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4 dál

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 4 dál or dil.ie/14347
Last Revised: 2013

ā, f. vn. of dáilid.

I A dispensing of drink or food : dal dige a dalo .i. seol bec bíss i ṁbraine muircoblaig. nosdali iarum in tonn imbi ut Isidorus dicit: dalum minimum uelum ad proram defixum. nó dail ebraice dalilia .i. sithula .i. sithal, O'Mulc. § 292 . Cf. Corm. Tr. p. 58 : dal .i. a dalin hebraico sithula .i. sithlad in lenda dognither aga dail. (Cf. H 3.18, 69 b : dal a dalín ebr. sithula , etc.). in dáil lenno, LMU 17. 54 (Eg.). tráth tánic dóib co roind ┐ dáil, FB 20 . dabach and do mid medrach oca dáil forin teglach, SCC 33. 23 . randaire do roind in bid ┐ na dáilemain da dail inna corma IT i 311. 36 . Cf. raergitar iartain rannair[i] fri raind accu ┐ dalemain fri dáil, CRR 13 . Étáin bói ocon dáil forsna flathi ar bu saindán disi dál, LU 132 a 21 . anais do dáil dóib, RC ix 490 . neim da dail fair, ib. xxiv 178. 9 . nothallad dáil chét for mael cech cnáma, LL 169 a 17 . is isi nodáled in dail ṅdedenaig, ib. 279 a 51 ( RC viii 150. 13 ). nír ibh achd a cuid don dáil sin, ITS v 24. 21 . da dáil ar fearaibh Éireann, ib. vii 61. 1 f.b.

II A distributing, dispensing, bestowing, granting : ag dáil cráisech don chuiri, Hy Fiach. 238. 5 . ag dáil slegh ZCP viii 224. 25 . in leiges suthain sin na fala coimeta do dail dóib, PH 265 . saidhbhreas an tsaoghail do dháil dhó, TSh. 273. 22 . ní fuil ainm eile arna dháil dona daoinib fa neamh (arna thabhairt, Bedel), ib. 58. 23 . arna ndáil ara gcumas handed over into their power, 180. 1 . fa choim phríomhughdair na ngrás do dháil da lucht leanamhna, 222. 35 .

To 4 dál also FB § 16 : fodáilter iarsuidiu biad ┐ lind doib ┐ tairmchell dáil tenid leo ┐ gabsus meisce ┐ batar fáilte, (cf. tendál) and ITS v 12. 120 : roforrígdáileadh biadh ara mbéulaibh ┐ rothimchill dáil teallaigh aca.

I

Cite this: eDIL s.v. I or dil.ie/26890

Forms: ida, ĭ, ī, e

eighth letter of the Irish alphabet, stood fifth in the vowel-group of the Ogham alphabet and was known by the name idad ` yew ,' Auraic. 5593. ida, 5523 . is o idhedh doinsgain ip[h]in, 4864 . fer didiu ... idad inna selbad ┐ ina thoghairm, 1676 . ioghadh, IGT Introd. § 9 , where it and u are described as impure vowels `ar son go ttiaguid a mbrígh chonnsuineadh'. The writer of the tracts is thinking in terms of the Latin vowels, as he instances uóbís and ihuinnéis (read iuuenis ?, Ed.). There is no evidence of the existence of consonantal i in Old Irish. Any diphthong beginning with i was regarded as a single letter in the Ogham alphabet and was called pin or ifin (iphin), Auraic. 5611 , 5524 - 5 . iphin a fidh ina reimim .i. don fir, 4862 .

The paragraph refs. below are to GOI

O.Ir. ĭ in stressed syllables may represent (a) IE ĭ: fir, GOI (§ 57) ; (b) infected IE e : mil (Gk. μέλι), —biur ( § 75 ). The syllables : ri, li, in, usually represent IE r̥ l̥ n̥: riuth, mlith, bind ( § 214 - §215 ).

O.Ir. ī in stressed syllables may represent (a) IE ī : lí (Lat. līuor), rím (Lat. rītus) ; (b) IE ē : rí (Lat. rēx), lín (Lat. plēnus) ( § 58 ).

In unstressed syllables ĭ is the regular vowel between two palatal consonants belonging to the same syllable : berid, suidigthir, timthirecht ( § 103 ).

ĭ may also occur in a stressed syllable as a glide to denote the palatal quality of a following consonant, especially when the latter ends the word : maith, clainde, guidid, láim; and in Wb. is sometimes written before a non-palatal consonant after a ē which arises out of the compensatory lengthening of e : céitbuid ( § 54 ).

Beside éu, éui (or éoi) of ds. and gs. before l r n, íu and íui sometimes occur : ceníul, ceníuil, éiuin, féiuir ( § 55 ).

The diphthong , may also be written oe, ae (`almost only when beginning a word in Wb.', Lewis and Ped. § 14 ). For its origin see GOI § 67.

The diphthong ía (to be distinguished from ïa as in grian `sand, gravel') may represent (a) arch. O.Ir. é : -tíagat (cf. -tēgot, Cambr. 38b ), fíada (cf. fēdot (gs.) Cambr. 37c ) ; (b) Lat. ē or oe: fíal ` uēlum ,' pían `poena' § 53 ).

In Mid. Ir. final unstressed i and e fell together in pronunciation and were often confused in orthography.

To this : i .i. íseal, O'Cl. a urisel .i. intan conosna in son in hi .i. cach baili is i níib is isel .i. a tarmartchenn do techt a ní is airi is urisel when the word ends in i ..., O'Curry 1480 - 1 (< H 3.18, p. 654 ).

nél

Cite this: eDIL s.v. nél or dil.ie/33060
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: nél, nél, neóil, níul, néol, niuil, néoil, níulu, néolu, nél, néll, néalta

n o, m. (orig. neut.?) n s. in nél , Ml. 83a4 . á nél , 82d11 (`its cloud', Thes.; acc. to Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 53 § 397 á = neut. art.). g s. (Mid. Ir.) niúil, neóil. d s. níul, SR 8030 ; Mid.Ir. also néol (neól). n p. niuil, Ml. 120d11 ; Mid.Ir. also néoil, LL 230b5 . a p. níulu, Wb. 25b23 . SR 8108. LU 8584. néolu, LU 1703. g p. inna nél , Ml. 108c9 , cf. 144d4 . SR 5805. In Mid.Ir. the form néll is common (already in LU). néull (g s. -iúi-, -eói-, d s. -iú-, -eó-), IGT Dec. § 75 (nél, néll v.l.). Mod.Ir. pl. often néalta.

(a) a cloud ; gl. nubes, Wb. 25b23 , Ml. 108c9 , 120d11 . nēl quasi uēl a nomine uēlum , ar is fial ē etruinde ┐ grēin, Corm. Y 989. nell, gl. nebulae, Ir. Gl. 337. nel derg teintide, SR 8025. ticfa fleochud . . . asind níul dorcha, 8030 . ní thaudchaid nél dar gréin, BDD 66. columa niúil, PH 1714. nel .i. solus, ut est co tuitet nemhe niuil truim `a heavy cloud's poisons', O'Dav. 1281 (gloss due to misunderstanding, cf. nél solus a bright cloud, TBC-LL¹ 5860 ). céin beti neóil im gréin, Metr. Dinds. ii 38.48 . co tangadur néoill deirid láe, Acall. 7291. co roa niulu nime, SR 8108. cia rosia . . . co neolu nime, PH 6063. amail niullu fleochuidh, CCath. 5665. a fil do lindaib isin domun, etir niula ┐ srotha ┐ aibhne, Ériu ii 134 § 112. re funiud nell na nona, TBC-I¹ 1778 ( LU 6280 ), cf. Acall. 10. a moich-néll na maidne the early morning mists, AFM vi 2102.11 . néall na hoidhche, Keat. Poems 1556. neóill thiugha an aiéir, 2 Samuel xxii 12. neulla tiugha, Job xxii 14 . an tsíon is teó i neóllaibh, Hackett xxi 29 .

pn rí nél king of (the) clouds , common epithet of Deity , cf. Fél. May 11 , Aug. 27 , Ep. 398. immon ríg os nélaib, ib. Prol. 22 , cf. Ep. 566. a mmo Choimdiu néll!, ACL iii 293 y .

In wider sense: ro thatin in slog aingel . . . co mbatar ina niúl gel imme, PH 7239. fó troim-nell teineadh, AFM vi 1964. 24 . fig. dom dhíon ar nélaibh na plágh, Ériu iv 236.6 (perh. in sense b).

Occas. used apparently of complexion or expression of countenance: cf. mar Ḟer ṅdiad nél ndatha, TBC-LL¹ 4023 (F. von der Wolkenfarbe, Wind., an allusion to the pallor of death; but possibly a play on the meaning of the name Fer d., cf. the npr. Fernéll, 4891 ). sgaíledh néll ngeal do grúaidheadh, IGT Dec. ex. 1237. corp tana truagh | nemhglan a nél, Irish Texts i p. 26 § 12 . néal seirce 'na silleadh, A. Ó Dálaigh x 5.

(b) a swoon, faintness, stupor (freq. in pl.): dos-fánic nél . . . co tarmairt héc, SR 1687 = tanic nell chuice, LB 112b28 . darochair nél ┐ tam ┐ tassi bar Coinculaind, TBC-LL¹ 3968 = tuitis taimhnell for C., St. co torchair ┐ coro laig nél fair, LL 328b49 . atrochratar . . . i nnélaib ┐ i tassib, LL 265b22 = MU 26.14 ; cf. Acall. 6601. téid L. i néall swoons, Keat. ii 4544 . dororchair C. a nel . . . duscid C. asa nel, Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 38.6 , 7 . ro eirigh S. asa niull, BS 158.1 . ro eirigh asa neoll, ZCP vi 27.4 . atrachtatar . . . asa nellaib, RC xiii 7.11 . ? 'san domnach ruc Muire in mac Crist co nellaib ar midnacht, Ériu iii 144 § 15 (perh. in lit. sense). dochuaidh a n-eaxdasis [= exstasis] .i. a néul spioradálta, Mac Aingil 330.9 . go ndeachaidh sí a néalaibh báis, Oss. iv 162.14 . tromnella tiugba[i]s, MR 190.9 . nell troch ┐ fordergadh fola the stupor of those about to die, ZCP xiii 220.14 . néll naíden, Irish Texts ii 53 § 25 , see noídiu. bid n.¤ do Nár, ní ba nert, | tíachtain chucum-sa dar cert weakness (defeat), Metr. Dinds. iv 48.85 .

(b 2) a vision, dream: néall fir choirr ós cionn Tomáis, | néall maighre ós mhac na flatha 'a vision of a hunch-back over Thomas; the vision of a salmon over the lord’s son' Celtica xviii 142 § 25 . gan togra a-noir agad neoll 'no claim to keep thee in the West … is made by thy dream' Aithd. D. 15 § 12 .

(c) in B. na filed, sea: co torracht Coirbri tar nell, ZCP viii 103.4 = dar muir, Ériu ii 186.23 .

Compds. ¤bendacht: beandacht nime, nélbendacht, ZCP viii 560.6 . ¤bruig: fri nelbruig (i.e. heaven), LL 123a2 . ¤ceo: co neillchiachaib nimi cloud-mists, LL 230b5 ( TTr. 978 ). ¤cith: mar gréinghail an néillcheatha (light) shower, Keat. Poems 296 (cf. cithnél s.v. 1 cith). ¤gal `cloud-strife', cloud-rack: tromnélghal dorcha dubhcíach, CCath. 470 , cf. 3817 . trom-nellgala dluithi doburda duibciach, 4420 . ¤glaine: Loch Néil cona nélglaine `cloudy brightness', Metr. Dinds. iii 406.30 . With adj.: do nim nell-solus of bright clouds, BB 243a19 ; cf. TBC-LL¹ 5860 where n. solus is prob. not a compd.

1 séol

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 séol or dil.ie/37186
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: seól

n o (OE segel, GOI p. 574 ) seól m., IGT Decl. § 75 . Poss. neut. in one or other sense (only in chevilles): seol ngle, Ériu xxi 155 § 38 ; seol mbil, § 40 ; seol ngorm, § 41 .

(a) a sail : séol gl. uelum , Sg. 14a15 . seol gl. carbasus, 70a13 . fernn siúil nó seól gl. artimone, Thes. i 498.32 . telcid sís na séolu, LU 6888 . co facca na corr-gabla siúil, CRR 11 . bātor seōlta tōgaibthe sealat aca sealat oile ag imramh, Fl. Earls 20.15 . níor fhéadadar a seóil do leathnughadh, Isaiah xxxiii 23 . do-chí laoidheang fa lán seóil | feadh radhairc ón iath aineóil, TD 20.30 . lán an tsiuil ga léibheann long, Aithd. D. 38.20 . fer siúil the lookout man : fear siuil do dhechsain ce hairead uathaibh go tír, BB 39a25 . Fig. go dtógbhann an bás . . . a sheólta suas go sár-aibéil, TSh. 2389 . toigébhaid téda do chroinn | seól aigeanta d'aos mearbhaill `the strings of thy instrument will hoist the sail of courage for those that are bewildered', Studies 1919, 611 § 3 . tréigfead an réim do bhí romham-sa, | léigfead síos go mín mo sheolta, Hackett xxvi 10 .

Of a piece of material, a covering : cid atá etir na clarlestraib út . . . atá seolbrat and . . . frith in seol timmarcte etir na da chlárchiste, LU 182 . sīrechtach rosrethnaiged | a seōl ndobrōin for Ere `der Schleier der Trauer', Bruchst. i 47 § 105 . Of the veil in the Temple of Jerusalem: seól mór ... do dénum to make a great veil, Ev.Inf. (LFF) 189 § 40 . Of a bed-covering: at-chonnarc and imdae . . . s.¤ (seolbrat, v.l. See Gl.) n-airgdidi impe, BDD² 991 . an awning, tent : ro boi . . . a n-oinach sin . . . fo noi cétuib seol findanart `under nine hundred awnings of white sheets', Ériu ii 100 § 4 . Of battle-gear: s.¤ catha gu cléith orraibh | sgéith dhatha ar a ndromandaib, IGT Decl. ex. 1132 .

(b) a bed, couch : séol .i. leabha, O'Cl. siul .i. imda, ut est fech sin ar siul tuas, O'Dav. 1426 . ar síul ar belaib fochlu .i. ar crann siu[i]l ┐ i n-airidhiu a seat of honour, 841 . con facca ní hinn ingin chuici ar crann siuil do as he was on the bed-stead, RC iii 344.1 . ní tharga Bresal . . . dá echtra co a sheol, SG ii 471.42 . ? To this in phr. ben siúil (cf. 2 séolad, séolae): a woman in childbed : iss i richt mná siúil | sedda Ulaid uli, LU 8357 ( FB 24 ). nert mna siúil ba h-ed no bíd la cech fer di Ultaib (of the ces noínden), LL 126a22 . fir athgaiti nó mna siuil, IT iii 193.23 . ar mna asiul, ar m-bæ ansiul `our women are pregnant, our kine barren', Hib. Min. 66.15 .

(c) a weaving implement, a loom : bacán siuil bainfighidh `the spinster's distaff', Mart. Don. 32.8 . ? To this: ní gabha ┐ ní ceard cóir, | . . . | ní figheach (fhighim, MS.) i seólaibh slinn, Hackett li 7 .

(d) course : luathred na conar conasecgaib ri seol ṅ-gáithe uasu, TBC-LL¹ 5057 . dos-bert s.¤ trom for a charpat he hastened his chariot, 2640 . tabair s.¤ étrom forsin carpat drive quietly, MU² 248 . co tarrla in tṡleg ina seol neme a mullach a hochta issin mnái, Acall. 7710 . acht narab seol gnius no gnimaiges fuithib, Laws iii 226.24 Comm . is diairimh tra in seolsa ana torcratar do laochaib . . . sund this progress? (i.e. the course of Troilus), TTr. 2220 ( LL 408a39 ). ro chansat ceól cen chorbra | for a s.¤ co sír-ṡolma, Metr. Dinds. iii 256.12 . ar in seol sin dhoibh seal daimsir `they continued so for some time', Rel. Celt. ii 202.13 . cidh nach léigidh linn ar seol | munab éidir inn d'aithcheodh, Content. viii 4 . amail canait ceól dia n-Athair | for seól bethad (of waves), ZCP v 496 § 2 . dola ar aenseol: imtusa Ruaidri o'tcuala na crecha ┐ na hechta-sin do denam do Mac Diarmata ┐ a dola ar aenseol rena dalta of his allying himself with his foster-son, Ann. Conn. 1315.12 . Freq. in chevilles: ni seol seim ni suairc soraid, SR 8086 . for seol sercc, 583 . ba seol fæthe, TBC-LL¹ 2374 . seol bind, LL 7b24 . ba seol suba, Anecd. i 57 § 57 . Fig. ni gael sidha an seol do-niad, Irish Texts iv 113.1 . mor seol nach degheol don droing | is eol do Cheneol Conuill, ii 15.41 .

(e) hence manner, way: o nar fetsat ni di forsin seol-sin, Ann. Conn. 1235.17 . ó nachar édadh teacht uirre trésin seol sin by that device, O'Gr. Cat. 8.y . bliadan lain do ┐ si oca aithidig fon seol sin in that way, RC iii 344.8 . seol .i. bes no soailgis, ut est fo seol na haimsire i mbiat .i. fo cain no fo urradus, O'Dav. 1432 . ? Of behaviour: ba hingna[d] s.¤ na hingine, Acall. 6366 . means, expedient : ro bo maith in seol aimlesa allmaraigh in t-árdrígh `a good instrument to a foreigner's prejudice', Caithr. Thoirdh. 93.31 .

(f) metaph. Of music a strain (O'Brien, Ériu xi 169 , Études Celt. iii 362 suggests that there may be a separate word here, perh. a vn. of 1 seinnid modelled on céol but see Jn. Celt. Stud. ii 244 ): ni céol side s.¤ fodgain, LU 3802 ( SCC 37 ). sephain seol salmda os bla | ba ceol n-amra n-adamra, SR 6063 . canam a ceól rocansat | na sruithi, seōl rosonsat (`the course (?) which they have sounded forth'), Ériu ii 63 § 2 . co cloisind guth na n-én n-ingnad, | seól co subai, ZCP v 496 § 3 . seol roscadach gach ráithe | in ceol sostadach síthe, SG 347.16 .

Compds.

(a) with subst.: ¤brat sail-cloth, a sail : as neimleiscce no tinoilfitis naeireada seolbrata a long, CCath. 3737 . ¤bréit sail-canvas, a sail : do chuireadar a seól-bhréidi . . . anáird, Atlantis iv 168.7 . ¤chelg: ro suidhiughit . . . ina srethettarnaidh seoilchelge they were arrayed in order in a treacherous ambush, Hugh Roe 226.5 (fo. 60a) . ¤chrand mast : sithidir seólcrand prímlui[n]gi móri, LU 6474 (TBC). isé dochoid sin séolcrand do descain na hErend, LL 12b12 . co tocbaitis na seolcraind, Cog. 156.x . ¤gnímaige activity, dexterity : re seol-ghnimhaighe a saer, MR 102.19 . ¤réim course : niór sguireadar don tseól-réim sin, Atlantis iv 168.13 . ¤shuidiugad: ag seolsuidhiughadh an ordanais placing the ordnance (for shooting), Hugh Roe 294.13 (fo. 77b) . ¤uchtach ? ic asgnamh re seol-uchtachaib, MR 112.12 .

(b) with adjj.: ¤brecc: sruth na Sinna séol-brice of the speckled sails, Metr. Dinds. iii 274.60 . ¤chomarthach: do slegaib . . . seol-chomarthacha pennanted, MR 224.2 . ¤chrannach: an griangha . . . srianach saigheadach seolchrannach having ships (of a person), Ó Bruad. iii82. x . ¤dírech: ro haimsedh eissidhe go seóildireach d'urchor do pheilér `he was shot with a straight aim', AFM v 1802.3 . ¤gasta: fir Eirionn go seolghasta `in swift course', Duan. F. i 90.2 . ¤neimnech: ro léicc saithedha seoilneimhnecha saighdiúiridhe dá saighidh `fierce and energetic bands of soldiers', AFM vi 2224.2 .