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Cite this: eDIL s.v. aithbéimm or


n (béimm) n. Later m. second stroke, return stroke: no teilg[ed] . . . a chammán arís d'athbéim, TBC-LL¹ 891 . dobert béim do G. . . . ┐ dobert athbéim ina médi, RC xiv 410.5 . tug béim do . . . ┐ dorad an t-aithbém dhó, ITS v 96.12 . in athbéim for bru Chlochair the second sound on the edge of C. (of a bugle), Metr. Dinds. iv 148.20 .

(b) recapitulation: aithbeim forsin dib ciallaib fil isind emulari lesom inso `he has here a recapitulation of the two meanings that are in emulari', Ml. 56b37 . a.¤ forais id. (cf. béimm forais s.v. forus): uinum aithbeim forais lesom anisiu fora uini meri remierbart, 94c13 .

1 ena

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 ena or


n ena a uino eno [οἶνῳ] enim graece. uinum ... ruiced for cech lestra i mbi lind messc condat ena dicuntur , O'Mulc. 402 . Stokes takes this as pl. of ian, q.v.


Cite this: eDIL s.v. F or


Forms: f, f, -h-, -βf, f/p, β, f-, ḟ, fh, ḟh, s, ff, ḟ, ff, ḟf, bf, bḟ, bhf, fh

the third consonant of the Ogham alphabet, called in Irish after the alder-tree , fern ( Auraic. 1168 , 4264 , IGT, Introd. § 4 ), represents a bilabial voiceless spirant. O. Ir. initial f in most cases comes from IE , e.g. fer, corresponding to Lat. vir, W. gwr; fír: Lat. uērus, W. gwir. Both initially and in the interior of words it may also denote lenited s < sṷ, e.g. (mo) fiur (siur < *sṷesōr, W. chwaer); (mór) fesser (sesser; cf. W. chwech); airfitiud, < *air-sétiud (√ sṷeizd); toffunn, vn. of do-seinn. In the later language this f lenites to -h-. Occasionally f seems written for -βf, e.g. atrefea, fut. of ad-treba, Wb. 30b18 , Ml. 36a19 , 107a15 . In loan words f may replace Lat. u, e.g. fín < uinum , fís < visio; Lat. ph, e.g. felsub. fellsam < philosoph-; Lat. f, e.g. figor < figura. In fromad beside promad (Lat. prob-) there is an alternation of f/p also found in a few other words, native as well as borrowed, e.g. fairche /pairche (< parūchia), fairisínech, pairisínech, frém /prém (O. Ir. frén). In late Romance loanwords f may replace p. eg. falafraigh < palefrei. In Mid. Ir. rotfia = rotbia (e.g. LL 306b13 , ratfia, Lism. L. 350 , 464 , etc.) f may represent the sound of β unvoiced by preceding, t, but cf. ronfia, Lism. L. 775 .

Inorganic f is frequently inserted

(a) in O. Ir. deuterotonic forms of compound verbs before the initial vowel of a stressed syllable, e.g. do-fuarat `remains over' (*di-uss-reth), do-fuissim `generates' (*to-uss-sem).

(b) In Mid. Ir. it also appears in forms such as do-fongad (see tongaid), do-fuit = do-tuit, do-fargaid (targaid `offered') do-fucc = doficc, and cf. dafiṅggebad `who would ward him off' SR 5796 , 5820 . And occasionally in a hiatus form of a simple verb: bífad, sec. fut. of benaid SR 5812 . bífed LL 60.28 . Cf. Fer fī = Fer hí, s.v. 3 eó.

(c) In a number of words which in O. Ir. began with a vowel f is prefixed in the later language. In the classical period both forms are in use in the literature, but it is in most cases the f- form that has survived in Mod. Ir.: fadaig- kindle (O. Ir. ad-doí); faicsin seeing (O. Ir. aicsiu); faidlenn rack (earlier aidlenn); faire watch, heed (O. Ir. aire); faisnéis relating (O. Ir. aisndís); fanaid waits (O. Ir. anaid); farrad in phr. i bhf. ¤ (O. Ir. arrad); fás growing (O. Ir. ás); faslach (aslach); fastad, -ód, -úd (O. Ir. astud); fathach giant (athach, O. Ir. aithech peasant); fatód kindling (O. Ir. atúd); féta- is able (O. Ir. -éta possesses); fiafraig- inquire (O. Ir. -iarfaig); focus near, neighbourhood (O. Ir. ocus); fúacht cold (O. Ir. úacht); fúaigid (cf. úaigid); fúar cold (O. Ir. úar); fúath horror (O. Ir. úath); fuinnsenn gs., ashtree, (see uinnius); fuiseóc lark (see uiseóg); furnaide waiting (O. Ir. irnaide, ernaide; see airnaide).

In the case of certain words, mostly verbal forms, beginning with f followed by a vowel, a form without the initial f is also recognized in the Early Modern period; thus we get, e.g. fácbáil, ácbáil; faghbháil, aghbháil; fúair, úair; furáilemh, uráilemh; falafraigh, alafruigh; feiretrom (Lat. feretrum), eiletrum; fomhóir, omhóir, etc.

The lenition, that is, the expunction of f (see Ériu ii 41 ) is sporadically expressed by ḟ from a comparatively early period; there are instances in Sg., but the practice did not become regular before the Early Modern period. During this period fh is also used occasionally ( ḟh, Matthew vi 38 ). It is regular in Stapleton (see below). In mórḟeser, Ardm. 18b2 , where represents lenited s < *su (see above) the reason of the dot is not apparent. Cf. a ḟiúr, LU 10607 .

The `eclipsis' or voicing of f is not marked in the Glosses or in the earlier Mid. Ir. MSS. In later Mid. Ir. it is expressed usually by ff; in some MSS often by ḟ, e.g. i ḟasach LB 276b18 ; dia ḟaicet, 245b52 . In the Late Middle and Early Modern period we find ff, ḟf, bf, bḟ, bhf. Some scribes use all these indiscriminately in the same text. In Stapleton's Catechismus (1639) both lenition and eclipsis are denoted by fh.


Cite this: eDIL s.v. suidigidir or


Forms: suidigthe, suidigthe, suidiugad

v (2 suide)


(a) places, puts, sets : ní a forcenn ru-suidigsiursa gl. non quem statui, Ml. 59b2 . rosuidigestar dano u(i)rtutibus (i.e. in psalm), 63c10 . is and suidigitir som aní as uinum pro seueritate ultionis , 94c3 . do lár sudigthir ditiu `a covering is set against a floor', 120d9 . rosudigsersu doib, a dǽ gl. intra terminos tuos, 121a12 . huas litir suidigthir leo gl. supra literam ponentes, Sg. 17b3 . nosuidigtis nomina romanorum ante nominibus suís, 28a10 . rosuidiged . . . aibgitir ebra for cach nae, Hib. Min. 6. 180 . is do suidigthir anni is diapsalma, 9. 305 . la tir fris a suiditer (of cast-up ships), Laws i 128.16 Comm . trian di thir fris a suidigethar `in which they settle' (bees), iv 190.9 . alamaith (= ala n-iath?) fo tri triathaib tuidther .i. o suidigther aice é re re tri righ cen fuaider air, O'Curry 416b ( H 3.18, 229a ). suidig th'imcaisin ṅgeir ṅglain | súas co leir dona nemdaib raise your eyes, SR 2115 . sudigestár in muince ina inad, LU 1724 . claidbi . . . iarna sliastaib sudigthir, TBC-LL¹ 5687 . ní fólíth nach ro suidigh in toicthi i n-airther . . . in domhain sinn, CCath. 505 . suidigid i m'adnocul-sa he, PH 1520 . nach cend co cendgalar suidigthir do, is [s]lan dudintai huath which is placed against it (a stone), Irish Texts i 10 § 31 . amal do shuidigis titul do gloiri in nim, YBL 153a22 . is ann suigiter an dara cercall is situated, Ir. Astr. Tr. 78.6 . ise Mac Caille do suidhidh caille ar Naomh Brighit who put the veil on St. B., Mart. Don. Apr. 25 . do shuidhigh Dia a fheitheamh ort `God gave thee charge of them', PBocht 10.45 .

(b) seats, arranges in seats : F. . . . | nir shuidigh riamh tech Temrach | gan a minn rig ima cenn, Irish Texts iv 39 § 2 . ro suidiged na sloig iar sin, MR 28.6 . ba hé roshuidigh cāch `arranged each one in his place', Fl. Earls 46.25 . rosuigided in sluag, Ériu v 232.5 .

(c) arranges, disposes (an army): ro suidigit a sloig, MR 140.5 . suidigfet mo sochraide, 178.22 . suidhighther ar sén catha, | ar thaobh tiormfhóid Fhionnmhacha, L. Cl. A. B. 98.149 . Note also: dosuidhighedh . . . in tsealg leó fo fheadhuibh ┐ fo fhāsaigib, Fianaig. 52.9 .

(d) settles: maith do suidhigheadh síol Néill | fa chlár mBanbha, L. Cl. A. B. 101.1 . nír fhágaibh . . . | fód nar shuidhigh dhí (of Ireland), PBocht 10.13 .


(a) establishes, founds, sets up, institutes : in timthrecht . . . frissa rusuidiged cech sens `was established', Ml. 23a18 . nech suidigther loc daingen do `to whom is established', 87d15 . rosuidigestar . . . óinchorp di ilballaib has put together, Wb. 12a30 . rosuidigthe na hocht n-airig sūalach . . . fri . . . slānugud na n-ocht n-airech ndūalchae were instituted, ZCP iii 24.30 . ate ind-sin fira ro suidistar Padraic do gleod fer nErend, Laws v 470.y . Of buildings, institutions, etc.: cleithi sūath suidhighthe lais `ein Weisendach wurde durch ihn gesetzt (?)', Snedg. u. Mac R 12 § 57 . rosuidig ecailsi . . . isind inut sin, Lat. Lives 30.z . roshuidig [Día] na secht neimhe isin ló cétna, RC xxiv 372.11 . imin clochdroichit suidighus o dourn `which he erected', Laws ii 232.11 Comm . rosuidiged in duma-sa this mound was raised, PH 1576 . do shuidhighadur campa i gCarn tSiadhail, Cín Lae Ó Meall. 22.14 . an saor do shuidhigh gréin ngil, DDána 42.36 .

(b) fixes, assesses, imposes (of laws, fines, etc.): rosuidigestar nó suidigfith dia recht ndo, Ml. 46c20 . air isuide ro suidiged gelfine ┐ derbfine have been fixed, Laws iv 166.24 . landire ro suidiged i comdire la feine fri lu cethra, 200.2 . is for sund ro suidigthi bechbretha la feine, 202.5 . suidigis Cairpre, cét ngal, | cís forru ná fulngetar, Metr. Dinds. iii 442.35 . Note also: ro shuidig in tres cuibrcnd x. cor ba mou e indás cech cúibrend, i n-onoir Ísu Crist, IT i 40.12 . rodosuidighiub-sa dúib sreith seanchusa . . . tellaich Temrach I shall fix for you the progression of the history, etc., Ériu iv 144.6 . amal ro-shuidig diabul tre format bás do dóinib, PH 7071 . tug teacht ríogh . . . | eacht ar síodh nách suidhighthir `resulted in peace-conditions not being arranged (?)' (notes), LBranach 886 . is lasna taisecha sin dosuidhighthe iat du shoeiri no do doire `set free or enslaved', Marco P. 94 .

(c) appoints, sets up (of persons): suidigestar . . . Adomnan deorad etarru A. set a stranger amongst them (as abbot), Mon. Tall. 85 (162.13) . armi hē suidigethar [rīg] for cech tūaeth hi Mumain appoints a king over every t., ZCP viii 315.29 . ro sudiged . . . dorsioir . . . do forcomét cach dorais, LU 2082 ( FA 15 ). ro sudiged . . . fer sainrodach do guin ind arad, 9754 . it e ata uasal airchindech inna spirut n-uasul suidigther fri comus na timthirecht ṅdiada are appointed to, PH 6245 . Note also: ná fuirigh inn i ngioll grása | suidhidh inn ar Íosa (to St. Patrick), Dán Dé xii 10 . suidhidh sinn ar saor nimhe | ná taobh inn re himpidhe, DDána 11.14 .

III Proves, affirms (ar against): an cedrama ar a suideocar fiacha . . . do bed which shall be proved to have debts, Trans. RIA xv 81.18 . suidheóchaidh sinne | ar chathaibh chuain D. | gur chreachsad I shall prove against the battalions of C.D. that they plundered, TD 3.23 . suidheochaidh mé . . . | an gníomh . . . nach dearnais | oruibh, DDána 101.15 . rosuidhigedh . . . sarugad Senan . . . ar an cruadhloingius it was laid to the charge of the cruel fleet, Caithr. CC 46 § 79 .

Part. suidigthe: huare rombu suidigthe ind íc hísin dosom i ndia `was established', Ml. 18d20 . a rrombu suidigthe gl. situs, 48d6 . suidigthe gl. positum, Sg. 4a11 . institutum (.i. possitum .i. sudigthe), Enchir. Aug. 83b ( ZCP vii 484 ). ? hisí mét a suidigthe globus terrae (leg. as s.¤ ?), BCr. 18b9 ( Thes. ii 11 ). amdar suidigthi na bissi ega forsin teinith, Trip.² 131 . claideb . . . for dib sliastaib sudigthi dond-ócláig móir borrfaid fail isin carput ar medon, TBC-LL¹ 1821 . comartha in spiruta náeim do beith suidigthe i n-a chride, PH 7517 . ina sreth-fornib . . . suidigthi sar-laech, MR 222.22 . iar sensgribhnibh suidhighte suadh . . . Erenn proved (?), MS. Mat. 572.27 . tug mar theastas . . . | suidhighte fá scríbhinn a láimhe, Hackett xl 100 . ? As subst.: for suidhich[th]ibh na Roma `inhabitants', CCath. 802 .

Vn. suidiugad.