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asennad

Cite this: eDIL s.v. asennad or dil.ie/4430

 

adv. stressed on second syll. (see Fél. Prol. 46 below) finally, at last, then: ásénnad gl. demum, Ml. 63a11 . ardufesatar a.¤ gl. non usque in finem . . . impunita . . ., 24b19 . is ed saiges a.¤ toiscelad ind lai sechtmine `it is to this that he proceeds afterwards', Thes. ii 40.35 . rouctha a carcraib / i crochaib a sennad, Fél. Prol. 46 glossed .i. carcar ar tus ┐ croch fadeoid, Fél.² xxiv . fecais for a fáscud . . . ┐ nicon taldad banna as asendad iarom dolduid bannan . . . as then at last, Mon. Tall. 150.34 . roet som sochaidi hi tús . . . nicon arroet iarum duine etir asenath `after that he finally refused to receive anyone at all', 135.21 . contuil asendath frissa ceól ar a bindi, Imr. Brain 2 . doluith asennath format do Chrimthan fris at last C. became jealous of him, Anecd. iii 58.7 . ní féta nech leó ara chend assennad, LU 6056 (TBC). gebidh O. an righe asendadh, Leb. Gab.(i) 202.20 . hi cóiced Olnecmacht aseandad, RC xxiv 176 § 5 . nicon fetatar sin cid ro-m-bui hissennath, RC iii 344.10 .

beus

Cite this: eDIL s.v. beus or dil.ie/5807

 

Forms: beos, beós, bós, fós, beos, beós, béus, bhius, bós, bhós

part also beos. Later beós, bós, fós (see fós). Disyll., Lament 13 , as monosyll., SR 5046. See Pedersen Vgl. Gr. i 271 , 457 . b.¤ in Ml. ( beous, Ml. 77b2 ), beos in Wb., Sg. 201b15 . b.¤ , LU 3395 , beós, 3740 . béus, LL 12521. bhius, TBC-LL¹ 6014. bós, Mon. Tall. 158.32 . bhós allit. with bhás, DDána 34.26 ( fós . . . fúthaibh, 26. 2 ).

(a) still, yet: b.¤ gl. usque (adhúc), Ml. 63a5 . do-b-tromma a n-accobor collnide beos gl. adhuc, Wb. 8c8 . beos gl. adhuc, 14c1 . atbiur beos `I say it still', 9b20 . béus = adhuc, Lat. Lives 52 § 44. ind hí lanamnas atái béus? `art thou still in the married state?' Mon. Tall. 134.25 . baí in t-imcosnam cetna beius imón curadmir, LU 9035 ( FB 78 ). bá ógṡlan b.¤ it was still whole, 10022 . cundat marthanaig béos still in existence (pillar-stones), MU² 310 (LL). co se b.¤ as yet, LU 5087 (TBC). With neg. ni thucat beos ruín ind rechto `they do not yet understand the mystery of the Law', Wb. 15a34 . ni rochumscigther són beos `it can never be moved', 30b15 . nimda sátech dom cluchi béos, LU 4996 ( TBC-I¹ 508 ).

(b) further; moreover, again; besides, also, in addition: do irgairiu na sainte beos `also to forbid greed', Wb. 12d32 . epert do Duaid b.¤ dombera Dia fortacht dond fiur firíen gl. etiam, Ml. 57c4 . ar cech lau b.¤ gl. (eorum)que, 75d1 . debe tintuda inso b.¤ `this too is a difference of rendering', 65c8 . forberad mu chland b.¤ `further', 88a10 . du adamrugud flatha solman ón b.¤ `to glorify the rule of Solomon again', 90a5 . cid fó cid for beous beme whether we sink moreover or swim, Snedg. u. Mac R 9.14 . dligid bēus (beos, bheós v.ll) cach dothge miscais, ZCP xi 84 § 34g . sruth tentide beos and andside, LU 2112 ( FA 18 ). dambad étaid in fer ca mbeind, nibad chomdas béus that too would not be fitting, TBC-LL¹ 41 ( LL 7586 ). co tarla anfud mór doib b.¤ isin bale cétna `again', Thes. ii 329.6 . lotar ond indsi sin for culu forsin n-ocian beos, RC x 60.5 ( LU 1922 ). dorad beous ár for choblach `also', xvii 419.23 . co ro móti bus ingnad lib beos `that ye may be yet more astonished', PH 3746. bheós = also, RSClára 42a .

With verbs expresses sense of continues, keeps on with the action of the verb: tecmallid dia domnich beos continue to collect on Sunday, Wb. 14a1 . á tinnacul a llaim hi llaim b.¤ that they should be passed on from hand to hand, Ml. 96d6 . aithrus ind anmcharat dia bliadna b.¤ `to consult his confessor once a year regularly', Mon. Tall. 144.2 tictis drecht díb b.¤ `kept coming' (Faraday), LU 5900 ( TBC-I¹ 1432 ). in comram do thairisem b.¤ (beos, v.l., R11), Sc.M² 11. do-das-athiged C. béos (MS.) C. continued to attend on them, MU² 922 (LU). tairissid beos `wait a while', PH 1415.

(c) yet, nevertheless, in spite of that: is fo chétbuid alanaile beos inso this, however (?), is according to the opinion of others, Sg. 201b15 . ní té(i)t a luige ó ḟi[u]r midbotha (?) beos his oath is still that of a f. m., Críth G. 70. ro-cechlastai a toitim in tan labras beóus it (viz. a needle) would be heard falling even when he is speaking (?), BDD² 793. rotmuirbiu[b]- sa beos I shall kill you all the same, Ériu v 72.12 .

1 brí

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 brí or dil.ie/6777
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: bria, brith

n g, f. See GOI § 319 , KZ xlviii 65. hill : bri mag n-ísel, a breuitate, ut Bri Cobthaig Coil .i. mag inna biat slēbe ardae, etc., O'Mulc. 154. brī .i. tulac[h], Corm. Y 191. bri .i. tulach no fogus, ut est cingit co brigh. Brigh (leg. brí, ed.) cach n-occus .i. is amail baile dam gach inad a mbim. Nó brigh .i. cumair nó baile, O'Dav. 218. b.¤ .i. magh, no cnoc, no tulach, O'Cl. Note also b.¤ .i. gach ní as fogas duit, ib. bri .i. slíabh, ut est: muinnter Ch. . . . / lethais am bh.¤ Bhreg tar fál, Ériu xiii 65 § 52. losaid fer foirbrig ogh mabuaid mbreg mbras `of great hills', xvii 91 § 10 (MS.), xxii 42 (n. loc.). Fig. breo os bri (of God), SR 3079. See breó, 1 tulach. b.¤ na mbreg `the princess among princesses', Metr. Dinds. iv 326.3 . ? a bratán os b.¤ , LU 4317. Also expld. as plain , O'Cl. mar uinche bri tuireadh glossed: magh tuireadh, note b., Hard. ii 296.2 . ro slechta maige a mórchaill / . . . / Mag nItha tes B. buadchind, LL 554 (Leb. Gab.). ? conid de atáat na bríse. Mag ṁBreoa .i. Mag ṁBreg, LL 37044. Cf. O'Mulc. 154 cited above.

Frequ. in nn. loc. See Hog. Onom. Brí Leth, Trip.². 992 .i. mons, note . usque ad Bri Erigi a Bri Erigi usque ud dorsos Breg, Thes. ii 271.40 . a mBrig Leith `in Brí Léith', Ériu xii 160 § 26. do Brigh Leith, 152 § 15. oc tochailt Sídh Breg Leith, 186 § 17 . do thogail B. (read Breg, Thurn. loc. cit.; bria, brith, v.ll.) Léith láine, Metr. Dinds. ii 4.22 . Muridach Tírech din B. (: rí), LU 4179 `from the Hill' (= Tara ?), Metr. Dinds. ii 14.15 . Boand blagh-glan ass in B., Ériu vii 220 § 13. a mBrig Ele . . . .i. a sidh Brig Ele, RC v 202 § 21. a bruachaib Bríg Molt, SG 362.22 .

See Brega.

bríathar

Cite this: eDIL s.v. bríathar or dil.ie/6796

 

Forms: brethar, breithre, briathar, -glicc

n ā, f. GOI § 161. brethar, Laws i 268.14 . b.¤ f., IGT Decl. § 56. In later lang. also o, m.

(a) word; in religious sense Word (of God); utterance, talk, saying(s), speech, discourse ; non-verbal sign (?) Éigse xxiv 41 : o .i. son i mbraighid. p .i. briathar sechtair, Ériu xiii 37.4 . nach tan do furgaib int augtur brethir for a gin sechtair bid briathar for a menmain fris gair do suidev . . . illud verbum . . . illi verbo . . ., Hib. Min. 12.410 , 411 . briathar cen guth .i. briathar in sgribhind, nó in compoid merda `the written word', O'Dav. 285 , Ériu xiii 37.7 . briathor insce apud Eoles (an Aeolic *βρήτρα seems intended, ed.), O'Mulc. 160. be sóir mo brethre `I shall be free as regards my word', Wb. 4c18 . ammi tuailṅge ar mbrethre gl. uerbo (. . . æpistolas), 17b5 . indat mbriathra gl. verba, Ml. 44b9 . do rad inna mbriathar sa gl. haec uerba, 46a19 . imfresnat a ngníme fria mbriathra `their deeds conflict with their words', Wb. 31b30 . deich míli briathar, 12d25 . it immaircidi dunni inna briathrasa, Ml. 22c5 . ni aithirgi ho briathraib nammá cen gním gl. non usque ad uerba, 23a11 . olc hi cridiu ┐ briathra aildi `fair words', 55a11 . ar chomallad do briatharsu, 39a12 . ni sulbir in b.¤ gl. sermo contemptibilis, Wb. 17b4 . taibred for mb.¤ ráth spirito do chách gl. sermo vester, 37c28 . briathra aildi la cechtar de fri alaile gl. sermone, Ml. 31a24 . inna briathra radas, 42c4 . níbat briathra nach aili gl. non explorata loquar, 68c10 . eritiu briathar ho neuch anall gl. reddendique sermonis, 59a15 . frissaní immeraidtis hua briathrib, 61c12 . briathar lám . . . briathar súle . . . briathar glunæ . . . briathar choirp gl. membrorum motus sermo, 138a2 . int ord nobeth fornaib briathraib gl. dictorum hunc habet ordinem, 27d22 . inna briathra grecdi se, Sg. 72a2 . hi mbrethir hi cocell hi ṅgním, Thes. ii 253.11 (Stowe M.). for brethir `in word', Wb. 15d5 . intan tra batar forsna briathraib se `when they were thus talking', Thes. ii 307.15 (Hy. ii Pref.). umaldóit for (fri, v.l.) bréthir ` mouth-humility ', Ériu iii 102 § 27a . trea chumbair ṁbriathar ` compendiously ', Thes. ii 327.5 . briathar foirbthigedar in duine i ndírgi cáingníma `the Word which perfects man', Wb. 4d6 . in bethu dorairngert som issí in briathar insin gl. uerbum suum in praedicatione, 31a9 . indhí pridchite . . . brethir dǽ gl. qui laborant in uerbo et doctrina, 29a12 . briathra dǽ, Ml. 146a1 . oc procept bréthri Dé, PH 2173. as esiomh . . . an bhriathar = the word, RSClára 142a. cundail a b.¤ (rhet.), LU 3401 ( SCC 18 ). grāibre .i. magar .i. briathar grata, O'Mulc. 688 = graibhri .i. briathar ghrata, no onórach, O'Cl. rabert-si na briathra sa she spoke these words, TBC-LL¹ 5730. ilar mbriathar mbláith rot char, LU 3614 ( SCC 30 ). millse briathra ḟir thochmairc, LL 13975 n. a (121a marg. sup.). in tan . . . bói Ísu oc lábra na mbriathar-sa, PH 3076. Secundi / cain i mbriathraib bíae `fair in words of might', Fél. Mar. 22. cona . . . digebad cid a oen ḟocul dia briathraib `not to . . . take away a single word that she said', Mon. Tall. 150.5 . nach duine isin tig arta-ceisi guth ┐ gním ┐ bréithir with . . . word, BDD² 884. brēthir bláith with gentle words, Sc.M² 21 f . dorónus dōibh dūa[i]n mbinn mbairdne, / brēithir glēisi with clear words, ACL iii 296 § 45. ro-slanaig Ísu me d'aen brethir, PH 2789. briathra Brain (of the baying of a hound), Measgra D. 38.15 . bríathra cogaidh, Studies 1920, 416.1 . ná tabhair bréithir mbréige `utter no false word', 1924, 244 § 26 . Brīathra Floinn Ḟīona maic Ossa (title of collection of maxims), Anecd. iii 10.15 . briathra fíra `just judgements', PH 823. briathar fhoirbhthe an ughdair-se this author's excellent saying, DDána 27a2 . ra bréthir a flatha `at . . . the command of their prince', TBC-LL² 4104 .

In phr. attá b.¤ (la, oc) di: intí diarobe briathar linn riam gl. de quo iam dixi, Sg. 197b12 . in Bethfage dia ta briathar i-fus of which mention is made here, PH 4600. ni do Thempul Solman . . . ro-bói briathar oc Ísu, 2725 .

(b) blessing, prayer, good wishes; in bad sense curse: forácaib bréthir fair (a well) `a blessing', Trip. 162.25 . tre brethir ṁBrigte, LL 38303 (` intercession ', SG 408.5 ). briathar .i. búaidh. fágbhaim ort briathar ┐ buaidh ar Colum Cille re Domhnall mhac Aodha, O'Cl. foracaib Pátraic breithir (.i. escaine) foraib, ACL iii 28 § 78. dorat Brigit brethir for Raith C. cona be[d] etc., Thes. ii 335.34 (Hy. v Comm.). fuirimh . . . / briathar doréir righ na rind / ar Ch. lay a curse on C., BNnÉ 314 § 8 .

(c) word, promise, assurance; pledge, vow: darm brethir (sic leg.) tra . . . isatt ailsiu damsa upon my word, LU 3918 ( SCC 43 ). dar ar mbréithir, CRR² 23. do brīathar bad fīr `let thy word be true', Ériu ii 172 § 3. ag so mo briathar ris . . . nach ticfaind . . . ┐ is briathar eile damh . . . nach gébaind, ML² 1439. ni ro-gabsat uada acht a bréthir do comallad friu save only that he should fulfil his promise to them, PH 908. ? dligid bés brēithir, Anecd. iii 15.2 (` `perhaps' merits a promise', RC xlv 71 § 36 ). co tanic mac N. ar breithir asin tig himag under a guarantee of protection, Ann. Conn. 1239.5 . gēmadh í an bhriathar bheag though it were a mere promise, Butler Poems 1243 . Phrases with verbs: dabiur bréthir . . . na fuil etc. `I swear ', TBC-LL² 747 . do-beram ar mbréthir . . . cunad fír, MU² 284. dobeirim fom bréithir a bhfiadhnaisi an Dúilim I swear in the presence of the Creator, Anecd. i 77.16 . tuc dā brēithir pledged his word, ML² 191. da-oṅg-sa mo bréthir, MU² 181. do radh dhá bréithir . . . nach rachad he vowed, Duan. F. i 1.17 . ni thánic dar a bréthir did not break his word, RC xx 12 § 17. tucus mo bréthir ris . . . ┐ ní faris ticfaither, MU² 179.

(d) Legal statement, testimony: is iat na tri fira is luga a enechus: lorg ┐ briathar ┐ suilgnais. A lorg on mír gan urlabra, a briathar on mir co n-urlabra ┐ a sulgnais on ceill maith gan urlabra, Cóic Con. 42 § 63. na hechlacha, cor indligthech, cin breithir, ni berat coibchi muna thisat fri dligi without guarantee, Laws v 272. y Comm. ? fasc tres brethar an is nesam i n-urd, i 268.14 . na tri briathra da fasc na athgabala . . . gur ab edh adbera don tres brethir i n-urd aisnesin: ro gabuis t'athgabhail, 302.23 , 26 Comm. ni fastann acht na tri briathra .i. in lin fear, ┐ in lin ceall, ┐ in la sundradhach (of the testimony of the mac bec or m. enncai), O'Curry 2431.2 ( Eg. 88, 35a-b ). tecmaltar a insce dó hi teora bríathra his statement is assembled by him into three words (of testimony of the fer midboth), Críth G. 40. Attrib. g s.: aithne breithre `a verbal charge ' (one of seven deposits that require to be restored), Laws v 196.3 .

(e) Gramm. verb: briathar . . . uerbum , Auraic. 300. ind infinit in e ón bréthir in o, Sg. 54a16 . amal as ṁbriathar gníma aperio an active verb, 145b4 . fríssin bréthir as sum , Thes. ii 228.36 (PCr.). ara forcmatis in tuisel sainredach inna brethre hua mbiat, Sg. 149a5 . itar in di brethir so, 203a16 . ar in ṁbrethir ṅdiuit, 140a4 . dia techtat briathra in -go gl. si a uerbis sint in `go' desinentibus, 112b3 . on brethir is axarcisto, Laws v 22.10 Comm. in dobriathar .i. do 'g-a rada nach briathar he, 4.11 Comm. on brethir choitchind asberar sufragor gl. [s]uffragare, Gild. Lor. 1.

Compds. With nouns. in Briatharchath ban Ulad War of Words, LU 8039. gur uo briathor-chealga brēgacha ro chan `deceitful . . . words', Fl. Earls 138.28 . ag bríathar-chomrādh re aroile ` conversation ', 46. 23 . drem dub dorcha brisess bruth, / atbelat fri briathar-chruth, MS. Mat. 633.29 ( LB 242b85 ). Bríatharthecosc Con Culaind inso (heading of precepts of C.C. to king of Tara), LU 3465 ( SCC 25 ). With adjj. co Bresal ṁbrec ṁbriatharchaem of the fair words, Rawl. 83a53 . bērus bre[i]th brīathargla[i]n, ZCP viii 199.27 . derdilinne an eoil oirrdirc / firinne a beoil briathoirgilc (-gilc for -glicc ed.) wise of speech , ii 350.11 . a Bricriu báeth briatharguirt ` sour-worded ', RC xiv 424 § 45. sámud būan bríatharísel ` low-voiced ', Ériu ii 63 § 1. a bhille bhriatharmhaill `o letter of tardy words', Ir. Review 1913, 624 § 13 . an bhuidhean bhriatharnar of modest speech, DDána 75.29 . With adj. as subst. don bhriatharthaoi bhinn quiet-spoken one (of a lady), DDána 117.51 .

1 búan

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 búan or dil.ie/7263

 

adj o, ā lasting, enduring; constant, firm, persevering: biothbhuan ` everlasting ', Eg. Gl. 729. clár nderccóir bithbalc buan, Blathm. 435. in grian b.sa `lasting', Fél. Prol. 302. din bith b.¤ sa `enduring world', Ep. 19. do fir in berlai buain .i. inna canoni naími, LU 9792 , cf. bérla bán, etc., s. biait. o gein De buain, MacCarthy 434 § 6 . is b.¤ / huli hi fola luimne `all is lasting in a cloak of sackcloth' (to a student poet beginning his studies), Imr. Brain 52.19 ( LU 11003 ). trī rátha / robsad buana bith ghnātha, ML² 2084. [tri leaca] robaid .i. ro-buana (referring to immemorial laws or rights), Laws v 450.6 Comm. is b.¤ in bes, LU 3712 ( SCC 33 ). is mé Fintan, am beó b.¤ `I have lived long', Ériu iv 160.17 . bidh buán a dochar `perpetual shall be its misfortune', Cog. 92.9 . an gcein robadh buan a fearg while his anger lasted, TBC St. 3738. rob būan slūag richeid dia rēir continue to be (?), ACL iii 308 § 32 `may the host . . . be for ever at his behest', Measgra Uí Chl. 155 § 32. tre aithighidh na n-olc mb.¤ `constant evils', Studies 1919, 75 § 22 . buan fám thuaraim taom ón triar continual . . . is the attack (of the world, the flesh and the devil), TSh. 2145.

In chevilles: buan a mbladh, ML² 134. buan in cusc, Laws v 40.21 Comm.

With beirid: ní dom breith buan `not to save myself', Dán Dé xxvi 41 . an síltí go mbéarainn buan that I should be able to escape, Hackett ix 1 .

Equat. búanidir fér in Broga `fresh as the grass about the B.', Ériu iv 96 § 16.

Compar. ní buaine / ná ceo, Dán Dé viii 2 . níor bhuana dhóibh, Content. v 25.

Adv. go buan ` constantly ', Donlevy 62.29 .

Compds. ever-, lasting (freq. as mere alliterating prefix). With adjj. incl. adjj. derived fr. nouns: cethracha . . . ar secht [m]blíadnaib būanad[b]lib, BColm. 14.5 . trí locha bord-ghlana buan-áille, ML 96.2 . im Bh. mbuanbhladhach `of lasting fame', Dán Dé xxv 64 . folt . . . búanchlechtach `ever-curling' (Gloss.), MU² 762. Baiscenn buaineascrach, Caithr. CC 80. bloisg-easa beann-gharbha buan-gháibhtheacha, TSh. 6629. sech a bráithribh buanmasa, Leb. Cert.² 160.16 . gluaisit rompu ina mbuidhnibh . . . buanoglacha (sic leg.) (ocla), Feis Tighe Chonáin 1885. pecud būanoll brath gach mbī, ZCP x 47.25 . nárbat buainscélach brégach, SG 107.19 . go buainsheasmhach steadfastly , TSh. 2232. seacht m-bliadhna bláthmhura buan-torthacha, ML 6.16 . an basgaire buantruag (of Doomsday), RC xxviii 318 § 33.

With nouns: Clanna B. in buan-áig `of the ceaseless strife', Metr. Dinds. ii 78.14 . ruc . . . Lasair a bhuidhe ┐ a bhúanaltughadh sin risin ccoimhdhe `eternal gratitude', Ériu v 84.21 . gusin mbúanbrath `till doom', Duan. F. i 66.2 . trí lá ro bhatar somh ag buanchaithemh an bhaile `they continued battering, etc.', AFM vi 2030.14 . rucsat . . . / i Crích B. in ṁbúanchend `the long remembered head', Metr. Dinds. iii 398.26 . ag a mbuancesad a carcair . . . itfrinn, RC xxviii 318 § 36 . bledheda ┐ buancopain ailli, Aen. 371. fer bagha ┐ buancosanta Lethi Cuind, RC xviii 285.6 (Tig.). na fineadha ag báidh dá bhuan-dhíochur `for his perpetual banishment', ML 80.22 . fa borb buainferg, LL 396.5 . a bachla ┐ a bhuainmionna `enduring relics', BNnÉ 236 § 160 . deighenach a bethadh ┐ a bhuan-tsaogail do bheith cuicce `of his length of days', 265 § 228. nit-raib brig do buanseilbe (rhet.) `have thou no worth of thy goods', Dinds. 21. an tí do-ghéana buainsheasamh go deireadh (= qui perseveraverit usque in finem, Matthew xxiv 13 ), TSh. 2235. an Buainsheasamh (= Span. perseverancia, Gloss.), Desid. 2951. go Banba d'a buantadall `to permanently occupy it', MacCarthy 314.18 . im brat no im biadh no im buan-tiodhlaicthibh `fixed contributions', BNnÉ 266 § 234 . do bhuantoil `thy unfailing kindness', Ir. Review 1913, 625 § 21 . do biadh ┐ do buan-toradh, ML² 83.

With verbs and part.: fiche bliadhain buan-fhoirfe, Content. xxx 11. cathracha ina mblodhuibh brisdi, buanrebtha, ZCP vi 103.30 . Benén co becht rabúan-scríb `B. prescribed . . . for ever', Metr. Dinds. iii 18.22 . gur bhíogadar ┐ gur bhuain-sginneadar, Atlantis iv 148.9 .

cethardatu

Cite this: eDIL s.v. cethardatu or dil.ie/8914

 

n t, m. (cethardae) fourness, quaternity : in cethardataid gl. (ne) quaternitatem (faciamus in Trenitate), Tur. 86 . ce doberthar a cethair immon crand . . . is filliud filles imme a cethardata, Corm. Y 447 . cethardattu cuirp .i. ǽr ┐ talam, tene ┐ usque , Fél.² clxxxvi 3 .

1 cía

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 cía or dil.ie/8965
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: cía, ci, cá, gá, cá, gá, cár, cá, cía, citné, cia, ciodh, cisne, cipé, cipé

interr. and indef. pron. Given in list of interrogatives, Laws v 6.1 ff. Comm. ; for forms permitted and prohibited in classical verse see IGT Introd. § 16 . See GOI §§ 456 - 460 , Strachan, Ériu i 6 ff. , Bergin, Ériu xii 205 ff.

A As interrogative.

I General form cía (ce, ci) (`unstressed or weakly stressed,' GOI § 456 ) without indication of gender. In later lang. freq. cá, gá (cf. gia, TBC-LL¹ 56 , giá, 730 etc.). who? what ? (in direct and indirect interrogation).

(a) With dependent verb (as conj. part. or in accordance with Bergin's Law). As subject of vb.: cia beir búar o thig Temrach who takes? LL 1566 . cía rét Brega?, LU 9306 . ? cia saig do rús Herind. . .?, LL 1787 . cía taisiu?, LU 6307 . cia bátar do bésa?, Tec. Corm. 7 . ní fitir R. cía-rraba / crích `whose was', Metr. Dinds. iv 4.45 . immoscoemorcuir ceptar hé, Corm. Bodl. 34.21 . As object: ce róich `how far . . . extends', Sg. 26a11 . cia roich eneclann?, Laws iii 536.1 . cia-roig dire? Ir. Recht 13 § 14 . cia fairneac?, Ériu xi 44.3 . cia acca whom didst thou see? LU 7135 . bec a ḟis duid cia do ordo, Anecd. i 7.5 ( do(o)rdo, SCano 198 `what I croon', Gloss.). So also in cíar(r)icc (separate article). Rarely cid in this use. Nom. cid dernad?, LL 251a18 . Accus. cid dernais?, LL 251a39 .

With inf. pron. usually cich-: cichib foruireth? . . . fon-roireth imned what has been caused to you? TBFr. 399 = ZCP iv 45.28 . cichib-roerad? what has been prepared for you (i.e. how have you fared?), IT iii 237.62 = cichib roér ol Bodb. Nin foruireth nammaith olse, LL 246b24 . mnā brataiter . . . cichi brata? cichi aig? cichi goin? who abducts them? TBC-I¹ 1081 (cicen, cíche, ciche, LU). ? ciche bárogell a regg / sonend ┐ dubdonend, LL 376a4 . Exceptionally: ar feisidh ciab dergeine `who has made you', Blathm. 91 § 6 . fir gontair, mnā brattar, bai agthar . . . cistabrata, cisdagata, cisdabeir? TBC-I¹ 2989 . See ZCP xxii 29 .

With copula: innaní asbertis cipad a déne ind hesséirgi `that used to say what would be the swiftness of the resurrection', Wb. 25b27 . conid fessed cia bed flaith inna diad, Ml. 89b7 . For cía ba chan see can.

Hence in various adverbial meanings. (b) how ? cia Ulto ána acca?, LL 13439 . cumma cīa-thōetsat imbi, Sc.M² 3 (`how', Gloss.). cía festa `how should ye know?' Metr. Dinds. iii 48.12 . cia ḟacci ar sluág?, TBC-LL¹ 223 . is cuma dó c.¤ eipli, Liad. and Cuir. 20.17 `how he dies', Contribb. 363 . With deut. form: cía dorochair Cróeb Dathi?, Metr. Dinds. iii 148.1 . Note also: cīa tairicc? Tairic hi cind teora mblīadna when? ZCP viii 312.29 .

(c) where ? In later lang. cá, gá (nasalizing), with narrative tense cár. cá `lochdach', IGT Introd. § 16 . Orig. with téit: ni fetatar cia deochaid where he went, LU 3329 ( SCC 12 ). nocon ḟess cia deochatar, LL 290a27 . With deut. form of vb. cia dochuatar ass? where did they go? TFerbe 565 . In later lang.: cá ngabhaid?, Oss. iii 232.5 . Keat. Poems 1545 . cá bhfaighion tú an raidhirc so?, ZCP v 215.419 . cā ndearnais do c[h]ēadc[h]reach?, Feis Tighe Chonáin 145 . cár ghabh, 490 . cá ar fríth é?, ZCP v 215.418 . carbh ail les dul, Stair Erc. 981 . With attá: ga ffuil maithe na Féine?, Duan. F. ii 322 § 15 (see iii 151). ga bhfuil suim . . . na naitheantadh `what is the abridgment?' Donlevy 52.22 . ro fhiarfaigh I. ca rabe A., Stair Erc. 25 . do f[h]iafraigdur dī cā raibhe sí whence she was, Feis Tighe Chonáin 1666 . Note also cia racha, ITS xvii 188.1526 etc.

(d) With fíu glossing Lat. quam, how (great, etc.): cia fíu .i. mór ní gl. quam admirabile, Ml. 17b12 - 13 . gl. quam (sollicite), 23a10 . ce fiu gl. quam maxime, Sg. 114a3 . See Dict. Fasc. fíu and compare cia fiú me bheith beó etc. how can I remain alive? ITS xvii 159.963 .

(e) With follg. noun (often as antecedent of rel. clause). With masc.: ciachruth gl. quomodo, Sg. 212a1 (see 1 cruth). cia dune ind inni-sseo gl. qualem . . . hominem, Ml. 35c33 . cia mod .i. imba do gres . . . `what measure', Ml. 100d4 . Perh. also in the follg.: dús cia port indib maith óigedacht `in what place', Wb. 26b24 . cia salmscribdid conicfed són `what psalmist?', Ml. 14a6 . amal nad finnatar sidi cia loc sainriud dia regtais, 99b10 . cia randdatu bis indi, Sg. 27a12 . cía cethrar? Rí ┐ brithem etc., Críth G. 536 . cia file ar secht ccumhaluibh dlighidh what poet . . .? Ériu xiii 18.4 . cia fot atúsa isin chotlud sa how long? LU 6359 . gá fad?, TSh. 1618 . ca sén dob ferr?, Ériu iv 224.13 . ca ræt in muirn . . . ar-at-cluineam?, TTebe 1901 (see crét). ca hinad?, LB 137b51 . gá cara don uile as fhearr?, A. Ó Dálaigh xv 5 . DDána 50.12 . gá fhios nach . . . (ḟ = bf?), O'Gr. Cat. 456.10 . gá chúis fá . . ., 12 . cár bh'iongnadh?, Hard. i 204 .

(f) With fem.: cia airm `what place', Wb. 12d18 (see cairm, cáit). ceseirc gl. quam caritatem habeam, 14d15 (differently GOI 289 ). ce meit gl. quanto, 33a1 . ce mét aimmser bes indi `what times may be in it', Sg. 25b16 . ce méit a[s] sinu aís quam A. `how much older', Wb. 34a5 . See méit. cia dú gl. quo, Ml. 40c7 . cia inni soas `how He turns', 123d8 (see note). cá huair díscáeilter in doman nó cá tráth thiucfus Dia?, RC xxiv 382.32 . ca delb rogabais? Ériu iv 104.15 . cia ben is mesa do mnáib?, ZCP viii 113.11 . cá slat is slimghile bas?, O'Gr. Cat. 332.27 . ga hobar dhíbh nach doiligh?, Studies 1921, 588 § 1 . gá breath rug féin ar an bhfear? Dán Dé xxv 16 .

(g) With neut.: cia eret mbete oc m'ingraimmim-se `how long?' Ml. 33a9 . cia airet bis micomus etc., Laws ii 186.6 . cia hairet, PH 1501 . See airet, cairet. anfis ca cinel aire nos beir etc., Laws i 188.6 Comm. cia forcenn doberthar foraib, Ml. 33a9 . na fetar . . . ca galar . . ro-t-básaig, CRR 3 . cia indas conaittechtatar a n-íc, Ml. 90b16 . décaid . . . a arm cia indas rundgabsat, 55c1 (see indas, cindas). cia leath reghma?, Anecd. i 2.9 ( SCano 25 ). cia tír, ZCP viii 318.33 .

(h) cía with follg. prep. and noun or pron. rendering oblique cases of Lat. pronn. (see GOI 228 - 229 ): cia ar neoch gl. ad quid, Sg. 217a5 . Cf. cia erneo gl. quam ob rem, Ml. 101a4 . ci erniu gl. quamobrem, 47b1 . cairhe biit, Sg. 242b1 leg. ciairneo = quamobrem, n . ciarrét gl. quamobrem, Ml. 48c2 . cide gl. de quo (cia de? cid de?), Sg. 3a9 . cia du neuch gl. ad quem . . .? Ml. 16a9 . cia dunaib hi do foirmsed gl. de quibus adderet? 35a17 . cia du forcunn gl. quem ad finem, 33a9 . cia du rét gl. cui rei? 121d1 . cia isnaib hí gl. in quibus, 49c13 . cia in n-erbirt ṁbiuth gl. in quem ussum, 46b28 . cia i n-olcaib gl. in quibus malis, 23b2 . ci onaibhi, gl. quibus, 47a10 . cio ainmnid dixnigidir gl. ex quo sit nominatiuo? Sg. 207b3 . ciofut gl. usque quo, Ml. 20a17 . 93a15 . ci ho fothaib són gl. quibus (dementiae facibus accensi sunt), 16b19 . ci o retaib gl. quibus rebus, 35c35 . gl. ex quibus rebus, 44d24 . cio thomus gl. qua libra etc., 55d16 . So also probably in later lang.: cia chuige a ndírighmid ar nurnuigh, Donlevy 364.16 . ca as a tangadar, Stair Erc. 1412 . casa ticit siat, Ir. Astr. Tr. 146.1 . Hence perh. in later phr. gá d'ulc what is the harm of? (see olc, Bard. Synt. Tr. 45.z ). gá d'ulc bogur an bhása?, IGT Decl. ex. 758 . gá d'ulc mé gan mothugadh?, ex. 224 . gá d'ulc óigrí eslobar?, O'Gr. Cat. 470.9 . Cf. 2 cair. See Éigse xii 136 .

(i) In phrase cíadono why (then)? (see GOI 289 See further Éigse xii 136 .): ar cia dono gl. ut quid autem, Wb. 2d10 . hóre ro-n-ortigestar dia cedono tuidecht friss `why then?' 6a4 . ce dono rigne occo `what, then, is the good of prolixity in it?' 8d15 . cepu dono adrad dǽ do thabirt do Pool?, 7d16 . ciapu dono dún indarpe geinte `why should we then expel the Gentiles?' 19a14 . ? ēludh ann for romhuir / nícon fess cia dona, ZCP x 344.13 .

(j) In various constructions with adjj. In early legal texts with superl.: cia measom do cain ts.? `what is the worst of . . . ?' Laws ii 194.1 . cia dilsiumh d'ḟiledhoibh, Ériu xiii 31.2 . cía háithemh eó? acais dlighidh, etc., 25.6 . Prob. also: cia so do rinnibh etc. 20.30 = ciaso do ninnaib, O'Dav. 1289 . In later lang. in phrase gá beag is it not enough? ga beag mur ḟáth duilghis, IGT Decl. ex. 1057 . cá beag d'fhiadhnaise? Studies 1920, 97 § 2 . gárbh fhearr céim, 98 § 6 . gá bheag dhúinn dá dhearbhadh ort is it not proof enough for you? Content. vi 25 . Freq. with compar. in rhetorical questions. Cf. ga meisde ┐ ga c[h]an ┐ ca d'ulc, Bard. Synt. Tr. 45.z . gá cruaidhe ceisd what more difficult question (is there)? DDána 12.1 . ga deacra ní do neithibh?, IGT Decl. ex. 938 . car doilge [le] inghin Taidg / éc Aodha aird . . . / inā d'Echtaigh a bás bróin / Corbmaic hūi Cuinn . . . , ZCP vi 269 § 4 . ca ferr duind ar mbeandacht do chur . . . go fer in liubair sea na a fágbail aigi?, LU 2769 (colophon). gá fearr m'áis-se ná m'aindeoin how is it better to get my consent than to constrain me? Dán Dé i 5 . ga feirdi me do m[healladh]?, Bard. Synt. Tr. 45.2 . cá bud fherrde, PH 7582 . gá misde don cholainn chriadh / an t-anam d'faghbháil ilphian what harm? Dán Dé xxv 41 . m'uabar gá mó mínáire?, O'Gr. Cat. 346.33 . do Mhuire gár mhó guasocht?, Dán Dé xx 47 . Note also: cá minic do chionntaidh sé `how often', Donlevy 320.28 . an lícc dimor uccat fil forsan tulaigh, cía mó atá i ttalamh dhi na uása how much more of it is in the earth than above it? BNnÉ 8.16 .

II Inflected (`more fully stressed', GOI § 456 ) cía, cisí cid, citné etc. In classical verse the forms cia and ciodh are stressed, see DDána 12.1 , 58.35 . `cía, can, cúich . . . were in direct interrogation used with the copula *esti (cf. mod. Ir. cé h-é) . . . ', O'Brien, Féil. Mhic Néill 88 .

With indep. form of verb (a) cía m.: cia beraid doib a remeperthe `who will refer to them the aforesaid?' Ml. 37a9 (perh. transition from I(a) above). Usually with rel. clause: cía rédes ruind?, BDD² 294 etc. cia dib gebus t'forba?, RC xxiv 194.1 . cía de as sru[i]thiu?, Críth G. 492 . cīa nād cūala?, ZCP xi 109 § 7 . Prob. also in follg., where there is no mark of rel.: cia con-icc ní dúun?, Wb. 4b11 . cia folínfea? 12d14 . cia dobera íc do Sión?, Ml. 34d5 . dús cia atrebea isin chathraig `to learn who will dwell in the city', 35b24 . cia de dogega `which of them I shall choose', Wb. 23b33 . dús cīa díb do-ngegad, Sc.M² 19 . caidi bad ferr la hUltu, a mmarb nō a mbeo . . . ?, TBC-I¹ 681 (cia dé, LU). do fiarfaidh A. de cia dá cloind do beith etc., ZCP xi 128.34 . quis est horum qui vicit . . . .i. cia ro blaiss bethaid?, LL 281a32 . cia aca is rogha leat?, Hard. i 274.y .

(b) cid n. (rel. frequently marked): cid aem no-dom-bera-sa cucuibsi, Wb. 1a8 . cid atobaich cen dílgud cech ancridi `what impels you . . . ?', 9c20 . nícon fitir cid asbeir, 12c22 . ro fitid cid aridfuirig a foilsigud, 26a11 . dús cid forchomnacuir indi `to learn what hath happened therein', Ml. 16c5 . cid du-gén-sa osme `what shall I do, even I?', 30b9 . ní fintar cid attrebthar and `what is possessed there', Sg. 200b13 . niconfetadar cid fodruair `they . . . knew not what had caused it', Mon. Tall. 147.13 . asbert nicon feddur cid fil do sirgabail na biaide I do not understand your continual singing of the Beati, 127.2 . cid dogén?, ZCP viii 113.9 . cid tuccais ō Guaire what hast Thou got from G.? ACL iii 2.10 . With subst. vb. in nasalising rel. clause what ails, what is the matter with? see attá. With copula: nad fes cid as maith no as olc [do] denum, Ml. 51b7 . dober Dia aithesc cid as denti no cid as imgabthi, 51b8 . cid as dech do mnáib? what is the best type of wife? ZCP viii 113.5 . Note the variation in: na cóig guthaidhe, cía dhíobh as glan no as neamhghlan, no ciodh as cáol no as leathan da bfeadhuibh oireaghdha, ┐ créd atá na ndefhoghrachuibh etc., IGT Introd. 1.10 .

With nouns in sense who is? what is?

(c) m. cía (also occasionally with other genders, and regularly with ainm, see Ériu i 9 ): cia haes esca?, SR 7964 . cía méit in gill?, Críth G. 282 . cía [a] míad sidi?, 586 . cia th'ainmsiu?, LU 10774 . cía hainm? what's your name? BDD² 264 . cía hainm dá mnaí?, 365 . cia n-anmand what are their names? TFerbe 357 . cīa cétliaigh robūi ind-Ēirinn?, ZCP viii 105.12 . cía bar lín-se is[in] indsi-se?, Ériu iv. 142.21 . nī hētur cia hainm in maic aile, ZCP viii 293.24 . cia don teora crannsa an chroch, Dán Dé iii 27 . cia an monghar mór-sa?, DDána 85.6 . cia an duine bhias beó = quis est homo? TSh. 3125 .

Forms in -so, -su etc. (cf. indic. pres. 3 s. of 2 cía. See Celtica vii 38-42 ): ciaso baili ata in crann?, SR 7931 . ciaso buaid duinne?, Bodl. Dinds. 27 . cia so gním what deed? TBC-LL¹ 958 . cíasu anmann bai for suidiu?, IT ii2 195.153 . nī fetar-sa ciasu adba etc., Fing. R. 969 . ciasa bas . . . do bean . . . in bas-crann?, Ériu iv 116 § 26 (`whose hand?'). ciasa fogealtad son? .i. miach cacha mis, Laws iv 106. 15 Comm. ím comirc doib ciasa hairm ín ro scuirsid, 106.22 Comm. ciasa run, Auraic. 5210 (císi, v.l.). ciarsat comainm celisiu what's your master's name? LL 9041 (TBC). carsat comainm?, Acall. 390 . ciarso choma no bértha dó?, LL 8937 (TBC). garsa gním sain?, 9990 (TBC).

(d) cía with pron. who is? cia tussu díxnigedar who art thou? Wb. 4c24 . cia hé nu-n-dixnaigther-siu gl. qui sis, Ml. 75c9 . ciahé gl. qui (sit), 14d14 . cia hé `who is it?' 46c17 . ce hé roscríb `who it is that has written', Sg. 197a19 . cinní sin frisnaiccai siu `whom dost thou expect?', Thes. ii 227.30 (from intí-sin, GOI § 460 ). cia so who is this? Anecd. i 8. 23 ( SCano 257 ). cía so?, Sc.M² R 10 . cīa and-so?, 11 (for inso?). cia tusu?, RC xxiv 200.9 . fochtuis Feilis scela de, ce he budein, ZCP vi 25. 18 . cīa pad cīa . . . acht . . . Condere . . . who should it be but C.? Ériu i 114 § 3 . beag a fhios agad . . . / cia misi d'fhearaibh Eireann, Studies 1924, 243 § 17 . With -so, -su: cía so thú?, LU 10768 = ciasu tu, Ériu xii 170.3 . cársa cúich thú?, Mer. Uil.² 90 . cársa cía[s]ib-si etir?, 250 .

(e) cía with follg. prep. as antecedent of rel. clause (cf. I (h) above): cia dia fiachaigedar gl. ad quem debeat, Ml. 44b3 . cia forsa tiagat? `on whom do they fall? Laws ii 178.3 . nicon-fes cīa ō-tucad, Sc.M² 3 . cia ar nach tug a thrócuire? Dán Dé xxv 46 . cor dib Painiel dian / Gabriel cia ar nach cor?, KMMisc. 254.14 . d'iomad rogha ag Día dá dhiomda / fola cía dá ttiobhra ar tós, IGT Decl. ex. 109 .

(f) cisí, ces(s)í with f. noun: cisí chomairle ǽm `what indeed is the counsel?' Ml. 34c18 . cissi slabrai in díscer sa? LU 5162 (TBC). cissi gáir seo?, 4475 . císí (sic) suillse mór sucut?, BDD² 591 . áil dūn a ḟis . . . cisī rāth so, Ériu viii 157.6 . Freq. with follg. rel. clause: cessi aimser hi rogbath `at what time it was sung', Ml. 24d10 . cisi aimsir hi for-comnactar in gnimai, 97a5 . cisí digal didenach dumberaesiu a Dǽ, 100d5 . co n-eperthae cia aiccent ┐ cisi aimser derb thechtas, Sg. 26a6 . cisi rann dogéntar di, 27a13 . cesí aram gl. ad quod genus uel numerum refertur, 197b3 . cisi chiall bís indib `what is the meaning that is in them', 217a2 . cisi muime bat tualoing what fostermother could have? Blathm. 100 § 32 . cisi mathair con bert / an geinsi? ib. (MS. cisi in, text). cisi gnuis . . . forta napsalmo?, Hib. Min. 3.76 . cise noail noclanna `by what oath shall it be settled?' Laws iv 142.3 . cisi airm hi tá L.? LU 3620 (SC. 31). rāidh frim cisé (ciséd, v.l.) dāil di ṡund dogénum, ACL iii 294 § 13 . cisi breth rucais?, Rawl. 113a2 . cissí dichuimni rod dall?, LL 21767 . fég darisse . . . cisi chonar dotháet `look again, what road is he coming', RC iii 183.33 . inderb . . . cisi uair no cisi aimsir regthair, Ériu v 120.3 . cisí hairle do beradh, Hugh Roe² 292.14 . With ellipse of rel. clause: tair limsa . . . co ndérais. Cisí dígal?, MU² 1034 . Also somet. with other genders: ciasi animnairme (ainm n-áirme) fil . . ., Hib. Min. 2.41 . ciasi ord fil forna psalmu, 6.196 . ra iarfaig . . . cissi log conattaig, LL 30975 ( TTr. 156 ). occa scrúdadh . . . cisi cruth no aithfedh, Hugh Roe² 96.15 . Note also: atbertsat cipsi magen i ferfaithe in cath, Dinds. 188 ( RC xvi 274 ).

(g) cid with n. noun. In sense what is? cid aes ṅ-esci? BCr. 32a9 . cidh dire Mac-ḟuirmidh?, Ériu xiii 25.27 . cid an ní seo?, BDD² 242 . cid damhna bar ndocesaid?, ACL iii 310 viii 3 . ciodh achd ar ghrádh no ar ghrádsa / clár págsa d'fhior ón Aodhsa?, IGT Decl. ex. 137 .

With follg. rel. clause: imrádat imráti cid maith as déntí `as to what good is to be done', Wb. 1d7 . cid ḟolad ṡluindes, Sg. 25b17 (see note). ce torad gl. quem . . . fructum habuistis? Wb. 3b29 . cid chenél gl. quod genus . . . refertar, Sg. 197b3 . Perh. also: cidechor (= cid dechor) gl. quae sit differentia, 23a2 . In difft. constr. (cf. II (c) above): ced torbe doib etarscarad . . . fria tola what does it profit them? Wb. 13c6 . ce torbe dúib-si . . . in fogur-sin, Ml. 12d5 . ced slīab inso thall?, TBC-I¹ 614 .

(h) cid with pronoun: ced ed tra `what is it then?' Wb. 3b28 . cid so?, Mon. Tall. 130.15 ; YBL 118a23 ; ZCP xiii 179.3 . cid sin?, BDD² 448 . cid ón `what is that?' RC iii 184.25 . ceadh sibh acht na seacht dtroighthe what do you amount to? DDána 53.21 .

(i) cid with DO. With follg. neg.: cid dait-siu . . . nád bod latt curadmir, etc. why shouldn't you have? LU 8139 ( FB 10 ). cid daib . . . nach mair[b]fed sib?, TTebe 1865 . cidh damhsa cen dul d'iarraidh a maithme why should I not go, etc.? RC xxvii 294 § 38 . Note also: cidh duibsi what think ye of it? (?), RC xxvi 366.13 . cidh dhúinn déanamh a bhfeasa `why need I tell of them?' Content. iv 27 .

(j) cid with DI: cid de ón what does that matter? LU 6361 . cid de-side why so? TBC-LL¹ 5580 .

(l) cid with prep. and rel. clause: cid asa fordailtea grád túa[i]the on what basis have the lay grades been laid down? Críth G. 6 . Sliab B. cid diata whence is it named? RC xv 301.5 . cídh día ndearnadh Adhamh, 23 E 26, 5.18 .

(m) In similar construction in meaning why? With AR: cid arind epur frit why do I say it to thee? Wb. 5a31 . cid ara ndluthid caratrad friu iterum?, 27a30 . cid ara todlaigther inso, Ml. 32a5 . cid ara fodaim int ais firian inna fochaidi? 55d11 . cid armad machdad etc.? Sg. 167a4 . cid arṅdid huathuislib ildaib disruthaigedar?, 198b3 . cid ar bad?, Thes. ii 227. 34 . cid ara n-eperr Críth Gablach?, Críth G. 1 . cidh ar a fhuil Cuncha ar in inadhso?, ZCP xi 40.35 . With DI: cid dia leícid cundubairt for drecht uáib?, Wb. 13b12 . cid dia n-éirena(i)tar?, Críth G. 121 . rofiarfaig . . . desim cid dia mboi fora iarrair, Grail 1522 . With IMM (later FÁ): finnaid . . . cid imma ndernad in t-id, LL 8053 (TBC). cidh ma tancais alé `why hast thou come . . . ?' Ériu iii 158 § 11 . cid 'ma n-iarthai?, TTebe 1700 . cid . . . 'mara loirgis, TFrag. 118.15 . ciodh far dhoilghe trí thairnge?, DDána 40.10 . innis dúinn ciodh fa ttánghuis, Duan. F. i 78.16 . ciodh fa ttiobhradh, IGT Decl. ex. 1311 .

(n) cid as adverb, why ? cid no mbetha . . . on what account shouldst thou be . . . ? Wb. 4c24 . cid na déccaid?, Fél. Prol. 201 . ced nach maith?, Trip.² 1968 . cid nabsin Fedelm-sa . . . cichsed, LU 8296 ( FB 22 ). Tond Chlidna cid aréracht?, Metr. Dinds. iii 214.54 . cid éige, a bean?, Celtica iv 16.154 . cidh tāi a[g] gul?, ZCP viii 559.5 . cid . . . na caithi do chuidich? Ériu v 36.19 . do chách ciodh nach aithréasda?, DDána 58.35 . cidh na ro chomaillis an gealladh doradais?, BNnÉ 295 § 22 . Cf. cid ane . . . meic na mbachlach . . . do chomram cucum what business have the sons of rustics to be contending with me? Sc.M² 12 .

(o) where ? whither ? With téit: co n-at[h]comaircter nde cid ted, RC xiii 222.5 . cid nothēigid ?, ZCP xiii 176.8 . co fesamar úait . . . cid thége whither thou goest, Ériu iv 140.5 . ní fedar festa cidh rachad, Anecd. i 77.9 . cid lotar ?, LL 12826 . cid ghébmoe ?, BDD² 245 . Exceptionally with attá: d'iar[r]aidh fhessa . . . cuith a roiphi in ingen where, TTebe 33 (leg. cáit ?).

(p) In phr. cid tra acht, see trá.

Plural forms.

(q) citné, citni (prob. from cia ata n-é ` who, what (is it) that they are?', Thurn., ZCP xx 372 , GOI § 456 ). assindet sunt tra citné cumacte diandid cóir infognam what are the powers, Wb. 6a9 . citne gl. (sí . . . quaeritur) quae (gentes), Ml. 16b13 . cit né briathra robatar `what were the words?', 61b7 . cit né robatar `what were they?', 8 . asindet ón ciné (leg. citné? edd.) fochainn . . ., 101a3 . citni rig reachta . . . / robatar 'sind amsir sin?, SR 2347 . citni trenfir dotiarmórsetsu?, LU 10261 . cit n-é uisce . . . do-ríadhad?, BDD² 456 . ni fetar citne briga / mo dul i teach cor-riga I do not know what good there is in my going into the house to kings, Ériu v 30.2 . citni cenela na fuillet, Rawl. 69a29 . indis . . . dam . . . / citne clerig notrefet, / citne oic notndeirget, Three Hom. 110.16 , 17 . citne tire in geinseadar?, Leb. Gab.(i) 234.20 = Keat. ii 741 . Without follg. noun: citné foruar what are they which He has prepared? Wb. 8b5 . citne and dī rott eblatar?, LU 10284 . citn-éisidi?, BDD² 555 . ? citne in ferand?, LL 15993 = Todd Nenn. 222.3 (ceisi urrand, v.l. 223 n.).

(r) cisne (described as an `iarmberla', Auraic. 1308 ): cis n-é amuis ata chórai?, Críth G. 578 . cisne lesa . . . tascnat . . . ?, Laws i 230.21 . cisne tri leaca robaid?, v 450.1 . cisne sgéith sguirde caithche?, Ériu xiii 17.15 . cisne trí gealla nád fuilled . . .?, 33.28 . cisne tri horba doranaiter la Féne? O'Curry 2167 ( Eg. 88, 5(6)a ). cisne a trí a nemtiger cléirech, O'D. 2209 (Nero A vii, 144b). cís ní doghair oes eiscí? IT iii 262.12 . cia on cotagair æsa escai?, 61.18 = cis non dogar eassa uiscci?, Leb. Gab.(i) 264.13 . Exceptionally with pl. ending: cisneíd side ? . . . baes ┐ aneolus ┐ eitges, ZCP xii 363.2 .

(s) cis (see ZCP xx 372 , Ériu xiv 140 ): cis tána? ZCP xx 372.19 . cis n-dithle `welches sind Entwendungen?', 17 . cis duirn díolmhuine dlighther?, Ériu xiii 23.5 = O'Dav. 584 . cis dúar dían drongaighther . . . ?, Ériu xiii 26.2 = cis [i] duar etc., O'Dav. 883 . cis daghmaine domain dingnaith? O'Curry 2460 ( Eg. 88, 37(38)c ). cis rechta na gaibter a fiadhnaisi? 2600 ( Eg. 88, 51 (52)b ).

(t) Phr. cis lir how many (are) ? See Bergin, Ériu xiv 140 ff. cislir .i. cia lear no lin na sochaidi, Laws v 4.x Comm. cis lir tairgsin cach fine `how many are the . . . ?', 463.13 . gabála báise cis lir `the ways of folly, what is their number?' Tec. Corm. 14 (24.2) (gabail, v.l.). With follg. noun and rel. clause: cis-lir fir for a nasgar how many men are there who are bound? Ériu xiii 31. 21 . cis lir lanamna docuisin la feine? Laws ii 344.1 . cislir fodhla fil forsan mbron?, Anecd. v 24.16 . With follg. rel. verb: cis lir ata chóra[i] do ríg do giull how many (things) are legal . . . ? Críth G. 505 . cis lir congellait? Laws i 230.3 . cair cis lir dos-liad . . . ?, Ériu xiii 30.33 . Rarely with pl. -t: cesc citlir topuir, O'Curry 505 ( H 3.18, 257 ). See 2 lir.

(u) c(i)ata: ciata glinni con-daigi?, MU² 65 . cata cuir con-daigi-siu?, 72 . ciata builg itir ón?, RC xiii 66 § 67 . ni fedadar ceta inada . . . no indsechtais, CCath. 776 . Note also: cialín nasluag . . . / . . . ceti arbair, SR 7907 .

B As indef. in a variety of phrases.

(a) cía with noun: cia port i mbai a mathair wherever her mother was, Vita Br. 4 . cía baili i ffod as iatt sin / oidheadha na n-ócc eistidh `whatever place they may sleep' (reading i ffaoíit with note), Leb. Gab.(i) 188.3 .

(b) cía with vb. (conj. and prot.): cia tīasam wherever we go, Thes. ii 299.30 (Hy. i). cia bronntar indi, Críth G. 234 . cia taccra(i) whoever may claim (them), 425 (see 398 n.). cía denar cia therar whatever I do, whatever I say, Ériu i 227.5 . nocha n-érlai asin chathraigh acht cía térnai do rind gai, TTr.² 158 . a n-athair rempu cia thé `where'er he went', Ériu iv 100.2 . In chev. with adverbial force: cia bé however it be, LL 382 , 15039 . cia bia, Rawl. 137a38 . cia de do teacomnacair whichever it happened to be, Blathm. 98 § 25 (see notes). Cf. ciade gl. uter, Sg. 242a1 . ? is derb ní báes cia 't bera, Metr. Dinds. i 36.95 .

(c) cía with indic. of attá: cia bai dia chalmacht . . . bái dia nertmaire however brave he was, TBC-LL¹ 773 . niconibdis bandai cormmai . . . cia bith ara tecmainged dóib `they used not to drink a drop of beer whomsoever they might happen to meet', Mon. Tall. 129.19 . ( Ériu xii 209 ). cipia frisa ferthar tnú whoever shall be an object of envy, Ériu v 211.69 ( Ériu xii 209 ). cía búi de `whatever came of it' (cheville), Metr. Dinds. iii 396.23 . cía baoi dhe .i. gibé dobhi dhe, O'Cl.

(d) cip, cib with noun: cib cenél tra diaro scribad ind epistil to whatever people, Wb. 3b20 . cip port i ndēntar, Cáin Ad. 36 . Usually with cruth however it be, at all events: cipcruth bíid páx libsi etc., Wb. 5d33 . cipcruth tra, 12d24 . ni confetor cib cruth ind aingel fa dia, Blathm. 100 § 31 . See cipindus.

(e) cecip with noun (see Contribb. s.v. cech ): cecip maighean i raegbadh wherever, AFM i 30.3 . cecib tan tiostaois, v 1552.4 . tre bithin gona, no fiabhrasa cecib diobh whichever it was, vi 2024.5 . cecib nech tairisnighes iniort an coimdheadh, 2126.1 . cecip cruth foghabhtais, Hugh Roe² 86.2 . In follg. the use is strictly speaking interrogative: ní feas cecip tucht i tudchaidh, AFM iii 286.3 .

(f) cipsi with noun: cipsi aitt i loich dosfail, Rawl. 127a44 . cepsi cruth, BB 22b13 ( for cip c.¤ , Ériu xii 208 n. ). cipsi cruth `no matter how', Hugh Roe² 290.22 . cipsi mbith dáil for congra, Hard. ii 292.y . airlim n-eicne cipsí whatever it may be, Laws iv 92.z .

(g) cissí: ro geall Sir Persaual di sin cidhsi cor ara fetfad, Grail 1979 . case chruth i mbet, TBC-LL² 348 .

(h) cía bé, cipé, cid bé etc. with noun ( Ériu xii 208 ): cia bé a mmet `however great it may be', Ml. 61b28 . cipé leth tiasam, Thes. ii 299.42 . gidhbe an smólach ní chodhlann `even the thrush does not sleep', Duan. F. i 84.30 . cipe cruth, LU 3870 ( SCC 38 ). cipé rí bes hi Caisiul, ZCP viii 315.27 . ce-b e nech and do-neth . . . , PH 478 . cipé tan bud ríg tusa for Érinn 'whenever', FDG² 11.327​ . cipé a léire baistither in duine however devoutly, Ériu i 218 § 3 . gidh bé neimhdhéine do neinn, Dán Dé xiii 8 . cidh bé dhíobh staid, TSh. 3986 .

(i) cía bé, cipé etc. with verb: ciphéade (sic leg.) asberam `whichever', Ml. 25d11 ( Ériu xii 209 ). cipé da mbad áil etc., MU² 560 . céb é uabsi comallas frimsa hé, LU 9013 ( FB 76 ). atú ar bhaois gidh bé nach fuil, Dán Dé ix 8 . gidh bé ara geall, 16 . cibé labhras, TSh. 1781 . acht gidh bé éistios riomsa, Proverbs i 33 . gidh be ar bith bheanas ría `whosoever', vi 29 . Note also: mairbt[h]eim coich bē a dīe, Corm. Y 419 .

(j) cipé as adv. at all events , etc.: cipé gl. ubilibet, BCr. 31c2 . do gessaib ríg T. . . . / . . . cocad ruind co bráth ce bé `howsoever it be', CRR 54 . fiū cōicait cumal cipē, Fianaig. 50 § 27 . is maith liom a theacht gidhbé, Oss. vi 166.12 . ciphe de, BB 398b6 .

(k) cíabed, bad, beith etc.: ciabed ammet inna fochaide however great, Ml. 39a13 . cia beith a lin na noged however numerous the guests, Vita Br. 7 . ce bad hé frisa ndénte to whomsoever ye should do it (so Ériu xii 210 ), Wb. 9c24 . ciabadh hé richt a mbeith `in whatever shape she might be', Ériu xii 154 § 18 (TE). cebedh si maigen . . . a mbeith `in whatsoever part of Ireland she might be', ibid. cé beth da lánáille, ZCP viii 208.29 (but see Ériu xii 206 ). ge do beith do méit a tindenuis, Mer. Uil.² 146 . ciabadh e, Blathm. 96 § 20 , restored as ciabad de `whichever it be'. cia beith no co bia-so fó mebail whatever happens, LMU 10 .

(l) ciped (see Ériu xii 208 ): ciped techtas nech `whatever it is that anyone has', Wb. 12d41 ( Ériu xii 210 ). gip ed no raditís, TBC-LL¹ 152 . cipead dommaire `whate'er befall me', Ériu ii 90 § 16 . gibedh o ttíosadh whencesoever they shall come, TFrag. 190.16 . ciped mac díb no gabad gasced, TBC-LL¹ 1089 . giped chuin at some time or other, 3338 . ciped laa . . . forsa m-be notlaic mór (cidped, cipe, gebe, cip, MSS.), Ériu ii 208 § 28 . cip ed de at all events, CRR 4 .

(m) cid: cidh urrunnus nodleisead in t-athair `whatever proportion . . . the father is entitled to', Laws iv 60.24 Comm. cidh dergoine daon, O'Dav. 585 = cib dergona daon, O'D. 2199 ( Ériu xii 206 ). cid dusgní whatever he do, BColm. 100.9 . Cf. cidh ead dogneth hEchtair do calma imon Troi whatever brave action . . . , BB 433b24 .

(n) cid cía: cid cía bes inti whoever be in it, BColm. 52.21 . seanfhocal súd solus a chiall / ciodh cia do chum, Ériu xvi 132 § 2 . cidh cia ro chodail and 'san aidhchi sin nochur' chodail Didho, Aen. 873 . cidh cía donī, ZCP x 51.7 . na cionnta gidh cia 'gá mbeid whosoever shall have (i.e. commit) sins, Dán Dé v 13 . ? gidh cia frí senadh atúaidh, Duan. F. ii 166 § 44 . Note further: cia bad cia dia theilcfead (sic) sop, Ériu v 34.8 . cid bé cia thú `whoever thou art', TTebe 4720 . ciped chia díb nomarbtha artús, RC iii 183.8 . gidh créd do íar Aitheirne, IGT Decl. ex. 1377 .

See 2 cía and 3 cía, 1 cóich.

1 co

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 co or dil.ie/9786
Last Revised: 2013

 

Forms: cos(s)in, cos(s)a, cosna, cosin, cossin, cossa, cosa, gusin, gusan, cosno, gusna, cuccum, cucum, cugum, chugom, chucumm, chugam, cucut, cuccut, chucud, chuccad, chugad, chút, cuci, cucai, cucci, cuccai, cuici, cuigi, chuci, chucai, chuice, chuici, chuga, cuicce, cucae, chucae, cucai, cuci, cuici, chuice, chuigthe, cucunn, cuccainn, cugainn, cugainde, chucunni, chucund, chucaind, chugainne, cucuib, cuccaib, cuccuib, cucaib, cugaib, cuccu, cucu, chuca, cugtha, chucu, chuca, com, cot, gut, coa, gó, go, cosa, cos-, cus, cosa, cusa, cos, cus, gus, gusa, cosar, gar, góar, at(t)óibi, do-ecmalla, do-inóla, fo-ceird, gaibid, léicid

prep. with accus. See GOI § 829 . Études Celt. vii 478 . In early lang. with occasional doubling of following l, m, n: cu-llae, GOI § 829 . co mmaith, Wb. 7b15 . co nnaue, Sg. 5b6 . In later lang. prefixes h to vowels. Written cu in Ardm. etc., GOI § 829 . In later lang. go. Occasionally with length mark: có, Ml. 52 . Sporadically with d p.: co ulnib, BDD² 747 . go bruachaibh (: chruachain), TD 13.84 . See IGT Introd. § 75 .

With article: cos(s)in, cos(s)a, cosna etc. cosin, Wb. 2a21 . cossin, ib. cossa (n.), 23a17 . cosa, Ériu v 236.60 . gusin, Auraic. 195 . gusan, Stair Erc. 2360 . pl. cosno, Dinds. 69 . gusna, Hugh Roe² 100.4 .

With suff. pron. (see GOI § 829 D for phonology of forms, § 233 for lenited forms, which are generalized in later language). 1 s. cuccum, Wb. 7c7 . cucum, Ml. 108b1 . cugum, Ériu v 148.40 . chugom, Blathm. 148 . chucumm, PH 8285 . chugam, IGT Decl. ex. 1166 . 2 s. cucut, Wb. 32a17 . .25 . Ml. 44c20 . cuccut, 92a19 . chucud, Mon. Tall. 144.21 . chuccad, BDD² 1446 . chugad, DDána 2.3 . chút (: út), SG 389.14 (see ZCP xxv 249 ff. ). 3 s. m. and n. cuci, Wb. 9d14 . cucai, Ml. 38c1 . cucci, cuccai, cited GOI § 433 . cuici, Blathm. 27 . cuigi, BColm. 98.26 . chuci, Fing. R. 27 . chucai, Ml. 46c1 . chuice, Mon. Tall. 154.4 . chuici, BDD² 278 . chuga, Dán Dé xxv 46 . 3 s. f. cuicce, Wb. 9d5 . cucae, Sg. 14b4 (apparently referring to Lat. littera), chucae, 191a2 . cucai, Vita Br. 25 . cuci, 26 . cuici, RC xxiv 190.13 . chuice, BDD² 93 . chuigthe, Donlevy 390.1 . 1 pl. cucunn, Wb. 21a3 . cuccainn, ZCP viii 219.34 . cugainn, vi 47.28 . cugainde, Ériu iii 158 § 11 , chucunni, TBFr. 347 . chucund, RC iii 183.24 . chucaind. PH 691 . chugainne, RC xxix 124 § 27 . 2 pl. cucuib, Wb. 1a8 . cuccaib, Vita Br. 16 . cuccuib cited GOI § 433 . cucaib, Vita Br. 37 . cugaib, Mer. Uil.² 119 . 3 pl. cuccu, Wb. 27c24 . cucu, Ml. 55c1 . chuca, Blathm. 221 . cugtha, DDána 77.1 . chucu, Leb. Gab.(i) 252.19 . chuca, Keat. iii 3231 .

With possessives: 1 s. com ó, Ériu xx 192 § 3 . 2 s. cot écc, ZCP viii 219.23 . gut éc, LL 10918 . 3 s. coa ríg, Fél. Jan. 6 . Fing. R. 93 . gó a charaid, TSh. 8226 . pl. go a n-ēgoibh, Fl. Earls 140.32 .

With rel. cosa n-, cos- (cossa- cited GOI § 829 ): cus, ACC 93 . cosa, TBC-I¹ 328 . cusa, 330 . cos, Ériu iv 150.29 . cus a, Laws iv 294.z Comm. gus, BColm. 80.27 . gusa, Mac Aingil 355 . With ro: cosar, TTebe 894 . gar, Studies, 1921, 76.21 . góar, Hugh Roe² 74.19 .

1 to, till, as far as , etc. (of space and time): cosin n-óin .i. co crist gl. usque ad unum, Wb. 2a21 . cossa laasa gl. usque nunc, 23a17 . có osnada gl. ad susperia, Ml. 31c10 . cu genti gl. ad gentes, 67a10 . cosin caiscc naili `until the next Easter', Mon. Tall. 132.17 co fescor, LU 5135 (see caidchi). ní chotlad i nEmain M. co matain, LU 4903 (i.e. never slept, Hermathena xcix 51 ). co harchaṅgliu Héil, Lib. Hymn. 184.8 . a n-éc cusan āenduini to the last man, ACL iii 239 § 25 . nirbo gnath . . . airisiumh Uí Neill hisuidhe gusan tToirrdelbach hishin `except this T.', Hugh Roe² 44.3 . do-géna cech maith co cumaing as far as he can, PH 8088 . todachaiche chugut int shillab dedenach `the last syllable is future to you', Auraic. 91 . aurlam co bas, PH 390 . Ériu fo Chunn, Conn co Fál, Airne F. 243 . dorigne an láid-so cuigi `for him', BColm. 98.26 . le cungnamh ionmhuis go cogadh `with money to help them in the war', Rel. Celt. ii 166.9 .

2 With Vn. cia airet co tíchtin n-ancrist, Wb. 25d1 . go beith réidh dúinn 's do Dhomhnall, TD 15.170 . co rochtain dóibh tar na múraibh `until they passed', Hugh Roe 290.y . Hence: mad co techt di co fer gl. uiro suo reconciliari, Wb. 9d32 . is deidbhir móidem di suidib mad co moidim etir ref. to si gloriari oportet, 17d19 (see note).

3 Idiomatic uses of 3 s. n.: is cuci far mburpe gl. sic stulti estis, Wb. 19b8 . is cucci a lére ro pridchissid `so great is the industry with which you have preached', 24c17 . ná faighdīs bás chuige acht go mairfidīs choidhche (ar aonchor, v.l.), Trompa na bhF. 5994 . See Gloss., and cf. gan guin duine chuige na uaidh at all(?), Hugh Roe² 252.22 . is é is fáth dham chuige sin `the reason I have for that', Keat. i 82.26 . is é is adhbhar dóibh chuige sin, Corp. Astron. 2.9 . creud chuige why? Donlevy 102.16 .

4 With verbs of motion: co domun dringthiar `he climbed to the height (of heaven)', ACC 68 (see Celtica vi 228 ). amal tiagtae mná hua célib co firu aili `as wives go from their husbands to other men', Ml. 125a2 . dauc cucai inna sairse `he took it to him(self) unto his work', 38c1 . co Críst, cechaing sathe `unto Christ went a swarm', Fél. Jan. 25 . lingthi Mac Da Cherda co sudib `M. leaps into the midst of them', Ériu v 28.7 .

5 With subst. verb: aidchi roboi cucu that night, Ml. 55c1 . do filter chucaind diar marbad, Anecd. i 4.10 ( SCano 92 ). do-filter chucut ón ríg, BDD² 94 . deighenach a bethadh do bheith cuicce was imminent, BNnÉ 265 § 228 .

6 With verbs of reaching, placing, lasting, remaining, etc.: focerdar cin co fergac `is attached to', Bretha 25 . saidid co colainderce cert `extends to', 23 . ad-comaicc húa smech co a imlind, BDD² 1000 . mēraid co dē a īartaige his succession will remain till the day of Judgement, Thes. ii 314.20 . anais co foilc ┐ co fothraic he waited to wash . . ., TBC-I¹ 289 . ro-athascná m'ernaigthe . . . chucat, a Dé, PH 7108 .

7 With verbs of asking: cen chuingid neich co nech, Wb. 26b25 . amal dunthlaichiur-sa cucut `as I ask of Thee', Ml. 44c20 . dóig lim . . . ni cunte nech cuccaib filiam cecam, Vita Br. 16 . Cf. dognitis dibrócoit móir chucai, PH 4056 .

8 With verbs of summoning: dorograd co hangliu / C. `to the angels has been summoned C.', Fél. March 10 . ro-gairmestar tra Pilip chucai, PH 2534 .

See also at(t)óibi, do-ecmalla, do-inóla, fo-ceird, gaibid, léicid etc.

9 Expressing motion without vb. ac-sin chucut do ríg = ecce rex tuus venit tibi, PH 4376 . mac in goband cosin ṅgual (ris an, v.l.), Ériu ix 49 § 28 . a cholann chugat an bás, DDána 1.1 . `chugaibh! chugaibh! gruth is im / éistear linn!' adeir an chuach `here comes' (lit. to you), Measgra D. 7.73 . chugad me aris I have you again, Luc. Fid. 5241 .

10 Hence with verbs of seeing etc. atchīatt na conu cucu 'na rith, BColm. 54.3 . níro airigset na mná chucu, LU 3884 ( SCC 39 ). lá dá bhfacaidh inghin oíg / chuige, DDána 58.11 . o nach facadar . . . comfhurtacht cuca, Stair Erc. 1441 .

11 In comparisons: cruth cách co hÉ. Caem cách co hÉ. all fall short of E. in beauty, BDD² 43 . ait[h]ech cách co hEogan hūais except E., ZCP viii 299.35 . ní crō co cōiccir fo cosmailuis clīaro, Ériu i 215.31 . beag gach peannaid go bás Dé compared with, A. Ó Dálaigh xviii 1 .

12 ó . . . co . . . to denote the ultimate point of measurement: is hó siun co nuie dam far sercc ref. to continuus, Wb. 4b29 . o chund co fond, RC iii 177.7 . a bhfoil uainn go hÁdhamh all that there are (i.e. have lived) from us to Adam, Dán Dé viii 4 . ó Éirne go hÁth gConuill, TD 13.74 . Hence: o ta a uachtar co a híchtar, PH 3365 .

13 With demonstratives. See 1 sin (S 232.83), 1 so (307.30). có sin, Trip.² 97 .

Similarly with petrified forms: cosinnocht until tonight, BDD² 1174 . tricha laithi cusanē 30 days to yesterday, ZCP x 341.21 . gus a-nois, Aithd. D. 89.29 . See also indiu and trásta (b).

14 In phrase co cenn, see 1 cenn (123.43).

15 With cardinal numerals. See fo (F 172.51).

16 In formation of adverbs. See GOI § 381 . co mmór gl. insolenter, Ml. 38c12 . co mmaith, TBFr. 284 . Freq. in later lang.: go spioradálta, TSh. 1582 .

17 Hence in adjectival predicates with subst. vb. replacing constr. with is and bare adj.: bheith go saoghlach séanomhail, TD 19.74 . do bai co hudmall andshadail aínindech `restlessly, uncertainly, angrily', TTebe 929 .

18 3 sg. neut. as adv. since, hence : nī conairnecht and chucai 'it had not been found there till then' Thes. ii 348.86 . bid fotai chucca, PH 5247 . ni ba chian cucai, Anecd. ii 14.13 .

crích

Cite this: eDIL s.v. crích or dil.ie/12912

 

Forms: críg

n ā, f. ?d s. críg, Ml. 131c10 (leg. cathraig? note).

(a) boundary, limit (of territory), end; aim, purpose, etc. (partic. in later lang.): honaib crichaib cammaib gl. obliquis sulcis, Ml. 2a7 (of furrow which marks boundary, see O'Rahilly, Ériu xiii 168 ). ba samla fri c.¤ in da chlod doriṅgensat roith . . . carpait C.C. furrow, LL 12808 . bieid crich fortimtherecht cacha dúlo gl. deinde finis, Wb. 13b28 . innacriche gl. limitis, Ml. 37d7 . tri deligud innac.¤ , 11 . cona tiagat taracricha corai (of waters), 51d3 . rasaig ac.¤ cuccai `their boundary extends to it', 102a8 . c.¤ gl. ωρα, Sg. 9b12 . gl. limes, 66b4 (see n.). muir dar críchu a flood, TBC-LL² 4493 . isedh is crich ann, gort feoir no arbair, no ard-urchur flesca ┐ tri deisceimann o tire tuaim . . . no comadh é bu crich ann, cenn in baile ┐ na .iiii. guirt atta nesa dó, O'Curry 2330 ( Eg. 88, 25 (26)d ). óthá c.¤ drommo nit. cuglais tamlachtæ, Thes. ii 238.8 ( Ardm. 17a2 ). co ndichet tar c.¤ , Críth G. 29 . in cloch criche boundary-mark , Laws iv 8.7 Comm. doragad dochom críche (of Cú Chulainn), LU 4830 (TBC). dodechaid iarom c.¤ mór ond loch distance(?), LL 14043 . nech nát comfa in domnach . . . ina críchaib córib `within its proper boundaries', Ériu ii 194 § 8 . eter dí crich in dómnaig, LB 204b11 . go ttangador criocha deiridh don lo soin i.e. evening, ZCP x 290.32 . rotuilsit . . . in aidchi sin co crīchuib na maidne till dawn, ZCP xiii 240.5 . dothuitetar . . . a crīchaib in c[h]omlainn (used for alliteration?), Fianaig. 64.21 . ní-co fil c.¤ for a flaithius, PH 1809 . co crich do bais, ZCP vi 26.24 . críoch a riaghla is nár anois `that their rule has come to an end', Bard. P. 5.10 . críoch ar gciunais `the consummation of our peace', Arch. Hib. i 96 § x . guais do chách críoch a faghla ` outcome ', O'R. Poems 3450 . mór críoch a shuirghe aim , Aithd. D. 95.12 . crioch ar ccomhraidh uain̄ fa fhód object , Rel. Celt. ii 240.13 . do b'í an chreach-sain críoch ar leoin peak , DDána 79.8 . ag moladh bhar ccríche maithe = resolution, RSClára via . an chríoch dhéidheanach final end, TSh. 725 . ga mhēid crīoch dhēidheanach ann? A ceathair .i. an bās, an breithiomhnas, ifrionn ┐ flaitheamhnas, Parrth. Anma 5962 .

In phrases meaning act of completing, fulfilling, etc.: críoch do chur ar an suirghe, A. Ó Dálaigh xlviii 13 . smúaineadh gan a chur a cc.¤ , Bard. Synt. Tr. 210.6 . a chur a gc.¤ uile = the whole disposing thereof, Proverbs xvi 33 . do bheir sé olc chum críche, 30 . chuige sin . . . do thabhairt chum críche, Párl. na mB. 255 . táinig an aisling sin i gc.¤ do Chormac `this vision was fulfilled in C.', Keat. ii 4665 . go ttáinig gach nídh do thairngair Fíonán do chum críche, ZCP ii 558.16 . do-chuaidh críoch ar an gcunnradh `has been carried out', Aithd. D. 21.2 .

(b) confines, territory, district, land (in sg. and pl. See Ériu xxii 162 ): hifar crichaib fadisin gl. finibus vestris, Ml. 115b10 . intseuit bite hí cách c.¤ , 122a4 . cacha críche condelg `to every territory its covenant', Celtica vi 237.21 ( ACL iii 226.16 ). tar nos crichi no cana, Laws v 254.7 . comhadh cách a chríoch, Ériu xiii 20.9 . líth línass crícha, Fél. Sept. 9 . an can criocha im ghalail (sanchán crícha im Galail, Ed.), Blathm. 26 . im cert filid tar crich crossing a territory (border?), Laws i 184.17 . i críchaib cíana comaidchi, MU² 220 . do ḟascnam a crichi bunaid, RC xxiv 178 § 8 . i crichaib echtrand, CRR 6 . imthecht a crich n-ecailsi hi crich tuaithi, Ériu ii 202.2 n. dorigne c.¤ claidim di swordland, SG ii 464.26 . críoch Cuinn (poetic name of Ireland), Mart. Don. xxxix 4 . críoch fhionnchorr Éirionn, SGS iv 140 § 9 . ro fagaib . . . cricha na Greige, Stair Erc. 1375 .

In n. loc. see Hog. Onom. In n. pr. Fer dá ch.¤ , Fél. Aug. 15 .

Compds. With nouns. T. M. / is mín críochbhuird, Ir. Syll. Poetry 55 § 7 . do chlíu nad chliss crichbrugi Macha, LL 14222 (rhet.). ó chríochbhun an dá chomhairle ultimate basis, DDána 70.1 . teine í . . . chraos-shloigeas go críochcaitheamh = usque ad perditionem, TSh. 7958 . mendudai ┐ críchdoirsi a námut frontier passes, Alex. 200 . im chricheasbaid a chuigid `circumscribing', MR 110.7 . tír dúthaigh chláir chríchfhionnMhonaidh, DDána 89.6 . fa críochḟorba ḟear nÉireann (of Ireland), Content. xxx 19 . do b'é críochrún a gcagaidh, DDána 121.15 . With adjj.: i ttimcheall Chaisil chríochbháin, Top. Poems² 1194 . Banbha . . . badh críochcoganta, DDána 89.9 . ríogha Crúmhthainn chríchfheadhaigh, Top. Poems² 816 . do'n chined choitchenn crich-fhuinedach `western', MR 294.26 . caith-chrios . . . crioch-niamhtha, xiv 3 . fa chnoc gcríochruadh gC., DDána 111.39 .

See críth.

cuimrech

Cite this: eDIL s.v. cuimrech or dil.ie/13575

 

Forms: -ige, -echa, cuibrech, cuimbrech, comrach

o, n. vn. of con-rig. n p. -ige (occas. -ega, -echa, see GOI 178 , 477 ). Freq. in form cuibrech, and later somet. cuimbrech. comrach, Laws ii 130.1 Comm.

(a) act of binding, fastening, fettering; imprisoning, captivity: cuibreach fir na do-t-urguid (leg. nádat-árgaid), Laws v 476.24 . amessaminse precepte asmochuimriug, Wb. 23b7 . dimchuimriugsa, 27c34 . 30a5 . 23 . attaam arndiis icuimriug arcrist gl. concaptiuus in Christo, 32a28 . c.¤ an coimdeth ba col `to fetter the Lord', Blathm. 122 . hi féil ind ḟir chumrig (of St. Paul), Fél. Feb. 25 . fri cumrech ┐ túaslucud, Trip.² 652 . bámar icumriuch, SR 3286 . atát i cumriuch fri colomna fastened to, LU 2172 . ce trialltar a chuibrech-sum to bind (one's thoughts), Ériu iii 14 § 7 . dia nacomal ┐ dia ccuimbrech, Hugh Roe² 58.16 . a chéadfadha do chuibhreach ón olc, TSh. 7225 . bas sheang gan chuibhreach ar crodh unstinting slender hand, O'R. Poems 375 . bás cuimhrigh `death in his gyves', AFM i 454.7 . aos galair ┐ cuimhrighthi, Lism. L. 3723 . iar na c.¤ isin rian after being drowned, AFM i 480.14 . Fig. occ cuimreach a chórusa, Ériu xiii 21.29 .

(b) bond, fetter, chain : corrofessid file cuimrecha formsa gl. quae circa me sunt, Wb. 23a5 . asmochuimrigib gl. uinculis meis, 23b11 . dimchuimregaibse, 26d21 . eter mochuimregasa, 27c36 . icuimrigib gl. usque ad uincula, 30a22 . iar serbcharcraib c.¤ (sic leg.), Fél. Oct. 15 . eich i c.¤ teachta `proper fetters', Laws iv 96.z . co tarat ch.¤ n-impe, Fing. R. 316 . gilla nua . . . i ceṅgul ┐ i cubriuch, MU² 660 . cumrech bráiget necklace , Corm. cited Contribb. 566 . dot bret-siu i cuimbrech chucai, PH 2225 . do-ratsat cuibrech tened form-sa, 2044 . cuibhrigi in droichit `chains', Fier. 133 . imdha a tigh cas a cuibhrech many the shackled foot, IGT Decl. ex. 803 . docuir cengal ┐ cuibrigthi air, ZCP vi 281.22 . dá shlabhra dhéag iarnuidhe do chuibhreach air `bound by twelve . . . chains', Keat. iii 1525 . do sgaóil tú mo chuibhrighthe, Psalms cxvi 16 . Fig. : c.¤ gl. (ipsi sibi sunt) lex, Wb. 1d5 . cocuimriuch gl. cum obligatione, ZCP vii 483.32 (Enchir. Aug.). ó chúibrigib cinad ┐ peccad, PH 5993 . cuibhreach idir an lānamhain nach éidir lé duine ar bhioth do sgaoileadh, Parrth. Anma 3132 .

Exceptionally: baoisidhe . . . ina chuimbrech fri ré teora mbliadhan `a captive', Hugh Roe² 12.10 (leg. i c.¤ ?).

díblide

Cite this: eDIL s.v. díblide or dil.ie/16040
Last Revised: 2013

 

adj io,iā (díbell) worn out, decrepit; wretched: usque in senectam (gl. aetatem) et senium (gl. tempus) .i. diblide, Ériu xliv 100 . senoir diblidhe, Laws iii 354 . is fo diblidhi airmither na mic so, O'Curry 2232 ( Eg. 88, 16 (17)d ). is senóir diblidi dolámaigh thusa, a Fhinn, Fianaig. 80.33 . senoir crithach críndiblidi, Cog. 186 . Hence wretched, miserable: a innarbtoir dibligi derōil, ZCP vi 282.11 . fuair enduine diblidi derōil sa halla ┐ ilimud iarainn fair, 102.29 . fuicfid íad go díblidhe, BNnÉ 148.27 . arracht duine truaigh diblighi, Aen. 147 . is é an dochar díblidhe (sic) . . . theagmhas do'n duine a los an bháis, TSh. 4025 .

2 dobur

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 dobur or dil.ie/17277

 

n o water: d.¤ usce, O'Dav. 745 . dobar .i. usce, Lec. Gl. 352 . d.¤ .i. uisce, Stowe Gl. 52 . dobhar .i. uisge, O'Cl. dobar enim coitc[h]end bērlae iter goideilcc ┐ chombreic .i. usce, unde dicitur doburchu, Corm. Y 311 . dobarith .i. usque ┐ arbar, 435 . nā dēna snāmh dobhuir duibh, ZCP xiii 167.6 . iar timchell cell is d.¤ (: lobur), Trip.² 1274 .

Compds. ¤nathair water-snake: cend amal cenn dobuirnatrac, BB 496a12 . doburnathracha, LB 141b36 . a fuilib drecon ┐ dobornathrac, Cog. 158.19 .

In n.loc. D.¤ Artbranani (in island of Skye), Thes. ii 275.35 . Of the Gweedore River: o Fertius co Dobar ndil, Fen. 314.15 . Baodan liath Loingseach Dobhair, 3 C 1 2, 161.3 . Of a place in nth. of Scotland: hi tuaiscert Alban ... hic D.¤ ┐ hic Urdobur, Lec. 23b35 . luid . . . co Dobhur ┐ co Irrdhobur a tuascert Alban, BB 27a33 . Cf. Daminse i nDoburbur, Thes. ii 268.47 ( Ardm. 15a2 ).

dún

Cite this: eDIL s.v. dún or dil.ie/19227

 

Forms: Dún, ndún, dúin, dúne, dune, dúne, duine, dúni, duini, dúin, dúine, dúna, dún, dúini, dún, dhúin, dúine, dunu, dúine, dune, primdún, ndun, dúine, duinib, dúinte, -dúine, dúinte, dúintibh, dhúintedh

n o, later s, n. (see GOI 178 ) n s. Dún nGalion, LL 311a27 . a s. a ndún , LU 1524 , 8381 . g s. As o-stem: dúin, LL 311a27 ; Laws i 122.19 ; AU 680 , 685 , 697 , 844 , 864 , 872 . Fél. Jan. 3 . As s-stem: dúne, FB § 44 , dune, Laws iv 220.8 . dúne, Trip.² 2166 . duine, FB § 89 ; AU 866 , 964 , 1174 . dúni, TBC-LL¹ 1816 , duini, Laws iv 154.21 . Both forms current in later lang.: dúin, TSh. 909 ; Oss. vi 198.6 . dúine, AFM i 26 , iii 4 , vi 2014 ( dúini, ii 1114 ); Oss. iv 294 . Note also: dúna, Laws v 302.33 ; SG 269.12 ; Oss. vi 198.27 . dún occurs with follg. n.pr. in gen., Fél. Jan. 3 v.l.; MacCarthy 416.19 ( BB 50a ), BS 98.13 . d s. tri coiri bíte in cach dúini , Triads 127 (prob. due to confusion with constr. tri coiri cech(a) dúine). v s. dún, AFM i 308 (poem). a dhúin , TSh. 10990 . n p. dúine, LU 10713 ; Fél. Prol. 68 . a p. dunu (: múru), Lec. 45b1 . dúine, LU 1889 . dune, TBC-I¹ 622 = TBC-LL¹ 1213 , AU 836 . g p. na primdún , SR 7342 . Cermna na ndun , Lec. 51a40 . dúine, LB 208a23 ( Alex. 382 ); Corm. s.v. aurduine . d p. duinib, LU 10714 ; SR. Later as dental stem in pl.: rig-dúinte , Corm. s.v. Mogheime = -dúine, YBL; dúinte, ML 78 , Keat. iii 4119 ; dúintibh, BB 30a40 , AFM v 1666 . g p. dhúintedh, Marco P. 123 . m., IGT Decl. § 46 .

Fort (see ZCP xiii 164 - 5 , KZ l 155 - 6 ); in O.Ir. usually applied to residence of a chief or dignitary, consisting of an earthen (more rarely stone) rampart, inside which the house (`tech') or houses were erected; oft. of considerable extent and in case of a royal residence having two (or even three) circumvallations with a moat between (hence O'Dav. 695 ; d.¤ .i. dá cladh im uisci, ut est du-en .i. dá usque im cladh); such fort being generally called after the builder or owner, e.g. Dún Cermna, D.¤ Sobairche, etc. Cf. Aodh Ó Domhnaill dhúin na bhfionn (= Dún na nGall?), 3 C 12, 245.15 . Freq. used as Ir. equivalent for fortress or city; in Norman period of any strongly enclosed or fortified place (whether a single residence or a burgh or town ).

Gl. castrum, Sg. 57a10 ; arx, 60b21 . i ndorus in dúine = ad portam civitatis, Lat. Lives 81 . a dhúin Dé (= civitas Dei, Psalms lxxxvi 3 ), TSh. 10990 . isin digas .i. isin dun daingen, Ml. 32a16 . dorala B. do dun ríg Breg, Hy. v 73 Comm. claide cluid dune Alinne .i. in tres primdun rig Lagen, 68 Comm. dun tigerna . . . d.¤ breitheaman na tuaiti, Laws iv 106 Comm. trí dúine hÉrenn: Dún Sobairche, D.¤ Cermna, Cathair Conrai, Triads 36 . déntar dúine . . . lib damsa ┐ tigi móra, RC xxvi 132 . corbo leór do d.¤ . . feib dollotar rotha in charpait hi talmain (i.e. the wheels displaced enough earth to build a `d.¤'), TBC-I¹ 1986 . Artt Imlech las-roclassa | a cōic dūine domgnassa, Lec. 51a32 . lar duna no treibe cach airech, Laws v 302 . nochotulsat flathi fiann, fās a ndūine, ZCP xi 110 . etir cealla ┐ dune ┐ treba, AU 836 . for faidchi primdúni, TBC-LL¹ 1816 . sonnach dergdharach a timchioll a dhúine, SG 66 . berthar a fir maithi ina dun co hEogan ┐ biathtar a ndaescursluag a nduntib feachtair, Lec. 409a25 . suidigud na mūr im-maig | immon dun, immon cathraig (of Celestial City), SR 426 . ic togail na primd.¤ (of cities of Canaan), 7342 . aitcidh ardnaom órduinte, SG 21 . mor dúine ndaingen roscroithset, Alex. 382 . co nac raibhe . . . d.¤ no daingen no dingna . . . gan loingeas, Cog. 40 . do cumhduigheadh dúinte ┐ daingne leis, Keat. iii 4119 . do daingne a dhúintedh ┐ a cathrach, Marco P. 123 . i ndúintibh ┐ i ndaghbhailtibh fher Mumhan fortresses, AFM v 1666 . Encampment (= 1 dúnad), TBC-LL¹ 1765 ; 1829 (= longport, St., dunadh, H 2.17 ). Dwelling, residence in general: tréigean dúin deagh-athar (i.e. heaven), Keat. Poems 372 . bunaidh, dún, a habitation , Eg. Gl. 81 .

Compds., see dúnárus, -chaire, -chlad, -lis, -phort.

Common in place-names, see Hog. Onom.

1 en

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 en or dil.ie/20037
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: ena, en

n water: uaran .i. uar a en .i. a uisque, Corm. Y 1290 . englas .i. usce glas, 524 . See also 525 . 530 . BDD 64 . co Dún Dromma etir da en .i. usce fris anair ┐ fris aniar conid de asberar Druim n-en de LL 193a21 (cf. Dinds. 27 . O'Dav. 695 ). g s. sruaim ena .i. imat usque , Corm. Y 1176 . dal ena tar luä (.i. uisce tar næidin), ZCP xii 361.1 . en...dar dercaib (.i. usce dar súilib), LU 119b21 . Cf. gair mogh os ḟindlind ena, Acall. 454 n. fecht n-óen nár iadad int en `when the water was not sealed up' Metr. Dinds. iii 326.41 may be an ex. of n s., but the reading is uncertain.

enbarr

Cite this: eDIL s.v. enbarr or dil.ie/20058

 

n froth, foam: enbarr...úan bís forsin usque, inde dicitur gilithir enbarr. Enbarr didiu uan tuinde, Corm. Y 530 .

ferenn

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ferenn or dil.ie/21715
Last Revised: 2013

 

Forms: firend, ferend, feirenn, ferinn

n o, m. a thong or band used either for a belt or a garter: firend [ferend LB, feirenn, Hy Maine] .i. id bis im c[h]olpa niad ... verbi gratia ferind [ferend LB] ōir im c[h]ois rīg, Corm. Y 586 . fireann .i. idh bhios im cholptha deaghlaoich, O'Cl. See ZCP x 401 . Ferend [didiu] ainm do chriss bis im duine, Corm. Y 586 . ferenn .i. crios, no sliasad do réir druinge, O'Cl. feirend cris cengail, Metr. Gl. 13 . induxit nivem ... pertinguentem ferenn, Ardm. 5a2 ( Thes. ii 260 ) = Trip. 284.2 . pl. is di dognitis na ferinn , Thr. Ir. Gl. 20 (= ferniu, Corm. Y 586 ). usque fernu uirorum , Études Celt. xxix 358 . tacmaic snechta ferna (no fairnniu add. LB) fer, Corm. Y 586 . ferais snechta ... co fernnu fer, LU 4777 (= TBC-I¹ 284 ) = co formnaib fer TBC-LL¹ 626 (go ferna St). ro ferustair in snechta co toracht fernu fer (= ad zonas), Lat. Lives 9 = Trip. 56.2 . sneachta co fernu fer, AU 854 . sirit fuil fernu blood seeks girdles (i.e. rises waist high) RC xvii 133.15 . co tanic fernu fuil ZCP viii 319.9 . cath ... dia fich fuil feirniu, xii 235 . atgaith dom ... .x. fernu (.i. idh bīs im cois nía), Ériu ii 4.6 .

fócra(e), fúacra

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fócra(e), fúacra or dil.ie/22543

 

Forms: fócre, fócru, fúacru, fuacru, focra, focra, fógra, fúagra, fógartha, fócra

n io, n.; later f. (vn. of fo-ocair, fúacair) O. Ir. a s. fócre, Wb. 2d17 . d s. fócru, 31c22 . fúacru, LU 10972 . fuacru, SR 6266 . n s. focra (n-aptha), Laws i 230z . focra (n-etechta), v 254.10 . fógra fúagra, IGT, Decl. § 3 ; Verbs § 47 .

(a) proclaiming, announcing, making known, giving notice: cen fócre et cen arigud (gl. usque ad legem peccatum erat in mundo Romans v 13 ) Wb. 2d17 . doni tri heigme ... do sirḟuacra a saraigthe, ZCP viii 266.4 . Cf. can a focrad, Laws v 274.9 . is nin scribthar ag fuacra na forbaidi sin to mark that accent Auraic. 1561 . cen robud cen rígḟócra, Metr. Dinds. iii 354 . fa lestar togaidhe fri fóccra fírinne (of a saint) BNnÉ 20 § 43 . Lism. L. 589 (fogra). amhail bhíos buachaill an táibhirne ag fógra an fhíona maith, TSh. 10678 . amhasdrach d'fógra a claoidhte | doní cú anbhfann the feeble dog `barks to proclaim his defeat' Content. xxiv 12 . bheith ag murmur no ag fuagradh go bhfuilmidne san gceimsi ar earraid, Luc. Fid. 194.1 . With DO of pers.: do ḟúacra na ceilge do Hectoir to warn H. of the ambush TTr.² 1188 = LL 406a47 . mar a n-abair Críost ag fógra anfhorlainn an bháis don duine, ecce venient dies ... ( Luke xix 43 ), TSh. 1061 . Of denouncing a fault, etc.: oc fócru a pecctha do chách, Wb. 31c22 . iar fuacra a chore dó `after admonishing him of his fault' Mon. Tall. § 37 . co forngaire firinde, co fuagra gach claein, ACL iii 320 § 98 . cen dītiun fīrindi, cen fouaccrae cloīni [sic leg. ?], ZCP iii 450.7 .

(b) esp. announcing, proclaiming (a ruler): atáid got fhógra fuinn 's dinn, O'Gr. Cat. 484 . Cf. rí tré iathuibh dá ḟuagra, TD 10.8 , which could, however, belong to (g).

(c) a notice, announcement, summons, ordinance: in tan tucad in fuacra-sa, PH 363 (= in smacht ib.; = in forcongra 366 ). meni dérntais dar fócra unless they acted against the decree Ériu iv 94 . dochuaid rechtaire in rig do fuacra for P. ┐ for a muime co ndigsitiss do glanad thellaig, Trip. 14.19 ( Trip.² 174 ). cuirid scéala go Mochuda da ḟógra dhó Rathain do tréigean, Keat. iii 1896 . gur chuir fógra fana hEoghanachtaibh 'ga rádh riú biadh ... do chur ... chuige, 3045 . fógra chuírte ... do chor lá Presidens ... go síol mB. `a proclamation for holding a court was issued by the President ... to Síol mB.' AFM v 1638.3 . foccra parlimenti do thabhairt dferaibh Ereann dia ḟorcongra for a maithibh a beith imbeltaine ... in Ath Cliath, 1826.19 . fógradh cruinnighthe ar chrú mB. `a summons of gathering ... to the blood of B.' O'Gr. Cat. 503.7 . fuáir tú fúagra = `thou art commanded' Gen. xlv 19 . tug Aáron fúagra made proclamation Exodus xxxii 5 . fuáir fógra ... ó neamh ... fios do chur ortsa = `was warned from God' Acts 10.22 . ag tabhairt ḟógra dhá gach áon = `warning every one' Colossians 1.28 . achd gu dtuga tú fógra dhó a dtáobh a ṡeachráin uáir nó dhó = `after the first and second admonition' Titus 3.10 . stocc foccra a summoning trumpet MacCarthy 56.16 ( LB 111a59 ). Later pl. fógartha ┐ aitheanta Dé, Eochairsg. 14.33 .

In Laws: a warning (of legal action), summons: toing to Dia, nach fōcre fond[o]t-ocerthar not-gebà huidhib aitire cach tēchta, Bürgschaft 22 § 65b . dia treise iar fócru `at three days' notice' Críth G. 85 . focra n-aptha (one of the `lesa' concerning which distress extends to three days) Laws i 230z (glossed .i. smacht biata do mic bithbinig tar apadh 234.2 . na séoit fōccra ┐ na seōit ōna cu cinniudh re rē, O'D. 2413 (see 2 sét). Here smacht may be synon. with fócra, cf. PH 363 above). focra la foircsin `warning by eyewitness' Laws ii 308.21 ( SM Facs. 35b ). ZCP xiv 382 (`Verkündigung bei Überblicken'). do fet focra folad .i. as remtechtai lium foccra abaid ┐ troisci do tabairt fair anas fola athgabhala do gabhail de, 23 P 3, 23aa ( O'Curry 1874 ). f.¤ n-étéchta an illegal challenge: focra n-etechta (... i. crand do togbail ... .i. conicfad tobach a fiach o mudh aile), Laws v 254.10 (256.21) . masa aonfear dib dorine in fuacra n-etechta sunn, ┐ ní errecht in fer eile ina adhaigh (of a challenge in a place where fighting is prohibited), O'D. 389 (< H 3.17, 295 ) = Laws v 304 Comm.

(d) summoning, suing (?): in fili oca fúacru fora nglinne ┐ a nadmand `summoning them by their sureties' Imr. Brain 47.14 ( LU 10972 ; occ accrui ┐ oc fuacra v.l. Cf. na secht filid dia ṅglámad ┐ dia n-erḟuacra `satirize and denounce' Dinds. 161 ). Cf. next.

(e) denouncing (with FOR, AR of pers.): fógra ar ṡeanchaidh madh fiú a locht `to denounce a sage' Content. xiv 15 . gur coir ... fuagra air mur iodhaladhraightheoir, Luc. Fid. 195 . Ó M. ... d'ēcc ... ┐ a mac do ghabhail a ionaid a hucht na bainrioghna. araill do dhaoinibh uaisle a chinidh acc fóccra ┐ acc fuaidreadh fair a ndiaidh an anma sin, AFM vi 2092.16 . Cf. é fein d'fogra mar brághaidh [sic] don bhainrioghain `he was declared the Queen's prisoner' v 1688.3 . See (g). Here perhaps: déna dam dóibh focra lethamnas, ACL iii 295 § 24 . desimrecht ar trefoccul focra dorigne F., 293 n. 17 = in treḟoclach focrai, 293.18 (where t.f.¤ is applied to an ingenious specimen of indirect satire). trefocal fócra, Laws iii 92.10 .

(f) giving notice of battle, declaring war, challenging (with FOR of person): ar na tíset óic ... do ḟuacra comraic forru TBC-LL¹ 1150 . techta do dul ... do ḟúacra chatha for Troiánaib, TTr.² 555 . cath d'foccra forra, Cog. 132z . coccadh d'fógra fair, AFM ii 1120.2 . comracc d'focra do R. ... ar D., Ann. Conn. 1279 § 6 . eirge d'focra in comraic, Laws v 478.18 . a uagra catha ar Crumthann `the C. have the proclamation of his battles' Hy Maine 163 (= a furogra Uí Maine 46ra22 ).

(g) proscription, banishment, outlawry: fo thrí ... rodiultsat fir Herenn fria filedu ... Dā cēt ar mīli a lín isin cetna ḟocru ... In fuacra tānise ... `the first proscription ... the second proscription' RC xx 42 ( ACC Introd . ). bóe Dauid ré mór ... fo fuacru, fo innarthaib, SR 6266 . an tan do-beirt[h]i fōgra do c[h]liaraibh Fōdla, Sitzungsb. Pr. Akad. 1919 v 92 § 6 (< B IV 2, 155b ). fógra a fírḟréimhe `the banishment of her true race' Ériu viii 192 . fógra dhaoibh ós aird oruinn `thy public proscription of me' TD 3.20 . crádh liom echtrainn da bfógra `that foreigners proscribe them' O'Gr. Cat. 504.25 (cf. rí tré iathuibh dá ḟuagra, TD 10.8 ). égcert d'fhógra asedh doniad what they do is to banish injustice L. Cl. A. B. p. 240.86 . Cf. (e).

FOR (AR) F.¤ banished. outlawed: go ro cuirit ar fogra o thír co tír, AFM iv 1018.16 . ni ḟuair dion ... fear ar fógra ó ṡíol S. `banished by s. S.' TD 10 8 . an tan do bí sé ar foccra o Nera, BCC § 362 . beith ar faoindeal ┐ ar iogra AFM v 1640.8 (`wandering and proclaimed' note). fer foccra an outlaw LB 275b48 (wrongly fócrach, SG 61 ) = fer fōgra, CCellaig 724 . iomdha daorbhreith ... d'ḟonn a thréighte is ḟógartha `from a wish to betray him and banish him' Ó Bruad. iii 80 .

dligid foendelach fuacra, YBL 411d18 = LL 345d24 (= furfocra, Anecd. iii 14 ) may mean = a stranger is entitled to notice. Cf. Smith, RC xlv 33 . Laws ii 288.4 ( ZCP xiv 374 ).

For: maithe Tuadhmumhan do focra do ` submitted ' (to him' ALC i 642.27 , the variants are: do creidium do AU ii 474.26 ; do umhlughadh do Brian, AFM iii 580.18 ; do frecra do, Ann. Conn. 1343 § 7 . The latter is perhaps the right reading in ALC.

See fúacair and fúacairt.

forcenn

Cite this: eDIL s.v. forcenn or dil.ie/23431

 

Forms: forcan, forcenn, forcunn, foirciunn, forciunn, foirchinn

n o, n., later m. (the `e' and `nn' of the second syll. are evidently due to the influence of `cenn' and `for-cenna'; `forcan,' which occurs in Ml would be the regular phonetic development of for + cenn, see Ériu iii 57 ). n s. is he forcan , Ml. 91a21 (but forchenn, 118d6 ). a s. forcenn, Wb. 14c14 . Ml. 110d15 . Sg. 28b19 . d s. forcunn, Ml. 19c12 . 33a9 . 93a16 . foirciunn, Sg. 18b1 . forciunn, 169a1 . g s. foirchinn Ml. 56d8 .

(a) end, final limit (generally of time or procedure, rarely in purely local sense): gl. finis Wb. 14c14 . Ml. 91d21 . exitus 19c12 . foircheann .i. fírcheann no firdheireadh, O'Cl. acht rop ré forciunn robbé `da' ┐ nip hesom bes ḟorcenn is timmorte (gl. `Da' ... ante finem corripitur) Sg. 169a1 . ni fil tossa[ch] na f.¤ fairseom, LL 1a5 . amal nach forcend lipair nach maighin i mbí amen ..., Hib. Min. 2.49 = forcind ib. 47 . tainic forcenn dictatoirechta Césair ár sin, CCath. 210 . foircionn do dhul for ollamhnacht an Dubhshúiligh ┐ Dunlaing `the ollavships of D. and D. were abolished' AFM iii 412.15 . triath cen chenn cen ḟoirceann fair without beginning or end ACL iii 242 § 11 . maith tinscantar ┐ nad berar co f.¤ , Mon. Tall. § 90 . slechdain hi forciund cech sailm, § 5 . i forciunn a aíssi, Trip. 38.15 (407) . arnach ndermanadar Dia hi forcenn that God should not forget him unto the end (ref. to usque quo, Domine oblivisceris me in finem ?) Ml. 32d5 (constr. prob. influenced by the Lat.). a furcinn in comhluind, ZCP vi 280.12 . no go roichidh forcinn a thurais, Fl. Earls 156.34 . go foircheann na talmhan, Isaiah xlviii 20 . A term, limit: is mithich forchenn furi (ref. to indignationis lempus inculcat expletum) Ml. 118d6 . do dhuthaig duit co gairit, ar P. Forchenn air ..., ar in t-óclách give it a definite term Acall. 481 . co rusbāid hí cen forceann, YBL 447b48 (`drowned her finally' Metr. Dinds. iii 36z , but tre foirtheann v.l. perhaps better reading).

Cf. (díalt, dealt :) is fotha ndeich, ┐ is ass forberat co forcend mbrechta i mbiat ocht ndiailt, Corm. Y 447 .

(b) in sense of airchenn, what is in store (for), what is destined: is foirceann gu tora dilind, BB 22a25 . adbērat frit inni ata i forcend duid, 496b14 . Cf. asbert iarom S. friss ... aní aridboí dia forciund, LU 10347 = dia forcenn ZCP iii 255 . Cf. a Meic Dé ... a f.¤ in domain!, Ir. Lit. 80 .

fordronn

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fordronn or dil.ie/23558

 

Forms: bhfordronna

n o, m. (later ā, f. ?) loin; pelvis (?); renders venter and lumbus in Early Mod. texts: nos-clanna in sciain ind oca ḟordrund co tuargaib cend ass i coirr a chride, ZCP iii 3 § 4 . ocht troigchi edir a chidh [ed. emends: chind] ┐ a ḟordrann, AU 1029 (`between his head and the small of his back' Cod. Clar., cited AFM ii 818 ). gu glun ... gu fordrund ... gu imlind ... gu gualaind ... gn hó ... gu mullach cind (i.e.) in ascending order), H 3.17, 658a ( O'D. 929 ). go ttarla idir fordhornn ┐ imliocán gur bhris a drom ... ar a dhó (of a spear-cast) CF Eg. 192 . lomrad fordroind cach mna, Laws iii 354.2 . ar uachtar an forrdruind `super pectinem' O'Gr. Cat. 270.32 . bí cruas isin fordrond = in pectine Rosa Angl. 220.3 . cuir mon imlican co roich an f.¤ = usque ad pecten 294.11 . attaid siad isin fordrond `[the intestines] swell in the groin' 236.3 . timchioll ... na fordhruinne (= ad imam ventrem) 23 K 42, 21.15 . pl. bídís bhur bhfordronna ceangailte (= lumbi) TSh. 8578 . tiocfaid ríghthe amach ód ḟordhronnuibh, Gen. xxxv 11 .

forus

Cite this: eDIL s.v. forus or dil.ie/24049
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: forus, forus, foris, forois, foris, forsib, foirsib, foras, faras

n o, u, n. (for decl. cf. dorus). n s. a forus sae, Cáin Ad. 28 . d s. forus, Wb. 15d34 . g s. foris, 9c1 et pass. forois, Sg. 138a7 . n p. cf. inna foris , Ml. 63c6 , which seems corrupt. d s. forsib, Laws i 288.10 . foirsib, ii 78z . foras m. IGT Decl. § 38 .

As to the suggestion by Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 676 that it is the abstr. to fo-ro-finn- (see for-finnadar) see Bergin, Ériu xii 223 . The derivation < forfis given by Asc. is untenable (despite the expl. in Rawl. 105b cited below and: foras fírfhios, O'Cl. Such expls., frequent in Laws only show that the original meaning of the word was then unknown); see Gwynn, KMMisc. p. 183 .

I

(a) that which is stable; stability; basis, foundation, bottom , the orig. sense acc. to Gwynn loc. cit.; in older texts generally in fig., in later also in lit. sense. í f.¤ cen oclatid at rest, unmoved (gl. in longanimitate Wb. 15d34 (`in knowledge' Edd. Thes., taking gloss to refer to the preceding in scientia. Bergin suggests `in firmness' Ériu xii 223 ). cen nī don dīni bai i fus | hi suidib fīri hi f.¤ (i.e. who had remained stationary on the hither side, see 1 Sam. xxx 22 ) SR 6464 . iarraidh ḟorais i fudomain (of a hopeless undertaking), CCath. 4396 . atáim ceangailte i láib an ghrinnill ┐ ní fhuil f.¤ ann, TSh. 4188 (= substantia Psalms lxviii 3 ). do thuit tu san bpoll ... is nach bhfoghair foras acht ag gabhail timchioll choidhche, Luc. Fid. 292.16 . grinneal aigéin gan f.¤ `unfathomable ocean-bed' TD 17.52 . This is prob. the sense in the follg. fig. expressions: f.¤ comairle `steadfastness of counsel' Ériu vii 138 (d) = ZCP iii 25.23 . f.¤ fesa (of Cathbad) TBC-LL¹ 5487 St (cf. F.¤ Feasa ar Éirenn, the title of Keating's history (= the firm foundation of knowledge of Ireland ?)). f.¤ úird na healadhna (of a chief), Rel. Celt. ii 272.10 . f.¤ focal (name of a glossary) LL 395a1 . béim forais a driving home (?), fig. a fundamental doctrine, statement of a general principle underlying several previous statements, see Gwynn, KMMisc. p. 178 ff .: beim foris tra anisiu, Wb. 11c3 ( 1 Corinth. x 31 ). is béim foris inso forsna dlígetha remeperthi no is titul in dligid ar chiunn, Wb. 13a29 , similarly 9c1 , 10a12 , 28a11 . beim foirais lessom ánísiu for a remeperthe asrubart riam .i. as hon choimdid forcomnacair a mbrith som isin doiri (gl. A Domino factus est istud ...) Ml. 131c14 , cf. aithbeim forais, 94c13 . beim forois in sin (gl. Et ea per naturam, following descr. of the formations tonstrix, tonstricula from tonsor. Gwynn, KMMisc. 181 , would translate `a statement of principle') Sg. 138a7 . co bráth combad beim forais, SR 6468 (= quasi lex in Israel usque in diem hanc 1 Sam. xxx 25 ). as tusa do raid tosach an cobro, as let beim a foris you began the conversation, it is yours to state the gist of the whole matter ZCP xiii 274.18 . is sí roben beim forais for in lámthorad, LU 10322 = ZCP iii 237.7 . beim forais an aphorism O'Mulc. 578 (see KMMisc. 183 ). indeóin forais something firmly based; a `point d'appui,' fulcrum, base of operations (?): ro múradh ... an toilén ... fo dháigh ná badh carracc cothaighthe ┐ ná budh inneoin ḟorais do dhiberccach é, AFM v 1742.6 . istudh flatha ┐ indeoin forais (of Babylon), CCath. 21 . Of persons: in indeoin forais ┐ an forus breth (of Cicero) ib. 4492 . inneóin ḟoruis Inse Fáil, TD 25.40 . O Cerbhaill ... inneóin forais ┐ uaithne óir na nEileach `anvil of the solidity' AFM v 1408.5 . tabraid for cobais ... rād forais (a statement from the very beginning, an exhaustive account ?) SR 3614 . Cf. further: is cían o tá hi fis ┐ hi f.¤ for tíchtain sund your coming hither has long been a matter of established knowledge LU 1812 ( RC ix 490 ). im Teamhair tír in ḟorais, BB 37b36 . Ard na Riag, raid a foros ` origin ' Metr. Dinds. iii 414 . oldate inna foris di ar n-athraib, Ml. 63c6 (gl. magna a patribus de tuis factis audivimus et maiora [praestolamur]) is almost certainly corrupt. The rendering is Thes. `than the accounts of our fathers' is in any case impossible.

(b) established or fundamental principles of knowledge or science, axioms, apodictic maxims (?): fochmorc foruis (of Ferchertne: investigation of first principles i.e. a final authority ?) Rawl. 108b35 ( RC xxvi 20 ). forus .i. forismus [ = ἀφόρισμος] graece, sermo breuis latine ... unde dicitur : adcomced beim foruis fair [ = O'Mulc. 578 ] nō forus .i. fis for araile ut est is ē in fis in Senchas Mār. is ē in forus Cāin Patraic ┐ Cāin Adomnan , Rawl. 108b36 ff . Cf. foras .i. dligheadh no bunáit. foras chána Adhamnáin, etc., O'Cl. see also under (c) below. a fis, a f.¤, a foirceatol, Ériu iv 146 § 24 . a filidhecht ┐ a f.¤ dhorchaidh `abstruse knowledge' AU iii 572 . a croinicib ┐ a Periges Prescean ┐ a berla forais, BB 488a marg. inf., man. rec. ( IT ii2 96 ). Esp. of legal learning: o Feinib gach foruss, Corm. Y 975 , p. 84 . cach dliged iar f.¤, cach rāth co f.¤ , ACL iii 227.53 . cach f.¤ co slán, cach slan co f.¤ , 60 - 62 (perh. these belong to II). faras ` Reason ' Kirk (gan ḟ.¤ ` unreasonable ' 2 Thessal. iii 2, 1681 = gan chúibhgheas 1602).

(c) hence the principle or enactments of a law, passing occas. into sense of enforcement, sanction (cf. cit. fr. Rawl. 108b above): iss ead in so f.¤ Cana Adomnan ... Oc Birraib forurmed a f.¤ sae for feraib Hērenn, Cáin Ad. 28 . is ed in so f.¤ cána in domnaig, Ériu ii 202 § 20 . f.¤ chano Patricii hi Cruachnibh la Dub da leithi ` promulgation ' AU 782 = AFM 778 . breth ria f.¤, f.¤ ria forba, Cóic Con. p. 30 § 16 (stages in a lawsuit: `Geltend-Erklärung' Thurn., i.e. enforcement of the verdict ?). cēin bīt brethemain fri tasbenad ┐ foros (.i. in fis ōgh asa mberend a brethe), ZCP xii 359.24 . cūlairecht ..., is iat all bis iar g[c]ūl na n-airechta fri breth ┐ f.¤ (.i. fri fīrfis na brethe sin) ib. 17 .

Occurs in late compds. in sense of aged or tried, experienced: foraisbhean .i. bean áosda, O'Cl. na bhforascháirdibh friends of long standing Ó Bruad. iii 192 . forasoglach .i. óglach aosta, O'Cl. ba forasócclach an ionbhaidh sin é ┐ nir bhó túalaing tathugadh a thuath (of an aged chief), Hugh Roe 32.21 (f. 9a) . mna ┐ miondaoine ┐ forusócclaoich old men 124y (f. 33b) . a uaisle, a airigh, ┐ a ḟorusocclaoigh veterans AFM vi 2126.24 .

II A station, resting-place, dwelling. Cf. lethdire foruis, Críth G. 220 . In Laws sometimes glossed by `ārus' and used esp. of a cattle-pound or other place where distrained cattle might be detained (f.¤ n-athgabála), a place appointed for the delivery of animals according to a contract: ni fuil acht tri foruis ann: f.¤ n-acra, f.¤ nditin, f.¤ mbreitheamhun Laws ii 10.24 (glossed .i. tri aruis ib. 27 ). icfai a slan ... a f.¤ to thigi fadein, Bürgschaft 27 § 74c . atdaime for f.¤ ┐ follus ┐ fiadan `Erfüllungsort' 15 § 51b . fuircimsi cobach latsa ar mo chind i maighin an forais, 13 § 44 . fiach domsa huait ... isind f.¤ sa, 15 § 51a . f.¤ fēich, 17 § 52 . raith fuis (.i. raith bis a fosaighecht i f.¤), 41 . f.¤ tuaithe `territory house', Laws iv 302.5 ( Críth G. 57 : `to the appointed place in the territory (?)'; apparently `a public infirmary,' Mac Neill, MacNeill, Law of status 285 ). fer forais `a house-holding man ' (one expl. of `seirthiud') Laws iv 352.1 . ailid fír foirrse an oath requires fixed habitations v 460.16 (= ZCP xvi 270 , but see foirse). atait secht foruis ... arachuille coir n-athgabala ... a n-āin i tech mbriugud, ... cathuir uasalnemid, tech bid fas. Otha suidiu dligi cach f.¤ n-athgabala dia faithce fodesin (i.e. there are seven illegal pounds for cattle; these apart, anyone may detain them in his own green) Laws v 266.19 . a tabairt (na athgabala) ... a f.¤ dona secht forsib, i 288.10 . See also s.v. foíndel (c). Rucus: f.¤ n-athgabāla, i n-alachrích I decided that it was lawful (in the case) to impound beyond the territory Caratnia 49 . dermadach forais forgetful about the place appointed for fulfilling the contract Bürgschaft 31 § 84 .

Defining gen.: seirthiud [sic leg.] .i. oclach do daghcenel no fer forais `a householding man' Laws iv 352.1 . ? cf. sentuindi foraiss, Cóir Anm.² i 103 § 104 (Ed. 7) ​​​. rath foruis, Bürgschaft 28 § 76a ( .i. aga mbi arus, 41 ). .uii. muca co muic ḟorais `domestic boar (?)' Críth G. 90 (a `resident sow' the remaining seven being expendable and replaceable ?). tuirc ḟorais `domestic boars' 195 .

Cf. apad ┐ forais, Cáin Ad. 39 . na .iii. foruis .i. cain ┐ cairde ┐ urrudus, no fogelt ┐ bleith ┐ dithim, H 3.17, c. 4 , 35 ( O'D. 5 ). filidh fíora forusda, f.¤ teora mbreth, breth Féne, breth filedh saoir, breth fuighill, Ériu xiii 32.6 . ... fuigheall fri f.¤ fath, 33y . ? dlighedh do feghar for f.¤ firinnsge, 26.6 .

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