té, 29d14 . ainmm ninchoisc cenéuil issed file la laitnóri, Sg. 30b8 . is airi nobíth digaimm leo ante ρ. sin, 9b10 . ni fil bríg laisiom hisind accobar sin `he considers that such desire is no great matter,' Mon. Tall. 151.13 (§ 62) . is dé atá lem, fobíth, etc. this is why I think so (of an assertion), TTr.² 343 . itá a rīgan la cach ríg sund, TBC-I¹ 190 . fail leis secht nimi, SR 629 . ar ní ḟil acht oenlám lim, LL 14150 .

With ó: báoi alaile anchoire antuaid o sláne `there was a certain anchorite from Slane in the North', Mon. Tall. 159.8 (§ 77) . cech lennánacht fil isin domvn is úadhi atá originates with her, TTr.² 370 . Bressal Ó Tressaig ō' tāit / Hī Tressaig `. . . from whom are sprung', Ériu ii 50 § 7 . ni fil[et] o neoch ┐ ni filter uaidibh `they are not derived from anything, and nothing is derived from them', Auraic. 1507 .

With OC: ar notéighed dīa sathairn init co mbídh oc Cnocc Droma Coblai, ZCP viii 106.29 = Trip.² 2858 . ma no bith . . . mo c[h]laideb acom if I had my sword, TBC-I¹ 3543 . co rabat aidmi oc cech altōir . . ., Ériu i 219 § 9 . in ti ac na biat ba, Laws iv 36.10 Comm. in fhil biad ocaib sund? PH 6709 . ná raibh agad ar n-éra `refuse me not', Studies 1918, 99 § 16 . In impers. constr. cindas atathar occat? how are affairs with thee? RC xxvi 368.9 . a.¤ y oc x x has the power to do y: ní bhía . . . ag boigṡín / mo chor tar creich Phádraigín, Ériu ix 163 § 7 .

With adverbs and adv. phrases: céin bett abus `while they are here below', BColm. 98.28 . ní rubai nach cruth ailiu `it cannot be otherwise', Sg. 7b3 . ataat ám in chrut sin, 140b1 . hóre nád robe Tit ar mo chiunn, Wb. 14d29 . na muindtire bís id choimidecht `of the monks that live with thee', Mon. Tall. 128.8 (§ 3) . dá rabh mé ar éanmhagh is í, Dán Dé ix 12 . is bether go hīsiul de, ZCP x 51.6 . bidh co mín michuir ret c[h]airdibh, vi 272 § 3 . is samlaid insin robói a flaithemnacht indibsi, Ml. 18a8 . nī hamlaid beitid na nāimh . . ., ZCP xiii 9.26 . dobadus co subhach rompa, KMMisc. 319.27 . léig mar atāit tall, ZCP viii 202.4 . trath atusa sund, TBC-LL¹ 2379 . ionmhuin uan nar fhás ó mhnaoi / do bhás go truagh ar a thí, Dán Dé xxvi 9 . Note also: dá mbem a-moigh `if we win forth', Ériu ix 162 § 2 . With interrogatives: ceth leth atā E., TBC-I¹ 376 . can ata? whence is it? Hib. Min. 8.270 . cāit atā do t[h]igerna?, TBC-I¹ 789 . ciatā inso?, ZCP viii 311.13 . a Findtain, arse, ┐ Éri cía gabad ca rabad inde? `where have things been therein?' Ériu iv 146 § 23 .

(c) Used with inf. and suff. pron. to express possession. With inf. pron.: rosmbia a lóg `they shall have payment for it', Wb. 5d35 . ind indocbál no-b-tá in futuro, 14c16 . ro-n-da-biad cech maith, Ml. 33b13 . rombia-sa la dia . . . a day will come for me when, Vita Br. 12 . roborbē (roburbe v.l.) which is yours, Cáin Ad. 27 . nīmthat asnai I have no ribs, TBC-I¹ 2871 . gell cóic sét di neoch rodmbí `of whatever he has', Críth G. 283 and n. uair nach tá tír dia fhulung fri re napuidh because he has no land to support him (?), Laws iv 30.19 Comm. rom be nem may I have heaven, Snedg. u. Mac R 14 § 76 . Femen intan rombai rí . . . when it had a king, RC xvii 148.19 . cia luag nomtha?, SR 1165 . rombí lethbairgen, Anecd. i 73 § 211 . atbert Cathair nimthasa ní dhuit I have nothing to give you, LL 386b22 . Note also: nintha do imtecht liumm `I have (lit. we have) no news', RC xiii 222.20 . With cumang (or similar word) and prep. DO has the power to: nímtha cumachtæ ṅdo, Ml. 140b7 . ní-s-ta som . . . cumang domm orcuin-se, 60d3 . nísmbói didiu do chumacc a mmbo do imain they hadn't the strength to, Vita Br. 24 . sáerthar lat in domnach cech cumang rotbé (rodbe, rotbia, v.ll.) dó `with all your might', Ériu ii 204 § 22 . nícom thása cumang dia tabair[t], TBFr. 302 . apraind nachimbai-si nert do theacht cucu alas that I had not strength . . ., TBC-I¹ 3439 . Used independently is able: nīmt[h]a a dechmad d'indisin / nech doní do maith `I cannot tell a tithe of all the good he does', BColm. 70.6 . nimta-sa sin . . . uair da caithius mo dan re sciathaib Ulad I cannot do that . . ., Ériu v 72.8 . Note also: ango dano for Ingcél adfía basa lecht bas briscium `peradventure I shall be the frailest corpse', BDD 102h ( RC xxii 211 ) = at-mbia basa lecht bas brisceam, BDD² 716 (leg. ro-t-bia?).

With suffixed pron. taithiunn . . . / ni fris tarddam ar n-áthius `we have . . . something to which to apply our acuteness', Thes. ii 293.19 . táithi caire umai he has a bronze cauldron, Críth G. 197 . tathum rūn, TBC-I¹ 848 . bethib sūirsi lim-sa dano ye will enjoy freedom with me, ZCP viii 316.5 . tathat lim logh do áes, logh do sinnsire thou hast with me = I accord thee, xii 365.13 . baíthium anfud mílach mend, LU 3018 . tathuib comram, Rawl. 88b51 . tathum o día praind, Anecd. i 64 § 120 . tāthud ochtar la suidiu / airm hi fail a crōlighe `thou wilt find eight men . . .', Fianaig. 12 § 16 . tathai eolus maith, ZCP vii 310 § 1 . tatos subhae `they have happiness', Blathm. 82 . Pleonastically: tathai erouidh . . . bithbron `Herod . . . has eternal sorrow', 83 .

(d) In nasalising rel. clauses to denote has something the matter, is ailing: ced das in ben maith? `what ails the good woman?', Thes. ii 329.48 . cidh tás do sūil, a clērich? what is the matter with your eye? RC xxvii 280 § 35 . Oengus mac in Dagdai hisiurcc di bliadan. Cid tas or Bodb, RC iii 345.9 . ra[fh]etur sa . . . an daas ind ingen what is wrong with the girl, Vita Br. 5 . ni fetarsa cid no-tó I do not know what is the matter with me, ZCP viii 176.5 . cid no-taí? Sc.M² 3 . roḟetarsa a n-attath[a]i. Ni taam ni or Cano, Anecd. i 9.25 ( SCano 293 ). cid tāthaí, a maccu? . . . oc imresain atām . . ., Ériu viii 157.16 . ni confetatarsin cid rombui hissennath, RC iii 344.10 . dia ḟis cid robái (rombui, v.l.) grían to find out what was the matter with the sun, Ériu iv 140.13 .

With prep. DO feels (inimically) towards, is angry with, worries: propter incredulitatem fracti sunt .i. cani airi .i. badochu lem són is [hed] romboth doib that is the fault found with them, Wb. 5b31 . cren dímsa m'ingin . . . Cid dathir di? . . . Is dichmarcach what cause of annoyance has she given? Vita Br. 13 . fiarfaig Conchobar scēla dō. —Cidh tāi di ṡodain? ol Bricriu why do you bother with it? ZCP v 502.15 . cadai-siu duind?, TTebe 424 . In good sense treats in a special manner: ca tāthar dúin do domnach des / sech gach laithi lāndiles? `why do we hold Sunday above . . .?' Ériu iii 143 § 7 . With added prep.: cidh 'ma bfuile dam? ZCP x 10.11 . ná bí réd chathrachaibh dhúinn `talk not to us of your forts', Content. vi 31 . See further s.v. daas. Frequ. in class. verse in phrase gá dtá, dás (acht) what is the use? in short. Either gá dtá or gá tá may be used to suit alliteration, see Ir. Syll. Poetry 86 . fogus orchra don éigsi / gá ttás cur ré coiméidsi `how can she be saved?' Studies 1923, 421 § 1 . gá dás luadh imdheachta an ḟir? `what need to recount', TD 13.40 . gá dás mé dá mīrbuile / acht sé d'fás ó ÓghMuire, IGT Decl. ex. 200 . gá dtám? —acht torchuir bu dheas in short, TD 3.10 . With follg. prep.: gá dtám ris . . . / acht meise féin foidhidneach, TD 3.41 . ga dtú ris, a rí L.? / ort chuirim mo chomuirghe, 30.12 . ní bhiú ris acht, Dán Dé vi 31 . ní fhuilim dó, xi 30 .

(e) With words indicating number, quantity in sense of accompanied by, having: bí[i]th a th[a]urchreicc cóic ṡétaib, Críth G. 71 . baei Conairi a ceithri cairpthig il-Lifiu, BDD 12 (a cethror cairpdech, v.l.). itó-sa lín do gona, TBC-LL¹ 434 . denam d'ḟiadach na muice in lín Feinde atámait, Acall. 2223 . atáthaoi líon a n-ithte, Keat. iii 4439 . atú-sa caegait fer, MR 248.17 . Later: bed-sa ┐ mili ridiri maraen rium ad diaig, ZCP vi 41.9 .

II Expressing state, condition, kind, etc. with pred. consisting of noun, pron. or adj. (usage more usual with copula, see introd. section above).

(a) With noun pred.: boe sab suithe cech dind, ACC 26 ( RC xx 168 ). boe saegul sneid, 24 . boe dind oc libur leigdocht, 27 . biait betha airchind they will be chieftains of the world, Rawl. 125b9 . With subj. standing between the vb. and pred.: atá dia atach ṅ-dún-ni ais dethrebo God is a refuge to us the people of the two tribes, Ml. 66d1 . bói Fíachnae Lurga athair Mongáin, Imr. Brain 42.1 . Cf. Sg. 20b3 .

(b) With adj. pred.: boe seim sáth, ACC 25 . biat slana, SR 4167 (copula?). feib atam nocht, 1347 (copula?). bía slan, LU 3344 ( SCC 13 ). Cf. habe . . . (.i. sana sis .i. slán bee), Enchir. Aug. 82a ( ZCP vii 484 ). dlegar doibsium na be lobtaigh cor ( ar dlegar doibsium na bed lobthaig cor, O'Dav. 1191 ) (Atk. in Glossary emends to be[t]), Laws iv 54.10. atámait ainmfesach, RC xxiv 371.7 . bítíss meth (leg. methi, ed.) occ tinntúd, IT iii 235.z . co filim garbliath i rricht, LU 1272 . ro boísium imnedach i tossuch a bethad, LL 7305 . ro-bádus-[s]a dronnach, PH 2788 . céin beorsa beó as long as I am alive, Ériu v 222.46 . is follus co fuilti eaclach, Fier. 69 . maith dīghōltar ant andlocht / bethar taoblom tarrnocht trūagh folk will be, ZCP xii 395.23 . With subj. betw. vb. and pred.: is trissa ndede sin biid duine slán et fírian, Wb. 4d33 . amal mbís tegdís fás [amm]edón ┐ scópthe gl. sicut domus uacans et scopata, Tur. 14 ( Thes. i 485.23 ). arrobói a rígthech lán de rígaib, Imr. Brain 1 . amal no beithi féin béo and, Trip.² 2972 . co mbatar na hádnaicti óbéla, PH 676 . bis an puls tonnmur lethan, Rosa Angl. 272.8 . oir dobi se crodha do laim ┐ mor do mét, Fier. 2 .

(c) With part. as pred. Immediately follg. vb. (see GOI 475-6 ; OIPG 147 ): amal nombemmis érchóilti gl. tanquam morti destinatos, Wb. 9a3 . biid ersoilcthi ar chiunn for ríg `be ye opened before your king' (of doors), Ml. 46a7 . co rabais (rabhdais, v.l.) marbtha mudaigthi, TTebe 854 . With subj. standing between vb. and pred.: ataat mesai Dǽ nephchomtetarrachti the judgements of God are incomprehensible, Ml. 55d11 . céin nombetis inna saigtea tuidmithi inna feuil `as long as the arrows were fixed in his flesh', Ml. 58a9 . órobatar ind liss dúntai, Imr. Brain 1 . co ra-bi in uli demnaigecht fomamaigthi dó, PH 2796 .

(d) In sentences where the vb. stands in a nasalising rel. clause and refers to a pred. expressed in the principal clause: is faittech rond-boi som, Ml. 21d4 . ni ba cian mbias in pecthach, 56c22 . fer . . . nadip romar bed a sommæ a man . . . whose wealth should not be too great, Thes. ii 241.9 . is-gáibthech atátur i-sin-magh sin, RC xxiv 378.12 . is trog robas isin chotlad sin, Ériu v 34.z . ní cás duid madh diomdhach raibh / grása Dé . . ., Dán Dé xix 22 . [is] slán do bhaoi an brat-sain, xii 22 .

(e) In the type of sentence where the description constitutes an independent sentence with copula: ego sum uermis et non homo .i. atāim-si conad cruim mē ┐ nāch duine, Corm. Y 211 . ro boi Victor co mbo ḟortachtaigthid do Pátraic, ACL iii 10 § 8 = Trip.² 217 . unus non est . . . .i. nochon fhil int aen co mbad airim, acht ata conidh fotha airim, Auraic. 689 . dom dóigh . . . robadhuis uair ecin ┐ roba díl anora tú `it seems to me . . . that there was once a time when thou wert worthy of honour', ZCP vi 99.5 .

bíth

Cite this: eDIL s.v. bíth or dil.ie/5973

 

Forms: bith, guin

old vn. of benaid (see GOI § 735 ) act of striking; wounding: is líach a bith, LU 6932 (BDD) ( a orguin, 7008 ). bith .i. guin, Lec. Gl. 53. b.¤ .i. guin, O'Cl. bith hail le ni na hail (etym. gloss on biaill) ` wound ', Laws i 140.1 Comm. bith, guin, Eg. Gl. 708.

Usually fo (later also ar, do, tre) b.¤ , bíthin (later appar. bithin) as preposition and conjunction.

I As prep. because of, on account of, for the sake of, lit. under the stroke of , cf. GOI § 858 : fo b.¤ soíre ceneiuil inna ngrec gl. honoris causa suae gentis, Sg. 40a4 . fo b.¤ gl. pro, 198a20 . fo bíith precepte dóib, Wb. 9b19 . fo bith inna soebapstal, 18d1 . fo bar mbíd-si `on account of you', 23d11 . fubíthin creitme ria cách, Thes. ii 240.19 (Ardm.). fobithin iond forcetail `because of the instruction' (according to ?), Mon. Tall. 129.1 . fo chen duit . . . fo b.¤ na mná, LU 3430 ( SCC 20 ). fo b.¤ na fortacht ┐ na hícce, PH 6263. fo bith taisi na naem indti (of díre due to a `vacant' church), Laws v 124.25 Comm. ar bithin eiccni tuc T. ara derbshiair-si, TTebe 1862 . ar bhithin einigh Ferghusa, ZCP viii 551.11 . dobhithin na gona doradais form, BS 146.10 . do bhithin (: bhfrithir) doirre Domhnuill `because of D.'s displeasure', TD 15.8 . bedgaid do bhithin (: chrithir) a chráid, O'Gr. Cat. 461.15. dá bhíth because of it, Measgra D. 57.2 . dia bhíthin sin `for that reason', Fl. Earls 122.24 . da bhithe sin, Luc. Fid. 3990. trí bhíthin do bráthbémmend[a] by (means of), TBC-LL¹ 6012. tre bítin an credme sin, RC xvii 154.18 (Tig.). tre bithin gaoil do beith aca fria cele, BNnÉ 322 § 28 . trena bithin `through his means', TTebe 4149 . fo bith tabarta do chách a chomraime ┐ a gascid for the purpose of giving, LU 3229 ( SCC 2 ).

II As causal conj. ( GOI § 905 ) because, for, since: fo bith is taipe inso, Ml. 14d4 . fo bithin arachiurat `because they will perish', 59b9 . fo b.¤ is nephchorpdae són, Sg. 107a1 . absidias .i. circulos .i. fubíth dongníat cercol, BCr. 18d2 . fobith nád comthoet `o' in `is' `because they do not convert `o' into `is',' Sg. 163a1 . fob. ṅoenaigedar a cialla ar chinn, 172a4 . fobithin ní mór tolnathar di día `because . . . is not greatly pleasing to God', Mon. Tall. 134.19 . fo b.¤ no bíid, LU 5079 = fo bithi (-i later, edd.), TBC-I¹ 593. fo bith is ditaithme `because it is irrevocable' (of a prescriptive right), Laws v 314.20 . fó bh.¤ as beg lenus Iosa Críosd, RSClára 142b . ar bith ba slúagad baga dó in sluagad, TBC-LL¹ 462.

Extended forms: dobīthin gur uo hēiccen dōip, Fl. Earls 24.27 . fobithin ar na fodlat ind tuati `because the lay folk do not distribute', Mon. Tall. 141.14 . fó bith ar is d'óenóentaib bátar . . . hi cend Ulad, LU 3446 ( SCC 22 ). ? an tan atusa do niort . . . do fiondfasa ar bhithín on att dhealbh troch fort, ZCP x 293.11 . uair (= ar) bhithin on am cnethach croilinteac[h], 291.28 .

Rarely as final conj.: fo bithin co ro cuiredh si Brian tar muir `in order that she might send B.', RC xxiv 176.12 . fob. na rucad gubreith, Ériu iv 24.23 . ar bithin nach helodis uatha, TTebe 3874 .

bríathar

Cite this: eDIL s.v. bríathar or dil.ie/6796

 

Forms: brethar, breithre, briathar, -glicc

n ā, f. GOI § 161. brethar, Laws i 268.14 . b.¤ f., IGT Decl. § 56. In later lang. also o, m.

(a) word; in religious sense Word (of God); utterance, talk, saying(s), speech, discourse ; non-verbal sign (?) Éigse xxiv 41 : o .i. son i mbraighid. p .i. briathar sechtair, Ériu xiii 37.4 . nach tan do furgaib int augtur brethir for a gin sechtair bid briathar for a menmain fris gair do suidev . . . illud verbum . . . illi verbo . . ., Hib. Min. 12.410 , 411 . briathar cen guth .i. briathar in sgribhind, nó in compoid merda `the written word', O'Dav. 285 , Ériu xiii 37.7 . briathor insce apud Eoles (an Aeolic *βρήτρα seems intended, ed.), O'Mulc. 160. be sóir mo brethre `I shall be free as regards my word', Wb. 4c18 . ammi tuailṅge ar mbrethre gl. uerbo (. . . æpistolas), 17b5 . indat mbriathra gl. verba, Ml. 44b9 . do rad inna mbriathar sa gl. haec uerba, 46a19 . imfresnat a ngníme fria mbriathra `their deeds conflict with their words', Wb. 31b30 . deich míli briathar, 12d25 . it immaircidi dunni inna briathrasa, Ml. 22c5 . ni aithirgi ho briathraib nammá cen gním gl. non usque ad uerba, 23a11 . olc hi cridiu ┐ briathra aildi `fair words', 55a11 . ar chomallad do briatharsu, 39a12 . ni sulbir in b.¤ gl. sermo contemptibilis, Wb. 17b4 . taibred for mb.¤ ráth spirito do chách gl. sermo vester, 37c28 . briathra aildi la cechtar de fri alaile gl. sermone, Ml. 31a24 . inna briathra radas, 42c4 . níbat briathra nach aili gl. non explorata loquar, 68c10 . eritiu briathar ho neuch anall gl. reddendique sermonis, 59a15 . frissaní immeraidtis hua briathrib, 61c12 . briathar lám . . . briathar súle . . . briathar glunæ . . . briathar choirp gl. membrorum motus sermo, 138a2 . int ord nobeth fornaib briathraib gl. dictorum hunc habet ordinem, 27d22 . inna briathra grecdi se, Sg. 72a2 . hi mbrethir hi cocell hi ṅgním, Thes. ii 253.11 (Stowe M.). for brethir `in word', Wb. 15d5 . intan tra batar forsna briathraib se `when they were thus talking', Thes. ii 307.15 (Hy. ii Pref.). umaldóit for (fri, v.l.) bréthir ` mouth-humility ', Ériu iii 102 § 27a . trea chumbair ṁbriathar ` compendiously ', Thes. ii 327.5 . briathar foirbthigedar in duine i ndírgi cáingníma `the Word which perfects man', Wb. 4d6 . in bethu dorairngert som issí in briathar insin gl. uerbum suum in praedicatione, 31a9 . indhí pridchite . . . brethir dǽ gl. qui laborant in uerbo et doctrina, 29a12 . briathra dǽ, Ml. 146a1 . oc procept bréthri Dé, PH 2173. as esiomh . . . an bhriathar = the word, RSClára 142a. cundail a b.¤ (rhet.), LU 3401 ( SCC 18 ). grāibre .i. magar .i. briathar grata, O'Mulc. 688 = graibhri .i. briathar ghrata, no onórach, O'Cl. rabert-si na briathra sa she spoke these words, TBC-LL¹ 5730. ilar mbriathar mbláith rot char, LU 3614 ( SCC 30 ). millse briathra ḟir thochmairc, LL 13975 n. a (121a marg. sup.). in tan . . . bói Ísu oc lábra na mbriathar-sa, PH 3076. Secundi / cain i mbriathraib bíae `fair in words of might', Fél. Mar. 22. cona . . . digebad cid a oen ḟocul dia briathraib `not to . . . take away a single word that she said', Mon. Tall. 150.5 . nach duine isin tig arta-ceisi guth ┐ gním ┐ bréithir with . . . word, BDD² 884. brēthir bláith with gentle words, Sc.M² 21 f . dorónus dōibh dūa[i]n mbinn mbairdne, / brēithir glēisi with clear words, ACL iii 296 § 45. ro-slanaig Ísu me d'aen brethir, PH 2789. briathra Brain (of the baying of a hound), Measgra D. 38.15 . bríathra cogaidh, Studies 1920, 416.1 . ná tabhair bréithir mbréige `utter no false word', 1924, 244 § 26 . Brīathra Floinn Ḟīona maic Ossa (title of collection of maxims), Anecd. iii 10.15 . briathra fíra `just judgements', PH 823. briathar fhoirbhthe an ughdair-se this author's excellent saying, DDána 27a2 . ra bréthir a flatha `at . . . the command of their prince', TBC-LL² 4104 .

In phr. attá b.¤ (la, oc) di: intí diarobe briathar linn riam gl. de quo iam dixi, Sg. 197b12 . in Bethfage dia ta briathar i-fus of which mention is made here, PH 4600. ni do Thempul Solman . . . ro-bói briathar oc Ísu, 2725 .

(b) blessing, prayer, good wishes; in bad sense curse: forácaib bréthir fair (a well) `a blessing', Trip. 162.25 . tre brethir ṁBrigte, LL 38303 (` intercession ', SG 408.5 ). briathar .i. búaidh. fágbhaim ort briathar ┐ buaidh ar Colum Cille re Domhnall mhac Aodha, O'Cl. foracaib Pátraic breithir (.i. escaine) foraib, ACL iii 28 § 78. dorat Brigit brethir for Raith C. cona be[d] etc., Thes. ii 335.34 (Hy. v Comm.). fuirimh . . . / briathar doréir righ na rind / ar Ch. lay a curse on C., BNnÉ 314 § 8 .

(c) word, promise, assurance; pledge, vow: darm brethir (sic leg.) tra . . . isatt ailsiu damsa upon my word, LU 3918 ( SCC 43 ). dar ar mbréithir, CRR² 23. do brīathar bad fīr `let thy word be true', Ériu ii 172 § 3. ag so mo briathar ris . . . nach ticfaind . . . ┐ is briathar eile damh . . . nach gébaind, ML² 1439. ni ro-gabsat uada acht a bréthir do comallad friu save only that he should fulfil his promise to them, PH 908. ? dligid bés brēithir, Anecd. iii 15.2 (` `perhaps' merits a promise', RC xlv 71 § 36 ). co tanic mac N. ar breithir asin tig himag under a guarantee of protection, Ann. Conn. 1239.5 . gēmadh í an bhriathar bheag though it were a mere promise, Butler Poems 1243 . Phrases with verbs: dabiur bréthir . . . na fuil etc. `I swear ', TBC-LL² 747 . do-beram ar mbréthir . . . cunad fír, MU² 284. dobeirim fom bréithir a bhfiadhnaisi an Dúilim I swear in the presence of the Creator, Anecd. i 77.16 . tuc dā brēithir pledged his word, ML² 191. da-oṅg-sa mo bréthir, MU² 181. do radh dhá bréithir . . . nach rachad he vowed, Duan. F. i 1.17 . ni thánic dar a bréthir did not break his word, RC xx 12 § 17. tucus mo bréthir ris . . . ┐ ní faris ticfaither, MU² 179.

(d) Legal statement, testimony: is iat na tri fira is luga a enechus: lorg ┐ briathar ┐ suilgnais. A lorg on mír gan urlabra, a briathar on mir co n-urlabra ┐ a sulgnais on ceill maith gan urlabra, Cóic Con. 42 § 63. na hechlacha, cor indligthech, cin breithir, ni berat coibchi muna thisat fri dligi without guarantee, Laws v 272. y Comm. ? fasc tres brethar an is nesam i n-urd, i 268.14 . na tri briathra da fasc na athgabala . . . gur ab edh adbera don tres brethir i n-urd aisnesin: ro gabuis t'athgabhail, 302.23 , 26 Comm. ni fastann acht na tri briathra .i. in lin fear, ┐ in lin ceall, ┐ in la sundradhach (of the testimony of the mac bec or m. enncai), O'Curry 2431.2 ( Eg. 88, 35a-b ). tecmaltar a insce dó hi teora bríathra his statement is assembled by him into three words (of testimony of the fer midboth), Críth G. 40. Attrib. g s.: aithne breithre `a verbal charge ' (one of seven deposits that require to be restored), Laws v 196.3 .

(e) Gramm. verb: briathar . . . uerbum , Auraic. 300. ind infinit in e ón bréthir in o, Sg. 54a16 . amal as ṁbriathar gníma aperio an active verb, 145b4 . fríssin bréthir as sum , Thes. ii 228.36 (PCr.). ara forcmatis in tuisel sainredach inna brethre hua mbiat, Sg. 149a5 . itar in di brethir so, 203a16 . ar in ṁbrethir ṅdiuit, 140a4 . dia techtat briathra in -go gl. si a uerbis sint in `go' desinentibus, 112b3 . on brethir is axarcisto, Laws v 22.10 Comm. in dobriathar .i. do 'g-a rada nach briathar he, 4.11 Comm. on brethir choitchind asberar sufragor gl. [s]uffragare, Gild. Lor. 1.

Compds. With nouns. in Briatharchath ban Ulad War of Words, LU 8039. gur uo briathor-chealga brēgacha ro chan `deceitful . . . words', Fl. Earls 138.28 . ag bríathar-chomrādh re aroile ` conversation ', 46. 23 . drem dub dorcha brisess bruth, / atbelat fri briathar-chruth, MS. Mat. 633.29 ( LB 242b85 ). Bríatharthecosc Con Culaind inso (heading of precepts of C.C. to king of Tara), LU 3465 ( SCC 25 ). With adjj. co Bresal ṁbrec ṁbriatharchaem of the fair words, Rawl. 83a53 . bērus bre[i]th brīathargla[i]n, ZCP viii 199.27 . derdilinne an eoil oirrdirc / firinne a beoil briathoirgilc (-gilc for -glicc ed.) wise of speech , ii 350.11 . a Bricriu báeth briatharguirt ` sour-worded ', RC xiv 424 § 45. sámud būan bríatharísel ` low-voiced ', Ériu ii 63 § 1. a bhille bhriatharmhaill `o letter of tardy words', Ir. Review 1913, 624 § 13 . an bhuidhean bhriatharnar of modest speech, DDána 75.29 . With adj. as subst. don bhriatharthaoi bhinn quiet-spoken one (of a lady), DDána 117.51 .

1 caín

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 caín or dil.ie/7787
Last Revised: 2013

 

Forms: caindeifriges, cainternais

adj i fine, good, fair, beautiful , etc. Of persons etc.: Bláán cáin Cinn Garad, Fél. Aug. 10 . C. ba cáin áge, July 6 . a phopa ch.¤ Conaire, BDD² 1175 . caínsi ch.¤ corcarda lais, 675 . caín tarb (caintarb, v.l.) (of Cet), Sc.M² 15 . coīn mīlid Ailill fri āgu, Corp. Gen. 8.13 . is cur c.¤ ¤ cathbúadach, LU 8956 ( FB 71 ). it caíni for slúaig, 5531 (TBC). am c.¤ (.i. ni ḟuil luib is chaime andú), LL 1555 . cid cáin lib in laechrad, IT i 77.9 (LMU). cáin cech culēn fó ṡaidh, Cáin Ad. 8 . aged chāin (: sōir), ACL iii 307 § 15 . ingen Chuinn an c[h]rotha caoin, ML² 810 . sé c.¤ ceilligi carthanach, Stair Erc. 1025 . Of an action: is cáin didiu a n-essimthecht `fair then is their going forth', Thes. i 495.19 (Ardm.). ? c.¤ forondar a chorp hi crú, LU 8339 ( FB 24 ) (see Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 604 ). Of clothes: fúan c.¤ corcra, LU 8601 ( FB 45 ). ad-mestar cáircha assa comthlachtaib cóinib, ZCP xi 85 § 39f. lend bus caoin dath, ML² 513 . Of objects soft, smooth : ail chaoin cumdachta, Ériu xiii 30.29 . im iomdhaidh thaoibh chais chaoin, 28.22 . ag cennghail um charraic cháin, Acall. 858 . mess fás. fidh cáin. olcc bláth `smooth' (i.e. devoid of fruit ?), SG 80.8 . is c.¤ cech ard, LU 3915 ( SCC 43 ). ba c.¤ ind fhidchell, TBFr. 90 . Of speech etc. soft, gentle : guthán c.¤ , Ériu xviii 12 § 6 . caoin fuigheall fri heigsi, Ériu xiii 14.3 . labhra chaoin, DDána 13.4 . d'aitheasg chaoin, 17.15 . cómhrádh caoin gach naoimh, Párl. na mB. 889 . ceól caoin na bhfilídhe, 1633 . ar chruit chaoin, DDána 119.29 . comhairle ch.¤ , ML 6.22 . Of weather fine, clement : sína caíni . . . gaim c.¤ cuisnech (oppd. to sína saiba), ZCP xi 82 § 25 . In chevilles: caoin rath, Blathm. 4 . caoin sgel, 153 . In nn.loc.. crutti Caínbili o Ess Rúaid da n-airfitiud, LL 8816 ( TBC-LL¹ 1449 ). Cf. Cluain caín, Druim caín, Caíndruim etc., Hog. Onom. Adv. co c.¤ cennsa, Stair Erc. 2235 .

Compar. Ailenn . . . / caīnu dūn dindgnai, Corp. Gen. 8.17 . cainiu cach fiach, SR 2485 . cainiu fedaib, Auraic. 5550 . ba cæine side cach fichthill, ZCP iv 35.17 v.l. As superl.: cáiniu di ḟlaithib in domuin, TBC-LL¹ 5171 .

Superl. ǽ drobéssach caínem di thonemaib Heirenn, Trip.² 1695 . Crist ba caoinem clú, Blathm. 247 .

As subst. Of a person: caoin ó a bhfaghair fóirithin (of a bishop), Arch. Hib. i 97 xviii . caíni U. (three harpers), TBFr. 108 . See 2 caín.

Compds. Forms compds. with nouns, adjj. and in adverbial sense with verbs. In composition with verbs treated as unstressed prefix, see GOI § 384 . In later lang. such compds. treated as simple vbs. e.g. caindeifriges, Auraic. 985 ; cainternais (sic leg.), ML 162.22 . Also used to form artificial compds. in etymol. glosses. Some of the compds. included here could belong to cain.

With nouns: ar a chaonairilledh, Leb. Gab.(i) 226.2 . bindḟogur a gotha ┐ a caínurlabra, LL 7740 ( TBC-LL¹ 210 ). trisin cainaisṅdíis (ref. to bene gratias agis). Wb. 12d20 . ar cháinbésaib im chóemchostud na fledi, MU² 211 . a gcrabhadh ┐ a ccáoinbhesaibh, Ériu v 74.13 . cāemdūdracht, cāinbēsa, ZCP viii 215.2 . do cech eclais bís i cāinbéscnu, Cáin Ad. 36 . aitherrach cáinbescna daib fri Dia, Anecd. i 41.20 . ica tá caoin bleith (of metal), O'Dav. 200 . ropo chuiscle chaenbríg, LL 27008 . fo cháinbuide (: óenṡuidi) na ndrong, SR 6055 . atcota becdata cāinbude humility wins gratitude, Anecd. iii 11.7 . ech gach eamhain ina caoincennas coir, Ériu xiii 27.8 ( Laws v 62.21 Comm. ). biaidh bo fó chaoinchethair ar anair n-iorchoraigh, xiii 25.22 `there will be a cow four fair times (i.e. there will be four cows) for a full melodious anair' (verse dealing with the rewards due to various metres), Meyer, Misc. Hib. 22 . ¤-chomrac etc. see separate entries. do-rala caínchomrád etir Coin C. ┐ Emir, MU² 136 . tré . . . caencrabud B., Lism. L. 3330 . atcota cīall cáin-chruth, Anecd. iii 10.18 . Mock n.pr.: Caonchruth mac Caoindhelbha, ii 64.5 . fothughad a caen-daime budein, Laws v 52.17 Comm. ¤-dúthracht etc., see separate entries. céd corn caoinegair, Mart. Don. xxxvi 14 . co cathair na caenḟled, Gorm. Dec. 18 . a chaínfochell asar corp `fair wage', Wb. 15c24 . tabraid . . . cāinforgall, Thes. ii 306.2 (Hy. i). ní raba . . . bá moo eneach na caonfuarascaibh ionás renown, TFrag. 178.1 . ¤-ḟúairrech etc. see separate entries. sin chaóinfresdail ┐ fritheoladh, RC xxix 146 § 72 . nach claistear a gcaoinḟriotal gentle speech, Hackett² xviii 39 . tria caonGhaoidheilg, Hugh Roe² 244.7 (fo. 61a) . Maccæma Túath nDea dom ét iar mo caenghuide, RC xii 60 § 18 . huanaib cainimbedaib ilaigthib gl. multiplicatis benedictionibus, Ml. 105a7 . cāinlāech Luigdech, AID i 53 § 3 , Celtica xi 125 . ar chrábhadh na caoin-léaghan do rádh `to say a prayer(?)', Celt. Rev. x 134.12 . caín-leas, MR 160.5 . fó ṡídh ┐ fo chaoin loisi, AFM ii 1164.6 . triallais . . . caenmag, LL 15762 . naoi ccuill chaoinmhesa, Ériu xiii 26.20 . anruth .i. sruth cain molta uadh, Laws iv 358.21 Comm. concertfa caenrecht for iathu B., YBL 181a11 . act rocloor for cáinscéilsi a good account of you, Wb. 23b2 , cf. b41 . fer ro scríb . . . / cáinscéla Críst chrochthai, Fél. May 6 . rind caein-sholais Chaingcrech, MR 114.2 . gan dire do chreith caoinṡrothaib, Ériu xiii 17.13 . á caintaidlech gl. satisfactionem, Ml. 32b22 . cáinteist diib `good testimony', Wb. 23a23 . ic tabairt chaintestusa, LB 107a24 . caintír toirthech (? cain), SR 963 . déce do caerca caeintlachta, Leb. Gab.(i) 30.15 . teinniu achuinscliu caíntocud, LU 7385 . trí hingena berta seirc do cháinthocud, Triads 110 . iarsin chaíntoil gl. secundum bonum placitum, Wb. 20d19 . do lucht na cain toile, ITS xxix 144.2 . 'na sgéith chreidimh ┐ chaointoile, Parrth. Anma 5064 . cáintoimtiu diib `a fair opinion of you', Wb. 23a22 . adchonncadar . . . isan chaentracht clerech, RC xxvi 160 § 47 . iarna cáintuistin, SR 7999 .

With adjj.

(a) Dvandva compds.: tecait cāinḟinn / corra, ḟāilinn `fair white birds', K. and H. 18 § 27 . cāinmaith slān / Sīrne, Ält. ir. Dicht. i 29.27 .

(b) Adjj. derived from nouns: go cobhsaidh caoin-bhéasach, TSh. 1854 . do reir diancecht cainbrethaig fair-judging, Laws iii 362.4 Comm. ambreith Chaei Chaenbrethaig, Thr. Ir. Gl. 9.2 . Connla Caoinbhriathrach, Keat. iii 518 . Mock n.pr. Feli ingen Caoinchlothaigh, Anecd. ii 64.9 . is caínchomairlechu beith i ssíd, LL 31741 (TTr.). uo cōinchomráitech . . . na fēne re chéle, Fianaig. 64.4 . a sgiath . . . chaoindealbhach, ML 112.19 . in dearc . . . caen-dénmach beneficent, PH 5923 . cros caoindénmhach uas a cind, AFM iii 312.10 . caindénmide gl. benefica est, Ml. 25d4 (caindenminde, MS). caindéinmidi (-deimidi, MS) gl. beneficam, 120b6 . amal as dund chaindénmidiu gl. benefico, 33b9 . nadbi caínfoltach nibi caínfuillmech `he who is not well qualified is not well remunerated', Ériu xviii 47.5 ( Laws v 112.7 ). cluithche caoínmhenmnach, Ériu v 166.56 . easbog cáoinráidhtioch, Párl. na mB. 3794 . labrad uallach ┐ chaintoimtenach dib fadesin `proud and self-complaisant speech', Ml. 31b10 . See caínḟúairrech.

With verbs: cáin-airlice lend graciously(?), LU 3489 ( SCC 26 ). mani cáinairlither `unless thou take good heed', Wb. 5b38 . in tan na cain-biadhtar cain-scarat, Laws v 292.12 . nī bo fri óigthea acher / cāinbói (.i. cáin nobíid) fri lobru trúagu, Thes. ii 328.3 (Hy.v). la Dal Riada cainebar / . . . / lethdeog, Anecd. i 14.15 ( SCano 478 ) (ibid). cáineperr gl. bene dicitur, Sg. 215a3 . caínéra, LU 3489 ( SCC 26 ). caoin éranar muca mbroghtar ina muicthech, Ériu xiii 27.23 = amail atbeir isin bretha nemidh cain erenar muc mbrogtar ┐ rl., O'Curry 1451 ( H 3.18, 647b ) (as-ren). c.¤ feid a rosc, LU 8342 ( FB 24 ). c.¤ fera bodil di fodbaid ríg (rhet.), 6122 (TBC). c.¤ fúalaing fuither glaini sair, 8343 ( FB 24 ). inna caingnethi gl. bene acta, Ml. 22d18 . With in-láidi, see ind-láidi. cumala caínógat a ngnímu `who fulfil their services well', Críth G. 485 and n . caínoís, LU 3489 ( SCC 26 ) (oidid). cain rognatha (gníid), Ml. 39a24 . cáinscríbaimm, Thes. ii 290.11 . caínté im gaí cainte gaithe, LL 1570 (téit). cia tīasam cáin temadar (.i. alaind), Thes. ii 299.30 (Hy. i). in-díu trá cáin-timgarat, Lament 90.5 . inna caintinscantai gl. bene coepta, Ml. 131c18 . caín tintaé chucum, LU 8310 ( FB 23 ). is caintormachtae (do-formaig), Hib. Min. 13.451 . clanda caine caīntuismiter, ZCP xi 92 § 21 . amail bid cainullmaigthe, Hib. Min. 13.448 .

In etymol. glosses on con as conjunction and preverb: caoinberim nó caoinbritheamnaigim gl. conidbiur, O'Dav. 391 (cf. Ériu xiii 21.30 ). conamus . . . .i. . . . ro cainaimsighedh, Laws i 48.18 Comm. conaraig . . . .i. . . . ro chain-airgestair, v 292.14 Comm. ar na conderbathar .i. ar na caindiubarthar, iv 196.23 Comm. (2 do-rorban?).

In later lang. used as occas. alliterating ornament e.g. do chogair ┐ do chaoin-chomhairligh aige féin, ML 26.14 .

With vnn.: cuile iar cainbiathad, Stud. in E. Ir. Law 52.29 ( Laws ii 386.z ). a condaill .i. a caindeligud, Auraic. 1501 . na ro cuindrigther . . . .i. na dentar do caindirech, Laws i 192.8 Comm. (etymol. gl.). in chainepirt gl. benedictio, Ml. 137d6 . tosach cōru cāinepert, Anecd. iii 16.15 . is maith bar caeineiberta, SG 350.1 . ¤-gním, see separate entry.

comairligid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. comairligid or dil.ie/10666

 

Forms: comairliugud

v (comairle)

(a) consults, takes counsel (concerning): do c[h]omairlighedar cinnas do roinnfide Ēire etur[r]a, ML² 975 . do chomharlighedar re chéile go bhfanfaidis, Celt. Rev. x 142.13 . ro comurleich fria a mnai an ni sin `took counsel with his wife concerning that', Grail 3186 . do chomhairligh sé lé híomháighibh = consulted with, Ezekiel xxi 21 .

(b) advises, counsels; admonishes : ba C. comarligestair orcain A., RC xxiv 280 § 22 ( YBL 179a13 ). comhairligh do chairde féin `give advice to', Content. x 27 . comhairlighit na tigernaidhe . . . gur uo himairgidhe dōip . . . `gave it as their advice', Fl. Earls 10.16 . comhairlighedh an bhanab na deirbhṡethra = shall admonish, RSClára 25a . na neithe chomhairligheas Dia dhúinn, TSh. 1861 . mar chomhairlighid na haithreacha naomhtha dhóibh, Donlevy 350.3 .

(c) resolves, decides : ro comairlideth leo sum na .ix. cairpthi . . . do indild, Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. i 42.14 . do comairligetar bas do tabhairt dó, BCC 251 (256.10) . ro comhairligheadh aca an dochraide sin d'f[h]ágbháil `it was resolved by them', Keat. i 190.6 .

Vn. comairliugud. See con-airlethar.

creitem

Cite this: eDIL s.v. creitem or dil.ie/12843

 

Forms: creidimh, croidimh, creideamh, croideamh, creideam, creidim, croideam, croidim, creidemain, croidemain, credemuin, croidemuin, creideadh, chreidmhe

ā, f. vn. of creitid. Later also o, m. creidimh croidimh f., IGT Decl. § 150 . creideamh croideamh m., § 101 . creideam creidim croideam croidim, Verbs § 72 . creidemain, croidemain f., IGT Decl. § 10 . credemuin, croidemuin, Verbs § 73 . creideadh, Luc. Fid. 4269 . g s. an chreidmhe (required by metre), Dán Dé vi 5 . Desid. 3648 .

(a) act of believing; act of coming to believe, being converted : sochude do creittim triaprecept, Wb. 1b5 . arranert ahiress dochretim gl. confortatus est in fide, 2d1 . hires creitme iesu christi gl. per fidem solam, 2b8 . 4d4 . cretem dúibsi `your believing', 15a6 ; 5a1 ; 4b28 ; 10a29 ; 12c39 . as doilig do creitiumh, Ériu ii 118 § 55 . sgél bus cóir do chreideamhuin, IGT Verbs ex. 662 .

With obj. gen.: cretem cetheora persann `a belief in four Persons', Tur. 86 . intesamni (leg. innesamni, note) indfirieín dut chreitimsiu `to believe Thee', Ml. 142b2 . dochretim adeachte gl. credentibus in eum, Wb. 2d6 ; 4d27 . trichretim iesu christi , 2b6 ; 13d28 . atomriug . . . / . . . / cretim treodatad `through belief in the threeness', Thes. ii 354.26 . creidem dúle trust in creatures, Imr. Brain 47 . cretem na hesergi, PH 6738 . ar dāigh creidmi in c[h]uirp atchī i.e. that men might believe in the real presence, RC xxxvii 348 § 55 . innus nacharb eitir a creidimain, Fier. 49 .

With follg. noun clause: arnap samlid beith ær creitemni condib sain persan maic de ┐ maic duini linn gl. ut ne quaternitatem faciamus in Trenitate, Tur. 86 . cretem dait linfider dogin horath that thou shouldst believe that etc., Ml. 103a10 . is cretem laisiom nipa menic, Mon. Tall. 148.x . doratsat creidemain gur uo fīr-bríathra, Fl. Earls 128.22 . a chreidiomh . . . go ttiubhradh Dia, Desid. 718 .

With follg. prepp.: is díriug dúib cretem do `to believe in him', Wb. 17b32 . mad ail deit cretim do Christ, PH 2465 . nír fhágoibh / . . . / ach aonmhac dar chóir creideamh `in whom he could place his hopes', O'Hara 1424 . is córa creideamhain do sheanchus Éireann i san nídh seo, Keat. i 44.5 . leabhair . . . da nach coir creideamh do thabhairt, Luc. Fid. 4260 . trichretim inísu faith in Jesus, Wb. 3c2 . 3d19 ; 15a33a ; 19c12 ; 27a2 . ácretem india gl. non est creditus, etc., Ml. 97b2 . ar baí cretim in óenDé oc C., LU 4045 . ba handsu do creidium a mmil mbeannach, Ériu ii 118.y . do chreideamh a Ndía, Acts xvi 34 . do chur cretmi . . . indib, PH 2827 .

(b) belief, faith, (Christian) religion: inchretem gl. fides, Ml. 108c13 . isin cretim gl. in cuius fidem, 113b5 . fo bíth creitme on account of religion, Críth G. 605 . fororbairt in chretem, Fél. Prol. 173 . do siladh bathuis ┐ credme, Laws i 4.16 . a conn na creitme gloine (of Mary), Blathm. 149 . fo déig na fírinni ┐ na cretmi, LU 4096 . brissed in chredim, PH 7815 . creidiomh dóchas ┐ grádh, Parrth. Anma 3157 . on ccreidiomh catholcda, Hugh Roe² 122.9 .

Attrib. g s. is tú m'athair collaide, G. . . . m'athair creidmi `father in the faith', Todd Nenn. 90.11 . aes creidme religious , Laws ii 120.7 Comm. cend creidme cāich, ZCP viii 202.32 . an sechran creidmhe ata ort, BCC 80.6 . fo chuing chreidmhe ┐ crābaidh, Fl. Earls 100.14 .

Of coming of Christianity: ar ba mór in cumachta demnach ria cretim, LU 4035 . cöic rīg trīchat . . . / ō chraitim, Ériu xvii 38 § 1 (see n.). iar ccreideimh in Erinn, Cog. 202.27 . o congabad in insi so co creitium, Laws i 16.12 . Ulaid ria cretim cruiche, Metr. Dinds. iv 154.117 .

(c) credit, credibility, good standing : an síodh gá chara i gcreideamh `being thus assured', PBocht 12.25 . na séala chóir creideamhna `of credibility', A. Ó Dálaigh xlviii 24 . ná brégnaigh Flaithrí fuair creideamh, SGS iv 144 § 24 . in t-Ectoir intamlaigtech . . . ar credium (of a leader), Cog. 186.28 . baí hi ccion ┐ hi ccreideamhain . . . ag an mbainrioghain, AFM vi 2088.3 . do chlú ┐ do chreideamhuin, Párl. na mB. 1828 . Prob. also in this sense (as vn.): maithi T.M do creidium do `who was acknowledged by the nobles of T., AU ii 474.26 . a credemain do Mac Uilliam Clainni Ricairt ar sindsirecht, Ann. Conn. 1401.10 .

danó, dano

Cite this: eDIL s.v. danó, dano or dil.ie/14616
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: dā, dano, dana, daniu, daneu, dano, dono, dana, danau, dā, dā, dō, dano, dono, dona, dana, dāa, dōo, denu, doná, nú, dno, dna, d, do, no, dono, dano, dana, denu, dā, dno, no, dno, no, dā, No

sō: da-nō, Ir. Gosp. Thom. § 22 . shō: 'nō, DDána 175 § 29 . 'nó, LL ii 11121 (TBC) . See Ériu liii 139: of unknown origin in spite of Zeuss 1005, n. 3 . Perhaps da-no, da-nu, cf. co-nu, ACC 66 , nu, ib. 11 , and BB 318 a 33 : dā .i. da nui insein; daniu, Cambr. (modelled on didiu? daniu: danu = didiu: didu); niu the dative of ní in Mil seems a late form and should not be compared. It is worth noticing that in the Enchir. Aug. 85 a ( ZCP vii 485. 6 ) Lat. denuo is glossed by nuu. The oldest meaning of dano is that of denuo ` anew, again ' (e.g. Mon. Tall. 149. 26 ). All other meanings arose from this.

A OLD-IR. Usually written dā = dano or dana.

daniu, Cambr. 37 d .

daneu, Cambr. 38 a , 38 b .

dano in full, Wb. 5 c 12 , 5 d 23 , 9 c 10 , 32 c 2 ; Ml. 43 a 22 .

dono in full, Wb. 2 d 10 , 8 d 5 , 7 d 16 .

dana in full, Wb. 5 c 18 . Elsewhere always dā in Wb.

danau, Ml. 37 a 8 .

The 8th century MS Cín Dromma Snechta had dā.

B MID.-IR. Usually written dā, as in Old-Ir., and dō.

dano in full, Laws i 26. 22 ; 28. 17 , 25 ; 242. 18 .

dono is the usual form in the Laws; always nó dono; (nó dō); in full RC xi 446, l. 55 ; Laws i 236. 20 (cid dono); Death-tales of the Ulster heroes § 4 ; Lib. Flav. 16 a 1 . 2 .

dona in full RC xi 444. 1 .

dana in full, ScM. 17 ( IT i 105. 5 ), H 3. 18 ; TE 13 ( IT i 127. 4 ), Eg. dana supported by the rhyme Acall. 3852 .

dāa, RC xi 444. 1 f.b.

dōo, Laws i 8. 1 .

denu in full RC xii 72 § 44 , Harl.; dē, ib. 86 § 93 .

doná, AFM iii 34. 3 ; 34. 14 ; 38. 10 ; 40. 6 ; 48. 11 ; TFrag. 8. 15 .

nú (: Lúachrú; no, v.l.), Three Historical Poems, 112 q.23Aa .

Syncopated forms:

dno in full, Thes. ii 308. 5 (Preface to Fiacc's Hymn; but dā, 307. 4 , 9 .); ib. 325. 7 (Preface to Ultan's Hymn, Franc.). Laws i 112. 1 ; 220. 8 - 16 ; v 368. 9 . CCC § 2 LU (v.l. dā). TBC-LL¹ 3756 ( LL 86 a 37 ). LL 34 b 31 (: rempo). BB 109 a 20 ; 353 a 31 ; 296 b 51 ; 322 a 14 , 19 , 21 , 22 (most frequent in this MS). Hib. Min. 15 (l. 51 , 58 ); 18 (458) ; 40 st 3 (Rawl.). RC xii 100. 1 ; 108. 1 (Harl.); ib. 108. 11 ; 92 § 122 ; 82. 1 f.b. ; 58 § 12 ; 72 § 43 . ZCP iii 227. 21 (Harl.); 249. 10 ; 228 § 3 ; 237 § 27 . ACL iii 2. 5 . Anecd. iii 25. 16 . dā = dno supported by the rhyme, LL 8 a 39 , 144 a 9 . dō = dno supported by the metre, ACL iii 297 st 60 , H. 3. 18.

dna in full: Laws i 20. 7 . RC xiii 377. 8 (H. 3. 18), v.l. dā. ScM. § 19 Harl., v.l. dā. Cog. 160. 25 . TFrag. 148. 11 . AFM i 470. 10 f.b. ; iii 110. 17 ; 118. 1 .

d, TBC-LL¹ (LL) 2298 ; ib. p. 179 n. 3 (Stowe-MS). ZCP iii 249. 25 ; 251. 4 . Lib. Flav. 26 b 1 . 43 . RC xii 66 § 33 (Harl.); ib. 72 § 44 ; 74 § 53 ; 98 § 131 . Hib. Min. 15 (l. 53) , 18 (l. 449) .

do, RC xii 104 § 149 .

no (short `o,' cf. below; nó, LL 90 a 3 = TBC-LL¹ 4318 ; cf. no rhyming with dó, BB 297 b 42 ; written l-, LL 55 b 27 = TBC-LL¹ 200 ): TBC-LL¹ (LL) 437 , 2826 , 2835 , 2839 , 2911 , 2914 , 2948 , 3167 (?), 3239 , 3647 , 3745 , 3753 , 3756 , 3885 , 4241 , 4261 , 4305 , 4322 , 4332 , 4343 , 4355 , 4365 , 4392 , 5018 , 6023 . CRR § 7 l. 9 ( LL 172 a 1 ), § 9 l. 8 ( 172 b 2 ), § 14 l. 5 , § 25 l. 6 , § 34 l. 2 , § 41 l. 4 , § 46 l. 7 , § 51 l. 11 . LL 57 a 33 , 91 a 54 , 101 a 2 , 172 b 48 , 175 a 42 . BB 46 a 19 , 269 b 51 , 297 b 42 (= IT iii 12 § 21 ). Laws v 368. 17 (? ar is ón no darcid inn[d]omon do duiniu).

for `dni' AFM v 1552 read didiu ( dī, Aut. MS fo 87 a ).

Of the Old-Ir. forms dono arose from dano, as ocus from acus, under the influence of the u-shaded `n.' At the time of the Würzburg Glosses dano was still kept distinct from dono, the latter being used after interrogatives apparently as an enclitic, without accent: ar cia dono, Wb. 2 d 10 . cepu dono, 7 d 16 . ce dono, 8 d 15 (cf. cid dono, Laws i 48. 24 ; 54. 3 f.b. ).

The syncopated Mid.-Ir. forms dno, no retaining `o' show that also in Old-Ir. the stress fell on the ultimate, as dano stressed on the penultimate would have given Mid.- Ir. dana. The Mid.-Ir. writing denu ( RC xii 72 § 44 , cf. dechum, debert) points in the same direction. Compare also the writing doná in the FM. In poetry the accent falls on the ultimate:

Acall. 3852 : mairg dadhair don luing dana. nachasainic Tonn Chlidna.

The syncopated form is often used in poetry for the convenience of the metre. It appears in several poems ascribed to poets of the 11th and 12th centuries, e.g.

LL 144 a 9 : Almon rathuit artús dā (dno leg.) i nEtail ra Troiano.

(a poem by Giolla an Choimdhedh Ua Cormaic of the early 12th century).

LL 8 a 39 : anmand tri mac Nemid dā (dno leg.) Luach Cessarni ┐ Luachro.

(poem by Tanaidhe Ua Maoilchonaire †1136; v.l. no, BB 46 a 19 ).

LL 34 b 31 : i ndáil fer talman sund dno [labrad] (cf. l. 43 ) lá is aidchi rempo.

(poem by Cúán O'Lothcháin †1024).

Further in a 10th-century poem from Rawl. 1 a 1 , Hib. Min. 40 st 3 :

fuilriud már guin dóine dno ocus plág for pecthacho.

in Fingen mac Flainn's poem on the Fir Arddae from the middle of the 9th century, ACL iii 297 st 60 :

ní mandingentar dno dóibsium dál ndrong ndelech.

and ICM st 188 :

atchitis dno (sic leg.) triasan tor sin forsin dorus atreab nálaind &c.

This brings us back to the time of the Codex Sangallensis; whence it follows that dno, though not occurring in any MS older than the LU, belongs to the Old-Ir. period.— No was developed from dno in Mid.-Ir. time. It seems impossible to fix the date of this development accurately. The appearance of `no' in old poetry, as BB 46 a 19 , 297 b 42 , is no test, as no might be a late substitute for dno. The fact that the earliest instances occur in the LL points to the 12th century. In Mid.-Ir. MSS dā, dno, and no go hand in hand. The spoken form was dno, later no; but the traditional writing dā lingered on for centuries in the MSS. No is found in MSS from the early 13th to the 15th century, when it became obsolete. The FM write doná, dana, dna, purely literary forms. In the Annals of Ulster the particle does not in any form occur after the year 1204 ( AU ii 242. 2 ).

In Mid.-Ir. no syntactical distinction is made between dā, dno, dna, and no. The particle is never placed at the head of the sentence, but can, apart from this, occupy almost any position within it. It follows stressed and unstressed words, and appears particularly often after emphasising particles, a circumstance which contributed to the syncope of the first syllable. It gives a certain emphasis to the accented word immediately preceding. The following is a synopsis of the most common positions of the particle:

(1) asbeir daniu ind apstol, Cambr. 37 d. torchratar no muinter Fintain, LL 91 a 54 . bemmini dano, Wb. 9 c 10 . mathidsom dano, Mon. Tall. 138. 26 . dogénsa no, CRR § 9 .

(2) abi mogasi dano, Wb. 27 c 17 . (is) maith dano, ib. 33 a 5 . bat roumal dano in fer sin, Mon. Tall. 159. 2 . is ferr dano lais, ní haurcuil dano lais MT.

(3) issí dano, Wb. 19 b 12 . issed dano, Mon. Tall. 136. 13 et pass. cipé no, TBC-LL¹ 200 .

(4) (a) uait no, CRR § 7 . dóib no, TBC-LL¹ 3239 . (b) is samlid dano, Wb. 21 b 2 . etrunni dano, ib. 12 b 12 . forthusom no LL 172 b 48 . uaimse no, TBC-LL¹ 4305 .

(5) is annsin dano tanccatar, BDD 151. 7 . intan dano, ib. § 162 . on uair dano ronuc, Laws i 18. 11 .

(6) a forbi tra dano, Mon. Tall. 128. 7 .

(7) after a noun in all cases except the vocative: nom. in hilur dano asberr a rind hi roṡoithe, Sg. 73 a 11 . gabtha díberg dano la suide, BDD § 41 . Diarmait dano abb ĺa lais, Mon. Tall. 153. 17 . acc. nicodoes mír feolai dano, Mon. Tall. 129. 22 . gen. cend Ferchon Longsig no, LL 80 a 44 . bóisom ic fechadh a bhráthar no, TBC-LL¹ 3885 . dat. do díb lethaib no, LL 175 a 42 . da saigid no, TBC-LL¹ 4261 .

Dā, no (&c.) is a particle mainly employed in principal clauses, though both in Old- and Mid.-Ir. it also appears in secondary ones. Already in Old-Ir. often = didiu, trá. In Mid.-Ir. MSS the interchange between dā, dī, tra, and imorro is quite common; cf. Windisch's note IT Glossary 467 . dā, LL 316 b 28 = dī, BB 133 b 9 . Particularly common issed dī = issed dā, nó dī = nó dō.

I adv Also, further, in addition, besides, as well, too , as a further point or circumstance tending in the same direction. Often with 1 ocus, acus, íarum, íarom, íaram, iar tain, beus, olchena, opp. cétamus Mon. Tall. 136. 23 .

A In the apodosis or main clause, preceded by a subordinate clause expressing:

(a) comparison : amal gnís tra Críst in iustis...is samlid dā gniith demun in filiís defidentiae thus, too, worketh the Devil in f.d. Wb. 21 b 2 . amal as hiress ronóib Abracham nitat gnīma rechto issí dā robnóibsi it also has sanctified you ib. 19 b 12 . amal bete som i nimpudiu inna brithemnacte bemmini dano, ib. 9 c 10 . amal durígni inna gnímu sechmadachtai dugéna dā innahí tairngir hisa todochide, Ml. 50 d 10 . amal it dá lebur fichet it dí litir fichet dā, ib. 2 d 2 . Cf. ib. 69 b 3 . amal as messe dudaforsat inna dúli is me dā bæras mes firian foraib, ib. 94 b 7 . amal nách forcenn libuir...ní forcenn libuir dā, Hib. Min. 22. 6 . Cf. also: amal file oentid eter baullu coirp duini conroib óintu etrunni dā hore ammi corp Críst, Wb. 12 b 12 .

(b) condition : acht robæ quies et tranquilitas regibus bieid dā dúnni a ndede sin, Wb. 28 a 23 . dóecastar i mbí hinun folud bís indib ┐ a cétnide. mad inun is óinrann dā if it be the same it is also one part (of speech), Sg. 188 a 6 . madh tochus cin innrucus nama ┐ maith do dénum de as letheineclund dono beos, Laws i 54. 3 f.b. Cf. also Wb. 14 d 24 : intí dia ndílgidsi dalugubsa dā, where a relative clause takes the place of a conditional one.

(c) time : o adcuaid...a ndorigeni Dia airriu de maid asbeir iarum dā arandathidisom di maith, Wb. 21 d 11 . ho imrordai nech didiu isind [ḟ]recdairc...in tairsitiu adchí dolbthai dā iarum he also afterwards feigns it PCr. 64 a 1 .

(d) cause or reason : hore...adib cretmich infectsa cretmech dā for cland, Wb. 10 a 6 . huare techtas nerta is cóir dā iarum cobsaide oc díten a muntairai, Ml. 85 a 4 .

(e) concession : v. V (a).

B In principal clauses repeating the verb of the preceding clause, with or without `ocus'; also, again . Type: dorochair Laimidon...dorochratar dā forgla ríg ┐ taísech na Troiana, Aen. 18 .

(a) cop.: ishé som doradchiúir ┐ ishé dā as taidcricc it is he also that is the ransom Wb. 2 b 9 . ished ón immurgu as fír et is fír dā esséirge omnium post sé , ib. 13 b 23 . is oc frecur céill dæ atáa (sc. mo chland) is occa dā attósa, ib. 29 d 6 . ropo do Dáil Chonchobair dosom ┐ rop ed dā do máthair Brigte, Thes. ii 325. 4 . is misiu ém dorat...is me dō rothairmisc, TE § 13 Eg. ropa cridiscél dam cédamus ...ropo cridiscél dam dā...┐..., Mon. Tall. 136. 23 . ba hamnus muirn na curud...amnus d an tarneuch ruboi and, RC xii 98. 17 ; cf. Ériu v 238. 5 . conid desin...is de dno hence also RC xii 106 § 162 . indligid don fechemain apad... indligid dō don bidbaid a élod sum im dliged, Laws i 114. 20 . isé rothomais ótha esca co gréin...isé dō rothomais, &c. , ib. 28. 11 , 14 .

(b) subst. verb: cach genitiu dichoisin ataat indib in dí chéill se sís. atá dā hi `sui,', Sg. 209 b 29 . bátar Ulaid oc ól i taig F....bái dā ben ind F. oc airiuc don tṡluag, IT i 67. l. 3 . atá...atá dā, RC xiii 458 § 56 . ar atát foruis...atá dō forus, Laws ii 128. 19 . dáig atát na .uii. Mani...┐ atúsa com thegluch no, TBC-LL¹ 437 . atá limsa for M. buaid cluaisse. ata limsa dā for M. A. buaid rodeirc, BDD § 48 .

(c) other verbs: ut Paulus ait...ocus asbeir daniu ind apostol, Cambr. 37d . rohucad airechas inna Rómæ co Constantinopoil. rucad dā a ainmm, Sg. 174 a 1 . Cf. ib. 73 a 12 (in hilur dā = is in h.d). rodelb iartin dluma in talman...rodelb dō na hocht ngaetha...rodelb dona datha na ngaeth, Laws i 26. 27 , 30 ; 28. 5 . dorimchell (v.l. rothairmcheall) rígusciu Hérend ria matain...toróchell (v.l. dorarmchell) dā prímlocha Hérend r.m. before morning he had also travelled to the chief lakes of Erin BDD § 155 ; ib. § 95 . tarlaic...dosléicimse dā, IT i 101. 16 . sadais ind snáthaid fo thrí inda dernaind co toltnadar na trí srotha folæ asind láim...saididsiom dā ind snáthat...co tultatar dā, &c. , he thrusts again the needle into her hand Mon. Tall. 149. 26 . dorad M. ocht fichtiu bo don Choimdhigh. dorat dā baile ic Drochat Átha, AU ii 130. 8 ; cf. also 130. 6 . asbert... asbert dā, RC xi 450. 130 . dogníth side na harma...dogníth dō L. soer na crondo...dugníth dno C. cerd na semonn, RC xii 92. 1 f.b. , 94. 4 . ícais an gilde den indel cétnæ...ícais d an gille d.i.c., ib. 68. 7 . focres forrai dno dus &c....focres forra d dus..., ib. 72 § 44 . dorochratar a trí comlín leo ┐ torchratar no muinter F., LL 91 a 54 . issed atberat som ...asberat dā, ib. 125 b = Ériu v 212. 2 . is amlaid tánic som...is amlaid tánic in Mane Andoe no, TBC-LL¹ 2826 . atbert cend cach ḟir díb bara lííc ┐ atbert cend Ferchon Longsig no bar lííc, ib. 2914 . táncatar rempo...et tánic no Fiacho, ib. 2948 . rachúaid dóib...dachuaid dóib no, &c. , ib. 3239 . Cf. also ib. 4299 - 4322 ; 2911 . atraacht C....atraacht trian slóig Ulad laisium no, CRR § 34 1. 2 ; ib. § 9 (rogniad... daronait dā). adorcradar som ┐ torcramar dō and we too are fallen Acall. 3174 . Cf. ib. 3399 (dō). roíarfacht didiu di araile cidh dorala dó...roḟiarfacht dā dḟir aile in cétna, Cóir Anm. p. 320. 6 f.b. genfidh ón ḟir sin ┐ ót ingin siu rígradh na hEtaile ┐ genfidh dō uaidib airdrigh na huili domun, Aen. 1519 . dochoncadar arna rindad fuath na Trai. rorindad and dō dealb in chatha...┐ rorindad ind dō amal rochathaig P., ib. 312 ; further exx. 256 . 326 . 477 . 568 . 1780 . gaeth mór...rothrasccair railghi. rothrasccair doná sé fichit crann i nDoire C. C., AFM iii 38. 10 . AU ii 192. 8 (dō).

C In principal clauses introducing a new predicate with or without `ocus.'

(a) the sentence introduces an additional action or condition of the subject of the preceding clause, the subjects being the same: robtar erdarcu de dind ulc doratad forro leusom ┐ roptar inducbaidiu de dā apud Deum, Ml. 47 a 17 . dobir cros dit sailiu for óchtar do chinn ┐ dogní a tóirand sa dā .U. fort chiunn, Thes. ii 249. 4 . rochúm [Día] in firmaimint imacuairt uime (sc. in talam)...rodelb dō iartin dluma in talman, Laws i 26. 25 . in mét dona fuil ó thalmain coruice suide (sc. in firmamint) issed dono fuil ó thalmain sís co fudomain ifirn, ib. i 28. 18 . rofiarfaig iarum don corrguinech dús cia cumang gonanacair... imcomaircidh dno den deogbori..., RC xii 82. 1 . Amenicán imráidim ┐ dno cóin innláidim, ACL iii 2. 3 .

(b) dā introducing a new subject and a new verb. The sense of dā becomes more emphatic, the statement being strongly marked as additional to what has been said before: further, besides, moreover . cum manu sapere plena fuerit .i. no rapere fit in aliis libris ┐ is manus dā bís indib, Ml. 36 b 2 . inna aithissi dombeirtis som fornni batir athissi dā daitsiu a Dæ, ib. 90 d 17 ; ib. 40 a 15 . dagnítis dā int Ṡabindai aní sin, Sg. 28 a 10 . sed etiam in accentibus, gl. biid dā comaitecht ceneuil do chenéul i naiccendaib, ib. 75 a 7 . is and ba hadaig for feraib Uloth. feraid snechtae már foroib dā (dno LU) CCC § 2 , ib. § 31. 4 . ní déntar ceth crosfigill...etar dí nodlaic. mathid som (i.e. Maelruain) dā and salmu aurnaigthe do chetal, Mon. Tall. 138. 26 . canir dā biad fri aitherruch aidchi lúoin. cantir dā salm aurnaigthi aidchi ndomnaich...fogní dā ailli mési laissom (i.e. Maelrúain) aidchi lúoin, ib. 131. 6 - 9 . is ferr laisiom dā he thinks it better, moreover ib. 161. 29 . is ferr dā lais, ib. 147. 27 ; similarly: is aurchail lais dā, 164. 14 . ni haurch. d.l. 143. 18 ; 161. 26 ; cf. also the common phrases issed dā is chóir (is maith, is dóig) la (or issed i. c. lais dā), ib. 134. 11 , 16 ; 148. 8 ; 161. 21 . Other exx. 136. 13 ; 143. 2 , 3 ; 161. 13 .— fochairt iarom for tech nand ... imarnic dō fri oclaig naile, RC xi 4461. 50 . birt roth leis ond óclaich... dobert dono uball dó, ib. 4461. 55 . ar ba fáith si dā she was also a prophetess ib. 4481. 81 . inor aodhar imbe ised dē uchtlebar, ib. xii 86 § 93 ; cf. 72. 19 . ronaisceatar fomoraig a cíos for Érinn...dobretha d na trénfiræ a foghnam dou, ib. 64. 1 . ┐ atrubairt dā in fer cétna riss and moreover the same man said BDD p. 152 . dorónsat baindea muiridhi dia longaib ┐ roiadh dō mórṡluagh na R. do leith tíri, Aen. 2348 . dorala dō olc ele and moreover, another evil happened, ib. 484 . loisccthear Slicceach leo. romarbad dana mac Corbmaic, AFM iii 362. 9 . tucsat ár for gallaibh...domilltea dō Laigin leo, AU ii 164. 7 ; 130. 8 .

D Often in the sense of `too' (`also') immediately after nouns and pronouns (or emphasising particles): domini, quod iustum est seruis praestáte...et uos dominum habetis in caelo .i. abi moga si dā atá for coimdiu i nnim ye, too, are servants Wb. 27 c 17 . cid sisi dā ronfitid ni, 15 c 28 . si totum corpus oculus, ubi auditus, gl. bid corp són dā that, too, will be body, 12 a 27 , cf. són dā, 18 d 2 , 25 c 11 . duber som ainm fíno dun pláig duber[r] for nech ( 77 d 3 )... duber ainm fína dusuidiu dā he gives the name of wine to that too Ml. 77 d 4 . uetustissimi...`plerus plera plerum' (solebant proferre), gl. robói són dā leo this, too, they had Sg. 75 b 4 . ruc som fuil ṁbic uaimse no from me, too TBC-LL¹ 4305 , 4318 (nó). corocherddainse no mo búraig ferge that I too may LL 176 b 26 ( CRR § 41. 4 ). dober comermitin féid fris fessin ┐ fri deacht maic dā do dóinacht mac, Ml. 127 d 10 - 11 . cum Clemente .i. dalte Petir. rachomalnastar sede dā he, too, had fulfilled it Wb. 24 a 37 . Conchobar dā (v.l. dō) hissuidiu inna charput...eirrid Uloth olchenae inna carptib...Bricriu dā (v.l. dō) leo, CCC § 1 . birt macc. laír dā (v.l. dō) bói i ndorus in tige trogais dá lurchuire, ib. § 3 . in pendit...a dénam doa macc accus a sétig dā do pennait that his wife also should do penance Mon. Tall. 163. 18 . Diarmait dā lais, ib. 153. 17 . atá i rriagailib ailibh dā cosmailius fitta in other rules also, 156. 17 ; 138. 36 ; 151. 6 . gid iat Greic nomtairsidh romuirfidis me. Troianaig dō ad buidin bidbudh dam the Trojans, too, are a multitude hostile to me Aen. 458 . —In phrases like the following: isin chath sin dno robenad a láṁ de Nuadaid, RC xii 58 § 11 , the particle goes with the preceding noun (pronoun) and may be rendered by same. bói cath for Scathaig isind aimsir sin dō fri tuathu eile at that time also, at that same time ib. xi 448. 4 f.b. is inntisin dō táinic hEoan in that same year AU ii 192. 10 . sluaghadh la M...┐ is foran sluaghadh sin dā romarbadh hua hInneirghi, ib. 128. 9 . isin bliadain sin dō táinic mórgaith adhbuil, ib. 192. 5 . is annsin dā tánccatar dá prímmucaid Eterxel fón doiri at the same time BDD p. 151. 7 . —Compare also Wb. 6 b 25 : omnes enim stabimus ante tribunal Dei, gl. aratá brithem and cenutsu .i. deus. ishé side dā as éola and, where dā seems to emphasise the reference to Deus.

E Often in enumerations without a verb; espec. in the Laws and in the Annals (to introduce a new entry). cethruimi fair ar sellcecht...cethruime dona...cethruimi dono, Laws i 242. 12 . lethchumul dno ó fethemuin... lethchumul dno ó bidbuid...cumul dno...┐ cumul dno..., ib. i 220. 8 - 16 . impudh Uladh dā for Ua L....crech dō leo for Uib Bresail, AU ii 146. 17 . crech la Nial...crech eile dō, ib. i 582. 13 . maidm for Connachta ria feraibh Breifne. maidm dana re Connachta for f. B., ib. i 520. 14 . sloghadh la M...sloghad dā la D., ii 82. 4 ; 88. 18 ; 128. 12 ; 186. 21 . ithé mo thrí indroscc. giallnai do Scathaig...muinterus dā frimsa dadaich, &c. , RC xi 450 l. 127 . FB § 28 . Cf. the 12 times repeated `cia cléirech dā' BColm. 102. 15 - 103. 11 .

F ní (ná, nách)...dano nor...either, like Germ. `auch nicht.' ní lour in bendachad...ní lour dano in nebmaldachad auch geniigt nicht nicht zu fluchen Wb. 5 d 23 . ar ní cumuing side dā imfogbaidetid ná lánamnas manip tol apud mulierem, 9 d 18 . nihil enim intulimus in hunc mundum, haud dubium quod nec auferre quid possimus .i. ní béram ass dā, 29 b 15 . et uos, domini, eadem facite illís .i. nachiberpid si dā ibar cumachtu, 22 d 6 ; cf. 3 a 14 , 9 d 5 . amal nad frescat bás inna cethrai ní bí dā cida fresciso in báis etir lasna dóini so, Ml. 69 b 3 . ní díltai dā (sc. Priscianus) in cétbuid nísin leugnet auch nicht Sg. 201 b 10 . Compare RC xii 68 § 36 . Mon. Tall. 129. 22 ; 131. 22 ; 143. 15 ; 145. 19 ; 160. 4 .

G nó dano, nó dono, nó dno ( BB 323 b 7 . Laws i 112. 1 ), nó no ( BB 35 b 7 ) = emphasised nó, often interchanging with simple `nó.' or, or else . Synon. nó didiu, Fél. 2. 13 . PH 7082 . nach dú immurgu inimfogni fri foxlid nó fritobarthid dā wherever it is construed with the ablative or dative Ml. 27 c 10 . nó dō (v.l. nó itá i.e. ita), ACL iii 293. 16 . Very common in the Laws to introduce a new and different opinion. dogabar eneclann do neoch a dualgus a dhána...┐ nocha faghbar a dualgus a chinn...nó dō go fathar eneclann dó a dualgus a dhána ┐ in chinn aga nderna uirrned, Laws i 62. 2 f.b. senchus dō a `sen' fil ann is ónní as senex atá...nó dō a `sen' fil ann is ónní is sensus, ib. 34. 28 ; ib. 36. 2 ; 40. 7 ; 68. 5 f.b. ; 96. 17 : 106. 35 ; 108. 5 ; 112. 1 ; 128. 17 ; 130. 7 f.b. ; 188. 7 ; 228. 9 ; 250. 4 (no dō cena); 274. 1 ; 296. 1 ; ii 22. 18 ; iv 8. 10 ; 12. 20 ; 256. 8 f.b. — Aedh Uaridnach .i. uara idna tigdís dó...nó A. Fúaridhnach...nó dā uara tigdís dó, Cóir Anm. § 121 ; ib. § 142 et pass. PH 5719. 5720 . 5654 (dō).

H ocus dano and moreover: rupu accubur leu etergne mu chumachti ┐ rusmbói dā, Wb. 33 a 11 . ocus dō fon cóir cétna cidh adultrus dogneth, Laws i 56. 8 f.b. ┐ dano or si, LU 9052 . aile dano: ainm naild dō din tibroid sin Loch Luibe, RC xii 96 § 126 . Imroll aile B. E. ainm aile do no, TBC-LL¹ 2835 .

I amlaid dano thus, thus also : is samlid dā, Wb. 12 c 46 . pronomen hi foirciunn indib. robu samlid dā robói `modi huius ' hi tosuch, Sg. 203 b 5 . is amlaid dō doroimsi in ferta, ACL iii 30 § 83 . sic dō, Laws i 114. 28 ; ii 244. 14 .

Jin secondary clauses: is torbach du popul flaith firian leu .i. amal as ṁmaith dund flaith fessin dā, Ml. 90 b 11 . adcondairc...nombíth forcleith leo dā for tabairt a coibsen, Mon. Tall. 135. 19 . curo ícuit in cin dō, Laws i 60. 11 , &c. madeadh asbersa...madead asber dono , ib. i 8. 1 .

II Therefore, then, accordingly, itaque, et ita, igitur — both in principal and secondary clauses, drawing a conclusion from what has been said before. By the Irish themselves translated by ergo, igitur, ita (locus ergo, locus igitur, sic igitur, no ita ( ACL iii 293. 16 ) = loc dā, amlaid dā, nó dā). Common in the Glosses, esp. with imperative and in prohibitions, but rare in all Mid.-Ir. MSS.—

(a) si autem spiritu facta carnis mortificaueritis uiuetis, gl. ní bo líach dā a marbad killing them therefore were not regrettable Wb. 4 a 12 . is irlam ind anim do thuil Dée. todiusgadar dana ind anim do dénum maith let the soul, then, be roused to do good ib. 5 c 18 . similiter et uir sui corporis non habet potestatem sed mulier, gl. nách móided dā in fer infechtso hi cumachtu, 9 d 18 . do óis anfoirbthiu tra asrobrad insin. ná bad anfoirbthi si dā arnáp, &c., be ye not imperfect, then, lest, 12 d 26 . ní derlaichta a pecdæ doib acht duratad dígal forru. cenotad maic si raith dā ma imroimsid ní dílgibther duib, 33 b 8 . Further exx. from Wb.: 9 b 10 . 11 b 4 . 13 a 4 . 15 a 5 . 19 d 21 . 28 b 17 . —interrogemus igitur: imchomarcam dā, Ml. 18 a 1 .— vetustissimi tamen et `altera utra' et alterum utrum' solebant proferre, gl. daeltais dā foa dá nóg inna genitin they used to decline it then according to its two integrals in its genitive Sg. 75 b 3 . Setum pro Zethum, gl. biid dā sethvs pro z. Sethus then is for Z. ib. 184 a 1 . derbaid cenél dā i suidib aní remitatét what precedes them, then, certifies the gender in them, 197 b 5 . Cf. further 38 b 8 .— ní diṅgne su mo lessa afechtsa. is ferr let in fer ucut toenur. biat marb so dā (v.l. dna) limsa, RC xiii 377. 8 .

(b) in a weakened sense utpote, nempe, nimirum; videlicet; namely, to wit, that is to say, introducing an explanation or conclusion, like German `nämlich.' non enim per legem promisio facta est Abrachae aut semeni eius ut heres esset mundi sed per iustitiam fidei, gl. .i. dorairngred dā rombad oirdnide a chland ut `in semine tuo rl.' ( Gen. xxii 18 ) it had been foretold, then, that his children would be distinguished Wb. 2 c 12 . ut et ipsi misericordiam consequantur, gl. bid misericordia dano dodaessarsom nípa meritum intan creitfite it will be misericordia then that will save them when they shall believe: it will not be m. ib. 5 c 12 . Dei aedificatio estis secundum gratiam Dei quae data est mihi, gl. Pelagius: non secundum meam uirtutem .i. is per gratiam cotofutaincsi dā it is p. g. that he upbuilds you then, 8 c 16 . Dei et adorent eum omnes angili .i. it les dano indaingil, 32 c 2 . dico...quod idolum sit aliquid? .i. ní ní dā in tídol the idol, then, is not anything, 11 b 11 . Further instances: 10 b 19 . 12 d 12 . 12 d 21 (in secondary clause: arna tomontis dā). 13 a 30 . 16 d 3 (?). 25 a 29 . 27 c 34 . 29 a 28 . 29 d 1 .

Here also Laws i 74. 9 f.b. : in uime rocuiris tech andso ara tabhairt uait fecht naill? in uainn tucadh dō ar sé was it from us, then, it was taken? and Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 26. 3 : ticed Celtchar da tír ar Ulaid. ticed dā ar Conchobar let him come then.

III Very common in progressive description or narrative, indicating temporal and logical sequence: then, accordingly, so, upon which, thereupon, now . This usage arose from I, the original sense ` further, again ' being still perceptible.

(a) type: perge ad Columbam. dochóid ón dā `go to Columba' (said Satan). So he went Mon. Tall. 154. 17 . ercc co Comgald co ruccæ breith fort. dochóid som ón dā, ib. 154. 9 . fó duit cia nocotailtea. lasodain dona luig Fergus ina charpat ┐ contuil `it would be well for you to take a sleep.' So Fergus went into his chariot and slept, Laws i 72. 22 . telcar (sic leg.) issin tech hí. tánicc si dā issin tech, BDD p. 155. 9 . rotficbam co port i mbia innocht...dotaet dā reompa (v.l. téit iarom), ib. § 40 Eg. raráidsetar fir Hērend ri Tamun étgud Ailella do gabáil immi...ragabastarsom no étgud nAilella immi, TBC-LL¹ 2839 ( LL 79 b 30 ). raráidset...ri Mac Roth techta go Slíab Ḟúait...táinic Mac Roth reme no go S.F., ib. 4241 . asmbert Domnall nadmbai fóisitiu forcoitil Conculaind conrissed Scathaig bói fri hAlpai anair. nalotar dā...tar Alpai RC xi 444 l. 34 . asbert fris búi glend már ara chind. oentsét coel tairis...luid dō in sét sin nísin, ib. 446 l. 60 . Cf. also: rofaoidh días do thaisccéladh forna slóghaibh... dochódar sidhe dni (sic) go mbattar i ttréchumaiscc na slógh, AFM v 1552. 1 f.b.

(b) indicating progression in general. dothaet Conaire do saigid a harm...┐ gabaid glés nimberta a arm forsna díberga...tofuitet dā sé chét lais, BDD § 143 . bátar trí ríg ...oca urnaide seom...conacces som dō rout forsa mbátar then he was seen ib. § 14 . dolluid (sc. Derbforgaill) anair irricht dá géise ┐ a hinailt co mbátar for Loch Cuan. amail robói dā Cuchulainn ┐ Lugaid laa and conaccatar na heonu, Ériu v 208. 3 . dosrat a sním mór slóig na nG. umman ní sin ┐ rotimairgit dā maithi na nG. cusan rí imon caingin sin, ib. 146. 6 . dorragab som iarum ind praind iterum. robói si dā for suidiu co cend mbliadna Mon. Tall. 149. 24 , 29 . rucad iarum do muliund Ratha Cathair fa dí ┐ foremthes a bleith and...dochuaid dā timthirid Brigdi in tres fecht then B.'s servant went a third time Thes. ii 335. 33 . scaraid dā Bricriu friu iar sodain FB § 11 . ó dochóid tar Alpi ba brónach do díth a choiceli anais dana desuidiu ó roairigestar, RC xi 444. 1 f.b. ib. 444. 1 . TBC-LL¹ 2298 . dochótar immurro uile iarsin co Telaig hUa nD. co ndernsatar ossad mbliadna ┐ fir Muman. dodeochaid dō Domnall ar fut Connacht dia thig whereupon D. went home AU ii 90.23 . táinic Murchad cu nUlltaib cucu ┐ tucsat taelcad doib. romebaid dō for Gallaib, AU i 192. 15 ; 138. 18 , 19 .

(c) introducing a new event or indicating transition to an entirely new subject: now, now as to, as for . as ar chenél cruche adrímther in coicsath. filus trechenélae martre daneu adrímiter ar chruich now there are, &c., Cambr. 38a . ib. 38b . ba cara do Patraic hé (sc. Dubthach) ...luid dā Patraic fecht co tech in Dubthaig sin now P. once went to that D.'s house Thes. ii 307. 9 . nó is Brenainn dorigne in nimmun sa...locus ergo mare tempus uero Diarmata. tánic dā B. co Brigit now B. came to Brigit ib. 324. 21 . ib. 324. 1 . intan dā robói Macc Cecht fora áltaib isind ármaig conaccai in mnái sechae now when M. C. was lying wounded on the battlefield BDD § 162 (the preceding four paragraphs do not deal with M. C.). ib. § 163 , §165 . RC xii 108. 1 . cid Tuath Dei Dononn d derochratar go már isin chath now as for the T. D. D. they lost many men in the battle ib. 58 § 12 ; ib. 66 § 3 ; 74 § 53 ; 108. 1 ; 82. 1 f.b. ; 92 § 123 ; 72 § 44 ; 100. 1 ; 104 § 149 ; 102. 11 . isé dō cétní rotheip Dia asin maisi .i. in talam now the first thing which God separated from the mass was the earth Laws i 26. 22 (at the head of a new paragraph). dia té dō bidbuid i ndeaguid a athgabála tar crích now if the defendant, &c., ib. i 220. 19 . ib. 18. 11 ; 28. 23 . In the following exx. from the MT dā stands at the beginning of an entirely new passage: mad doairle sale dā ind láim oc praind imberar usci leosom iarum now if spittle falls on a man's hand, 142. 14 . intí dā arbir bith oss nallaid...non manducat, &c. , as to him that eats the flesh of a wild deer, he must not eat (any other flesh until the Easter following), 146. 8 ; ib. 128. 1 , 7 ; 156. 23 ; 160. 15 ; 162. 8 . Very common is the following type: teclaim ubald dā dia domnaich...ní fogni leusom now as to gathering of apples on a Sunday, it is not allowed amongst them ib. 145. 17 . gille dā nó timtirid ní hécen aithrigi di suidiu as for a servant, 142. 1 . aos tróg dā nád ebat amail cách now as to invalids, 147. 19 ; so also 153. 3 ; 161. 1 ; 162. 1 . Mane Mathramail dā .iv. fichit déc fo churp a ndíbergae as for M. M. BDD § 42 . filedha dana robátar isin indsi si...nicon bíth lóg enech la cach fer díb noberedh gubreth now as to the poets, not a man of them had honourprice who passed false judgment Laws i 24. 28 . in file dō cunnuid forcruid duaisi...as a letheineclunn dígbus uime, ib. 58. 17 ; cf. ib. 62. 11 f.b. ; 30. 14 ; 22. 11 ; iv 50. 1 ; v 368. 9 .—Cf. also: araile ancarae robui hi Cluaoin maic Naois...hé dā hi luibri galar now he was infirm with disease Mon. Tall. 155. 5 . slógad la Domnall i nUlltaib. Ulaid dō i Craib telcha i llongport, AU ii 62. 8 . Here also the common phrase loc dā as to the place (of the hymn), it was: loc dno Duma ṅGobla, Thes. ii 308. 5 , by the Irish themselves rendered by `locus ergo (igitur),' ib. 324. 20 .

IV In commentaries, glosses, or explanatory notes repeating the word or phrase which is to be commented on. Syn. tra, didiu ( Cóir Anm. § 225 , 226 ; RC xi 442. 18 ; BColm. § 6 ). ┐ Raith Guthaird a loc, comm.: Raith Guthaird dō is airi atberur as to R. G. it is so called &c., Laws i 2. 8 . senchus dō a `sen' fil ann is ónní as senex atá...nó dō is óní is sensus ciall, ib. 34. 26 . Colmán macc Daráne. Colmán mac Daríne dō .i. siur máthar do Cholmán Dairíne, Fél. p. 172. 31 . Mo Senoc Mughna dā .i. M. darbile mór, &c. , ib. 258. 15 . Luighith dna .i. Hith robo lughu na athair, Miscell. Celt. Soc. 2. 1 . Daire Fine dā .i. duar ḟine, Cóir Anm. § 68 . Also in parenthetic remarks: Fiacc Sleibte dorónai in nimun sa do Patraic. in Fiac sin dā mac eside meic Ercha now that F. was son of Mac E. Thes. ii 307. 2 . Cf. BDD p. 153. 16 . RC xii 108 § 163 . BB 318 b 34 .

V However ,

(a) in concluding sentences after a preceding concessive secondary clause. Syn. camaiph. cia fudama in firián ní du imnedaib hisin biuth frecndairc sóirfithir dā in céin naili dā (one dā is superfluous, but both positions are allowed) he shall, however, be delivered the other time Ml. 68 d 14 . ciasu du Duaid adfiadar isin titul immeairc són dā Ezechiæ though it is to D. that it is ascribed in the title, it is suitable, however, to E. ib. 72 d 9 . With camaiph: ciasidruburt frit tuas `alter utra'...robói camaiph la arsaidi `altera utra,' Sg. 75 b 2 .

(b) however, but ; the addition introduced by dā is opposed to what precedes: intan conucbad in nél nobíth immun aírc migrabant filii Israhel hisuidiu. intan dā nunanad in nél hísin nogaibtis som dúnad hisuidiu when, however, that cloud used to rest Ml. 83 a 4 . aimrit imorro Dairíne clannmar dō Sanct a siur but her sister S. was prolific Fél. p. 172 § 31 . co fil in firmamint na trénbrat gemnaide im talmain co trí nimib ┐ co trí nime impi. in .vii.mad imorro rocertad i trí nimib. ní hé dō sin sosad aingel this last, however, is not the habitation of the angels Laws i 30. 2 . benaid M. C. a chend dond ala fir ...robói dā infer aile oc élúd ass the other man, however, was fleeing forth, BDD § 157 . issed as cóir...arnáchad-fercaigthersu (sc. frit gilla). manatfercaichther frit gilla dā if, however, you are angry with your servant Mon. Tall. 142. 9 . mani chaithea dā feoil if, however, he does not eat flesh ib. 146. 14 ; ib. 159. 38 . bói N. oga uothras ┐ dobreth láim nargait foair lioa D.; nír uo maith d liaa mac sium this, however, did not please his son RC xii 66. 4 f.b. táinic hEoan cona ritirib co Machaire Conaille co ndernsat airgthi ann. táinic dō Murchadh hua C. cucu but M. came up with them AU ii 192. 12 (v.l. táinic imurro); similarly ib. 192. 17 . Same usage AFM iii 40. 6 ; táinic Iohn...do orccain Dál A. tucc doná C. deabhaidh dosoṁ but C. gave battle to him; 34. 3 (doná); 34. 14 (doná); 110. 3 f.b. (dna); 118. 1 (dna).

VI In a weakened sense with interrogatives. ut quid autem...pro impis mortus est, gl. ar cia dono, Wb. 2 d 10 . aut in nomine Pauli babtizati estis? gl. cepu dono adrad dæ do thabirt do Pool in chruth sin, ib. 7 d 16 . omnia enim uestra sunt, gl. ce dono rigne occo. it lib huili, ib. 8 d 15 . cid dā dotbératsu chucci, ScM. § 16 . ní fritsa oI sí rodálusa itir. cid tu dana icim dáil why then TE § 13 Eg. ut est `ar is fo gnímaib midither Dia for duine' cid dono arnáb fo gnímaib no mesemnaighther duine for araile for innus sin, Laws i 48. 24 , cf. ib. 54. 3 f.b. —After concessive cia, cid (like Ger. `auch' in `wer auch komme, was auch erfolge'): cia focherta dā a srúb ar gesce folilsad, BDD § 38 . cipé no ná tic ticfasu fessin, TBC-LL¹ 200 . acht ciat-beram ni andso no tæit nech dḟarcsin maigi Mide, ib. 5018 . gid ed dō but nevertheless Aen. 413 .

VII Various usages.

(a) rofetarsa is foirbthe do hires so. ba toich deit dā ar ba foirbthe hires do máthar, Wb. 29 d 3 . ní fil amain tra Bresi ol sé. ba fír ón dno ní bói acht meth foairi sim ond uair sin, RC xii 70. 14 .

(b) even ? tamquam famulus, gl. rubu fer som muintire maith dā dul humal he had been a man of the household. Good is even (also) a humble position, Wb. 33 a 5 .

(c) aṅgo dā is deithbir daitsiu a Ingceoil, BDD § 80 ; ib. § 90 (twice), § 102 h ; angó dā, § 105 .

(d) intan imorro rofuidi Feinius a dá deiscipul sechtmoget do foglum na nilbérla fon doman Cae dna isé rosiacht co Eigipt, Laws i 20. 7 . I have no further examples of this usage.

5 de

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 5 de or dil.ie/14791
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: de, dé, dæ, de, -de

prep -te, -ti added to comparatives, corresponding in sense to Lat. eo, Eng. the. Identical with 1 de, di from it, because of it. In Oir. still treated as an independent word and always written de ( dé, Wb. 22 d 2 ; dæ, Ml. 90 a 11 = de); in Mid.-Ir. wholly enclitic and written together with the comparative, the unaspirated, now intervocalic, -d- according to the rules of spelling being written -t-: córaite (Oir. córu de). -d slender at all phases of the language and never discarded (Quiggin's explanation of `a chách,' Quiggin Vorton. Wörter 34 , is wrong). Its place is immediately after the comparative, only exceptionally separated from it by an enclitic word as Ml. 23 d 23 : [im]mi ardu ni de; ib. 83 b 11 : bid étrummu doib de.

In certain points the Mid.-Ir. usage diverges from Oir. In the Glosses -de is used proleptically, referring in a general way to a cause which follows introduced by the prep. di or trí, e.g.:

A robtar erdarcu de dind ulc doratad forru they were the more famous for the evil that was inflicted on them Ml. 47 a 18 . airmi ardu ni de tri dul isna lucu arda for we are the higher for going into high places ib. 23 d 23 . is huilliu de mo ḟreiscsiu do (= di) neuch rorádis su, Thes. ii 2. 34 .

.

B (di, tri + vn. + gen.) conid étrummu dæ in bochtae...tri frescissin messa fíriéin ind ríg doib iarum so that the poverty is the lighter through their expectation of the just judgment of the king afterwards Ml. 90 a 11 . is moltaidiu de tri tabairt fortachtan cid du neuch nachidáirilli it is the more praiseworthy through giving help even to one who does not deserve it ib. 84 c 13 . ( LU 60 a 38 fri seems used in a similar way: rafetammár ém in gilla sin ┐ ní messaite fria fis is dalta dún.)

— In Mid.-Ir. the prepositional expression was completely abandoned. The usage is illustrated by the following examples.

A corresp. to A above: is moti a pian som cach olc dorónsat their suffering is the greater for the evil they have committed LU 33 b 3 . ba nertiti leis a menma na scéla adfiadar dó in gilla, SCC § 20 . is córaiti hí a fromad ima hairigthib it is the more fit for having been tested Laws ii 252. 12 . ferrdi re fer na haicdi a bith urrlum the owner of the article is the better pleased for its being ready ib. ii 414. 23 . Cf. i 152. 23 ; ii 88. 5 ; iii 418. 5 . finnaid dún in líon atám. ni meisde nech uaib a rád, Acall. 1101. 6528 . comad móti in pian dó beth beo co fotai isin croich, PH 2439 . rocumbrig Ísu in ernaigthe sea...co mbad erusaite do chách a mebrugud a beth cummair that it should be the easier to remember to every one for being short ib. 7862 .

B corresp. to B above: ni mescaiti hé in lind dól he is none the more intoxicated for having drunk the ale Laws iii 202. 6 (Oir. † ní mescu de dóul (or di óul) ind lenno dó, RC xxxvii 218 ). is bindide sian na bó a laeg do légan lé the bellowing of the cow is the more melodious for her calf being left with her ib. v 62. 19 . ib. 20 , 27 ; 40. 10 . i 138. 4 f.b. ropo móde in firt sa do dénam it was the greater for the working of this miracle (note on Broccán's Hymn), Thes. i 346. 21 . conid móti éstither riu immad erlabra do dénum that the more attention would be paid them for their much speaking PH 7840 . ni feirrde neach bás súaiṁneach dḟaghbháil ara leabaidh dhó, TSh. 236. 10 .— Sg. 2 a 7 : bith má de do buith daitsiu hi coimthecht oco it will be the greater for thy being associated in it, does not represent the Mid.-Ir. type, as do is not the possessive but the prep. di.

Often corresponding to preceding cach + subst.: cach mét donóir ṡægalta i mbía nech is móiti a guasacht the more a person possesses of worldly honour the greater his danger YBL 167 b 32 . cach airdi bias in torad bid trumaidi a thuindseom ac toitim the higher the fruit...the heavier ib. 167 b 35 ; but Mod.-Ir: dá aoirde an toradh iseadh is truime , &c. Already Laws iii 420. 3 f.b. : cach codnaidetu i mbia fer inmuillti is indligthiti cú. cach éccodnatu i mbia fer inmuillti is dligthechaiti cú the more sensible...the more unlawful, &c.

With multiplicatives: áibinniti fo deich ten times as beautiful LL 151 b 1 f.b. áigthidiu de, áigthidite the more dreaded : arimp áigthidiude, Wb. 23 d 23 . ansu de, ansaite the heavier , eo gravius: air is ansu de a dothaim mani airissedar ind lám fri talmain occo, Ml. 131 b 4 . curap andsati (v.l. ánsude), Trip. 218. 20 . ardu de, ardaite the higher : cia thés hi loc bes ardu ní ardu de, Ml. 23 d 23 . airtem .i. airdiu de indem a eiṁ fair, Laws ii 240. 1 . armad ardiu crand is móide co mór benaid na gætha fris the higher a tree is the more do the winds beat against it YBL 167 b 32 . roimpá form Finnachta ní ba airdite a ḟine, LL 308 a 22 . assu de, usaite the easier : is assu de tabairt in ferso huachtaraig, Ml. 107 c 16 . usaite le in torad dogní ó láim inn [f]uath ledb ina fiadnaisi, Laws i 152. 23 . comad usaidi do bidbaid a fagail (sc. the debts), ib. iii 152. 13 . ussaite, Fél.² xxxii 34 . bindiu de, bindite the sweeter : is bindide sian na bó a laeg do légan le, Laws v 62. 19 . buidechu de, budigiu de, budechaiti the more satisfied: tabar in deired fledi do mathib Lochlainne corop budechaiti iat, CRR 20. 8 . calmu de, calmaite the braver : is nertmairite┐ is calmaite in menma daenna, PH 4801 . córu de, córaite the more proper : is córaiti hi a fromad ima hairigthib it is the more fit for having been proved by its tests Laws ii 252. 12 . dánu de, dánaite the more audacious : co mbad dánaite tísad diabul dia aimsiugud, PH 4781 . deccru de the harder : deacraide, TSh. 257. 26 . BS 54. 10 . deissiu de: deiside the nicer, &c. P. O'C. 1531 . dligthigiu de, dligthigite , dligthechaiti the more lawful : cach éccodnatu i mbia fer inmuillti is dligthechaiti cú, Laws iii 420. 1 f.b. dligthidiu de, dligthite the more lawful : cach codnaidetu i mbia fer inmuillti is indligthiti cú, ib. 420. 2 f.b. Cf. dligite, indligite in the corresp. passage, ib. 198. 17 sq.; but dlighthighi, ii 202. 6 , dlithidhe, iii 524. 2 do not, as Atkinson thinks, contain -de. dóchu de, dóchaite the more likely : dochaite in gním do dénum dó uair adeir it is more likely that he has committed the deed for he says so Laws iii 110. 3 f.b. Lism. L. 390 b . Anecd. ii 36 § 21 . Bor. 105 . dochaidi, Miscell. Celt. Soc. 332. 15 . dothíde, Seanchaint 205 . doilgiu de, doilgite the more difficult: anscuiche .i. is doilgiti a scuchad...ó bias fola lánlóige and, Laws iii 12. 19 . duibiu de the blacker : duibhide, P. O'C. 1531 . dúthrachtachu de, -taigite the more zealous, earnest : cumad dúthrachtaigite dobérmaisne ár menmain inár nernnaigthi, PH 7849 . erdarcu de, erdarcaite the more famous Ml. 47 a 18 , quoted above. erusu de, erusaite the easier: co mbad erusaite do chách a mebrugud a beth cummair, PH 7862 . essamnu de, essamnaite the more fearless: it essamnu de ar rofitetar is, &c., Wb. 23 b 12 . étrummu de, étrumaite the lighter Ml. 90 a 11 , quoted above. dia tartaid si fortachtain doib som bid étrummu doib de, ib. 83 b 11 . ferr de the better : ciarud-chualatar ilbélre ┐ cenuslabratar nípat ferr de, Wb. 12 d 28 . bieid [ní ?] bes ferr de, ib. 32 a 13 . cumad ḟearrde áith that its strength might be the better Laws ii 240. 6 . acht ferrdi re fer na haicdi a bith urrluṁ the owner of the article is the better pleased for its being ready ib. 414. 23 . is feardi in fear sin na dána sin do chindemain aigi, v 20. 27 . nír bo measaiti seom ┐ níbot ferdi sio, YBL 112 a 48 . ferrdi a Íssa haithnisi, Miscell. Celt. Soc. 338. 3 . conid ferrde lemsa cech pian fogéb ar ainm ṅDé, PH 2427 . dá mad hé in bith uli dogébtha maille re díth tanma cá bud ḟerrde dosin, ib. 7582 . ní ferrde le Find féin scél do dénam fair, Acall. 5358 . fíriánu de the more righteous : condid f.d., Wb. 2 a 7 . fotu de the longer : faidite, Acall. 6811 . gairddiu de, gardditi the shorter : gardditi lind éistecht riss mad colléic, LL 96 b 54 . Acall. 6815 . Laws ii 216. 7 . gairdi is used in the same sense as gardditi, cf. siaiti, ib. l. 10 . giliu de the brighter : gilide, P. O'C. 1531 . imdu de, imdaite the more abundant : ut gratia habundet .i. corop imdu de duún, Wb. 3 a 12 . condib imdu de torand inna forgnúso, Sg. 198 a 4 . inducbaidiu de the more glorious : robtar i. de apud deum , Ml. 47 a 18 . irlamu de, urlamaite the readier: omnis autem qui in agone contendit ab omnibus sé abstinet .i. armbad irlamu de don buaith, Wb. 11 a 7 . is bés dósom cosc inna mban i tossug...armbat irlamude ind ḟir fo chumachte Dæi, ib. 22 c 10 . irlithiu de, irlithite the more obedient: armbat irlithiu dé mandatís dei , Wb. 22 d 2 . ísliu de the lower : íslide, Lec. 534 a 11 . lainniu de, laindite the more eager : co mbad laindite leo in forcetul do gabáil do láim, PH 6759 . lemnethu de or slemnethu de the more willing : ardislemnethu de do hícc inna fiach, Wb. 4 a 10 . lethnu de the broader : leithneide, Rel. Celt. i 159. 101 . lia de, liaiteeo plus, eo plures : hóre am essamin se precepte...is lia de creitfess, Wb. 23 b 7 . imurcruidh dáine do thiachtain do chaithiuṁ in bídh célsine uair nocha liauite in biad...cia beth, &c., for the food is not the more plentiful though, &c., Laws ii 28. 17 . luathu de, luathaite the quicker: is airi doníthar in tréiniugadh so orra comad luathaide dosoisdís a féich dḟeichemain toichida, Laws iii 152. 12 . lugu de, lugaiteeo minus : ní lughaiti dlighes in gairi do dénuṁ they are not the less bound to undertake the maintenance Laws ii 192. 5 . noco lugaite smacht ná díre in coma bith indligedh, ib. iii 418. 5 . cé beith nech...noco lugaiti dligus a fochraic díc ris, iv 48. 24 . nuchu lugaidi is grád hé céli do beth aigi, v 40. 10 . dothéged Étáin cach dia dia athreos ┐ ba lugaide a galar som ón do suidiu, TE § 9 LU. rodígaib a thuara ┐ nírbo lugaide a nert Lugdach, Thes. ii 344. 29 . is aire roartraig in taingel hi ṅgné solais in tṡnechta comad lugaiti nobídgtis na banscala riana ḟacsin, PH 3384 . co mbad lugaide, ib. 5207 . (rotescad a tengaid) arái ní lugati dogníd sum forcetul in popuil inní sin, ib. 2549 . scarad cuirp ┐ anma ┐ ni lugaite marus in tanumm, ib. 7480 . mailliu de, maillite the slower : is gnáth mirr do thabairt im chorpaib dóine i nadnocul conid maillite thinaid, PH 7023 . mescu de, mescaite the more intoxicated: noco mescaiti hé in lind dól, Laws iii 202. 6 . messa de, mesaite, meiste, miste the worse. messude, Trip. 218. 9 Eg. mesaidie: cia...nir m., IT i 109. 6 . messaite: rafetammar in gillu sin ┐ ní m. fria fis is dalta dún, LU 60 a 38 . mesaite LU 54 a 17 . messaiti, SR 1244 . LL 106 b d . measaiti YBL 112 a 48 . SG 70. 24 . mesaidi FDG. MR 14. 22 . meisti: is m. lóg a roind, Laws iii 462. 17 , 19 .; ib. 478. 24 . mana derntai...bud meisti dáibh, RC xiv 56 . CRR 20 § 14 . cá bud ḟerrdi ┐ cá bud mesti, PH 7582 . ní meisde nech uaib (a rád), SG 118. 25 . miste, ib. 97. 35 . misde: is m. nár bhuan a leithéit, Atlantis iv 226. 4 .—Cf. messa s.v. olc. moltaidiu de the more praiseworthy: is m. d. tri tabairt fortachtan, Ml. 84 c 13 . móo de, móite eo maior, eo maius. móo de, Wb. 2 a 8a . SCC § 10 . mou de, Ml. 53 c 13 . moaide Laws ii 404. 11 . mouite, ii 22. 1 . moaite, ii 202. 1 . mó de, Wb. 29 c 4 . mode, Thes. ii 346. 27 . bith má de eo maius erit Sg. 2 a 7 . maiti, Trip. 114. 22 . cumud móite, Laws ii 22. 17 . noco moite, iii 406. 7 f.b. ba mote, LU 121 b 33 . móti, LL 206 a 21 . PH p. 806 b . bid moti bas trén mo scél, LU 119 b 3 . nucu moiti, Laws ii 414. 2 . móide, ML 40. 9 . moide, Laws ii 88. 5 . moidi, ib. 350. 18 . YBL 158 a 46 ; 167 b 32 .—Cf. mór. nertaidiu de the stronger : nertiti, SCC § 20 . nertmairite the stronger : is nertmairite ┐ is calmaite in menma daenna, PH 4801 . óibindiu de, áibinnite the more beautiful : is áibinniti fo deich, LL 151 b 1 f.b. prapaiti the quicker : comad prapaidi noḟoirbred, Lec. 441 b 35 . sia de, siaite the longer: condib sia de, Sg. 201 b 16 . siaiti, Laws ii 216. 10 . is siaidi a anad, ib. i 282. 43 . siaide, MR 318. 17 . siauite, Laws ii 28. 18 ; 114. 5 . socomlu de, socomlaite the easier : co mbad tṡoccomlaite do Ísu marcachus do dénum, PH 4455 . soimbertu de the more easily plied: bennachais Patraic na iarnu comdar s.d. (v.l. soimberta de), Trip. 218. 21 . soirthiu de, soirthite the easier: s.d. in labrad di, &c., the easier is the pronunciation from, &c., Sg. 15 a 4 . suthnu de, suthnaiti lasting the longer Lec. 441 b 37 . tanu de, tanaite the thinner : á sémigud co mbí tanu de, Ml. 34 a 27 . tressa de, tressaite the stronger : co mbad t.d. hiress apstal do fulung tribulationum, Wb. 25 a 14 . Mid.-Ir. treisidi, TBC-LL¹ 2484 Y. trummu de, trumaite the heavier : trummute, Lism. L. ix 13 LL (trumaidi, Lism.). cach airdi bias in torad bid trumaidi a thuindseom oc toitim, YBL 167 b 34 . tromaide, AFM 1768. 19 . truimite, Acall. 5152 . uilliu de, uillite the greater : Thes. ii 2. 34 . uilliti hé in dá sreith do beth air, Laws i 138. 4 f.b. iv 34. 29 .

MOD. Suffixed to any adjective: ní folláinede madra marbh é bheith san uisge glan. Ní milsede an domblas é bheith i nárthach airgid. Níor ṁeasa do dhuine rud do ghearrfadh a sgórnach ná sgian óir. Aran gcuma gcéadna ní folláinede ┐ ní milsede ┐ ní macántaide sgéal neaṁcháidh é bheith dá innsint i ngaedhilg uasail, P. O'Leary GJ vi 110 . Other comparatives from the mod. literary period are deiside, gilide, giorraide, liaide, siaide, teoide, usaide. —But in the spoken language usually confined to a small number of adjectives. Very common are fearrde, miste, móide (q.v.), idiomatically used with the copula and the prepositions la and do. The original sense has been obscured and as a living comparative particle -de seems obsolete.

dírgid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. dírgid or dil.ie/16729

 

Forms: dírgud

v (díriuch). IGT Verbs § 54 .

I Trans.

(a) straightens, makes straight: dirgim gl. delinio, Thes. ii 42.9 . (of a house) mani dirgi-siu corop cóir nocon fil isin domun nodndírgi, FB 27 . dírghidh slighe an Tighearna, John i 23 . Fig. is amlaid dirgithir craeba coibnesa clann Adaim, BB 411a30 . dleaghar rith cum derbhtha dhíorghais gach enni, 3 C 1 9 , 159a2 . Note also: dirgit(h)er dochuir let bad contracts be straightened out (Thurn.), Bürgschaft 30 § 79 . soithfiter gunadmann dirigfer dochar, O'D. 628 ( H 3.17 467 ). Cf. however, Laws ii 130.9 cited under do-rig.

(b) directs, aims, guides: rosdirig ar ammus Conchobair directed them against, TFerbe 725 . rodírigh . . . in sleigh seimhnigh dá saighid-sium, CCath. 2039 . dírgidh bhar sleagha sealga, Duan. F. i 82 . do dhírigh Dia é chum an tobair sin, SG 3 . is ed rodirigh Dia a set in conair budh choir, YBL 297a2 . dar Dia ra-dirig cach ndáim, Ériu vii 220 . dirgset (drigseat, dirgigsit, v.ll.) in seól . . . timchell hÉrenn they directed their course, Metr. Dinds. iii 212 . do dhírigh an long ar an ngasra ngráineamhail he steered the ship against the hateful horde, Miscell. Celt. Soc. 344.25 . dīrgit a gcūrsa gusin fFrainc, Fl. Earls 10.20 . onoir . . . a dioruigter ni dochum na hiomhaighe . . . acht dochum an naoimh, Luc. Fid. 213.18 . díreóchaidh me in úrnaigh chughad, Psalms v 3 . sét na pecadh . . . dirges na hanfírianu i llocc péine, D IV 2, 57 va 11 . ba hí a ttoimdin gur uo torchur-shēt ro-dīrigh in tAthoir nemhda . . . chuca, Fl. Earls 122 . With reflex. pron.: nosdírgenn co Celtchar she makes straight for C., Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 30 § 12 ; cf. 34 § 4 .

II Intrans.

(a) becomes straight: dīrgid in crand a cēdōir, ACL iii 245 § 31 .

(b) directs its course, leads: Eufraten combuaid fodes, | Geon fothúaid dían dírges, SR 1008 . is ann diriges in drochat sin tarsna in glenna, LB 158a53 . co ro dhirighset uile . . . i frit[h]agaid Poimp cona socraidi, CCath. 5425 . ro dirigh Persaual ina n-agaid ┐ do-rat forgam . . . forsin fer, Grail 1886 . cach aen . . . rodelig ┐ rodirgestar á thortgail tindenais, MR 318.3 .

Vn. dírgud.

1 do-alla

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 do-alla or dil.ie/17178
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: do-ella, tallaid, tellaid, tellad

Also do-ella (* to-ell-, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 511 . See GOI pp. 54 - 55 ). Used in O.Ir. to supply perfective tenses of gataid steals, see GOI § 764 . Later as simple vb. tallaid, tellaid. IGT Verbs § 32 . Vn. tellad.

Takes away, steals, strips away, cuts off: gl. furari, Wb. 22b7 , Lat. Lives 30 , 54 , 79 . tallsad .i. doghoidsead, teallsadar .i. doghoidsiod, O'Cl. ma dudell ní if he has stolen aught, Wb. 22b7 (refers to furetur). do-fallta daim indara fir were taken away, ZCP xv 308 § 3 . tallsat triar indala bocc . . . in trír dusfell, Lat. Lives 54 = Trip.² 2117 . dofall G. minn óir mná Catháir, RC xv 482 = Dinds. 40 . fer rotháid is rothall, Metr. Dinds. ii 58 . téllsat echu Pátraic, Trip.² 1231 . teallsatar macdretill Temrach sria(uo)na in righ, ZCP viii 103 . With AR, FOR: ní cumcaim-se ón ém, ol tell Patraic ariut since P. hath taken it from thee, Trip.² 1920 . ? doloidsidi a arm nairi, TBC-I¹ 1600 (dolodside, LU) (for tallaid? cf. tallaidsidhe, TBC(C) 904 ). Mac Con doall a righe aire, Fianaig. 32 . mé [ro-]thall nemh ar mo chloinn (spoken by Eve), Ériu iii 148 . taldatsom a apdaine aire, Mon. Tall. 162 . doallad brethemnais ar filedhaib, Laws i 18 . inn talladh for nech a scrap taken from anyone (?), Laws iii 20.2 Comm. With DE: tiag-sa co tall a chenn dind aithiuch I will go to take his head off the churl, Ml. 58c6 . nico-tald-som dēr dia gruad `he did not stay to wipe the tear from his cheek', Mon. Tall. 153 . tall Patraic a ulchai do Fiac, Hy. ii Pref. ( Thes. ii 308 ). an bic co tall mo léni dím, LL 277a19 . tallus luag mo dúane de, Metr. Dinds. i 52 . donallathar fena do largaib cars are removed from the flanks of horses, O'Curry 737 ( H 3.18 353a ). With Ó: da-s-all úad Paris mac Priaim stole her (Helen) from him, LL 143b50 . na feranna . . . dofallsat na saerclanna uaib, BB 255a30 = tallsadar uaithib, Lec. 354b10 . With ASS: ef tallad as ria n-ess `f' was taken from (the word `fenechas') for `s' (i.e. s was substituted for f), Laws i 32.28 Comm. (= CIH ii 345.12 ). mas asinn uth tallad in lacht, is cetharda ┐ eneclann, CIH i 275.30 . gid im gid lom tailtar and, acht mas [as]in ud taladh æ [is cetharda] ┐ eneclainni; mas 'tic taladh æ is diabladh ┐ eneclann 'whether it be butter or milk which is stolen there, but if it was stolen in the udder [it is fourfold restitution] and honour-price; if it was stolen in the house it is double restitution and honour-price', Mar. Dis. 28 § 5 . dofall in claideb as a thrúaill, Ériu ii 24 . gó ┐ pecad na ndaene dorelsat a nert asin talmain, Anecd. i 75 = dorelacht, Mon. Tall. 157 . adbél-sa dia taltar in gáe as mo chind, TBC-I¹ 1300 .

do-alla céill (a ch.) de loses hope, despairs of (cf. benaid céill de): huand uair thall Noe a cheill [de] | dond ḟiuc[h] dub delaidi, SR 2557 . ó thellus mo chéll dia torachtain chugum, Aen. 622 . tallsat a céill do conach catha, CCath. 1905 . riasíu tallsadais (sic) céill dia ccabhair ó Rígh na S., Hugh Roe 266 .

do-beir

Cite this: eDIL s.v. do-beir or dil.ie/17216
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: do-ucc, do-bert, do-rat, tuicsiu, tabair, taber, tabar, taibred, tabrad, taibrem, tabram, taibrid, taibrith, tabraid, taibret, tabrat, dobiur, dodasbiur, doberim, thabur, nis-tabor, dubir, dobir, dobere, tabair, dobeir, dober, tabir, tabair, doberam, taibrem, thabrum, d-a-berid-si, doberat, doberait, fuantaibret, thabrat, doberad, dobertis, do-m-beirtis, tabratis, doberae, taibre, toibre, thobri, dumbera, taibrea, thobrea, tibri, doberum, donberaid-si, doberthi-si, tabraid, du-m-berat, dusmerat, thabrat, dubertha, doberthusa, doberad, taibred, taibreth, doberthe, dobéer, dobér-sa, tiber, thibér, tiubér, thiubar, doberae, tibéræ, dos-mbéra, thibre, tibrea, tiubrae, dobérat, thibreat, dobēraind-sea, tiobhrainn-si, tibartha-sa, tiubharta, domberad, nandatiberad, tibred, nachis-tibred, dobérmais, tibrimmis, tiubhrumais, tiurmais, do-sm-bérthe, tibertais, nis-tibritis, tiuradais, do-m-biurt, dondmbiurtsa, dobert-sa, dobirt, dobertais, dobert, dubbert, tobert, contubert, contubart, dosbertar, do-s-bertatar, tubertatar, tubartadar, dobertsat, dobreth-, dobreth, dobretha, dobrethsat, tabarr, taborthar, tabraiter, doberr, dober, do-berar, duberar, doberair, tabarr, tobarr, tabar, dobertar, tobertar, tabartar, doberthe, dobertha, tibirthi, dubertis, dobertis, doberthar, do-m-bertar, dopartar, tabarthae, tabarthe, dubertis, dobertais, dobérthar, dubérthar, tibérthar, bērtar, tibertha, tibertais, dobreth, tobreth, tubrad, tabrad, tobrad, dobretha, tabart(h)ae, tabarthi, tarti, tartat, tardatis, tart-sa, dord-sa, tartar, conas-tarddur, tarttai, durata, dorata, tarta, condarta, tharda, fris-tarddam, dorattid-si, tartaid-si, tharddaid-si, doratat, conda-tardat, condartin, condardad, tarddad, thardad, tartaitis, doratus, doratas, tharddusa, tartus, doratis, doratais, duratais, duratis, donrátais, dartais, tharddais, dorat, doratastur, tarat, tarat, condadarat, tard, doratsam, doratsamar, tartamar, daratsid-si, doratsaid, thardsaid, doratsat, doratsatar, tartsat, tardsat, conda-tarsat, tartsatar, ní tartisset, doratar, dorattar, tartar, condartar, dorataiter, ndartaiter, tarta, tartha, doratad, doradad, doratath, tartad, dardad, tardad, dorata, doratta, tarta, tuic, tuic, do-n-uc, tuc, tucaid, tuicet, dofuci, do-t-tucai, duduccai, tucait, dofuctais, conos-tuc, conda-tuc-si, conda-tucc, tucar, tuicce, tuigi, tucair, tuca, tuccas, conos-tucam, thucaind, nacha-tucad, conna-tuctais, do-n-uccus-sa, tuicais, dofucais, rothucais, tucais, do-n-uic, du-n-uic, d-a-uic, duuic, duic, tu-n-uic, tuicc, tuic, tuic, da-uc, duuc, tuc, doḟuc, domfuc-sa, doruc, rodatuc, tucastair, tugasdair, dofucsam-ni, da-b-ucsum, tucsam, tucsam, tugamar, tucsaid, tucsabair, du-nn-ucsat, dofucsat, tucsat, tucsatar, tucthar, con-ducthar, thuicter, duccatar, tuctha, ducad, tuccad, tucad, tuiced, fofuctha, tucait, do-ucci, tucu, dofuca(a)im, tuicim, do-sn-ucci, dusn-ucai, dorucai, tuicci, thuccai, tucci, tucai, tuice, do-uicim-ne, tuigmít, dofucaid, do-nd-ucet, thuccat, thucat, thuicit, tuigit, tucad, tuctais, tuicce, condid-tucce, tucca, do-nd-uccam, tucid, -tuccid, conducaid, nis-tuccin, dos-fucad, rothucad, condid-tucmis-ni, tuicfe, tucfa, dofucfa, tucfa, da-ucbaid-si, tucfait, nodafucfad, dofucébad, tucus-su, rothuic, thuiccestair, tucsid-si, do-tuicetar, tucsat, tuicset, duucthar, dohucthar, tuucthar, tucthar, tucatar, tuctar, du-n-ucthar, conducthe, tuccfither, dofuicfind, tuicti

v (* to-ber-, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 469 ), gives, places; brings, gets . The perfective forms are supplied, in the meaning gives, places , by *to-rat-, in the meaning brings, gets by *to-ucc-; in later lang. the perf. do-ucc (tuc) gradually takes the place of do-bert and do-rat and is sometimes used to gloss the two latter, cf. tard .i. tug, O'Cl. Forms of *to-rat- are, however, permissible in bardic verse, see IGT Verbs § 14 . The perfective *to-ucc- (lit. can bring ) also forms a complete paradigm without distinction of perfective and non-perfective forms, with the meaning understands (later tuicid) the vn. being 2 tabairt later replaced by tuicsiu.

Ipv. 2 s. tabair, Ml. 27c12 , 87d12 . taber, Thes. ii 250.16 . tabar, TBC-I¹ 1482(LU) . 3 s. taibred, Wb. 22b7 , 12 . tabrad, PH 6017 . 1 pl. taibrem, Wb. 13d15 . tabram, PH 3757 . 2 pl. taibrid, Wb. 16c17 . taibrith, 6a20 . tabraid, Corm. Y 323 , PH. 3 pl. taibret, TBC-I¹ 2980 . tabrat, PH 6137 , etc.

Indic. pres. 1 s. dobiur, Wb. 14a20 . dodasbiur, Anecd. ii 16 . doberim, PH 2764 , etc. ní thabur , Sg. 179a4 . nis-tabor, 204b5 . 2 s. dubir, Ml. 105d4 , 110d13 . dobir, Thes. ii 249.1 , 2 , 3 . dobere, -i, PH 1777 , etc. ní tabair , Ml. 63c13 . na tabrai, SR 848 . 3 s. dobeir, Wb. 21a13 . dober, 14b15 . TBC-I¹ 62 , 71 (LU), etc. ni tabir , Wb. 14b15 . ní tabair , Sg. 214a5 . 1 pl. doberam, Wb. 13b15 . ní taibrem , 15c9 . ní thabrum , PH 2070 . 2 pl. d-a-berid-si, Wb. 24c16 . 3 pl. doberat, Wb. 15b2 . PH 1135 . doberait, PH 2652 , etc. Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 40.10 , etc. fuantaibret, Ml. 45a3 . ni thabrat , PH 1952 . Impf. 3 s. doberad, TBC-I¹ 279 . 3 pl. dobertis, Ml. 54c30 . do-m-beirtis, 90d17 . co tabratis , PH 6290 .

Subj. pres. 2 s. doberae, Ml. 106c1 , cf. 94d4 . ni taibre , Wb. 29a22 . ni toibre , a20 . mani thobri , ZCP viii 313.4 . 3 s. dumbera, Ml. 40c21 . ceni taibrea , Ml. 93a9 . mani thobrea , Wb. 4c20 . nā tibri , SR 1659 . 1 pl. doberum, PH 5819 . 2 pl. donberaid-si, Wb. 16c9 , cf. 8d21 . doberthi-si, PH 5785 . ní tabraid , Wb. 6c1 . 3 pl. du-m-berat, Ml. 40c21 . dusmerat, Mon. Tall. 144.14 . ni thabrat , Corm. Y 1059 . Impf. 2 s. dubertha, Ml. 130d15 . ma doberthusa , Anecd. iii 30 . 3 s. doberad, Wb. 32a12 . mani taibred , Ml. 35c26 . arná taibreth , LU 11025 . 2 pl. cia doberthe , Wb. 15d8 .

Fut. 1 s. dobéer, Wb. 12c35 . dobér-sa, TBC-I¹ 185 . SR 2885 . da tiber , TBC-I¹ 2301 . ní thibér , SR 842 . nach tiubér , Imr. Brain i 67.12 . ní thiubar , Ériu i 93 . 2 s. doberae, Ml. 44a20 . in tibéræ ? 77a16 . 3 s. dos-mbéra, Wb. 13b30 . ni thibre , PH 7950 . Corm. Y 698 . ni tibrea , TBC-LL¹ 3502 . nach tiubrae , BNnÉ 309.27 . 3 pl. dobérat, Wb. 6b27 . TBC-I¹ 1133 . mani thibreat , TBC-I¹ 2980 . Condit. 1 s. dobēraind-sea, TBC-I¹ 824 . nach tiobhrainn-si , MR 284 . 2 s. co tibartha-sa , Imr. Brain i 63.15 . co tiubharta , 68.16 . 3 s. domberad, Ml. 108a5 . nandatiberad, 97d10 . na tibred , LU 3171 . nachis-tibred, Thes. ii 341.37 . 1 pl. dobérmais, Imr. Brain i 69.20 . PH 7233 . na tibrimmis , CRR 33 . ni tiubhrumais , Ériu iii 158 . nach tiurmais , Acall. 5675 . 2 pl. do-sm-bérthe, Wb. 19d24 . 3 pl. día tibertais , LU 3448 . nis-tibritis, RC iii 175.11 . co tiuradais , ZCP vi 276 .

Pret. 1 s. do-m-biurt, ZCP iv 43.4 . dondmbiurtsa, TBC-I¹ 3556 . dobert-sa, TBC-LL¹ 1893 . CCath. 1702 . 2 s. dobirt, Ml. 56a13 . dobertais, TBC-LL¹ 1105 , 1621 . 3 s. dobert, Ml. 23b10 ; 58c4 . TBC-I¹ 326 , etc. dubbert, Ardm. 18a1 ( Thes. ii 241 ). tobert, TBC-I¹ 655 . Fianaig. 24.4 . contubert, Hib. Min. 77.19 . contubart, Thes. ii 242 . 3 pl. dosbertar, Tur. 128 . do-s-bertatar, TBC-I¹ 912 (LU), 1788 . tubertatar, IT i 137.11 (LU). cu tubartadar , TBC-I¹ 3069 . dobertsat, Alex. 5 . CCath. 3255 . AFM 1172 , etc. In Mid. Ir. the passive dobreth- (see below) is somet. used to supply act., 3 s. dobreth, TBC-LL¹ 674 , 1930 , 1958 . dobretha, CRR 8 , 53 . FB § 38 . LU 10168 . TBC-I¹ 2210 , 2212 . TBC-LL¹ 101 , 468 , 655 . 3 pl. dobrethsat, TBC-LL¹ 1315 .

Pass. ipv. s. tabarr, Ml. 104b2 . na taborthar , ZCP vii 311 § 14 . pl. tabraiter, TBC-I¹ 1471 (LU). Indic. pres. s. doberr, Wb. 3c1 ; 28c4 . dober, Ml. 56b11 . do-berar, 60b19 . TBC-I¹ 1160 . duberar, Ml. 105d6 . doberair, PH 2161 . dia tabarr , Wb. 17a3 . Corm. Y 32 . ara tobarr , Wb. 12d29 . forsa tabar , Ml. 54a2 . pl. dobertar, Wb. 10d20 . tobertar, Ml. 25b6 . ni tabartar , 101d6 . Impf. s. doberthe, Ml. 115a14 . Wb. 10d16 . dobertha, Corm. Y 391 . intan na tibirthi , CCath. 1496 . pl. dubertis, Ml. 89a2 . dobertis, Tur. 110c . Corm. Y 48 . Subj. pres. s. doberthar, Wb. 13a3 . TBC-I¹ 1579 . pl. do-m-bertar, Ml. 45b5 . cia dopartar , Todd Nenn. 216.13 . Subj. impf. s. ceni tabarthae , Ml. 40d20 . trissa tabarthe , 36a1 . pl. dubertis, 84c9 . dobertais, 90a14 . Fut. s. dobérthar, Wb. 16a13 . dubérthar, Ml. 72d18 . ni tibérthar , Wb. 18b11 . pl. intan dum bērtar , Ml. 69b1 . Condit. s. dia tibertha , FB § 90 , cf. TBC-LL¹ 159 . pl. ni tibertais , Ml. 15c7 . Pret. s. dobreth, IT i 131.8 (LU); 138.15 (LU). Hy. v 85 . tobreth, IT i 130.23 (LU). hi tubrad , Hy. i 3 . co tabrad , TBC-I¹ 1637 . ni tobrad , 1536 . pl. dobretha, TBC-I¹ 3072 . TBC-LL¹ 2587 . ZCP viii 312.21 . Part. tabart(h)ae. Verbal of necess. tabarthi. Vn. 1 tabairt.

Perfective forms.

A From *to-rat-. Indic. pres. 3 s. manid tarti can give, Ml. 51b7 (see GOI p. 345 ). 3 pl. ni tartat , Thes. ii 2.32 . Impf. 3 pl. nad tardatis , Ml. 85d5 . Subj. pres. 1 s. ara tart-sa , Wb. 14d17 . meni dord-sa , Rawl. 156b20 . co tartar , Ériu v 240.129 . conas-tarddur, TBC-LL¹ 943 . 2 s. co tarttai , BNnÉ 302 § 10 . 3 s. durata, Ml. 57a13 . dorata, ZCP vi 266 § 10 . arna tarta , Wb. 11b18 . condarta, 28b31 . ni tharda , SR 2727 . 1 pl. fris-tarddam, Thes. ii 293.19 . 2 pl. dorattid-si, Wb. 16c11 . dia tartaid-si , Ml. 83b11 . ni tharddaid-si , LL 279a31 . 3 pl. acht doratat , Mon. Tall. 141.16 . conda-tardat, Ml. 131d16 . Impf. 1 s. condartin, Sg. 209b26 . 3 s. condardad, Ml. 77a7 . co tarddad , SR 2836 . muni thardad , TBC-LL¹ 4310 . 3 pl. co tartaitis , TBC-I¹ 1461 (LU).

Perf. 1 s. doratus, Wb. 8c6 . SR 1866 . doratas, Trip.² 1056 . ni tharddusa , RC iii 185 . dia tartus , Ériu vii 219.13 ( LL 209b ). 2 s. doratis, Ml. 56a15 . doratais siu, 43d18 . duratais, 56b24 . duratis, 80b2 . donrátais, SR 1756 . in dartais , SG 415.11 . ni tharddais , TBC-LL¹ 484 . 3 s. dorat, Wb. 4b10 , etc. doratastur, ZCP vii 320 . nícon tarat , Ml. 36a1 ; co tarat , SR 2193 . condadarat, TBC-I¹ 1875 (LU). dia tard , SR 2811 . 1 pl. doratsam, Wb. 13d15 . LU 2331 . doratsamar, 2333 . tartamar, ZCP viii 213.27 . 2 pl. daratsid-si, Wb. 24b21 . doratsaid, LU 2326 . ni thardsaid , 2345 . 3 pl. doratsat, Ml. 115b8 . SR 3664 . LL 256a43 . doratsatar, SR 3508 , 3401 , etc. ni tartsat , Wb. 24b20 . LL 254c23 . na tardsat , CCath. 5119 . AFM i 16.13 . conda-tarsat, Ériu iii 141 . co tartsatar , Hy. v 53 Comm. ( Thes. ii 340 ). ní tartisset, Wb. 1b17 . Pass. subj. pres. s. doratar, Rawl. 107b17 . dorattar, Anecd. ii 32 . Lism. L. vii 28 . ara tartar , Wb. 15a19 . condartar, 20c24 . pl. dorataiter, IT iii 53.3 . co ndartaiter , Trip.² 1294 . Impf. s. ara tarta , TBC-LL¹ 1547 . mani tartha , BColm. 88.14 . Perf. doratad, Wb. 4a18 . doradad, 23c16 . doratath, Sg. 7b18 . ara tartad , Ml. 90a7 . con dardad , 98b8 . forsa tardad , 80d4 . SR 6251 . pl. dorata, Ml. 54c17 . LL 282b7 . doratta, SR 6745 . nad tarta , Ml. 40a13 .

B From *to-ucc- (in meaning brings ): Ipv. 2 s. tuic, Tec. Corm. § 18 . na tuic , Wb. 10a30 . do-n-uc, ZCP iv 42.16 ( TBFr. 283 ). tuc, TBC-I¹ 1333 , 2287 , etc. 2 pl. tucaid, LU 8197 . TBC-I¹ 323 . 3 pl. tuicet, LU 7873 ( BDD 145 ). See ZCP xxiv 123 - 4 . Indic. pres. 2 s. dofuci, LU 1558 . do-t-tucai, IT i 208.21 . duduccai, Ml. 27d23 (see, however, GOI § 678 ). 3 pl. tucait, IT i 226.30 (LU). Impf. 3 pl. dofuctais, SR 4524 . Subj. pres. 1 s. conos-tuc, SR 1665 . conda-tuc-si, TBC-I¹ 1589 . conda-tucc, 464 . tucar, Imr. Brain i 67.23 . 2 s. dia tuicce , TBC-I¹ 1580 (LU) = tuigi (YBL). da tucair , ZCP vi 272 § 7 . 3 s. dia tuca , TBC-I¹ 1589 . rel. tuccas, SR 2384 . 1 pl. conos-tucam, SR 3979 . Impf. 1 s. mani thucaind , TBC-I¹ 798 . 3 s. nacha-tucad, Ml. 125b7 . 3 pl. conna-tuctais, SR 5651 . Perf. 1 s. do-n-uccus-sa, Wb. 30a11 . 2 s. tuicais, Ml. 56a13 . dofucais, TBC-I¹ 3385 . rothucais, Ériu iv 138.18 . tucais, ZCP viii 109.24 . 3 s. amal do-n-uic , Wb. 10d37 . Ml. 16b12 . du-n-uic, d-a-uic, Ml. 118b6 . duuic, 84c24 . duic, 25d18 . tu-n-uic, 51c26 . tuicc, 98c11 . tuic, 30c5 , etc., Wb. 21d1 . ni tuic , Wb. 23a10 . Ml. 51d2 . da-uc, Ml. 38c1 . duuc, 36c1 . tuc, 40c17 . Wb. 24b25 . doḟuc, SR 7296 , cf. 4426 , 5179 , etc. domfuc-sa, Ériu iv 140.3 . ? doruc, ZCP vi 28.18 . rodatuc, TBC-I¹ 3584 . tucastair, TBC-I¹ 2495 . tugasdair, Todd Nenn. 32.14 . 1 pl. dofucsam-ni, RC iii 185 (LL). da-b-ucsum, Lism. L. 3825 . tucsam, SR 6319 . ni tucsam , Wb. 29b14 . tugamar, Ériu i 22.105 . 2 pl. tucsaid, TBC-I¹ 1320 (LU). tucsabair, 2492 (YBL). 3 pl. du-nn-ucsat, Ml. 92d1 . dofucsat, SR 5041 . tucsat, 1360 . TBC-I¹ 42 . tucsatar, Metr. Dinds. ii 100.5 , etc. Pass. indic. pres. s. ni tucthar , Wb. 27d22 . Subj. pres. s. con-ducthar, Sg. 200b13 . mani thuicter , TBC-I¹ 1239 . pl. in duccatar , Wb. 9b19 . Impf. s. co tuctha , SR 6567 . TBC-I¹ 1331 . Perf. s. ducad, Ml. 56c11 . tuccad, Wb. 24b26 ; 28a3 . tucad, Sg. 202b8 . SR 3289 , etc.; dia tuiced , Wb. 12b12 . pl. fofuctha, SR 3263 . tucait, CRR 13 , TBC-LL¹ 65 etc.

Vn. 1 tabairt.

Forms of do-ucci understands. Indic. pres. 1 s. hi tucu , Thes. ii 293.25 . dofuca(a)im, PH 1792 . tuicim, 1779 , etc. 3 s. do-sn-ucci, Wb. 22c1 . dusn-ucai, Ml. 42c12 . ? dorucai, SR 7983 . tuicci, Wb. 12c26 . air thuccai , Ml. 42c8 . ni tucci , Wb. 12d6 . ní tucai , Ml. 42c7 . tuice, PH 2369 . 1 pl. do-uicim-ne, PH 750 . tuigmít, ib. 2 pl. dofucaid, SR 7984 . 3 pl. do-nd-ucet, Wb. 8a14 . ní thuccat , 12c20 . ní thucat , 15a34 . thuicit, PH 7300 . tuigit, 7738 . Impf. 3 s. cona tucad , SR 2763 . 3 pl. tuctais, Ml. 125d13 . Subj. pres. 2 s. ara tuicce , Wb. 28d7 . condid-tucce, 30a19 . 3 s. ara tucca , 27b27 . 1 pl. do-nd-uccam, 24a22 . 2 pl. ara tucid , 32a3 . -tuccid, 21c11 . conducaid, 21a8 . Impf. 1 s. nis-tuccin, Wb. 12d25 . 3 s. dos-fucad, SR 3228 . arna rothucad , Trip. 396 . 1 pl. condid-tucmis-ni, Wb. 20d17 . Fut. 2 s. tuicfe, PH 2037 . 3 s. tucfa, Wb. 12d12 . dofucfa, RC xxv 248 . ní tucfa , Wb. 12d3 . 2 pl. da-ucbaid-si, Wb. 21c12 . 3 pl. tucfait, RC xxv 248 . Condit. 3 s. nodafucfad, RC xx 134 = dofucébad, LU 386 (ACC). Perf. 1 s. ní tucus-su , Ml. 91c1 . 3 s. rothuic, PH 4437 . nír thuiccestair , BNnÉ 323 § 33 . 2 pl. ní tucsid-si , Wb. 12a3 . 3 pl. do-tuicetar, BCC 127 . ni tucsat , Wb. 15a32 . nad tuicset , 15a29 .

Pass. indic. pres. s. duucthar, Ml. 51c24 ; 55a10 . dohucthar, Sg. 210a4 . tuucthar, 42c2 . ní tucthar , Wb. 12c46 . pl. ní tucatar , Wb. 12c43 . nad tuctar , Ml. 112d7 . Subj. pres. s. du-n-ucthar, Ml. 79d2 . Impf. s. conducthe, Ml. 51d1 . Fut. s. ni tuccfither , Wb. 8a5 . IGT Verbs § 71 .

Vn. 2 tabairt.

I

(a) gives , with DO of recipient (somet. with dat. inf. pron.); glosses Lat. dare, Ml. 25b12 , Sg. 163a3 , 209b26 . ní cuinginn is doberainn, Tec. Corm. § 7 . ni tobair ní i n-aiscid he never gives anything as a gift, Lec. 460c47 . ba ferr lin dobertha oldaas a bith tarngire I had rather it were given than constantly promised, Mór M. 262 . cen co tucaind ar áis, doberaind ar écin, TBC-LL¹ 150 , cf. 132 . duine is mō dobered d'etach ┐ d'innmus i nErind, RC xvii 407 . más for óin doratadh in fearann if the land has been let for hire, Laws iv 132 Comm. doberae maith tar æsi n-uilc, Ml. 106c1 . doronus dóibh dua[i]n mbinn mbairdne . . . ni tardad dúas dar a héisi, ACL iii 296 . dobēr . . . otha mo glūn co m'imlinn I will give my love, TE § 10 . dotberae eislis he will treat thee with contempt, Mon. Tall. 142 (for constr. see KZ xlviii 48 ). donbert ingantas mór méd a delba his size inspired us with great wonder, Ériu iv 138 . nicon fail ina sealba ní nā tibre dam, Corm. Y 698 . cia chondesin far súli, dosmbérthe dom, Wb. 19d24 . doradsad mōr do maith do they had shown him much kindness, TBC-I¹ 3542 . a n-ōl meda dí dobreth (.i. tucad), Hy. v 85 . dobeir pōic di gives her a kiss, RC xxiv 198 . duber-som ainm claidib donaib briathraib he gives the name of sword, Ml. 77a2 , cf. Sg. 156b6 , Wb. 20c24 . doratsat fir nÓlnécmacht in riastartha do anmm do C[h]oinc[h]ulaind gave the name . . . to C., TBC-I¹ 1455 . ni tardsad cís nā cāin dōib, Todd Nenn. 72 . gach manach nach tiubrae | a edbairt don ecclais, BNnÉ 309 . dobēra in prímfáidh nemh d'anmain gach aoin, Duan. F. i 10 . ni tardai do rūn do mnāi tell not thy secret to a woman, Anecd. v 9 . ba Patric dubert baithis du C. who baptized C., Ardm. 18b1 ( Thes. ii 242 ). doratta duit . . . do guide thy prayers are granted, Thes. ii 318 ( Hy. ii 50 Comm. ). dobert R. altugudh buidi do Dia, BS 4 . dorattar doibh an bennacht, Anecd. ii 32 . go nach dtiobhraidh aon neach ceannas dá chéile not one will yield supremacy to (i.e. come short of) another, ML 6 . do Dia doberat edil offer prayers, Corm. Y 513 . cia freacra dobērad an t-eicsine dō, 825 . dind fortacht durat Dia do, Ml. 40b8 . nach tiobhraidh foidhide do neach will not show patience, TSh. 9038 . cid ara tarat in bēist . . . onoir do Brigit, Hy. iv Pref. dobēr-sa do breath fēn duid I will give thee thy own award, Lec. 156c38 . úar na tabrai rēir d'Adam thou dost not obey, SR 848 . cid bé ainder mná dobéra toil don fhior gráid shall love, SG 47 . cia doberad eolus dam-sa co Mag R.? who would guide me, MR 276 . dorad failti do ḟileadaib welcomed, Lec. 286b5 . ní tart termann do Themraig gave not protection, Metr. Dinds. i 26 . ni tharad (tharat, LU) menmain do thuus na conaire paid no heed, TBC-I¹ 233 . nā tabhair h'aire doib heed them not, BCC 190 . cidh tuc duit-si mh'aithne-si? how dost thou know me?, BS 138 . mor . . . in dimiad tuc mac mo mathar damsa, Lec. 613b6 . deargruathar Tuathail . . . sochaidi da tuc imned, 590a10 . dobertsat a milid frit[h]bert amnus dosum, CCath. 3255 . amail . . . na tard tograim nā toruighecht do mhacaibh Israel did not give chase to, Leb. Gab.(i) 200 . ni thucsat claonadh don scēl they did not distort the affair, Fl. Earls 62 . dobert buille don c[h]ip struck, Corm. Y 690 . dobertsad frais d'[ḟ]ōidib doib hurled at them, Lec. 617a24 . tucsadar dāil bāis don rig, 603a14 . tucsat d'Assal écomnart, Metr. Dinds. iii 280 . doratsatar féin dond ríg | a ndoíri gave themselves up as slaves, SR 3405 . thug iad féin do chraosól gave themselves up to drink, Eochairsg. 3 . dobreth ingen Fhoraind dó was given to him (in marriage), Todd Nenn. 230.1 . ni rag-sa, inge mad doberthar Findabair dam, TBC-I¹ 1244 . With vn. or subord. clause as obj.: tucsamar dó . . . labrad remonn we have yielded him (the right) of speaking before us, Ériu iv 108 . tuc do cach thúaith beith cen síd, Imr. Brain ii 301 . tabair do na dóinib cu rafhógnat daitt, PH 7914 . surrenders, gives up: co tucsat in cathraig, ZCP i 398 . tucsatt an barda an baile, AFM v 1846 . In extended sense: cid dobir na cōic seōtu do eneclann in boairech? what causes?, Laws iv 308 Comm. itchonnarc-sa fén hi . . . ┐ dobēr co follus duib-si hi I will make it plain (cause it to be plain), PH 100 . tuc in péist fiacail do (i.e. bit him), SG 252 . tuccadh droch-cuit d'Ua R. don mhígníomh sin a share in this misdeed was ascribed to O'R., AFM v 1826 . d.¤ teist: combad sissi doberad teist dimsa who should bear witness of me, Wb. 18a3 , cf. 15d8 (but: dobiur teist n-airi, 14a20 , cf. 28b31 ). d.¤ cath, etc. gives battle: dobéraind-sea cath do Choncobair, LL 254a22 . tobert tress ndó, Fianaig. 24 . tucatar in gleo . . . dá chéile, SG 271 . doberar in cath i ndorus ind lis, Anecd. v 15 . buadach in tres tucsabair, SG 37 . By analogy: is na flaith tucad in Tāin, Lec. 363b29 . conad impi tucad Tain Bo Fliguis, 387a38 . Cf. further: thugadar dóibh a Fán . . . gur romhuidh ar Ghallaibh they gave battle to them (cath omitted?), Ériu i 78 . d.¤ grád, etc. DO: ni taibrem seirc donaib rétaib frecndaircib, Wb. 15c19 . mairg dobeir seirc do duni, SCC 44 ( IT i 224 ). dorat Ossin gradh mór dind ingin, RC xiii 9 . co tabraitis na lenaim fuath di used to hate her, SG ii 457 . d.¤ . . . do (dia) aire, etc. takes heed: ni thartsat dia n-airi a n-ebairt in drui, LL 254a23 . is tabartha do airi indus in cheneoil the character . . . must be observed, TBC-I¹ 327 . tren doratus do menmain, SR 1866 , cf. 1945 . ní tarat F. do mod sain paid no heed to that, SG 405 . a ben trebar dos-beir mod his prudent wife is astonished, ScM. 3 (see 1 moth and ZCP xxii 29 ). dobeir di óid aní sìn he gives heed to, LU 9826 ( PRIA xix 532 ). an tan tucsat dia n-uidh e when they noticed it, AFM vi 1898 . Saúl ná tabair d'eislis do not overlook S., SR 6110 (see éislis). do thuatha fadéin tuc dot réir ar tús, KMMisc. 260 . Cf. phrases d.¤ aire, menmain, réir do quoted above. Cf. thug sé a dhaoine don chloidhiomh put . . . to the sword, Psalms lxxviii 62 .

(b) do-beir fri = d.¤ do; orig. FRI is used to introduce object or final purpose of action, cf. ind lēire doratsam fri sechim gníme, Wb. 13d15 ; ni fris tarddam ar n-athius, SP ii 3 ( Thes. ii 293 ); in ingen . . . nochostibrea re cétluth, TBC-LL¹ 3502 . Later indicating recipient: cia risa tibre theidm? to whom wilt thou deal ruin?, RC xx 12 . bean fris tabar coibche . . . ┐ fer dobeir coibche mor fri baidsig, Laws iv 56 ( Stud. in E. Ir. Law 116 ). dobert-som cairdi friu-som granted them a truce, TBC-I¹ 2899 . dobretha ratha fri Laigniu, LU 9797 . a ratha dorat fri Laigin . . . co tart-som gréin ┐ esca friu, MacCarthy 396 . doberim bríathar ris, Fianaig. 82 (see below (j)). dobreth a fír fer fris he was given fair play, Ériu iii 137 . co tartar glinne ┐ enighe frinn, TTr.² 1803 . dobheirim buidheachas re Dia, Donlevy 434 . trom, trén . . . fris tibhre a fhercc, BNnÉ 35 . The follg. might equally be referred to II: doratad crích fri Mumain, Metr. Dinds. iii 202 . dobert drumain di fri cech cóiced he assigned a ridge of it to every province, Ériu iv 152 .

(c) dobeir (ní) ar gives in exchange for, pays for: amal bid lōg mór dubertha erru, Ml. 130d15 . tuc ar Ioseph . . . trichait leth n-unga n-argait, SR 3151 . is ed lóg doberar ar sáerad in domnaig, Ériu ii 196 . nitad tabartha bui duit ar dartaib thou must not give thy cows for strippers, TBC-I¹ 2856 . dorattsat a milettacht ar miodhlachas exchanged their warlike spirit for cowardice, AFM vi 2298 .

(c 2) do-beir ar makes for, attacks : tuc cóic droch-bachlacha duba | ar tairrsech mo thigi 'five bad malevolent churls made for the threshold of my house' Celtica xxv 23 § 3 .

(d) dobeir (ní) i n-, id. (with notion of compensation or retribution): dobértar dá boin 'sa mboin ┐ dá cháirigh 'sa gcáeirig two cows shall be given for one, Fianaig. 72 . is í eraic doradad ind, Corm. Y 690 . inní doberar isin ní fogeilus . . . what is given for that which (the animal) consumes, Laws i 270 Comm.

(e) do-beir uad gives, gives away ; in Mod. Ir. ó with the reflex. pron. is used when the recipient is not expressed; in older lang. somet. accompanies DO and recipient, e.g. dorat Ianothán . . . huad a heirriud do Dauid, SR 5933 ; tabraid uaib airmitiu glan | dom chomdeilb-si, 1823 , 2881 . dorad Ioseph aichni uad orrtha, YBL 64a45 . dobered huadi-si imchomrac na mac bethad, Mon. Tall. 150 . tabhair cúntas do ghabháltais féin uait, TSh. 229 . dobheirit imat almsan uaidibh, Fl. Earls 100 . an tan mhallaighthear sinn, do bheirmaoid ar mbeannachd uáinn, 1 Corinth. iv 12 .

(f) d.¤ immach gives out, gives away, dispenses: int aenmacc ríg . . . is mō fuair ┐ tuc amach, ZCP viii 111 . nech thinóilfios ó fheraib Eirenn immuig 'na tibra-sum immach, SG 400 . cion do chur i nDruim Lethan | do rioghaibh . . . ni thiubar amach go brath I will never concede, BNnÉ 288 . in éiricc dobéra duine amach, Laws i 76 Comm. dā nōi [mbliadna] dorat smacht amach exercised sway, Lec. 44b40 . dlegur an diet do tabhairt amach nisa mó (= alimenta copiosiora sunt exhibenda), 24 P 3, 73.8 .

(g) Of an author cites, adduces: ní tabair desimrechta hic , Sg. 214a5 . tobertar desmrechta . . . dia rēlad, Ml. 25b6 . is do thucad exemplum for this an example has been cited, Sg. 77b5 . in testimni donucsom riam, Tur. 39 ( Thes. i 486 ). ni tucsam dind lín-sin | acht ríga na sluag-sin we have mentioned only the kings, Fél. Ep. 31 . húare nad tucus acht aní rupu thascide I have set down [in my book] only what was necessary, Thes. ii 225 . dobir in brethem cosmailius don chaingin ima fuiglither cites a parallel case, Corm. Y 611 . it mathi na dūla dorata and the elements which have been mentioned, LL 282b7 . ? dobheirid sgrioptúir . . . dá áitiughadh they quote Scripture to prove it, Eochairsg. 107 .

(h) yields, produces:? caera dona caeraib dobert trefuilngid fora craeb, RC xv 419.19 . nicopé lán-torath dobéra, ZCP xi 94 . ionnus go dtiubhradh sibh toradh, John xv 16 .

(i) utters, pronounces (oft. folld. by ar (ós) aird): dobert a srém caurad asa brágit, TBC-I¹ 1781 . tug A. a ossnam ass, TE 7 (Eg.). dobeir a mairg eisti she laments, SG 254 . dorad a guth n-ard bur aird, ZCP viii 553 . na gáre dosbertatár ar aird, TBC-I¹ 1783 . tugsat gáire . . . ós aird, Fianaig. 88 . doberat nāi ngrecha . . . os ard, RC xiii 6 . go ttug G. osnach éccomhluinn ós áird, ML 138 . dusrat gach aon scret ┐ eigem . . . os aird, Fl. Earls 140 . ag tabhairt a dhocra fein os aird, BS 90 . In absol. constr. (obj. being the statement follg.): imtusa na nGrec doberar os aird it is reported, TTebe 1714 . iomthusa Eoghain, dobhearar ós áird, ML 116 . dāla mac Milead immorro, dobearar os aird . . . dobrisidur cath, etc., Lec. 568a17 . a thabhairt ar aird cia dorinne, IGT Introd. § 1 . cach ní . . . na tuc ar aird which he had not made known, Laws i 208 Comm. Cf. na leabhair sin . . . tuigidh ar aird ma táid libh produce them if you have them (?), Content. xviii 31 .

(j) d.¤ bréthir (luge, etc.) promises, (swears): is andsin dorad Fergus in lugu-sa, TBC-I¹ 3546 . doberim mo breithir . . . conad taesca, etc., RC xxiv 198 . is mór in briathar-sa dobheir an laech that is a mighty vow the warrior makes, CF 139 . dorat a minna took his oath, Fl. Earls 132 . dorat Dauid a theist . . . nā roaentaigset fria mnai swore, YBL 297a33 (cf. CCath. 6154 : dobertis testa an talman do lucht a ḟiadnaisiu they would call the earth to witness). With transference of obj. to thing sworn by: nā salaig ainm do Dia .i. nā tabair d'éthech he do not swear falsely by him, PH 7626 . ná tabhair ainm Dé gan fath, Ó Héodhusa 125 . tabhair an Céolán nár ghoid tu an chulaigh swear by the `Ceolan' (name of a bell), Ériu v 98 . dobhér dhó . . . grian ┐ easga, ML 104 (cf. exx. quoted under (b) above). acht cheana tuigim-se na dei nar-ua cedughud dom vadein I swear by the gods, TTebe 2031 . ná tabhraidh neamh . . . ná tabhraidh an talamh swear not by heaven . . . by earth, Matthew v 34 , 35 ; xxiii 6 . With transference of obj. to statement sworn: tucc E. dá bhréithir . . . nach béardaois, etc. E. pledged his word, ML 134 . doberim dom bréthir ris, Fianaig. 78 . dobermáit dár [mb]reithir, SG 241 . dobeirim fám' breither . . . go ndigeolainn, MR 278 . tugas féin fóm' bréithir nach diongnainn . . ., ML 114 .

(k) d.¤ bréic, etc. imm deceives: na taibred cách úaib bréic imm alaile, Wb. 27b12 . bréc dorat in ben imond the woman has deceived us, IT i 132 . ní tartat sensus breíc im anmin the senses cannot deceive, Acr. 5d5 ( Thes. ii 2 ). na comarthadha na tardsat breicc immum riam, CCath. 5119 . co tartaitis ceilc immon slóg, TBC-I¹ 1461 . dobera muin n-immi he will be taken in, IT i 144 . See also s.v. 3 muin and muinbech. Different constr. in TBC-I¹ 1595 ( LU 6067 ): dober (leg. doberr) brēc imon n-ingin who is beguiled about the girl (?).

(l) d.¤ agaid (cúl, druim, etc.) turns: nach fuil nech dobera a agid formsa who will face me, CRR 44 . dorat a agaid fri muindtir neime, BColm. 70 . ná tabair cúl dot chétmhóid turn not your back on your first vow, O'Gr. Cat. 402 . nach tug cúl re béim a bíodhbhadh, Ó Bruad. ii 264 . tuc a druim re grian do ┐ a bél a n-airde, CF 358 . nā tabrad a druim fria Ríg, BColm. 100 . na tabair lāim frim do not resist me, SR 3182 . doberat a lām fri hEtail they skirt the coast of Italy, Aen. 137 . dorad a láimh ndeis re dúnadh righ he left the fortress . . . on his right, BS 100 . contardad tóeb fri muir keeping along the sea, Fianaig. 36 . óc in mac . . . dober bond ri Banba ṁbind `who sets foot on Banba's soil', Ériu vii 224 . ní thard troig teichidh ré n-uathad ná ré sochaide he never fled, SG ii 487 . dobeir tóib fri (do) trusts: fri corpthadid doberat Iudai tóib, Wb. 15b2 . ná tabair toeb fri Saul, SR 5956 . is trén an tigerna | rise-tabram taobh, ZCP viii 203 . See taeb. dobeir láim ar (fo) takes in hand, sets about: thug C. lámh ar imtheacht, ITS i 140 . nistibrea liaig laim fom leiges-sa, PH 423 . mór in feidm fa tucais laim, MR 202 . olc in gnímh fa tucus laimh, ZCP x 415 . Note also: tucsat lámh co foiréignech inn they laid hands on him, SG 30 .

(m) With expressions of time spends: taréis a n-aimsire do thabairt dona hAlbanachuibh after the Albanachs had completed their term of service, ALC ii 406 . tucatar in chétsel don oidche re hól . . . tucatar in tres shel re suan, SG 268 . . . . iarla ná tug bliadhain dá shaogal acht ag snoidhe a chnám, etc., O'Gr. Cat. 565 . gearr an seal thugsad fa chion, Content. v 106 . In later lang. folld. by ass: tucsat as in oidhchi-sin co himsnímach, Fianaig. 52 . dá fheabhas dobhéara duine a bheatha as, TSh. 33 .

(n) With various other nouns: i maigin hi tabair th'úal (= ubi mingis), Thes. ii 248 . dobeir [an gerrán] a mún ann, SG ii 484 . dobérat huili a coibsena will make confession, Wb. 6b27 . co tarat cach díb a chobais dia cēle, Hy. v 33 Comm. ( Thes. ii 335 ). is ris doberead a comairli with him he used to take counsel, Ériu v 236 . dobēram comairli fair-sin we will take counsel on that matter, RC viii 152 . acht int hé na tibri cert who does not deal fairly, SR 1659 . senad sruithi . . . dofuctais recht is canóin who used to deliver (promulgate), 4524 . fer dobered mór ndeg-breth, Metr. Dinds. iii 36 . na hécóire dobertha i taoib araile díob the foul play that was being practised towards, SG 325 . tucsat a bfeidm i n-einḟeacht `made their attack', MR 272 . ? doradadh sin in gnim do geallus doib the dead . . . has been accomplished, ZCP x 303 . o dorat Mártain ní i ḟertaib when M. had done something in the way of miracles (?), RC iii 392 = Lat. Lives 92 . tuc airrdhe na croiche, 94 (perh. taris is understood). a chēim co imthréith ni thard never took a feeble step, LL 140b50 . nach tug céim ar gcúl i ngroidghleo, Ó Bruad. ii 52 . ba hé luas ind ērma do-n-ucsad iar mBregaib the course they made, TBC-I¹ 675 . tuc se leim assan luing, BCC 195 . tucsat a rith robalc | in chonart the hound-pack bore its impetuous course, Metr. Dinds. iii 408 . ní roan don ruathar sin tucustair, Ériu v 242 . tucsat na siabra side made an onset, Metr. Dinds. ii 66 , cf. AFM vi 2114 . rathaigis in slog indas in toichime dombert (i.e. noticed his gait), TBC-I¹ 2939 . tugastair tulgad don mhanaois gave a thrust of the spear, ML 88 . tuccsat a ttaisbenadh fein don dá tighearna sin showed themselves to those two lords, AFM vi 2080 . mairg mathair dorad m' idhna who suffered birth pangs for me, CF 97 . intan dorata na etarnaidi ara chinn ó Loegaire when the ambuscades were laid for him, Hy. vii Pref . ( Thes. ii 354 ). ní tuc urcor n-imraill riam, Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 32 . dobir Colmán . . . tí da bachaill makes a circle with his staff, BColm. 62 .

(o) causes, brings about, effects: cid dober th' orfailtius? CRR 18 . fer . . . rodatuc for longes who caused your exile (?), TBC-I¹ 3584 . ní heasbaidh eoluis . . . tug don choirneach mo chrostáil that caused the tonsured friar to censure me, Ó Bruad. ii 208 . tuc mh'eg it has caused my death, BS 26 . súaill nach ttuc mh'oididh, 28 . iarfaidh Dia fort gach aon tucais a malairt (but perh. = i m-malairt?), RC xxxiv 312 . dorat imarbaigh hi tig Guaire, Ériu v 26 . doratsat creidemain gur uo firbriathra . . . gach ar chan in senóir `these showed that', Fl. Earls 128 . dorad Conn sneachta mór tre draoidheacht, Keat. i 116 . a cumuilt don cend ┐ dobeir in folt it promotes the growth of the hair, 24 B 3, 97.3 . Freq. in pass. in sense of occurred: Finachta .i. snechta fína thucad ina ḟlaithius, Lec. 445b9 . noco tucad cith cruaid clochshneachta, MR 236 . tuccadh ár Laighen, 110 . Folld. by vn. phrase or subord. clause: gorab e secrān eagna tuc an baramail sin da tabairt, Ir. Astr. Tr. 30 . cred dober gan comlann éinfir d'ḟagail do?, CF 449 . dober sin nech gan beth dub nā gel, 24 B 3, 103.7 . fiarfaigid Ipocras cad dober gurob faidi an aimser, etc. asks why the time is longer, 23 P 10, 17a30 .

(p) Folld. by adj. or equivalent as complement of pred. makes, renders, causes to be: dosrat inna ligu laid them low, Hy. ii 62 Comm. fer . . . | dober in cosmail cach leirg who renders every slope the same (?), TBC-I¹ 71 . cid donrat samlaid? what has made him so?, CRR 1 , 2 . ri dosrat . . . indara huair blāith . . ., ind uair aili ainbthechae who has made them (the winds) at one time calm, at another tempestuous, SR 93 . dobheir mé duilbhir doirbh, Ériu i 95 . Clann Morna fa líg 's fa lecht | tugais comlomm thou hast brought to bareness, 16 . cid dobeir gan mnái tú?, Ériu iii 152 . domrat Dia cen derbráthair, SG 58 . tug teinn tréith mé, O'Gr. Cat. 527 . intan tucad máthair í when she conceived, SG 391 . dobeir deghdatha í gives it a good colour (the face), O'Gr. Cat. 191 . tug sé minlinnte ina muir, 451 . don tréad tug mo rádh bréagach who have given the lie to my word, Ó Bruad. iii 142 .

II Puts, places, sets: co tarat il-láim na cumaile put it into the c.'s hand, Hy. v 72 Comm. dobertatar in lucuirp luibe do-som ina cluasa(ib) `gave him herbs (to put) in his ears' (put herbs in his ears?), Ériu xvi 38 § 4 . tucad a tosuch fo diu[d] its beginning has been put at the end, Sg. 202b8 . doridne Dia in talam ┐ tuc muir ina thimchell, Lec. 527b12 . dorat in cloidem triasin mbrat ran the sword through the cloak, RC ii 388 . doberait a tri sligi trit, Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 40 . tugsat Saxain sceana eturra ┐ a m-maelana hid knives in the soles of their shoes, Todd Nenn. 102 .

Frequent with prepp.

(a) with FO: tarat a bragait fon cungai (of a horse), Hy. v 55 Comm. ( Thes. ii 341 ). ? maccán sē mbliadnae déac intan dobreth fo déraib, ii 3 ( 308 ). loscset dún Cláre . . . tucsat fo thenid etrocht, LL 27b9 . rí dosrat fo thalman tói, Metr. Dinds. ii 40 . dosmbéra fo chumachta in maicc, Wb. 13a30 . ni hed domthabair fo grād which confers dignity on me, SR 3301 . dorad iathu Erenn . . . fo smacht flaithiusa Muman, RC xxiv 186 . dosfug fo baithis ┐ creidim, Todd Nenn. 78 . dosrat fo chlaidiub, SR 4148 . mór do ros-gaibh ban mbáidhe | doradus fo eccaoine have I made weep, BS 130 . ni fuath . . . tug fúm aigneadh athraightheach `that has given me a discontented mind', KMMisc. 242.15 . dorat Dia fo a menmain had inspired them to do it, SR 3704 . dorat Duid bindius foaib (of psalms), Hib. Min. 156 . tucadar dá chapall . . . futha mounted two mares, Imr. Brain i 68 . dobir a anail fóithib, Trip.² 597 . mairg fa ttabhraid mna menma on whom women set their fancy, BS 112 . d.¤ fo dera, see fo-fera.

(b) With FOR (and accus.)

(i) of local relations: intan dobered nech a mēr for a ētan, Corm. Y 48 . roradsat T.D.D. temheal forsan gréin, BB 32a52 . fri hōl . . . dobertis na lestair-si forsna tibradaib, Corm. Y 48 . Eremon fēn dorad fōt furri buried her, Lec. 569a33 . co tarat a tech forthu knocked down the house upon them, Ériu v 212 . tucsat a curach fursan muir, KMMisc. 322 . co tarat fein teinid fair set fire to it, Anecd. iii 34 . doberthar F. for a deisreth let F. be placed on his right, TBC-I¹ 1579 . doratad cumrech forru they were put in bonds, Hy. iv Pref . ( Thes. ii 323 ). dorigni tech ┐ ní tardad (thárrad, v.l.) simin tuga fair, Trip.² 1816 . tabraid-si ar bur menmain bear in mind, CCath. 5142 .

(ii) With vnn. etc.: tucad for altruim he was put out in fosterage, SG 391 . far ṅDia do forfuc for brath your God has betrayed you, SR 4679 . tuccastair an baile for a cumus placed . . . in his power, BNnÉ 264 . dobert a máthair Corc ar faesum na hamaidi placed C. under the protection of, Lec. 443a32 . cidh rottuc ar gealtacht thú? what has driven thee mad?, BS 102 . co ttucsat misi ar fáoineal ┐ ar foluamhuin, ib. cenco tucad grian for rith cose though the sun was not yet started on its course, Lec. 527b4 . doratad fort sheilb it has been given into thy possession, PRIA xix 546 ( LL 147a 9 ).

(iii) In sense lays upon, confers on, imposes on, inflicts on (both in good and bad sense); in Mid. Ir. often taking the place of an O.Ir. construction with DO: is airi sin doratad foir a n-ainmm sin, Sg. 31a6 (doratad dó is the usual O.Ir. construction). dobretha ainm fair o anmum in tsrotha, RC vi 177 . parrthus talmhaidi doberta for an n-istadh sin, ZCP i 252 . ni taibre grad for nech do not ordain, Wb. 29a22 . co tarda grád fair, 'until he ordains him [king]' Trip. 2303 , PBA lxviii 128 . dobēr indus fair I will reconnoitre it (a route), TBC-I¹ 378 . ordd abgitir dorat forsna consona, Sg. 23b5 . isí roinn tucsat fair the division they made of it, D IV 2, 77 rb 9 . is mait[h] int anocul tuc for na heocha it is well he has spared the horses, Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 36 . go ttarad D. aithne fair recognized him, BS 16 . doberat adrad Dé foirn worship us as Gods, PH 2060 . dobeir barr for sluagu `puts a top on' (i.e. forms a climax, crowns), Fél. Nov. 30 , cf. Mar. 31 . ara tardda bendacht for anmain in truagáin, Thes. ii 257 . arin altrom dobertais[s]iu form-sa, ZCP viii 553 . dober-sa fortacht fair, TTebe 1918 . combad iarsin ḟrecra doberad-si for Meidb, TBC-I¹ 279 . ní thug-san iomagallamh air did not address him, RC xxix 116 . doratsat impidi fair, FB § 27 . ina hetarguíde doberait na nóib fair, PH 6386 . nicon tibre etech form he will not refuse me, Corm. Y 698 . ar son na héra tucais fair, SG 28 . gach tenga . . . forsa tardadh rath, Ériu iv 238 . SR 7143 . rí dorat sobarthain sláin | for ciniud n-amra nAbráim, 7433 . cia ar a ttiobhra [Críost] breath?, Parrth. Anma 93 = Luc. Fid. 49 . dobertis cech n-olc form, Ml. 54c30 , cf. 89a2 . dorat brón for sochaide, Fianaig. 66 . tucatar . . . buaidred ar buidhnibh, 90 . ar ná tucca nech crith fort, Tec. Corm. 46 . ni tarda tusliud form may it not cause me to stumble, Hy. vi 12 Comm. ( Thes. ii 352 ). co tardta bricht suain fair, Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 28 . rí fors tardad gūforgall, SR 7752 . tabraidh in adhaidh doberdáiss orainn orra fein, Expugn. Hib. 17 . dobertsad ár adhbhal forra, AFM 1172 . tuc bleith mulind forthu, CRR 25 . ní tuc laech dibh-sin guin air, CF 789 , cf. 129 . ní tabur a chin ar nech blame does not accrue to anyone, Ériu v 26 . tobert a chin forsin fer he charged the man . . . with the injury, Laws iv 178 Comm. ní tharda fornn . . . digail seirb, SR 2727 . ni tarda dínsium for a n-abraim-si do not despise what I say, CF p. 89 . tucsat esbaid aonmeic (sic leg.) ort, a Dé they deprived Thee of Thy only Son, ACL iii 243 . iarsin fingail doratsat for sóerchlandaib Erenn, ZCP xi 63 n. 10 . dobērthar in mor-martra ann for sil Adaim, SR 8179 . ná tabhairthear éigion fair, BNnÉ 28 . dorat forrán for Tamár forced, SR 6710 . dobert-sa gén fort I have made you a laughing-stock, TBC-LL¹ 1893 . dobērat maldachtain form-sa, TBC-I¹ 23 . dorat cúrsachad mór forra, SG 89 . dobérsa miscaid fair, Ériu viii 156 . tabarr pian forsna hí, Ml. 104b2 . ní thabhair Dia orumsa | pian, BS 138 . bóthar na Muilte . . . thug sgís ar mhórán do mhnáibh, Ériu i 101 . uair mian moltcharna doradadh d'á mhathair for Oilill Molt an gcén robhaoi n-a broinn O. M. got a taste for wether-mutton from his mother, Hy Fiach. 96 . Also freq. with ammus, fóbairt, sidhe, maidm, etc., q.v.

(iv) enjoins upon, compels, instigates: dosbēr-sa fort-sa do Dia féin do fácbail, PH 2060 . doradad fair géim drúith do dénam, RC xxiv 54 . is e dorad foraib-si in bréag do cantain, Todd Nenn. 94 .

(c) With FRI: conducthar nomen fris until a name is put to it, Sg. 200b13 , cf. 42b7 , 63a17 . dobreth coirthi fria chenn ┐ araile fria chosa, TBC-I¹ 419 . dobert aigid fri aigid, Fianaig. 36 . tucastar sciath fri sciath, CRR 45 . ise naidm dorad Corc mac L. ria lāim Conaill the compact which C. made with C., Lec. 410a29 . ar des rīg is ruirech | doradsad frit lāim, TBC-I¹ 2270 . dobheirim m'ainm ré n-abraim I put my name to what I write, Content. xxi 1 . dober frit a l[ín] lae o thus bliad[ne] `thou puttest the number of days' (gl. computa dies), Thes. ii 36 . Of fig. relations: nathir . . . donrat fri saeth tria aslach who has brought us into trouble, SR 1342 . dosrat fri sním, 5797 , cf. 5867 . manip fri toil Dé dosmerat unless they lead him to oppose the will of God, Mon. Tall. 144 . Cf. also under I (l) above.

(d) With IMM: dobeir a dī bois ima dī lecain, Corm. Y 756 . dobert in rígan brat ngorm imbi put on , TBC-I¹ 726 . dorat nél impu, SR 3963 . tobert C. beoil ima heim smeared grease on its hilt, Corm. Y 883 . tuc urrcur de uimpe struck him against it (i.e. the boulder?), CF 221 , cf. tuc béim de immun corthe, TBC-LL¹ 1027 .

(e) With I N-

(i) Of local relations: dobert (.i. tuc) díllat i criol Ronchinn, Hy. v 84 ( Thes. ii 347 ). dabir it béulu thou puttest it into thy mouth, Thes. ii 249 . ni thardad dantmir i mbeolu in chind, Corm. Y 1018 . dobeir a láim il-láim tigerna, CRR 11 , cf. SG 90.29 . dorad a mhér a suainemh na sleighe, BS 10 . co tard a fiacla inn, Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 28 . baile i tartad in degben was buried, Metr. Dinds. iii 40 . a n-as tardtar ana hūir what is laid in its clay (of a graveyard), Lism. L. 3505 . tucad a talmain la [a] mac was buried, Lec. 580a32 . dorad misi it chumann-sa | mallacht Ronáin R.'s curse has thrown me into thy company, BS 82 . domratad i slabraid I have been put in chains, ZCP vi 263 .

(ii) With abstr. as obj.: gurub faill tug 'n-ar tegmáil he has neglected our quarrel, Ériu iv 216 . mairg thugas neamhshuim a dteangainn a dhuthaoi féin, O'Gr. Cat. 219 .

(iii) I N- folld. by abstr.: ní thibér-sa tusa i n-áirem I will hold thee of no account, PH 1804 . ni tabar a n-uimir cenel acht cined dā mac dib nama the descendants of only two sons are counted among the races, Lec. 67b14 . doberr don dligud-so i frithcheist gl. huic opponitur, Sg. 163b10 . doberr hi cotarsne do gl. obiicitur, 21b5 . amal duberad nech do hi ceist as though someone had asked him, Ml. 56a13 . conda-tardat hi coibsin may confess it, Ml. 181d16 . taibred hi cobsin di anmcharait, Ériu vii 158 . na peacaidhe thug duine i ndearmad, Eochairsg. 108 . ar nachat-tarda nech i n-éislis lest thou be neglected, Tec. Corm. 46 . ní thard ó D. na sgéla sin i foill, Hugh Roe 118 .

(iv) With pers. obj., brings, puts (into a state or condition): as é domrad a n-ainriocht, BS 42 . as Dia dudnuic issa n-imned, Ml. 44d14 . dosbér uili i mbás i mbath I will destroy them, SR 2431 . ó dotrat i socht, i sním, Ériu vii 225 (impers. use of vb.?). dosrat a snim mor sloigh na nG. um an ni-sin the hosts of the G. were sorely troubled about that matter (cf. prec. ex.), Ériu v 146 . do naemaib Eirenn tuc sadaile na bethad-so i dtarcaisne who spurned this life's luxuries, O'Gr. Cat. 638 . Cf. further: a flaith . . . dosrat hi ceathra ranna fichet, Lec. 45b40 . Cf. I (p) supra.

(f) With TAR: ronfialadar .i. dorata a fial torund may He put His veil over us, Hy. i 1 Comm. ( Thes. ii 299 ). tardad dícealtar tairsib, ZCP viii 103 . dobert láim dara agid, TBC-I¹ 1841 . co tarat láim dar hiffern (of Christ harrowing Hell), SR 7772 . tabraiter láma tairis let him be seized, TBC-I¹ 1471 . dorat sighin na croiche tairis crossed himself, RC xxxiv 322 . dobér-sa . . . a crosa dar m'aigidh, ZCP viii 110 . fuilt dar a tabar, it liat[h]a upon which it is poured (of a well), Todd Nenn. 194 . co tabrad usce dar a lámu, RC ii 400 . dorad Dia dilind tarsin n-uili doman, Lec. 534a31 .

(g) sends: tabar fer for āth damsa (a challenge), TBC-I¹ 1482 (where senses give and put are both implicit). dobretha Medb techta for cend Fir Diad, 2210 , 2212 . co tibred aingliu i m-agaid-si that he would send angels to encounter me, PH 1786 . dobretha C. nonbor úad . . . do chuingid mna do Ch., LU 10168 . comadh iat a daltadha doberta ar amus Sencháin dús cia dhib, etc. who were sent to S., ACL iii 5 . doradad Paladius a papa C. do progecht soscela do Scotaib, BB 10a26 .

III Brings, leads .

(a) fedar .i. . . . dohucthar (referring to Lat. ferri), Sg. 210a4 . donfé .i. donfuca may she bring us, Hy. iv 2 Comm. ( Thes. ii 325 ). dodfetis .i. dobertis, Hy. ii 13 Comm. ( Thes. ii 312 ). ní fitemmar can doberr whence it is brought (of a variant reading), Sg. 32b5 . dobreit[h] dobarchi isin comhbreic (the word) `dobarchi' has been introduced into Cymric, Corm. Y 311 . is é Nothelmus tucastar epistil ó Griguir, Anecd. iii 64 . in rí thuc inn arcc forcūl who brought back the ark, SR 5505 . ba i ngataib dombertadar a l-loegu, TBC-I¹ 912 . in scian tucad dō a tirib Alban, Corm. Y 698 . Fig. brings, deduces, traces (of a sequence, genealogy, etc.): is amlaid sin tugasdair ar senoir-ne geinilach Breatan a cronicib na Romanach, Todd Nenn. 36 . o Róba . . . tugus co cróda an caithréim | co Codnaig, Hy Fiach. 278 . tucus lim . . . o Chloind Maelruanaid . . . co craeib Luaraid, 214 . With co: tabram ar roisc ┐ ar indfhethium co Dia let us raise our eyes and our thoughts to God, PH 8067 . fén douc a bantigerna chuci, Hy. v 25 Comm. ( Thes. ii 333 ). tuccastair a mac féin cuice d'fir took to her as husband, MacCarthy 288 . ceadh ima ram-tugadh-sa chugaibh?, RC xiv 258 . doberar a drai co Brian, RC xxiv 180 . tug C. clann Cruithnigh do cobraid cuci called in the Picts to his aid, BB 370a42 . caisil . . . .i. cís dobertha o feraib Erenn cosin luc sin, Corm. Y 391 . With DOCHUM: cenis-tuca-su chucud dochom betad hi though thou bring her not to life, Mon. Tall. 144 . tuc na heochu chum beathadh dorísí, SG 25 . dobēra mo des-sa Aenias dochum bāis will put (lit. bring) to death, Aen. 2895 . nis tibritis dochum in carpait they could not bring (the Grey of Macha) to the chariot, RC iii 175 . nír fhác senmóir riam nach tibredh duine dochum creidme, SG 44 .

(b) With LA referring to subject (the usual construction in later lang.): donfuca leis, Hy. i 1 Comm. ( Thes. ii 299 ). co nostucam lenn i mbrait, SR 3979 . tucus mo sheotu lim ┐ mo indili, TBC-I¹ 1612 . In fig. relations: in tucsam Temraig lind? have we taken in Tara in our course? (lit. brought with us), SG ii 492 ( LL 329a5 ). clanda Gaeidil . . . thucsom a n-imthechta lind o . . . thur Neamruad ille we have followed their adventures from the tower of N. onwards, Lec. 565b10 ( BB 38a11 ); cf. Hy Fiach. 214 quoted under III (a). dia tarta nech leis na cōic fa dhó if anyone multiply the five by two, Lism. L. 4618 . With abstr. obj.: tug leis feirg n-adhbhal n-anba | dom athchur he brought with him, i.e. displayed, BS 6 . abradh fris co ná tardad gráin ná hirfuath leis ina dochum, ACL iii 5 . indas na luinde ┐ na barainde . . . tucsat leo isin chath, LL 403a25 .

(c) d.¤ anuas brings down, humbles (mod.): dobhéuruinn a náimhde anuas go haithgheárr, Psalms lxxxi 14 , cf. xviii 27 . Cf. A. Ó Dálaigh xxxii 3 : maor nach tug sároghadh síos `who has not taken down my offences' (?). See Desid. Gloss. (anuas) .

(d) d.¤ suas brings up, rears, educates (mod.): nech . . . tuccadh suas i Saxoibh as a óicce, AFM v 1752 . mar neach tugadh suas ionna ḟochair as one brought up with him, Proverbs viii 30 . degh-thabhartha suas well-educated , Rel. Celt. ii 206 .

IV Gets, wins, takes: an extension of meaning brings folld. by certain prepp. such as AS or Ó. Mostly in Mid. Ir. with confusion of do-rat- and do-ucc-, see above under forms.

(a) dorat mac Lonán ar a dhán ó fheraib Eirenn ní nach lugha iná a tuc Guaire immach won for his art from the men of Ireland an amount no less than G. had given away, SG 400 . in tan bes glainiu in anim rop and dos ucca Día may God take the soul when it is purest, Ériu vi 116 . rofāssaigh machaire na Muman . . . co tard iltáintiu carried off, RC xviii 50 (Tig.). tuchta tāinte treabh-clann | la Cremhthand, Todd Nenn. 136 . is ua dobeir cheird who adopts a calling, PRIA xix 546 . cinged issin sliab co tabrad fiad `to fetch a deer', Arch. Hib. ii 70 . tuccusae comarleccud I obtained permission, Mon. Tall. 136 . is iad dobeiredh gach buaidh, SG 34 . dobertatar a búaid they gained the victory over him, ZCP ix 192 . nipad andsu Cuchulaind acht tuctha a c[h]leitine aire provided his javelin were taken from him, TBC-I¹ 1331 . dobered leth brandaigechta ┐ fi[d]chillachta fora thigerna used to win, 2327 . dobered-sum lethcluiche forra, RC v 199 .

(b) With ASS: nicon robae rann di rannaib in domain as nacha tucad Dia, Ml. 125b7 (where meaning is still brings); cf. 94d4 . dotuc ass, a gillai (take thyself off?), LL 117a31 . asa Iubdain tuc mé as `I.'s sandals bore me through undrowned', SG 252 . ond uair doratus[s]a menmain ind, ní thucus as from the time that I set my mind on Him, I have never taken it from Him, Hy. iv Pref . ( Thes. ii 324 ). dobeir Cuchulainn in ṅgai ass draws out the spear, RC iii 178 . dia taltar in cloch as do chind . . . mani tucthar ass, Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 8 . romarbsat he . . . ┐ ni tucsat banne fola as did not draw a drop of blood, Hy. v 65 Comm. ( Thes. ii 343 ). dibeir coicait Breasal la gach n-ernaighthe a hiffern takes fifty (souls) out of Hell, ZCP vii 306 . dusfuc Patraic . . . a taig Diaboil, ACL iii 303 . rí dofuc brait hiffirn uair | a pēin, a crithfeidm, SR 7777 , cf. 3961 . rocumdaig Dia int asna dorad a hAdhamh, BB 16b26 . dorat an t-oglach brodchú as a choim, Imr. Brain i 60 . saighit na sluaigh an chathair, co ttartsat a seoit . . . eiste, Leb. Gab.(i) 84 .

(c) With DE takes from: dothuc do Adaum a chenn | co ruc co Hierusalem, SR 2235 . dobēraind-sea a c[h]eand de, TBC-I¹ 824 . is he Tuathal tart a cindu dona coiceadaib cut off the extremities of the provinces, Lec. 594a10 = tall . . . dena c., LL 295b13 . co tuc a mind dia chend, SR 6727 . tair . . . fein don craunn | tuc de oen-ubull, 1262 , cf. 1285 . do naimdib doberar `from enemies it is taken', Laws i 228 Comm.

(d) With Ó: dobert secht multu uade carried off seven wethers from her, Hy. v 36 ( Thes. ii 337 ). cid tuccais ó Guaire? what has thou got from G.?, ACL iii 2 . ised tucsam o Máolrúain (the teaching) we received from M., Mon. Tall. 137 . da fuc Michol o Alathis took M. from A. (her husband), SR 6571 . dorad giallu o Findachta . . . ri Laigen, Lec. 138b43 . dorat mallachtain don tí . . . dobera[d] a mainc[h]ine ó Chiarán, ACL iii 226 . dorat buar iomdha uaidhibh, AFM 1263 (iii 392) . co ttarat a réir uadhoibh obtained his demand from them, 705 (i 306) . tuccais an éccsi nglain | ón mnaoi mérghil, ót máthair, ZCP viii 109 . in uainn tucadh? was it taken from us?, Laws i 74 Comm.

(e) d.¤ mnái takes a wife, weds: nā tuic seitchi gl. noli quaerere uxorem, Wb. 10a30 . regat-sa . . . co tuc a ingin, SR 5827 . an adhaigh tuc Mongán Dubhlacha, | tuc Mac an Daimh [a com]alta, Imr. Brain i 63 . co tucas-sa in mbé sáir sláin, Ériu iv 154 . dofuc-som ingin Aithechda, Hib. Min. p. 77 . nach tibrad mnai dogrés dia nustuccad nech ali remiu he would never wed any woman if another had wedded her already, TE 2 (Eg.). ca ben dobér? what woman shall I marry?, ZCP viii 113 . gēba flaithius ┐ dobēra rigan, Aen. 1248 . Fithir álainn . . . in ben dorat rí Berba, SG 360 . co tarat Eochu . . . in n-ingin ba siniu .i. Fithir, LL 294b48 ( RC xiii 36 ). amser i tibred Alax . . . mnái do Grecaib illánamnus, LL 229b34 ( TTr. 925 ). tabhair m'inghen-sa. —Ní thiubhar-sa í, ITS v 148 . annsa n-eiséirghe ní thabhruid fir mná ┐ ní tugthar mná d'fhearaibh, Matthew xxii 30 . With DO: tuc Hiruath ingin Aristopuil ... do mnaí, Ev.Inf. (LB) 381 § 104 . isé in Nemhnall sin dorad Finmaith inghen Carthaigh do mnáoi, BNnÉ 25 § 15 .

(f) d.¤ immach wins, captures (most freq. with vn.) (cf. I (f) above): an ben rucadh uaim-si . . . nach tuitfe fer d'Ulltachaib impe ag a tabairt amach in recovering her, Imr. Brain i 67 . ag tabhairt bhailte móra amach ó na nāimdibh, Rel. Celt. ii 206 . do chuir sídsi 'ma chaislén ┐ níor chinn leis a thabhairt amach, 178 . d.¤ istech id. : tuc A. sin isteach (of land), AFM iv 974 .

V Occas. do-beir appears as an intrans. vb. folld. by FOR or other prep. or adv. in sense makes for; falls on, attacks ; perh. from an orig. reflexive use, cf. dosfucsad dias laech do Laignib for Chond ┐ rosfobairsed Conn threw themselves on C., Lec. 598a46 . dober P. for N. ┐ non-gon, BB 440b32 . imatarla doib . . . co tarat indt aoinfer for firu Erind, Anecd. v 11 ( Sc.M² 8 . See Celtica iii 267 ). ise dorat forru co brath attacked them, ZCP xiii 348.9 . co tuc fói fell upon him (?), LL 260b50 . dorat cách co dúr ┐ co díchra risin debaid betook himself to the fray, 256a43 . doberait a muinter co dichra a n-agaid A., Aen. 2636 . doradsat co dichra 'sin cath, 2859 , 2612 . Follg. ex. is perh. an extension of this use: is andsin tucsad na tuatha-sin rigi do thabairt do S. made a move (decided) to give (?), Lec. 447a39 .

VI

(a) comprehends, understands ; gl. intellegere, Wb. 21c11 . intendere, 15a29 . hi tucu cheist ndoraid where I understand a difficult problem, SP ii 8 ( Thes. ii 294 ). ni tucai cách dib belrae alaili, Ml. 42c7 . duucthar tria rosc aní nolabraifitis, 55a10 . ara tuicce ar-rolegais, Wb. 28d7 . ara tucca cach a canas, 27b27 . ní tucsat cia chruth conrerortatar, Ml. 75d10 . nad tuicset rúna, Wb. 15a29 . ní tucid féin ní da n-abraid, RC xxviii 314 . do neoch dorucai mo rí | bec dofucaid ní dia grés of what my king can comprehend ye understand little (?), SR 7983 . ni frith dó . . . dia drúidib nech dosfucad, 3228 , cf. 2763 . ní ragaib acht nem . . . do cach oen nodgēbad ┐ nodafucfad etir cēill fogra, RC xx 134 . nír thuiccestair an mbreithir atbert R. fris, BNnÉ 323 . do tucsat cēlmhaine na ndruadh, ZCP i 398 . ní tucenn aenduine in briathar-sin uaithe, vi 291 . cindus rothuiggisi in berla ebraidi uaithib ┐ tu fen it' gregach?, YBL 141b22 . Folld. by vn. clause: ni tuccai nech anfoirbthe buith fo riaguil, Ériu i 202 .

(b) perceives, observes, is aware of: tucim nár bé chóir, TBC-LL¹ 4083 . douicim-ne ┐ tuigmit conid mog do Dia tusa, PH 750 . dofuicind Dia . . . co n-oslaicfither bar ruisc (= scit Deus quod aperientur, etc. , Gen. iii 5 ), Lec. 530a10 = dofuicfind, BB 16b53 . ar na rothucad Pátraic cia dia ṅdernad int immun, Trip. 396 . doucad in tan ticfad sonend ┐ donend, LU 823 ( ACC 58 ). dofucfa cách 'na mbia fo menmain a chéli cen a falsigud o briathraib, RC xxv 248 . tuigedh gurab ar gealtacht robháoi an bhen, BS 108 . ní thuigfinn m'imshníom ná m'olc | ar ghualainn mhic C. I should not be conscious of, O'Gr. Cat. 453 . o rathuic corba corp dia adnocul, tuc airrde na croiche, Lat. Lives 94 . o rathuicistair . . . a mbeith nocht (= cum cognovissent se esse nudos, Gen. iii 7 ), Lec. 530a21 . In ipv. oft. folld. by la + refl. pron., tuic lat observe, note , know (common in med. texts): tuic leat gurob comartha bāis, 23 P 10, 3b10 ; 7a1 ; 30a56 , etc. With OC: tuig agad cindus bis tiacht amach an tsile take note how the flux issues forth, 10b26 . Folld. by AR, perceives, knows (by looking at): atcífe diabul ┐ tuicfe a olc fair, PH 2037 . dothuigisdar ar in ablainn ndiatha . . . bí eder a lāmhaib an tsaguirt (sic leg.) . . . co roibi pecadh folaidhthi aigi he knew from the consecrated wafer . . . that he (the priest) had committed some secret sin, Lib. Flav. i 33 rb 12 . tuigim ort go saoiltear libh, etc., Content. xiv 53 . Folld. by ASS knows (from), infers (from): tuicim-se as a tuarascbail, TBC-LL¹ 5660 (St.). issed rotuiccedh as sain, na huilc tháncatar `hence men presaged the evils', SG 406 . tuicter as sin nach fedann laeighi ara taebhaibh it is a sign that he cannot lie on his side, 23 P 10, 3a30 . Vbl. of necess.: is tuicti na comartha-sin do bheith go holc, 24 P 22, 105.13 . is tuigthe dhaoibh . . . gur ab iad sin clann Abraham, Galatians iii 7 . as tuigthe dhúinn as so gurab decair, etc., Ó Héodhusa 15 .

(c) thinks, opines, considers: nihil medico conducibilius censeo . . . .i. ni tuigim go bhfuil ní, etc., 23 K 42, 184.4 . ní thuigim go dtiocfadh rum etc., I do not think that I could agree, Content. ix 5 . cé bé duine nach biaidh leinn . . . tuigmíd gur duine i n-ar n-aghaidh in duine sin, O'Gr. Cat. 468 . do thuicc drong dona hughdaruibh . . . gurab must as ferr a n-ionadh an fhíona, 24 P 32, 52.6 ; 211.9 .

(d) means, signifies (usually in pass.): cennsa tuicther tresin snechta is symbolized by, PH 3386 . triasan uiscce tuicther popul na creitmech, tuict[h]er Críst triasin fín, RC xxxvii 346 . a toghaide tre-uillech, trésa tuicthear in Trinōid, MR 92 . an sextuarius adubramar . . . as é sextuarius an uisce thuigmid we mean a s. of water, 24 P 32, 94.1 . adeir G. . . . antan aderar eiliborus . . . go tuicter eiliborus geal antan sin that white hellebore is meant, 23 P 10, 31b46 .

(e) In certain cases folld. by prep. DOCHUM, DO, FRI (LE), understands (of), applies or refers to (freq. in pass.): species .i. gnē ┐ termin uilidhe ┐ tuicther duine ┐ leomhan chuige sin (i.e. `man' and `lion' are referred to, are examples of a species), 24 P 3, 304.23 . as iad so na daine da tuicter so .i. na daine bis a n-āis .x. bliadan .xx. this applies to persons of the age of thirty, 23 P 10, 8a10 . ni do lucht na paralisi amain tuicter an rādh so this saying applies not to paralytics alone, 44b46 . an spic[a] adubramar, as d'olaidh an spica .n. thuigios Mesué í the `spica' above-mentioned M. takes to mean oil, etc. , 24 P 32, 156.8 . re fiabras coididiana contineoideach is coir sin da thuigsin ┐ re fiabras coididiana nach contineoideach do tuigeadar siad-san he this rightly applies to continuous quotidian fever, but those authors understood it of intermittent, 23 P 10, 163 vb 27 . is amhlaidh bhíos an tslat . . . geal go hiomlán, do chomhartha na firinne lé dtuigthear an ghile in sign of truth with which whiteness is associated (i.e. of which it is a symbol), Keat. iii 151 . creud thuigeas tú lé maitheadh na bpeacadh? what do you understand by forgiveness of sins?, Donlevy 44 .

fo-gaib, fo-geib

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fo-gaib, fo-geib or dil.ie/22696
Last Revised: 2013

 

Forms: fagebtis, -fuar, fonduair, fagb-, fag-, gheibhther, gheibh, faghaim, faghaibh, fag, fagh, gheibhim, -fagbaim, -fágbaim, -fagaim, -faghaim, gheibhir, -faghair, -fogbái, fogaib, fogeib, dogeib, dogheibh, -fogaib, -fagaib, -faghann, fogabum, dogabmait, dogheibhmíd, -faghmaoid, fogabat, baghabhat, dogabat, dogebid, do-geibhit, do-gheibhid, -fagbat, -faghait, -faghaid, gheibhinn, -fuighinn, do-gheibheadh, -facchbad, dogheibhmis, fogeibtis, do-gheibhdis, -faghbadais, -faghdais, fogabur, fogabar, -fagbur, -fagar, fogaba, bhagaba, -fagba, -faghbha, -fagha, -fagbat, -fogbat, -fagbat, fogabaind, -fagbaind, -aghbhoinn, -faghthá, fogabad, -fagbad, -faghbhadh, -faghadh, -fagbaimis, -agbaitis, fogéb, dogébh, doghiab, -fugéb, baigiub, fogebai, fogéba, dageba, ghébha, do-ghéabhair, doghiabha, doghiabhair, -faigeba, -fuigbe, -foigbe, -i, fuidbe, faigbe, -fuigir, bhfuighir, -fuighbhir, fogéba, doghébha, do-ghéabha, do-ghéabhaidh, -foighe, -fuighe, -fuighbhe, ghébham, -foigheam, -foighbheam, fogébthaidh, fogebthai, do-ghéabhthaoi, -fuighthi, fogebat, -faigbet, -fuigbet, -faigbind, -fuiginn, -fogebtha, -ḟuigbithea, -eá, fogebad, fogebed, fogébed, dogebad, do-ghéabhadh, -fuighbheadh, -fugebmaís, -fagbaimis, -faigbimis, -foigebtais, -fugebtaís, núarsa, fuar, uair, fofuáir, fofuair, foruair, fuair, uair, fuair, -fuaramar, -ḟúaram, -fuarabhair, fofúaratár, úaratar, fuaradar, -fuaradar, foḟuarus, fuarus, fuaras, fuarus, -fuaras, -ḟuaross, fofuarais, fuarais, -fuarais, fuairsem, -fuairsed, fogaibset, fogabar, do-geibhthear, -fogabar, -fogbaither, -agabar, -aghaibhthir, -faghthar, -faghthair, -foghthor, -oghthair, -faghuir, foghair, -aghair, -fogbaiter, faghar, aghar, do-geibhthi, -fogbaithe, -fagtai, -fagthar, -foghar, -aghar, -oghair, -faghthair, fogebthar, fugebthar, do-ghéabhthar, -fuigebthar, -fuighthear, -faigbistar, fuigbestar, -foigfide, fríth, fofrith, foríth, forríth, forrith, frith, -fríth, frith, fríoth, frith, frith, rofrithe, fofrítha, -fritha

v The only instances in the O.Ir. Glosses are: sec. fut. pl. 3 (with inf.) fagebtis, Wb. 8a14 . pret. s. 1 -fuar, Ml. 57d3 . 3 (with inf.) fonduair, Sg. 144b3 . In the later lang. fo in the deut. forms is gradually replaced by do; in prot. forms fagb- is frequently reduced to fag-, forms without initial f- are not uncommon and are recognized by the mediaeval grammarians. See IGT, Verbs § 22 .

Early Mod. instances of omission of preverb are: mar gheibhther , Parrth. Anma 40.18 . gheibh, Corp. Astron. 86 .

Forms occurring after the period of the Glosses: ipv. 1 s. faghaim, TD 22a20 . 2 faghaibh, Dán Dé xii 27 . fag, ZCP vi 88.8 . fagh, Luc. Fid. 276.4 . ind. pres. 1 s. do gheibhim , Luc. Fid. 71.18 . -fagbaim, CCath. 4286 . -fágbaim, PH 2696 -fagaim, LL 175a26 . -faghaim, TD 22a10 . Luc. Fid. 326.9 . 2 do gheibhir , Luc. Fid. 325.9 . -faghair, 325y . -fogbái (torbai), Thes. ii 296.6 . 3 fogaib, Laws iv 194.20 ( SM Facs., 16a ), etc. fogeib, LU 2126 , 2138 . Mon. Tall. 72 . PH 7080 . dogeib, PH 7814 . Maund. 149 . dogheibh, Ó Héodhusa 44 . TD 29.5 . TSh. 790 . 3605 . -fogaib, LU 8632 . -fagaib PH 7992 . Ériu iv 214 § 12 . -faghann, Maund. 263 . TD 16. 1 . 22a4 . Ó Héodhusa 122 . TSh. 1212 . 3645 . 1 pl. fogabum. PH 6120 . dogabmait, 2887 . dogheibhmíd, Ó Héodhusa 111 . TSh. 48 . -faghmaoid, Ó Héodhusa 111 . 3 fogabat, LU 1852 (H = foga-baid, YBL 6a32 ). LU 4732 . baghabhat, BB 322b7 . dogabat, PH 3573 . dogebid, Maund. 263 . do-geibhit, Fl. Earls 52.5 . do-gheibhid, TSh. 511 . 3612 . -fagbat, LU 2229 . -faghait, Fl. Earls 88.20 . -faghaid, TD 16.8 . TSh. 323 . imperf. 1 s. do gheibhinn TD 14.17 . -fuighinn (-faghuinn v.l.) TD 15.12 . 3 do-gheibheadh, TSh. 640 . -facchbad, CCath. 3993 v.l. pl. 1 dogheibhmis, TD 14.17 v.l. 3 fogeibtis, SR 4632 . do-gheibhdis, Keat. ii 234 . -faghbadais, CCath. 2153 . -faghdais 2520 . subj. pres. 1 s. fogabur, PH 617 . fogabar, 403 . -fagbur, CCath. 3341 . Ann. Conn. 1244 § 5 . -fagar, TBC-LL¹ 4448 St. -fagur, Celtica xiii 19.203 . 3 fogaba (= inveniat p. 430 ) PH 5011 . bhagaba, TTebe 4543 . -fagba, SR 2551 . LU 2609 . -faghbha (-fogba v.l.), CCath. 1695 . -fagha, Maund. 263 . Ó Héodhusa 70 . TD 16. 24 . (fuighe v.l.); 24.1 . pl. 3 -fagbat, PH 4193 , -fogbat -fagbat, CCath. 1696 v.l. (-faghbhuid text). subj. past 1 s. fogabaind, CCath. 2725 . -fagbaind, TBC-LL¹ 1173 . -aghbhoinn TD 14.15 . 2 -faghthá, TD 22a9 . 3 fogabad, CCath. 1089 . -fagbad, SR 2567 . 2583 . -faghbhadh, Lism. L. 3040 . -faghadh, Maund. 262 . TSh. 8520 ( -fuighbheadh, 7094 , sec. fut. in form). 1 pl. -fagbaimis, BDD 48 Y (cf. sec. fut.). 3 -agbaitis, LL 153b13 . fut. 1 s. fogéb, PH 2430 . dogébh, Imr. Brain i 60.6 . doghiab, CF 469 . -fugéb, LL 123b25 . in baigiub , Cog. 172.9 . 2 fogebai, LU 11015 . fogéba, LU 208 . TBC-LL¹ 106 . dageba, Cog. 172.10 . do ghébha , Ó Héodhusa 8 . do-ghéabhair, Keat. ii 4513 . doghiabha, CF 118 . doghiabhair, 323 . -faigeba, LU 3912 . -fuigbe, LL 328 f 30 . -foigbe (fuigbe, -i, fuidbe, faigbe, foibe v.l.), Fél. Ep. 147 . -fuigir ZCP vi 286.25 . ní bhfuighir , TSh. 3253 . -fuighbhir, Keat. ii 4501 . 3 fogéba, LU 2029 . doghébha, Ó Héodhusa 46 . do-ghéabha, TD 20.49 . do-ghéabhaidh, TSh. 1376 . -foighe TD 27.19 . -fuighe, Ó Héodhusa 82 . -fuighbhe, TSh. 342 . pl. 1 do ghébham , Ó Héodhusa 10 ; 97 . -foigheam 14 ; 89 . TD 13.29 . -foighbheam, TD 13.29 . 2 fogébthaidh, Anecd. iii 69.20 . fogebthai, YBL 87b17 ( RC xxvi 138 ). do-ghéabhthaoi, TSh. 1950 . -fuighthi, TD 9.56i 3 fogebat, CCath. 1702 v.l. (dogebhait, text). -faigbet LU 2406 . PH 4343 . -fuigbet, 3640 . sec. fut. 1 s. -faigbind TBC-LL¹ 1728 (-fuiginn St). -fuiginn, ZCP vi 286.21 . 2 -fogebtha SR 1563 = -ḟuigbithea, LB 112a35 . (?) -foighthéa (leg. -eá) Ó Héodhusa 112 . 3 fogebad (sic leg.) SR 1131 . fogebed LU 1788 . fogébed, 1817 . dogebad, Ann. Conn. 1282 § 7 do-ghéabhadh, TSh. 3603 . -fuighbheadh, TSh. 503 . pl. 1 -fugebmaís, LU 6890 ( BDD 48 = -fagbaimis Y, -faigbimis D). 3 -foigebtais, SR 5563 . -fugebtaís, LU 2229 .

pret. and perf.

(1 ) 1 sg. fó núarsa (rel.) LU 6024 . fuar (in reply) TBC-LL¹ 1770 . 3 s. fo uair , LL 288a9 . fofuáir, SR 3091 . fofuair, Fél. Nov. 7 . foruair, LL 183b5 . for fuair , LB 132a12 . do uair , RC xxiv 202 § 19 . fuair, Ó Héodhusa 7 ; 122 . TSh. 563 . 1 pl. -fuaramar ni, YBL 110b33 = -ḟúaram ni, LL 260b16 . 2 -fuarabhair, TD 9. 56 . 3 fofúaratár, LU 10579 . fó úaratar , Trip. 2.5 . fuaradar, Ó Héodhusa 74 . -fuaradar, TSh. 1193 .

(2 ) 1 sg. foḟuarus, LL 198b24 . fuarus ib. 28 . fuaras, TD 11.14 ; 14.20 . na (= a n-) fuarus , SR 1758 . -fuaras, TD 14.10 . -ḟuaross, TBC-LL¹ 3674 . 2 fofuarais, SR 1751 . fuarais (rel.), TSh. 7111 . -fuarais, TBC-LL¹ 1770 . 1 pl. fuairsem, Ó Héodhusa 8 . 3 -fuairsed, Ó Héodhusa 3z .

(3 ) 3 pl. fogaibset LU 1792 .

Pass. pres. s. fogabar, LU 426 . PH 7168 . do-geibhthear, TD 13.8 . TSh. 2764 . -fogabar, ZCP viii 303.27 . Laws iv 194.19 ( SM Facs. 15a ); -fogbaither, ib. seems a miswriting of the pl.). -agabar, Laws iii 90.1 . -aghaibhthir, TD 22a55 . -faghthar, TSh. 2152 . -faghthair, TD 10.10 . -foghthor, 29.14 . -oghthair, 10.3 . -faghuir, 7.3 . foghair, 17.8 . -aghair, 28.38 . pl. -fogbaiter, Laws iv 194.22 ( SM Facs. 15a ). imperat. s. faghar, TD 25.16 . aghar, Dán Dé iii 8 . imperf. s. do-geibhthi, TD 14.13 . -fogbaithe, LU 9055 . -fagtai, Maund. 262 . pres. subj. s. -fagthar, LU 6155 (H). -fagaither, TBC-LL¹ 4448 . -foghar, TD 10.23 . -aghar, 17.3 . -oghair, 15.47 . -faghthair, 10.13 . fut. s. fogebthar, fugebthar, LU 10989 . do-ghéabhthar, TSh. 3423 . -fuigebthar, ZCP xi 83 § 31 . TBC-I¹ 2779 . -fuighthear, TD 9. 7 . -faigbistar, LU 8445 ( FB 30 = fuigbestar, Eg) is apparently an isolated form (`a barbarous mixture of the s and the b futures' Strachan, ZCP iii 479 ). sec. fut. s. -foigfide, Cáin Ad. 8 . pret. and perf. s. fo fríth , Hy v 79 . fofrith, LU 10722 . Fél. Feb. 25 . Ann. Conn. 1235 § 8 . foríth, LL 277b21 . forríth, 150a29 . forrith, AFM 123 . frith, LU 183 . -fríth, Hy v 29 . Ann. Conn. 1235 § 8 . frith, AU 1014 . Fl. Earls 88 . fríoth, Ó Héodhusa 122 . do frith (v.l. frith), IT iii 193.15 . rofrithe, Luc. Fid. 382.9 . pl. fofrítha, Metr. Dinds. iii 284.97 . -fritha, Anecd. ii 4.15 .

In general sense finds, gets , hence

(a) finds, meets with, discovers (in a place): feib fonduáir som la auctoru , Sg. 144b3 . fofuair ann fer, SR 3091 . dia mbé nech occá sirfégad imme ... fogéba do cech leth aci agid, LU 2029 . dobert a laimh dar a einech. fogeib teora boulga for a aghaidh, Corm. Y p. 59 . nech bad chalmu ... cosindiu nocon ḟuaross TBC-LL¹ 3674 . cia airm i faigbind in Coin Culaind?, 1728 (a bfuiginn St). ní fúaram-ni ... mnai do dingbala-so cosindiu IT i 74.11 . is annsin fuarustair ... Ruadhán fora cind BNnÉ 322 § 31 . fofrith (forrith v.l.) cenn Póil ... hi féil ind ḟir ..., Fél. Feb. 25 . snechta do nā frith samail re hed cian, Ann. Conn. 1318 § 11 . an cétna long ... fúair Hérinn `the first ship which reached Ireland.' Ériu iv 158 § 35 . ceathracha trath ... fofrith Ere ria ndílind was discovered Leb. Gab.(i) i 16 . do cech anmanda ... fogébad for talmain, Ériu ii 134 § 113 . a faigbed do lindib forsin bhith, § 114 . is edh forfuaradar ina lebraibh, RC x 186.3 . mar frithi a lebraib lindi, Metr. Dinds. iii 346 . do réir ṡeanrolla fríoth i nOxford, Keat. iii 2575 . a llotár dano ond insi sin fúaratár insi máir LU 1767 . fogaibset insi n-aili, 1792 . iar bhfácbháil na ndithrub sin dogabar crích forlethan `you come to' Marco P. 21 . coicc primroid Erenn ..., ní fritha gusanocht, Anecd. ii 4.15 . a n-oidhce geine Cuinn forrith cóicc phríomhróid go Teamhraigh, AFM 123 . mar gheibhther ag Lucas ... san seisedh caibidiol, Parrth. Anma 40.18 . gur cuireadh ...i meidh an mheasruighthe, go bhfríoth ní budh lugha ioná an chóir aige was weighed in the balance and found wanting TSh. 3635 . (cf. 3181 cited below (b)). Cath ... do na frith inntsamail a battle of which no like has been found AU 1014 . bodith ... dona frith samail riam, Ann. Conn. 1321 § 5 . With vn. phrase or dependent clause as obj.: co na fuair cair nā peccad do dénum do Ísu, PH 2718 . Fertán C. cia rochlaid in fagbaid nó in fetabair? can you find out? Metr. Dinds. iii 8 . In later lang. DOGHEIBH AMACH = discovers: no gur fritheadh an sgribhneoireacht ... amach until writing was invented Luc. Fid. 256 . ar na daoinibh gheibh neithe nuadha amach, Corp. Astron. 86 .

(b) with adj. or other compl. of pred. finds (in a certain condition): mongenar anmain fogabar co glan dia stiurad on M. sin that is found pure PH 7168 . go fagtai na fir marbh arnamairech, Maund. 262 . nach faghair sibh seasmhach that you are not found constant Content. xxii 12 . See also feb. fríoth Naoi 'na fhíréan 'na shíl-treabhaibh féin = Noe vir iustus in generationibus suis TSh. 3181 . do fríth easbhuidheach thú, Dan. v 27 (cf. 3635 cited above (a)) ní frith sinne ... commbuidech riam we have never been equally satisfied BColm. 20.19 . dogeibhit na doirrsi foriadhta ar a gcionn, Fl. Earls 52.5 . munab i leacaibh cloch fuairsiod scríobhth iad, Keat. i p. 146 . cionnus do-geibhthear ort an lucht tuillimh ... do bhíodh agat ? what is the disposition of thy hired servants towards thee ? TSh. 4230 (corresp. to: cionnus atáid duit ... ?, 4241 ).

(c) gets, gains, obtains, procures (with Ó, A of source): int áenmacc ríg ... is mō fuair ┐ tuc amach who got and gave away most ZCP viii 111.13 . in tan na fádbait a mbiad, PH 7476 . nem fuair an t-anc(h)ara ... ar a thir got heaven in exchange for ACL iii 307 § 25 . a n-as ail duid dogeba on choimdi, YBL 167a2 . fogeb trocaire treimit he obtains mercy BColm. 78.23 . is gerr co fuigir furtacht, ZCP vi 286.25 . as meisi dúil as anṡádhaile ... dogheibh a betha isin domun that lives BS § 70 . ionnus go ffaghdais a mbethaidh that they might get their sustenance BNnÉ 320 § 20 . no (= do] geibhdís betha gan feidm ndaonda léo acht ... got their livelihood without any human exertion save ... ib. doghebhaitt na hálaidh sin furtacht, 297y . braighe gill as a ffuighbithe eich ┐ airgheadha for whose ransom horses and herds would have been got AFM v 1788.26 . gach aon ... do geip mar chuiss impidhe ... gan bass fiadhnach ... d'faghail `who obtains as an act of grace ... that he shall not suffer death in public' Fl. Earls 70.27 . na hindmasa doberam-ne ... ni huain fogabum iat, PH 6120 . is í comhairle do-gheibheadh ón marbh, TSh. 640 . an teagasg rofrithe ona habsdoluibh, Luc. Fid. 382.9 . With DO of pers. (= dat. of advantage): fag-sa airm ... ┐ eideth dam !, ZCP vi 88.8 . fagh dhamh ... san sgrioptur na briathra so !, Luc. Fid. 276.4 . do-uair Niall ... rigi coidchi da cheneol, RC xxiv 202 § 19 . cearc ... fhuair clú d'fhine Fhearghosa that won fame for Studies 1921, 257 .

(d) gets, induces (some one to do something) causes (something to be done) (with Ó or FOR of pers.): faghaibh gan é d'aithfear, Dán Dé xii 27 . do ráidh an rí ré cách dul ... is ní bhfuair ó neach dul ann he got no one to go Keat. iii 2591 (= ni fuair ó neoch, Cóir Anm. 125 ). fuaradar ó Phádraig an dara heaglais ... do dhéanamh i Leith Mogha they were permitted by P. to build Keat. iii 312 . ni fuigebthar foro tuidecht they will not be prevailed on to come TBC-I¹ 2779 .

(e) freq. with abstr. or semi-abstr. obj. meets with, experiences, undergoes: fofuarais mór do duilgi, SR 1751 . cech pian fogéb ar ainm ṅDé, PH 2427 . mar do ḟuair a chalann crád, Ériu iv 112 § 5 . ar eccla co fuidedh se pían, Maund. 149 . do badh ḟearr lais co faghbhadh cath he would rather have had to fight Lism. L. 3040 . fuaratar troid thenn ... o Gheraltachaibh, AFM vi 2118. 3 . gach ní ... fá bhfuighinn guais which might be perilous to me Dán Dé ix 6 . gurab léir dhó ... nach fuighbbe sochar ná socamhal, TSh. 1133 . frith saothar dermhair ag tabairt an eich ... aníoss, Fl. Earls 88 . na daoine ... dogheibh togbháil suas bharbardha, Ó Héodhusa 76w . conna fuaratar ... aidchi ṅdunaid ... bad mó dód ... dóib never spent a worse night TBC-LL¹ 631 . an t-ech fós, nach faghaibh sbuir do cur uirri who never feels the spur Ériu iv 214.12 . f.¤ bás dies: fogeib in rí bás, Mon. Tall. § 72 . co fúigbe bás croiche, PH 2429 . mas ann do cinded damh-sa bás d'fághbhail, dogébh if it is there I am fated to die, there I shall die Imr. Brain i 60.6 . is truag dham nach eg do fhuarus, Aen. 2602 . foruair macc D. a aidid, LL 183b5 ( Arch. Hib. ii 63 ). co faghdis a n-oidedha ... le cláraibh ... ac rotuitim forra, CCath. 2010 . cen co fagbat ... a n-airlech isin cath though they be not slain in the battle 4275 . faghbhadh ... bas ┐ aidhedh libh let ... be slain by you RC xliii 34z .

With concrete obj. in fig. sense: la macc Rossa frith a lecht his death came about RC xxiii 308 . Cf. fríoth a n-árach `their deaths were brought about' GF, Ir. Monthly 1919, 169 . fríth ilach dó ... i cath birach B., LL 184b45 ( Arch. Hib. ii 83 ).

Often folld. by vn. with poss. refl. pron. (cf. similar use of Welsh cael): nuchun ḟaigbe th'imṡnádud thou shalt not be protected Ériu i 128 . Simon ... fuair a chrochad hi Parthib iii 196 § 12 . ni fhuidhitís a sásadh they would never be satisfied RC xxiv 379w . ó nach fuair a múnadh, since it has never been instructed Dán Dé xix 8 ( YBL 393b18 ). fuair a hurgnamh ... ┐ a fobairt it had been prepared ... and annealed (of a hauberk) CCath. 5215 .

(f) gets (an opportunity of doing), is able (usually with vn. obj.; cf. c, d). conna faghbhadh bheith 'na ecmais could not do without him Lism. L. 1483 . ní ḟuair grádh ná eagla t'ḟos neither love nor fear could restrain you Content. viii 9 . ni faigebhdais scor a n-ech la feraibh Midhe, min dicuirte Mocuda they would not have been allowed to unyoke their horses BNnÉ 303 § 14 . With obj. joined to vn. by DO: dús in fagbaind mo lāma do ḟuligud ... indiu to see if I might redden my hands TBC-LL¹ 1173 . arna fagbatis fini F. iat do fogail so that the tribe of F. should not be able to injure them Lec. [24]a15 ( ZCP x 165 ). mar fuaradar Dál Riada Scotia do thabhairt ar Albain `when the D. R. were permitted to call [A.] Scotia' Keat. ii 5816 . ó nach fuair féin a haigneadh do chalochlódh since he was unable to alter her intention Keat. ii 3039 . For F.¤ ÁRACH, FAILL X (FOR X), see these nouns. Cf. also: ar an gcóir fríoth folmhughadh, PBocht 19 § 9 . With advb. MAITH: atbeiredh cách nár bó maith fríth an marbhadh sin that that slaying was unjustified AFM v 1790.17 . maith fuarais mise do ghoin ... óir is mé do mharbh th'athair, Keat. ii 4508 . maith do-ghéabhdaois clann Ch. ... aonduine ortha d'oirdneadh, TD 9.44 . bith nar uo romhaith fuair in giustiss in basugadh sin re a denomh (= though the justice had no very plausible pretext for that execution), Fl. Earls 60.5 . Cf. bíodh a dheimhin aguibh do nós choguidh na hErenn gur go maith do fuarus misi rem ghabháil `that I esteemed myself to be well off in that I was taken captive' O'Gr. Cat. 57 .

(g) With expressions of time gets = spends, lives (through): dogheibhdís na daoine ré ḟada fán am soin used to live long Keat. ii 234 . ben fuair an saoghal go sona who had spent her life happily AFM v 1692.4 . In the type: Fergal fuair raithi co rath; ... nocon fuair acht oenbliadain, Rawl. 164a41 = Arch. Hib. ii 85 ( LL 185a37 ). the notion is of a period of kingship etc. and it belongs rather to (c).

(h) invents, devises: in sluag dolbtha frith ... la Fotlai BB 377a6 (= RC xv 446 ). conidh edh airecc fuairset, cuibhrighi do chur fair, BNnÉ 296 § 30 . gibé freagra fuaras daoibh, Content. ix 24 .

(i) With I N- and refl. pron. `finds in oneself,' dares, presumes (late): cionnas do gheibhim ionnam féin dul ... ? Luc. Fid. 71. 18 . ní fhuair duine ... ann féin aifrionn ... do rádh, Mac Aingil 113. 18 (= neque aliquis ... missas facere ... praesumebat Beda v 14 ). go bhfuaradar ... ionnta féin éirghe amach i n-aghaidh a dtighearna, Maguires of F. § 25 .

In: nach misi rodusfuighbhe ... duib ī, ZCP viii 547.2 (= ni mé adféta dúib, TBC-LL¹ 1764 ). nach badh eisin radus fuighbhedh duibh ī ib. ZCP viii 547.15 (= dosféta, TBC-LL¹ 1773 ), the modern redactor has replaced adféta by a form beginning with f which gives approximate sense: will find (the information) for you. The sense imparts, communicates is not supported by other examples.

fuláirid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fuláirid or dil.ie/24942

 

v (<Mid. Ir. furáilid by metathesis, see eráilid) enjoins, commands, urges (with acc. of thing and FOR of pers.) : fulaream fuirri torad in chroind do caitheam co fulairi Eba for Adham in cetna let us induce her to eat the fruit ... that she may induce A. to do the same YBL 157b1 (= auralem ... coro heralisi, SR 1157 - 59 ). an té ... ḟulaireas ... an pecadh do dheunamh, Luc. Fid. 156x . is and sin fulairfess se an cloc do buain, BCC 114.17 . gur uo he ... ro folair ar popul Iruaith Eoin Bauptaist do dichennadh, Fl. Earls 138.4 . Presses (on), offers: ro aentaig nó ro fulair do Dia [gl. ro erb, Trip. 68 (727) ] ACL iii 18.14 . ro thaircc [ro fulair v.l.] in rí tiodlaicte ile don liaigh, BNnÉ 320 § 17 .

See fuláirem and furáilem.

i

Cite this: eDIL s.v. i or dil.ie/26891
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: isin, isint, isind, isind, sind, issa, is, sa, isteampull, ansan, isnaib, isnaib, isna, ands[n]a, annsna, issinn, isa, issa, is, isin, insa, ionnsa, sa, isna, annsa, istech, istig, immach, immaig, indium, innium, ionnam, iondam, indiut, inniut, iniud, ionnod, ionnat, inneat, and, ant, and, ann, annt, indi, hindae, indti, inde, inti, inte, ind, inn, inte, innte, indiunn, indiun-ni, annainn, indib, innibh, ionnaibh -se, indib, indeb, intib, innta, ionnta, annta, intiu, inntu, ionntadh, im, inna, inná, innar, inar, 'nar, i bar, hi far, in far, ina, inna, ana, ann, i, i, san, i, ann

nasalising prep., folld. by dat. and acc. Usually written i or í when eclipsis is shown : i nÍsu, Wb. 3b6 . i ngiun, 4d33 . í n-éutt, 6b2 . i nneurt, 6d11 . i ndegaid, 30b14 . i mbiam, Ml. 21c3 . i ndia, 29d5 . i mbí, Tur. 9. i n-oénṡillaib, Sg. 120b2 . i llathiu, Thes. ii 319.2 ; but cf. hi n-iriss, Wb. 10b28 . hi rrecht, Ml. 54c2 . hi llaim, 96d6 . hi ndóiri, 125a9 . hi rriucht, Tur. 85. hi mbítis, Sg. 5a15 . hi ndilsi, 28a4 . hi mbrethir ... hi ngním, Thes. ii 253.11 . hi nDruim, 260.21 . hi mbrot, 290.9 . When eclipsis is not shown, most freq. written hi or hí : hi noibad, Wb. 3b31 . hi rect, 3d14 . hí crist, 4d21 . hi far n-irnigdib, 7a12 . hí flid, 9b14 . hi tosuch, Ml. 2a6 . hí tintud, 2a15 . hi rogabad, 24d14 . hí libur, 16c10 . hi cairptib, 43d3 . hi far crichaib, 115b10 . hi fers, Sg. 6b23 . hi roṡoithe, 73a11 . hí frecndairc, 204a5 . hi rogénair, Thes. ii 291.11 ; but : í cach thír, Wb. 1a3 . i corpu, 2b5 . í rúnaib, 2b10 . i tuil dée, 5c20 . (no exx. available of this from Ml.). i persin n-aili, Sg. 189a8 . i fogur, 6b1 . í titul, PCr. 15a3 . i comus, Thes. ii 244.30 (Camb.). In Ml. and Tur., frequently written inn before vowels : inna diad, Ml. 17c6 . inn aithchi dorchi, 30a4 . inn echaib, 43d3 . innar neurt, 43d3 . inn ecin, Tur. 134. In Wb. freq. inn before proclitic beginning with vowel : innar leid, 4b11 . inna chridiu, 10b20 . inna corp `in their body', 11d11 . inn aláil, 12a10 . In Mid. and Early Mod. Ir. i n- is often written a n- : a n-inad, PH 203. a persainn, 7577 . a sendataid, 3977 . a ngaire, BNnÉ 168.10 . a bus, SG 135.6 . cáit ambí in fer sin, 135.36 . a mmedón, TBFr. 103.

With article :

(a) dat. sg. isin chrud sin, Wb. 8b10 . isint senmim, 13d18 . isind óin uáir, 25b16 . isind laithiu, Ml. 21c3 . sind ló, TBC-LL¹ 444. issa baile-seo, Acall. 3360. is tir, BNnÉ 301.15 . is' taig, ScM. § 6.12 . is tig, BDD² 525. is’ tilaig, ITS l 38.13 . is tulaig, LL ii 13336 . is dorus, i 7318 . is tṡenchoss, iii 21254 . is treairiut 'in the three periods' UR 114 § 24 . 'sa dorus, Feis Tighe Chonáin 75. isteampull 'in the temple', Stair Nic. 32.602. Cf. 28.524 (v.l.) . ansan ūair-sein, Ériu iv 178 § 31. pl. isnaib fochidib, Wb. 14b19 . isnaib innib, Ml. 28a7 . isnaib sechtaib, Críth G. 303. isna airigthib, TBC-LL¹ 3552. ands[n]a... dúilib, O'Gr. Cat. 233.23. annsna righaibh, CF 922.

(b) acc. sg. issinn aíar, Wb. 25b24 . isa n-indarbae, Ml. 23c8 . issa suthin, 21d4 . is' tech, ScM. § 15.2 . isa tech, TBFr. 124. isa ndún, Trip.² 1464. isin ngnimrad, BCrólige § 37 n. 1 . insa curach, Feis Tighe Chonáin 920. ionnsa bhfiadh, 1173 . 'sa mboin, Fianaig. 72.18 . pl. isna bithu, Wb. 4c4 . isna lucu, Ml. 23d23 .

Distinction between dat. and acc. lost : annsa chéill, TSh. 3219. annsa gcéill, 2532 . neimhsheadh do thabhairt san tsaoghal, 339 . nach raibhe seadh san saoghal aice, 1866 . The distinction remained however in istech, istig ; immach, immaig, qq.v.

With pron. suff. ; s. 1 indium, Wb. 8d26 . Ml. 74d7 . innium, TBC-LL¹ 4382. ionnam, iondam, Feis Tighe Chonáin 1912 , 410 . s. 2 indiut, Ml. 106c15 . inniut, TBC-LL¹ 4350. iniud, TTebe 3673 . ionnod, TD 40 § 2. ionnat, DDána 2 § 11. inneat, 68 § 38 (: mbreac). s. 3 dat. m. + n. and, Wb. 1a5 . Ml. 45d15 . Sg. 3b5 . ant, Ml. 48c29 . and, Críth G. 100. ann, ML² 45. BDD² 91. annt, ZCP vii 481.29 (Enchir. Aug.). f. indi, Ml. 21c3 . Sg. 18a3 . Críth G. 105. BDD² 745. Laws iv 112.9 . hindae, BDD² 513. indti, 661 . inde, Laws iv 112.10 . inti, TBC-LL¹ 5211. TBFr. 200. inte, BDD² 498. acc. m. + n. ind, Ml. 22b1 . Críth G. 93. BDD² 196. Laws iv 136.x Comm. inn, 250. 5 Comm. f. inte, Sg. 6a6 . Críth G. 219. innte, DDána 1 § 9. pl. 1 indiunn, Wb. 5d18 . indiun-ni, Ml. 44d3 . annainn, Luc. Fid. 225.x . pl. 2 indib, Wb. 14c18 . Ml. 122c3 . innibh, DDána 68 § 23. ionnaibh -se (: fionnsoillse), 122 § 12. pl. 3 dat. indib, Ml. 30c17 . Sg. 216b4 . BDD² 475. indeb, 1468 . intib, TBC-LL¹ 174. TBFr. 35. innta, ML² 75. ionnta, DDána 122 § 17. annta, Luc. Fid. 285.10 . acc. intiu, Ml. 21a8 . Sg. 7a10 . inntu (for dat.), Ériu iii 160.24 . ionntadh, Feis Tighe Chonáin 1065.

With poss. : s. 1 im hulcc-sa, Wb. 2a8 . im chuimriug, 30a5 . iom giolla, TBC-LL¹ 5662 (St.). am f[h]ochair, ML² 774. am chlaidim, TTebe 1309 . s. 2 it senmathir, Wb. 29d11 . id ḟlaith, BDD² 178. id chémanduib, ML² 1654. at rēimennuib, 1655 . ad ruire, 1450 . it olcaibh, Studies 1933, 310 § 27 . s. 3 m+n. inna suidiu, Wb. 13a12 . inna thechtu, 13a28 . inda sesam, Mon. Tall. 129.13 . inna chumbu, Críth G. 111. ina suide, ScM. § 10.10 . 'na adhbar rīg, ML² 30. f. inná loc, Sg. 17a5 . pl. 1 innar leid, Wb. 4b11 . inar n-óccaibh, BS 112.18 . 'nar mbél-ne, Ériu iv 118 § 37. ionur ttríar, RC xxix 112 § 7. pl. 2 i bar tolaib, Wb. 3b8 . hi far selbad-si, 8d26 . in far n-Ultaib, TBC-LL¹ 1636. i bar (v.ll. in for, in bur) ngnáis-si, Fél. Ep. 375. i nbhar láimh, DDána 100 § 5 ; but cf. 'nar lámhaibh `in manibus vestris', TSh. 8579. pl. 3 ina ndúm, TBFr. 244. inna mbrucc, BDD² 1282. ana n-usci, Maund. § 136.5 .

With rel. : before a rel. i n- is not folld. by the demonstrative particle a n- as is the case with the other prepp., but is folld. directly by the verb which it eclipses : i mbiam, Ml. 21c3 . ind aimser hi rogabad, 24d14 . i mbí, Tur. 9. hi mbítis, Sg. 5a15 . indat sláin, Ml. 76a6 . aní i táa cuntubart libsi `that as to which there is doubt among you', Wb. 13a35 . intí i mbíi in spirut, 8b10 . arná torthaiset isnaib sechtaib hi tuitet enech cáich, Críth G. 303. i mbí toirm cech thempuil, Fél. May 10. cairm indom-acca ?, ScM. § 11.5 . triasand láim a mbaí an scíath, BDD² 1511. i mbiat smachta ni biat caiche ; i mbiat caiche ni biat smachta `where the requisites commanded by law are observed there are no penalties ...,' Laws iv 70.3 . cā háit a bfuil an fear feasa, Feis Tighe Chonáin 811. In Mod. Ir. on the analogy of the other prepp. i n- came sometimes to be folld. by the demonstr. particle: tuar neith ina dtú tacha | bheith gan bhú ..., Dán Dé vii 3. cath ... inar' thuitetar sochaidhi, RC xvii 377.22 . an dara halt 'na gcuirthear i gcéill ..., TSh. p. 13. (cf. san áit i bhfuil do thriall, TSh. 7137 ). an ait ann ar hiomchuibhthe an urnaighthe do dheanamh in which it were fittest, Luc. Fid. 73.1 . In Mod. Ir. also, i n-+ro frequently appears as ar : a thruaill chriadh-sa ar cuireadh mé, Dán Dé xi 4. áit ar marbhadh C., Keat. iii 2545. In the O. Ir. glosses the form of the prep. before ro was (h)i. Later in came to be used : irrufollnastar, Wb. 13b29 . hi roba, Ml. 62a13 . hi roṡoithe, Sg. 73a11 ; but : in ro lád, TBFr. 307. With neg. rel. : ainmnetach ret ... cride rig nime in nach dortai in doman ... i fudomnuibh pian `in that He doth not ...', Ériu ii 118 § 56. in gach uile ní 'snach cuirthear lá `in quibus dies non ponitur', TSh. 5175. trí neithe ... is nach raibhe an Tighearna, 9859 .

Before cach, cech : in glosses (h)i, later somet. in : i cach réit, Wb. 20c11 . hi cach ceniul, Sg. 2a2 . in cech úair, Fél. Dec. 29. in cach coiri, ScM. § 1.12 . in cech áis, PH 7115. in cach thrāth, Hail Brigit § 11. in gach errach, Fen. 286.x . in gach aon-duine, TSh. 2545. in gach en focal, BCC 436.29 . Occasionally is : is gach sochar, TSh. 798.

I Place .

A. Folld. in O.Ir. by dat.

1 Denoting place where (in both abstract and concrete meanings) :

(a) in : i mballaib caích `in everyone's members', Wb. 13d27 . attósa i sslabrid, 23a2 . i bar tolaib marbdib `in your mortal desires', 3b8 . Of an author's works : i nAmbaucu `in Habakkuk', 19b17 . amal donairchet hí fáithib et rofiugrad i rrect et amal asnindedar i ssoscélu, 13a36 . amal bid hi frecndairc no beth `as though he were present', Ml. 24c15 . i n-óen ṡosuth ṡillabe `in one position of a syllable', Sg. 7a3 . air thechtaid cach gutae a guth n-indi, 18a3 . comdire cach fri aroile i nnos chana `every person has equal dīre with another in cāin regulation', BCrólige § 5 . ni lugae mbis ind menme hisin cheill `the thought is no less occupied with the meaning', Mon. Tall. 142.23 . dam ocus tinne in cach coiri, ScM. § 1.12 . secht ndoruis isin bruidin, ib. 11 . bíann n-erbbad impu a mmedón, TBFr. 103. secht mílchoin i slabradaib argait, 33 . ar robōi Fergus fēin isin gliaid sin, ACL iii 5.7 . co facbath fuillecht ┐ eis (.i. lorg) a cos isin cloich, 10.12 . in raibhe i fāistine nó i ttaircetal accaibh ..., RC xxvii 294 § 58. nocho roibe dath nad beith inntib, xxiv 144.5 . uaitne dib i ndath snechta ┐ araile a ndath fhola, D IV 2, fo. 42c14 . adeir Auicenna go ndéntur céd comshuidigud na ndáine ands[n]a ceithri dúilib `that the primary composition of men is of the four elements', O'Gr. Cat. 233.23. go ndingnaid ... foslongport im chellaib `will besiege my churches', BCC 156.7 . a mac bec fein ina laim `leading her little boy by the hand,' Celt. Rev. viii 296.17 . Denoting the possession by anyone of certain qualities or characteristics : furrthain ó gCais san choghnach the chief is sufficient to succour the seed of Cas, IGT Decl. ex. 1125. ní ḟoil ionnod acht ionann `thou art exactly similar,' TD 40 § 2. ionnus gu mbiadh innta an righe do sdiurad `that they may know how to govern the kingdom,' Ériu v 132 § 67. ní raibhe ionnta acht buannadha do ríoghaibh Éireann `they were nothing more than ...,' Keat. ii 5079.

(b) among : a comgraidh isin tuaith `their equals in rank among the laity', BCrólige § 4 n. 3 . fuair a chrochad hi Parthib `met his crucifixion among the Parthians,' Ériu iii 196 § 12. easáonta ... na ndáoineadh ... ina bfuil sé `among whom he is,' v 92.9 .

(c) at, on, upon : hí flid Crist `at Christ's feast', Wb. 9b14 . huare is hi tilchaib ardaib no bitis, Ml. 14a9 . menme isind aurnaigti `mind fixed on prayer,' Mon. Tall. 151.19 . i mmulluch Usnig, Ériu iv 152.15 . Domhnall ... do bhualadh ... do chloidheamh i mbun ordóige, i 102 § 63 . dortad donnfala do shiltin as in aeer i cennaib na curad on to the warriors' heads, viii 26.15 . ro-an a chenn i fertais in charpait, ScM. § 19.7 . robenta corne ina cendaib `tonsures were shorn on their heads,' BColm. 26.6 . a mbun Cart[h]i na nGīall `at the foot of the pillar-stone ...', 72.20 . gelscíath co túagmílaib argait inti, TBC-LL¹ 5211. gemel crūaid i (v.ll. ar, um) coiss a hard fetter on the foot, KMMisc. 270 § 43. i n-erblib ech at the tails of horses, Fen. 66.4 . súil i gcuid mo chomhursan, A. Ó Dálaigh xxviii 5. o smuaintighib ... na mairtirech a crechtaib Crisd `thinking on the wounds', BCC 4.17 . ro baí ballán ... isan adart `on the pillow', Ir. Review 1912, 248 § 7 . i n-imiul in baile on the edge of the town, RC xxvii 292.10 . i mbruach alltorach in tsrotha, CCath. 459. atci buidin moir chuici isin drochat bui tarsin sruth, FDG 715. is file [i] gcois ma-raon ris ` on foot ,' A. Ó Dálaigh lv 5. an chroch ... do Chríosd ... 'gá chrochadh innte, Dán Dé xx 22. is aibind duit, a thuir, ... is aibinn in radarc fuil innud (to a tower), ZCP vi 26.31 . cuirid láimh i seizes : co nachar' lamh nech... lamh do chur ann durst lay hand upon him, RC xix 288 § 225. cuiris lámh i Mochuda ┐ tug ... as an mainistir amach é, Keat. iii 1948.

2 Denoting state or condition in which : hor bi accobur láe nebud dó i nnoidenacht `that he should not be in infancy', Wb. 24d11 . isind inducbáil sin `in that glory', 4c40 . i lláni etargni `in the fulness of knowledge,' 24c6 . ind fir bíis inna suidiu `who is sitting', 13a12 . bíid cach gnim inna thechtu `in its proper order', 13a28 . inna imned-sin i mbiam isind laithiu, Ml. 21c3 . in i comsuidigud fa hi comasndís bíit `in composition or in apposition', Sg. 217a1 . i bar ngnáis-si `in your company', Fél. Ep. 375. dol asa eol a richtaib con `to stray in wolf-shapes', BCrólige § 32 n. 13 . cach ['la] gabal i ssuidiu araile hi sesam `every [other] division is sung sitting, the next standing', Mon. Tall. 140.4 . conna-ētai focul fort chenn i córai properly , ScM. § 14.7 . ataat inna mbrucc in a state of dejection, BDD² 1282. tusu ad c[h]ollad, ACL iii 234 § 6. minub ina duthracht bes if it be not with good will, Ériu v 20.y . is é timairg for cech eclais co raib a durrthech ┐ a relec hi nglaine `to have its oratory and its burial-ground purified', i 219 § 6 . fororbart a cland-side ... co mbatar i mmílib so that they were thousands, LL 649 . tainic ... i n-uaite ṡloig `with a small company', Fen. 144.y . do bhī in Pelagius sin ... a nāemthacht foirbthe ┐ a mbethaid inmolta, ZCP xiii 179.21 . batar a n-itaid ┐ i tart mor, RC xxiv 196.11 . bai sidhe hi cocadh fri Find, xiii 7.z . in duine nach biadh isnna dubhailchibh marbhthacha, Études Celt. i 78.15 . ro bo cinti crīch i mbethaid i n-imḟogus dóib `certain end of life' (taking place of the more usualgen.), Fianaig. 92.29 . a thabairt i rricht feola aili `in the guise of other flesh', TTebe 1861 . bu gairid bía ad bethaid risna cathaib, 1030 . ar bhfaicsin Críost i gcruth bháis, DDána 16 § 5. cor fhoscail C. C. a suile ... ┐ e 'sa mbas `and he dying', BCC 414.3 . gach mac ... | dá raibhe i n-aois an airdríogh, Studies 1934, 90 § 22 . 'san luas na ttreigfitt as quickly as , BNnÉ 148.25 .

With poss. before certain vnn. : comtha ... ad lenamain, Prolegomena 27 n. 2 . an tṡlat oile 'na adrad the other youth worshipping him, ZCP viii 563 § 28. ion bhur lenmhuin, ML² 331. as-bert fria ina sloindiud `as he named himself (?)', BDD² 47.

3 Denoting manner in which : by means of, through, by : direnar hi comdire ... fri grada ecalsa `is paid for by equal dīre with the church grades', BCrólige § 7. nad airnaidet a tir ina frithfoltaib coirib `who does not sustain his land by performing the proper corresponding duties', § 16. ailid cac otrus a arag hi coraib bel `every sick-maintenance entails its binding by contracts', § 55. i mbommannaib arberad bith ind lítain a cuid uli `he used to consume all his portion of porridge in morsels', Mon. Tall. 135.9 . Cairbre ... do mharbhadh i bhfeill by treachery, Ériu i 101 § 55. forbhfáiltigter : an radhorc a ndath uaine, an t-eistecht a bhfoghor éttrom `gratification is afforded: to the sight, by the colour of green ; to the hearing, by a `light' sound', O'Gr. Cat. 277.27. rofersum failti friu ina n-anmannaib uadéin by their own names, D IV 2, fo. 45c5 .

4 Apposition.

A noun in apposition may be preceded by the prep. i n- (governing dat.) + poss. This was a development of the older use of the dat. without prep., e.g. is bés dúibsi far n-Ultaib, ScM. § 9.4 . ro bámarni .xu. feraib ┐ ar cúic súili déc desa do chaechad dó, BDD² 1130 and note. Hence with prep. : dúinni nar nUltaib, LU 4637. is bés dúibsi in far n-Ultaib, LL 112by . cid ma ta in mhorc[h]oinne seo acaibh in bhar nGeistedhaibh why have ye, Gesteda, ..., Ériu v 148.56 . dobudh nár dhúinn ionur ttríar Ulltach `to us three Ultonians', RC xxix 112 § 7. ní iomdha dhúnn i n-ar ndaoinibh `not many of us men ...', Dán Dé xii 1. do bhríogh gurab ennádúir amháin dhiadha gan roinn atá ionnta na ttriúr, Ó Héodhusa 25.5.

5 In predicates

(i) with subst. verb : itā mo chorp 'na c[h]amra, ACL iii 239 § 34. 'na bidbuid no go mbí fear until a man is an enemy, Ériu iv 212 § 2. dia mbadh mo chomairli-si do gneithi ann ... is 'na chath no biadh, Leb. Gab.(i) 252.23 . do bī 'n-a adhbar rīg, ML² 30. Feidhlimid mac Toirdelbaig ... ina Húa Conchubuir `... was the Húa Conchobair', Maund. 6. tét sé a comlaidir sin ... co mbí sé 'na uiscci mhilis .xx. míle 'sa fairrcci móir (of the Danube), 7 . is dearbh go bhfuilim-se im dhuine shomharbhtha, TSh. 143.

(ii) with other verbs : tanic in mac i n-a aenur, RC v 199 § 6. doberad ingen prinnsa da muindtir fein dam ina mnái, Maund. 47. tanac-sa im baidb buaidertha `I came a troubled ghost', TTebe 1899 . tarla ... an mac ... 'n-a dhalta foghluma ag Ciarán ar tí bheith 'n-a mhanach, Keat. iii 826.

6 After verbs of dividing, changing, putting, ending, etc. somet. folld. by dat. (but see infra B. 4) : trí traigid .x. a [a]ircha[e] ara rorandathar bés a thige indi, Críth G. 105. i nniarcomrucc ... forcenda ollbairdne, IT iii 11.2 . do-roinded a chorp i cethri blogaib, PH 1856. rocúmscaig i ndelbaib brechtnaib, 1740 . gur claechló an t-ór ina ghran ... eorna, BNnÉ 233.9 . timarcad i llige chro `after he has been forced into blood-lying', BCrólige § 1 n. 1 . aca cur hi cís ┐ a foghnam dermar, ZCP xi 65.10 . do c[h]uiredur insna reachtuibh-si mē, Feis Tighe Chonáin 437. nár chuirthe seadh sna sealbhaibh saoghalta, TSh. 364.

7 Various abstract meanings.

in the matter of, in respect to, in regard to : adib éolig and `ye are knowing therein,' Wb. 26b12 . cosmili fri Adam ngnímaib et accobraib, 13d12 . aní i táa cuntubart libsi `that as to which there is doubt among you', 13a35 . ar nebmóidem hi magistrib `our not boasting as to masters', 8d26 . i ndiad nach aili aridfe(i)t i llugu over whom he takes precedence in swearing, Críth G. 42. annsom i n-otrus la Fēne `most difficult in regard to nursing', BCrólige § 15. brithem eola(i) i mbiadaib `a judge who is knowledgeable about refections', § 31. ni fil bríg laisiom hisind accobar sin `he considers that such desire is no great matter', Mon. Tall. 151.13 . rosuidiged cutramas eneclainde ... isna bechaib `equal honor-price was fixed for the bees', Laws iv 200.8 Comm. i pendit ind áosae galrich `in the case of penance laid on sickly persons,' Mon. Tall. 146.27 . indat mebhair-siu ... isna airigthib gascid, TBC-LL¹ 3552. nīmda cuimcech-sa hi suidiu I am not capable of that, ZCP viii 310.11 . do agra Fechín isin saer `to expostulate with F. about the wright', RC xii 346 § 39. a n-abar ann dámadh fíor if what is said in this regard be true, Dán Dé xxvi 17. gurab eigin don liaigh éolus do bheith aige i naduir na heaslainte-si, 23 K 42, 186.3 .

according to : nach fer ... folongar i fenechus `who is being maintained according to native law', BCrólige § 22. rocoraidhid ... cách fo gradaib ┐ i ndanaib ┐ a ndligemnus `everyone was seated according to rank, profession and lawful claim', Ériu v 234.35 . a fīraicned screptra ┐ chuibsi according to the true nature of scripture and conscience, i 214.6 . adeir N. 'na ugdaras fēin on his own authority, ZCP xiii 181.20 .

instead of, in compensation for : inni uil do chach ... i crolige bais d'fertain air `that which is due to each for inflicting a mortal blood-lying upon him', BCrólige § 1 n. 6 . eiric in gac gruaid iarna brisidh `wergild for every cheek after it has been broken', § 64 n. 1 . cidh bias isin beoguin `for the life-wound', Laws iv 232.21 . in bur cintaib for your crimes, Anecd. i 44.2 . is olc an t-íc dhamh thu annsna righaibh... do thuit leat a poor compensation for the kings, CF 922. déirc sin (sic leg.) saint `almsgiving instead of greed', Dán Dé xxiv 9. beag an éaraic iarrfa id ghuin, DDána 30 § 16.

in contrast with, as against : is étrum in digal i mméit in pectho `the punishment is light for the greatness of the sin', Ml. 126b6 .

for the purpose of, with a view to : d'imcoimet na mna doberar isin ngnimrad `who is given to do the work', BCrólige § 37 n. 1 . a ndilgud chinad, PH 2993. i comartha dilguda, 3117 . i ndíoghail a athar in revenge for his father, Ériu i 101 § 56. rogabus ben ar eicin. Cid indaragbais ? why did you seize her ?, ZCP xii 362.18 . cf. bat becda fri becdataid, i ndēntar do thol that your will may be done, Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. 18 § 8.4 . bat tó fri tó[i], i n-étsider aisnēis, ib. 6 .

In expressing the specific extent by which one thing exceeds or falls short of another : to the extent of : corop máa i n-óenṡillaib in comparit, Sg. 40b7 . a nnád foirpret i n-oenṡillaib `when they do not increase by one syllable', 48b5 . teora cethramdin huare aequinocht indid mailliu a tuile ar cach óen laithiu `by which the flood is slower day by day', Thes. ii 14.35 (Bcr.). a coic indid óa (of the moon) `by which it is less', 20.41 . mad i ndib n-uarib deac nammá bas laigu cach mí ..., 10.4 .

8 ann 3 s. dat. m. and n. form of i + pron.

Freq. to be translated there, therein : bid [prec]eptóir cách and `every one will be a teacher there', Wb. 13a13 . maní bé est ánd tuas ┐ mad argumento bes ant, Ml. 14d1 . issed inso nád chumaing ara-n-ísar and ` 'tis this which cannot be found there', Sg. 209b13 . robatar indsin (rectius and-) etir da tráth din ló, RC iii 184.28 . teid Conán onn (=ann), Duan. F. i 67.29 . feirinnsgne sáoi ┐ flaith : an sáoi, an flaith as cóir ann, IGT Introd. 9.7 .

Used predicatively

(i) with subst. verb expressing existence and in identification clauses : ma beith nech and tra labrathar ilbélre `if there be anyone who speaks many languages', Wb. 13a4 . tuc an ingin aithne gurbh 'e righ Eirenn do bí ann, Ériu iii 152 § 6. rofiarfaig Fechin don rigain scéla in claim ┐ ro innis do gur 'uo he Isu ro ui ann, RC xii 344.15 . is é droch-nós do mhothaigh do bheith ann, TSh. 359.

(ii) with other verbs : fagham saor ann dá mbudh eol let me find an artificer who would know, Dán Dé ix 24. is tú thug na haibhne ann | 'sna maighre ar fhud na habhann, vi 38 .

Used pleonastically :

(i) with clauses introduced by áit : Cath Bhealaigh Féile ... áit ar thuit iomad do Mhuimhneachaibh ... ann, Keat. iii 2338.

(ii) anticipating a follg. adv. or adverbial phrase : is and rogab ar tús tes it began in the south, RC xvii 416.24 . is and ata mo chumachta comlai[n]d am chlaidim, TTebe 1309 . is ann batar dá dhuirb isin uisci there were two worms in the water, RC vi 175.44 . = is amlaid: is and ro boí Cu Chulaind iar mbéim dei a lened ┐ in snechta immi, LU 5856 . is and ra buí Finnachta oc imbirt ḟidchilli, LL v 39060 . is ann buí-seom: oc sním irchomail fo Grip, SCano 238 . ? atá ann = atá amlaid, Celtica xii 190 : atá and iarom conid hé ainm in cnuic Forgemen, LU 5830 .

(iii) in a rel. clause expressing identity : as é as faoisidin ann, gerán tuirsech doní an pecach, Mac Aingil 165.10 . is eadh is treas bás ann .i. bás na péine, TSh. 1948. Contrast : issí poetica licentia and tormach inna á , Sg. 31b12 .

B. Folld. in O.Ir. by acc.

1 Denoting place whither : i nníulu `into the clouds', Wb. 25b23 . tri dul isna lucu arda, Ml. 23d23 . dulluid Pátricc o Themuir hi crích Laigen, Thes. ii 241.5 (Ardm.). aratesed b isin sillaib tánaisi `that b should pass into the second syllable,' Sg. 21b9 . corop si cetathe ... hi tech n-óil that she go first, LU 8825. tecmaltar a insce dó hi teora bríathra his statement is gathered into three words, Críth G. 40. a guin inna dí chúlaid, 538 . snáidsiunn in sab slúagach | i sossad n-ard n-óiblech `into the high sparkling station,' Fél. Sept. 21. arna tailctis isa ndún, Trip.² 1464. do ḟeitheam a long ... as ┐ ind `to watch his vessels (going) out and (coming) in,' RC xvi 142.6 . cloictheach ... ┐ eoin duba diairme índ ┐ as `passing into and out of it,' xvii 394.32 . ar dhol ionnsa bhfiadh, Feis Tighe Chonáin 1173. gan dul isin mbelach mbodhba sin, ML² 337. éirg i férmaig Taillten tall, Ériu iv 106.2 . a chroch dhearg i ndeachaidh Íosa, DDána 2 § 15. dat. for acc.: arna digsed i nUlltaib, Ériu viii 175.3 . rachaidh i sosadh aingeal, TSh. 801. téidheadh isteach i bpurgadóir Phádraic, Keat. i 48.65 . ná heirg i slánaibh síotha, TD 15 § 45.

2 Denoting state into which : ar cor hi far selbad-si `into your possession', Wb. 8d26 . dotháod som im muindterus ndé, Mon. Tall. 134.31 . ros-lá i socht na h-Ulto, ScM. § 9.1 . is inna réir tíagait `they submit to him', BDD² 791. dol ina troid `go to fight him', Duan. F. i 79.3 . go ndeach mo chorp i gcaoile, Dán Dé vii 23. do chuaidh i dtarbha don tsagart (of a prayer), L. Cl. A. B., 20.12 . Apparently folld. by dat. : co ndechaidh i muinighin Brighte (? or read mBrighte), RC xxvii 292.y . docuadur a millsi brīathar ┐ a cāine comrāidh re chéile, ZCP vi 105.9 .

3 After words denoting hope, trust, belief, respect, liking, attention, etc., and their opposites: ní intiu fadesin dorecachtar `it was not in themselves they hoped', Ml. 53b11 . do neuch no-dn-eirbea ind `that shall trust in Him', 51b10 . tri chretim i n-Ísu `through belief in Jesus', Wb. 3c2 . gan cás at anam agad `not to care for thy soul', Ériu viii 195 § 4. tuigther dhún ... gurub faill tug 'nar tegmáil `that he has neglected our quarrel', iv 216 § 17 . ni raibh cadhas aige i gcill no i dtuaith `he recked naught of ...,' ZCP iv 398.5 . a menma indeḟeithmech dogrés i nDia, RC ii 400 § 42. in midochus dobi acu annsa tor do cosnum, xix 282 § 212 . uair is iniud ata mo tairisi ┐ ni ha caruit cumachtaig ele, TTebe 3673 . san tsúil ... ná cuir suim (dat.), DDána 8 § 5. déin trocaire orainn do réir ar ndochais ionnad, Parrth. Anma 9.2 . d'egla go ccuirfidhe amharas na bhas, Ó Héodhusa 63.8. dimbríogh do thabhairt san uile ní, TSh. 343. dúil ag duine i gcraos ┐ i ndrúis, 396 .

4 After verbs of changing, putting, dividing, ending the acc. is more common (but see supra A. 6) : cona tintuuth i mbélre n-aill `with their translation into another language', Wb. 13a1 . in tan domberam ar menmain intiu co lleir `when we give our mind to them diligently', Ml. 21a8 . fodailter i cóic libru `is divided into five books', Hib. Min. 46. forceinnfitis anmmann inte `nouns would be ended in it', Sg. 6a6 . co ro-deglad a ndeich renda, PH 1212. gurb i luaithreadh do claochlódhthaoi é, TSh. 300. do chuir sin do thuicsin innti curbé Gaibriel aingil ticced do labairt ris `made her understand ...', Maund. § 126. i n-am cruais dá cur im chúis `will be brought against me in my day of trial', Studies 1933, 140 § 12 .

5 Various abstract meanings.

for, on account of : nimbia durata ind `he will have nothing to give for it', Ml. 57a13 . connabáe níi indid n-ingaba á chocubus `for which his conscience may reprehend him', Wb. 11d8 . i ngabál (sic) lóge `for taking pay', 16d4 . bó i ndéicsin [n-]ind for looking into it, Críth G. 211. ca hindeochad do-bérad in rí forru ind (in punishment) for it, BDD² 196. do-gníth in chomairle hísin ┐ do-bertatar glindi ind di síu ┐ anall on both sides securities were given for it, 421 . esrócartha isan ngním sin | seasca lanamna, Snedg. u. Mac R 12 § 50. dobértar dā boin 'sa mboin ┐ dā cháirigh 'sa gcāeirig, Fianaig. 72.18 . doté(i)t aitire ar ḟer feras in fuil i córus [n-]othrusa, i mboin (`an aitire goes surety for the man who inflicts the wound for [his due observance of] the rule of sick-maintenance, [i.e.] for a cow [as penalty for non-observance ?]', tr. Ériu xii 83.26 ), Críth G. 53. ainmnetach ret ... cride ... rig nime i nnach dortai in doman ... fudomnuibh pian `in that He doth not ...', Ériu ii 118 § 56. Contrast : tucc buidechus do Día in a tindlaicibh, ZCP xi 128.26 .

Cf. indid Niall ... ro malart since it is N. ..., AU i 438.26 . faelid-sem ... hi nglen luch inna gerchrub, Thes. ii 293.24 ( SP ii ). indid Alend is dún fás, Hail Brigit § 14. inid mo athair ... ortabairsi, BDD² 737. olc i n-a ndligend bás d'fhagbail `for which he deserves', PH 2719.

as (see GOI §249.2 ) : tabeir i taurchreicc céile as a fief for a client, Críth G. 252. fáccaib in .vii. maid mboin ... i fochraic in tíre as payment for the land, 94 . gebtit iudei i n-apid, Wb. 26a8 . dobreatha i n-asgaidh dhó as a gift, TBC-LL¹ p. 367 n. 6 . i llóg a batsi `in payment of his baptism', BColm. 10.17 . dia ndechadh ... iom giolla fo[glamma] i n-Espain `als Lehrling', TBC-LL¹ 5662 (Stowe). ar is īatt robói ana farrad ann a fían a saert[h]a `as his protecting fian', BColm. 94.8 . a screbull a todúsc[th]e as fee for bringing him back to life, ACL iii 226.2 (= i screpall, RC xxvi 370.27 ). gur marbhadh é féin 'na éiric, Ériu i 102 § 63. go dtug Brian fáinne óir ... i n-almsain ar altóir Árda Macha, 82.3 . i comhardha na mīrbaile in token of the miracle, RC xxvii 300.14 . ro íarr a n-impidhe `as a request', Fl. Earls 50.23 . co tarttsat a mbú ... i lón sloigh día n-amhsaibh `as provisions', Hugh Roe 68.14 . dat. i forciull ar cainte `as a testimony of', PH 1576. a n-eisimplair ogachta na hi Muire, D IV 2, fo. 45c37 .

II Time.

1 With nouns of time : (a) with dat. to express point of time, (b) with acc. to express duration.

(a) isind óin uáir, Wb. 25b16 . hi cach láo, 4b21 . hi tossuch, 5c16 . i n-aimsir in tindnacuil-sin, Ml. 55c1 . i n-aínib ┐ domnachaib ┐ chorgasaib, Críth G. 145. isin blíadain, Fél. Prol. 281. fíach n-aidci lúoin do tabairt isind Sathurn, Mon. Tall. 137.3 . isin laithiu i rrogénair, BDD² 111. a láoibh áille `on fine days', Ériu ix 168 § 44. lim congébat sind ló baga, TBC-LL¹ 444. i n-aimsir thēchtai at the prescribed time, Ériu i 218.22 . a[n] nemlabhuirt a n-aimseraibh airithe, v 130 § 47 . i ló an mheasa `on Judgment Day', Dán Dé x 6. re sidi ... ngaithi inn a[i]msir gairb, TTebe 2403 . i ndeireadh bheatha, TSh. 885.

(b) is dia bendachthe isna bithu `He is God, blessed for ever', Wb. 4c4 . ní tremfeidliget immurgu issa suthin `(they) do not endure for ever,' Ml. 21d4 . i flaith Conaire in the course of C.'s reign, BDD² 229.

*1 (With verb) when : inraptar lán[a] a c[h]óic blíadna 'when he was five years old' TBC-I² 537 . hi nglen luch 'when a mouse sticks' Murphy Lyrics 2 § 6 . hi tucu cheist 'when I understand … a problem' ibid . imsa naídiu 'when I was a child' 86 § 5 . imbu macán when He was a small boy Blathm. 90 § 1 . inde-cluinethar ... inden-aici 'when he hears it ... when he sees it' AM 18 § 59 . i mbi 'when it is' CIH ii 529.20 , Pagan Past and Christian Present 26 . Succat a ainm i tubrad 'Succat (was) his name when he was carried off' Thes. ii 308.18 , Ériu lvi 41 n. 58 . 2 ann = then, in that case :

in tan mbís diabol n-airech désa lais is and is aire désa dia n-eper[r] ..., Críth G. 258. is and is rí(g) in tan dodnimmchellat dréchta[i] gíalna[i], 569 . ar fochraic tucustar duine a fearunn ann-sin, Laws iv 136.7 Comm. is and dixit in ben thereupon , ScM. § 3.4 . in tan ro ngabsat na curaig tír, is and robuí Mac Cécht oc béim tened i mBruidin Dá Derga, BDD² 479. is ann sin trá do-luid Conaire íar Slighi Chúalann, 429 . ba forpthi, anōraigthe a lá-sa ar na mirbuilib imdaib-si forcóemnacair and, Ériu ii 196 § 14. cuirid daeine úaisle comurtha ... ara n-aighthib, óir ann is dóig léo fein co ra bíattis uáisle 'sa doman `for then they think ...', Maund. § 158.

Pleonastically after nouns denoting time, when these are used adverbially :

do-luid feachtus n-ann dar aenach mBreg Léith `once upon a time', BDD² 2. a mbūi-seom laa n-and for Bendaib Bairchi one day, Ériu ii 22.5 . luid C. fecht n-aen ann do accalldaim in ríg, RC vi 175.52 .

III With nouns denoting occasion or circumstance : i cach caingin `in every dealing', Wb. 25b5 . isin tsenmim dedenach `in the last call', 13d18 . ar mu sémi-se ... isnaib fochaidib, Ml. 22d1 . foghlaim ad lenph when thou art a child, Ériu v 134 § 82. co mbo ḟortachtaigthid do Pátraic ┐ co mbo dítnith in cach guasacht ┐ co mbo comdídnad iarsna saethraib, ACL iii 10.13 .

IV Frequently forming prepositional and adverbial phrases, e.g. i n-agaid against, opposed to : gē mōr do shluaguibh ... biadh ionn bur n-aghaidh, Feis Tighe Chonáin 1907. armad treisiti a nert ind aghaid a namhat, Ériu viii 174.15 .

i cend

(a) against : do scáin in comla 'na cend `the door burst in towards them', Ériu iv 118 § 28. nach tuigit a nguasacht no go tecat lucht innill na sás-sin i n-a cend, PH 7739. coimēirghi na cōig cōigedach i n-a c[h]enn, ML² 1136. ná digis t'aenur | i cenn ríg Temra, SG 365.10 .

(b) as well as, in addition to : cech cúmsanad hi cend a chele, PH 3647. do-chuirfed tuilled i n-a chend, 7730 . cion Eabha i n-aghaidh an Dúilimh | doirbh téarnamh ó théid 'na cheann `when others are added to it', Dán Dé iii 16 .

i cinn at the end of : hi cind nói mblíadan, Ériu iv 94 § 12. conarba luga hí hi cind mis oltás orcc cránai, PH 7210. hi cind Ruis Omna `at the head of ...', BColm. 82.19 . i ndead after : i ndead innanísin, Sg. 1a5 . regad i nbar ndīaid, TBC-I¹ 509. amal atberum i n-ar ndiaid, PH 63. i ndegaid after : cech consain i ndegaid araile, Sg. 7a4 . foraindi ┐ for ar maccaib i n-ar ndegaid, PH 2731. i ndochum towards : ronfáid ... i ndochum n-Iffirn, SR 1856. i ndorus in front of : for-ránaicc ... a ndorus a lis, BDD² 1514. i ndorus do thige, ScM. § 11.5 . ro cing Poimp indorus a pupaill for in eac[h] sin, CCath. 4738. i ndorus Ierusalem, ACL ii 144.22 . suidis Cáilte ar in carn i ndorus in dúin, SG 139.10 . i fochair along with, in the company of : is it fhochair-siu bed-sa, CCellaig 789. am f[h]ochair, ML² 774. i fus here : in slog biid i fus, SR 4537. in tan nad bi Adam hi fos, 1193 . fad gairit bias Cáilte ibhus, SG 139.x . Somet. of this world as opposed to next : na da bethaid iarsa fhognann (MS. ḟogh-) cech iresech i-fhos (MS. i ḟos), PH 3547. do nirt a shúalach i-fhus (leg. i ḟus) i nnert a fhochraice forórda ┐ a bethad suthaine thall, 4674 . i lleth with, in the company of : ní-terpi illed nach áili `thou dost not trust thyself with anyone else', Wb. 1d10 . hóre attá innar leid `because He is with us', 4b11 . Colmān ... im leth `by my side', BColm. 94.23 . dire so fuil i leth inneic is dir do biadh along with what is due ..., BCrólige § 17 n. 4 . i leth fri in regard to, with : batar ... i nilar comperta i lleith re mnaibh ilarda `in many unions with several women', BCrólige § 57 n. 7 . is cinntech i leth fri Dia ┐ ecinntech i leth fria dainib `finite to God, infinite to men' (of the number of the angels). PH 6218. cen co derntar gabail ... i lleth friu `though an attack be not made.in regard to them', BCrólige § 37 n. 2 . iss ed fodera in comrorcu sin dam il-leth frit-sa that caused me to doubt you, MacCongl. 57.6 . i tossuch at the beginning : i tossoc[h] ná epistle, Wb. 14b2 . i tosach nach lae, CCath. 3807. adv. a n-as irchride is hed doralad hi tossuch, Wb. 13d8 . i tús at the beginning : indroet som sochaidi hi tús `at first he had received many', Mon. Tall. 135.17 . i suidiu then, thereat : ro-boí buille dar áo i suidiu, ScM. § 18.4 .

imchomaircech

Cite this: eDIL s.v. imchomaircech or dil.ie/27382

 

Forms: himchomairgech

adj o, ā (imchomarc) questioning, hesitating: adv. ní himchomairgech racúas andsede, TTr. 2092. ní co himcomaircech ro cúadhus ann `without questioning,' CCath. 2397. ni himcomaircech ro freccrad an fer sin la a muintir, 2808 . nir hiomchomhairceach ro freaccradh an urfhogra-sin la húa nDomhnaill, Hugh Roe 290.12 . nir bo hiomcomhaircech ro bás ina lenmain ga ttraothadh ... `were eagerly pursued,' AFM vi 2072.27 .

imdoraid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. imdoraid or dil.ie/27496

 

adj i (2 imm + doraid) very difficult: fuaratar somh baoghal for áth n-imdhoraidh `they got an advantage at one difficult ford,' AFM vi 2026.5 .

As subst. f. great difficulty ; unevenness, ruggedness (of terrain) : ní fogaib and imdoraid hi tír omna, LU 8632 ( FB § 47 ). bātor doimh ... ag treórughadh gacha mēide nār uo hinaistir dhībh tar in imdhoraidh `bringing all of them that could not travel over the hard road,' Fl. Earls 88.16 . go mbrisedh croidhe saothair ┐ docomail ┐ gach imdhoraidh archena, 142.x . la haimhreidhe ┐ la hiomdhóraidh an tslígedh, Hugh Roe 16.11 . riasiú tiostais tar iomdhoraidh an tslébhe, AFM vi 2128.1 .

léiciud

Cite this: eDIL s.v. léiciud or dil.ie/29768

 

Forms: leciud, léciud, lécud, lecun, lecud, legod, lēigen, ligen, leagan, lecadh, lecan, leiccen, leigion, leicthe, léigthe, licthe, leicctiu, leccti, leiciud, lécud, licad, lecudh, lecon, lecun, leccad, légen, légadh, léiccen, léigean, légadh, leagadh

u, m. vn. of léicid. In Mid. and Mod. Ir. also with -e-, with non-palatal quality of the -c-, and with -n- endings except in gen. n s. leciud, Ml. 105b 16 . léciud, Ériu ii 65 § 8. lécud, LU 3922. lecun, 3905 . lecud, Laws v 366.14 . legod, iv 214.28 Comm . lēigen, ZCP xiv 240.12 . ligen, vi 85.10 . leagan, Dán Dé xxiii 13 (: sbreagadh). a s. lecadh, Laws ii 240.10 Comm . lecan, v 478.14 Comm . leiccen, BNnÉ 248 § 201 . leigion, Duan. F. ii 256 § 33. g s. leicthe, LU 6965. Aithd. D. 98.24 . léigthe, 23 K 42, 122.10 . licthe, Fianaig. 52.13 . leicctiu, CCath. 5128 (leccti, v.l.). d s. leiciud, Sg. 127b3 . lécud, Fél. Apr. 21. LU 8151. licad, Laws i 172.22 Comm . lecudh, 86.z Comm . lecon, v 442.10 Comm . lecun, i 100.13 Comm . leccad, Grail 3675 . légen, BCC 104.13 . légadh, Hugh Roe² 328.z . léiccen, 112.32 . léigean, Keat. ii 5260. Cf. also leicsin, Laws v 508.5 Comm . légadh, IGT Verbs § 71. leagadh, § 36 .

I

(a) act of loosing, releasing, throwing, hurling : T. . . . do léccadh dua Raghallaigh was set at liberty by O'R., AFM iii 306.8 . Of blood shedding, letting : cro fir frisaige leca fola nad urgair `who is present at the shedding of blood which he did not hinder', Laws v 236.14 . an fhuil d'fheucoin a haithle a léigthe, 23 K 42, 122.10 . cuisle do legin, Rosa Angl. 30.7 . do bithin cuislinne do leicceadh dhó, AFM iii 218.4 . do lethgāethib lethna lict[h]i `spears for throwing', Fianaig. 90.1 . ina dumha sealga ┐ ina lāthair licthe (of a hunter), 52.13 . Of a particular kind of cast: léciud ón co forgabáil, TBFr. 237.

(b) act of allowing, permitting : lecud creice cen urgaire `allowing a sale without prohibition', Laws v 366.14 . lécud na mmucce do rainn dam that I be permitted to divide the pig, Sc.M² 8 (léicid in muic etc., v.l.).

(c) act of leaving alone, abandoning : is dech a llecud ammain manini aithriged `if they do not repent it is best to leave them alone', Mon. Tall. 128.5 . iar lécud cech ṡubai having given up, Fél. Apr. 21 . ainmne, nechte co nóibi, / léciud sechte co sóibi `putting away of hypocrisy', Ériu ii 65 § 8. Act of putting away, repudiating (a wife, etc.): a bith coa lécud do Choin Ch. (of Fand), LU 3955 ( SCC 45 ). mná arna légad d'fearuib, IGT Verbs ex. 623 . D. . . . do lecad do, Ann. Conn. 1339.7 . dob ail le hIoseph Muire do leigin tre ed, Smaointe B. Chr. 465.

Various: i llobud do cána . . . .i. laebad no i licad do riagla `slighting thy rule', Laws i 172.22 Comm . is luaithe mé . . . / ná an luingeas ar ligean na taoide `suffered to swim with the tide', O'Gr. Cat. 593.30 . l.¤ scíse, l.¤ éloid see s.vv. scís, élúd.

II With prepositions.

(a) With A act of allowing to escape from, releasing from: ar leciud o Persaib as ind fognam hi robammar `our release by the Persians', Ml. 105b16 . can a lecan as in druim fri lias not to allow it out of the cattle-shed, Laws v 478.14 Comm . alma ┐ éiti . . . arna lécud asa fáltaigib, MU² 390 . a lecan a gemil he was released (of a prisoner), RC xviii 196.x . gan a léigean go flaitheas Dé a purgadóir, TSh. 4266. Hence with 3 s. n. of prep.: logh einiuch nama do lecin as, cin seotu `the amount of honor-price only shall be let go', Laws ii 38.16 Comm . re lecadh as imurro ata in laogh `the heifer calf is to be spared', 240.10 Comm . can a lec(h)ud as `not allow him to escape', Cog. 146.4 . fer cúibrigthi . . . do lecun . . . ass, PH 2809.

(b) With AR: na heicne-sea do lecun arna Tiabandaib, TTebe 1616 . deór uisge do léigean ara theangaidh to let fall on, TSh. 6164 . docunnaic corp aga ligen ar lár isin halla righda being laid down, ZCP vi 79.8 . tug ara chámhulluibh a légion ara nglúinibh made his camels kneel down, Gen. xxiv 11 . an long do lēigen ar a haradhain fēin seachnōin na fairrge to let the ship drift, Fl. Earls 12.26 .

(c) With CEN: a lécun cen a frithardad `let them alone without distressing them', PH 1953.

(d) With CO: a lecud chuice to let Him have them, PH 4441. a leigean gusan áit si as nimhnighe, Mac Aingil 3708 . ro nocht a claideam ┐ ro thriall a lecun co heslind `proceeded to direct it to a vital spot', TTebe 3391 . gur uo himairgidhe dōip a lēigen gach ndīrech gusin fFrainc `to make straight ahead towards France', Fl. Earls 10.19 . ig légon usce goa caírib watering their sheep, Celtica iv 22.274 . Cf. (f). bás bréige do léigean chugat `to feign death', Keat. ii 2511 . ┐ é (sc. Dia) ag léigean druinge oile go hearr a n-aoise, TSh. p. 166.

(e) With DI: lēigen fercon dā héill loosing a bloodhound from its leash, ZCP xiv 240.12 . na daine a[ta] a ngoiri do bas dlegar ligin da faistine an tan [sin] one should cease their prognosis (treating them) (?), RC xlix 57.5 . With personal form in reflexive sense: Maolmhaedhócc . . . do léigen comhorbais Phattraicc de `resigned', AFM ii 1054.15 . an righe do léigean díobh gan imreasan to relinquish, Keat. iii 137 . a léigean díot . . . an ní atā d'fhiachuibh ort (i.e. a sin of omission), Parrth. Anma 3333 . reacht Macamétuis do lēigion dhíot a ngeall ar chreideamh Críosd to give up, Beatha S. F. 2595 .

(f) With DO act of allowing (to go) to, granting, ceding: in cauradmir do lécud do nách aile do Ultaib to allow anyone else to have . . . , LU 8151 ( FB 11 ). icc iarraid bar leicctiu don cath, CCath. 5128 . a lecun can cath . . . do Gallaib (of land), Cog. 68.12 . eadh ┐ cairde do lēcud dō fri hiaraidh in scēoil sin to grant him a respite, ACL iii 4.16 . corp . . . mo cetmunnteri can a legad d'ethaidib . . . aeoir not to leave it at the mercy of, TTebe 4638 . mairg chleachtas do chumus féin / do leigin duit, a dhroichmhéin, Aithd. D. 79.2 . Of watering animals: ac lecun uisci da echaib, TTebe 2773 . oc lecud usqi dia n-indilib, Celtica iv 6.5 . Cf. (d). With vn. act of permitting (to do, be done): seilg Eirionn do leigean dó, Duan. F. ii 38 § 25 . imthecht do lecud don tṡluag, TBC-LL¹ 1783 . gan a léigean dó féin faill do dhéanamh, TSh. 1691 . a lēigen dō fert do c[h]laidhi do Mogh N., ML² 291. t'fhastud gan do léigin do dígail a críche, Comp. CC 90.17 . can chuirp na nGreg do legan do loscad not to allow the bodies of the Greeks to be burnt, TTebe 4760 .

(g) With ETER: iarruim ar Osgar na ngniom ngle / leigion eadrom is Caoílti to leave me to deal with C., Duan. F. ii 256 § 33.

(h) With FO: a leigin fá eathaidib áeoir to leave them to the birds of the air (of bodies), TTebe 4588 . ic lécud gaíthi ┐ grene fóe letting wind and sun play on him, LL 9024 (TBC). dethtach do legin futhu fon medhon to fumigate it (the nose), Rosa Angl. 156.20 . log enech fir in faesma don athgabail do lecun fo caill `is to be forfeited', Laws i 100.13 Comm . Cf. aen trian d'fir na athgabala ┐ in aithgina (sic) do lécan fo chaill to let the (question of the) restitution lapse(?), O'D. 1483 ( E 3.5, p. 47 ). gan a leiccen fo éra `not to refuse them', BNnÉ 248 § 201 .

(i) With FOR: a [ḟ]réna do thuaslocad ┐ do leiciud foraib `to loosen its roots and to give them free course(?)', Sg. 127b3 (word omitted after leiciud? note). ni ba miad le nech aili do lecud fuirri (of a mare), TTebe 2283 . gan ní as moo do légen orra not to allow any more to come upon them (of soldiers entering a besieged city), TFrag. 232.9 . gan tren a nesccaratt do leicen forra `not to suffer the might of their enemies to prevail over them', AFM iii 364.z . ar lēigen a truim forra after leaning their weight upon them (spears), ML² 1491. iarna lecan for enuibh (of falcons), Marco P. 90.

(j) With FRI: iar lēcud ind ide frisin sruth letting go with, TBC-I¹ 633 . fuair curach gan frichnum imruma fair ach a legan re coigidal na gaithi allowed to drift before the wind, Ériu iii 152.17 . nir miad leis a legin ris to allow it to affect him(?) (a wound), TTebe 3490 (`he did not deign to show it', cf. next). gan rún . . . do léigean ré n-a mhnaoi to divulge, Keat. ii 5260.

(k) With I: oc cuinchid a lleicthe issa tech, LU 6965 . in nathir rotguid dimm a llecud i Pardus, MacCarthy 54.24 . gan iad do leigion a bhfaillíth go brách not to neglect them, Párl. na mB. 791 . gan faill do légadh isind iomshuidhe, Hugh Roe² 328.z (fo. 81a) .

(l) With ĪAR: bleogan na n-earc . . . do lēcad īarsan abaind co hUltu, Ériu ii 22.19 .

(m) With LA: ro faem drem dib a lecad leó `to permit them to accompany them', Grail 339 . rogaidh-sim Sir G. ima lecadh leis ce[ch] conair no dhighsedh, RC x 185.11 . do íarr ar C.C. a bendacht do lecen les to send his blessing with him, BCC 234.21 (§ 233) . a uille do lēicen leiss to rest his elbow on it, Fl. Earls 216.26 . Act of forgiving; conceding to: mo sbreagadh fa char id cheann / fearr dhamh iná [a] leagan liom `better for me chastisement for opposing Thee than indulgence', Dán Dé xxiii 13 . gan a pheacaidh do leicin leis, ITS xxix 149.23 . moran na peaccadh do legan let, Smaointe B. Chr. 1885 . cech dail ima raibi F. do lecad les `was conceded', Ann. Conn. 1255.15 .

(n) With ó relinquishes, allows to escape : in trian fil it láim . . . do lécud úait ra blíadain do Chonchobar, MU² 78. nocha n-uráilend dligedh ar in fechemuin toicheda in athgabail do lecin uada, Laws i 210.18 Comm . ro ghab curu umun flaithius do legadh uadh a cinn bliadna, D IV 2, 77rb13 . cach uili mhaith do leicin uadha ar son dímhainis a indtinne = amittuntur, ITS xxix 142.31 . as fair deisidh . . . a légadh úaidibh to allow them to escape, Hugh Roe² 184.23 (fo. 47a) . In more positive sense: Cormac . . . do lecud uadib da ḟiss cid bái sind áth to send C., TBC-LL¹ 705 . oca fhurail for Hiruath in mnai colaig do lécud uad to put away, PH 865. ? mo leigin uait d'éis a ndearnais / a Dhia Athar iongnadh liom, DDána 26.18 .

(o) With SECH: a legod seocu gen logh `to let it pass without a fee', Ériu xvii 70 § 12 n. 2 ( Laws iv 214.28 Comm .) (of water being drawn across another's land). dorigne C. .xl. fodail don tsrut . . . ┐ a leccan n-a min-srotaibh seacha, BB 7a7 . nír ghnáth leo a leigen seaca / a gcuid dar gceird fhileata to neglect, L. Cl. A. B. 163.25 . in triar is taire do lecon sech laim `the three worst are to be set aside', Laws iii 40.7 Comm .

(p) With TAR: do leicin na doininne tarrsib `to let the storm pass over them', Grail 3535 . ni coir duinn a dermad . . . no a lecen toraind to neglect, BCC 416.29 (§ 367) . ni da ligan torat lais gan ceartughadh, ITS xxix 133.17 .

(q) With TRE: tug si cloidemh . . . cuicci ┐ rob áil a ligen trithi budhein, ZCP vi 85.10 . nobithe tremsi ocaurcilliud ┐ oc legcud(e) usce trit `watering them' (crops), Mon. Tall. 156.10 .

III With adverbs, etc. o gabail rígi do Dauid co lleccadh na braite for culu till after the release from captivity, BB 6b39 . F. do lecad amach do Gallaib `was released', Ann. Conn. 1232.12 . in bantrocht da lecud immach do ṡaigid in meic to send out, TBC-LL¹ 1357 . lá a leicthe amach `to get rid of my sins', Aithd. D. 98.24 . cret tái cen t'anál do lécud immach anossa?, PH 8134 . a anal do legin amach, Smaointe B. Chr. 3928 . a sheile do lēigean síos to swallow, Parrth. Anma 3049 . sgath (sgaith, v.l.) m'uaille níor fhulair dhamh / do leigean síos ré séanadh `I must humble', Dán Dé xxii 6 . madh cead lé mo leigin suas `let me ascend', Aithd. D. 97.8 .

milis

Cite this: eDIL s.v. milis or dil.ie/32244
Last Revised: 2019

 

adj i. in Mid.Ir. mill- in oblique cases when syncope of the follg. vowel occurs. Sweet; pleasing to the taste (generally of taste, occas. of sound or smell): biada mílsi, Wb. 6c7 . cid m.¤ lip in mid mass, IT i 77.20 . biad m.¤ , PH 2394. do mecnaib remra millse, 519 . m.¤ a deoch is a biad, Cog. 122.24 . Of water, fresh (oppd. to salt): srotha téith-millsi, LU 10860 ( IT i 133.3 ). uisge milis ┐ searbh, James iii 11 . Fig.: m.¤ ainm . . . Euangeli, Fél. July 13 . millse briathra ḟir thochmairc, LL 121 m. sup. Of person: rí milis Macha sweet king of Macha, Three Historical Poems 124 q. 53d . m.¤ teanga an Ghaedhealg, Keat. Poems 1. ag an druing . . . ré n-ar m.¤ briathra borba who relish, TSh. 1568. ag labhradh go m.¤ , PBocht 18 § 44. Equative: millsithir mil sweet as honey, LB 131a37 . millsigthir mil, TBC-LL¹ 5471 St. moighe mil[s]itir boludh mar blath fragrant as a blossom, BNnÉ 78 § 150. Compar. millsiu féraib . . . is millsi na gach fēr in fēr sin .i. in gort (kenning for letter g), Auraic. 5557. créad is millse ná mil?, Judges xiv 18. Sup. millsim feda (kenning for letter io), Auraic. 5608.

Compds. ¤briathrach sweet-worded, mellifluous, suave: Milscothach .i. m., Anecd. ii 47. gur uo coīnchomráitech m. forne na fēne re chéle, Fianaig. 64.4 . ¤deoch, TSh. 8341. ¤geind ( ¤geing): an fiormaimeint 'sa mhilisgheing cíordhubh, Keat. Poems 687 ; `sweet-wedge, the Galaxy or Milky Way?' Vocab. ¤ráitech: Maedócc m. of the sweet speech, Misc. Hag. Hib. 109 § 28.

náisión

Cite this: eDIL s.v. náisión or dil.ie/32956

 

Forms: náisiún

n f. (late Romance loan-word) a nation, people: nasion don Germainn dier uo comhainm Saxonie, Fl. Earls 178.16 , cf. 42.11 ; 188.30 (nasión). Mod. náisiún.

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