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1 so

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 so or dil.ie/38191
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: so, sa, se, seo, sea, so, sa, -siu, su, si, siu, se, so, se, se, síu, arse, airsiu, cose, cosse, cuse, síu, se, síu

demonstr. pron. this. Prob. adverbial in origin, see 1 sin, síu, and GOI § 475 .

Forms. In O.Ir. Glosses usually so, sa after non-palatal final, and se, seo, sea after a palatal, but so, sa occasionally also after a palatal consonant and after -e and -i, and se always in Blath., without any correlation with the quality of the preceding sound ( ITS Sub. xxvii § 7.2 ): ind epistilse, Wb. 27d13 . ind epistil so, 3b20 . an uile se, 16c8 . an uile so, 15d13 . in chomairle se, Ml. 88b15 . dund lobrai se, 61b3 . in cethardai seo, 36c23 . dunaib trebaib so, 101c6 . a nnoib sa, 69a21 . in n-insci se, Sg. 210a1 . isnaib dobriathraib so, 201b14 . isin bith frecnairc sea, LU 1996 . With prec. (h)í always -siu, see I (b). Later also su after non-palatals: in liachta su, PH 3534 ; si, siu after palatals: ind lipuir si, Hib. Min. 2 . don ingen (leg. -in?) siu, IT i 120.12 . When se follows a word ending in -e a glide-vowel -i- is sometimes inserted (freq. in bardic verse): is éiseo, TBC-LL¹ 1776 . na guidhei-se, DDána 67.51 . an líog . . . cloichei-se, 20.42 . a dhaoinei-se, Dán Dé vi 23 . an tighei-se, ix 26 . On the delenition of a prec. final before the initial s of so, see GOI § 139 , IGT Introd. § 30 - § 39 . With long vowel in stressed position só (see Ériu liii 137-38 ): só: bó, Leb. Cert. 2178 . sō: dō, BColm. 12.30 . só sis, LU 82 (A) , 1938 (M) . insó sis, 113 (A) . insó, 2783 (M) . ann só, CIH iii 1079.42 . só: dó, Aithd. D. 30 § 21 . clé: co se: gne, LU 4576 (TBC) . co sē: ré, LL v 36166 (= Metr. Dinds. iv 306.12 ). sē: nglé, Metr. Dinds. ii 32.77 . cosē: dē, BNnÉ i 97.17 . ro lá insé, LU 4746 (TBC) . go sé: dé, Magauran 10 § 23 .

Usage I Adjectival (usually enclitic, but in bardic metres freq. as stressed word, see (d), (e), and (f) below).

(a) with article and noun this expressing present place and time: in fect so now, Wb. 13d7 . a ndede so, 12d1 . a nuile se, Ml. 55d21 . dund lobrai se, 61b3 . ind óin ainmnedo so `of this one nominative', Sg. 209b11 . in n-insci se, 210a1 . don grád so Críth G. 272 . forsin cathraigse, Lib. Hymn. i 30.4 . on trath sa, LU 8334 ( FB 24 ). in genid seo, MU² 908 . in corthi cloichi sea immuich, 646 . lasin crosfigillso, Mon. Tall. 28 (137.27) . an teachso, TD 6.6 . Exx. without article: cen hí se, Blathm. 361 . il-leth-sea, Lism. L. 1962 . re tāeb saltrach so, BColm. 12.30 . cia sloigh so, ITS vi 1318 . See also digammsa. In continuous speech so generally refers to what follows: á trede so .i. bona et placens et perfecta, Wb. 5c22 . arna tri remeperthise .i. ueritas rl., Ml. 65a11 . rabertsi na briathra sa: crennait brain | braigte fer . . ., TBC-LL¹ 5730 . ba-cachain in laid seo `A Chruim Darail, cid at-chíu . . ., MU² 413 . Freq. with follg. sís: in salm so sís, Ml. 52 . ar in trediu sa sís, 60a7 . in dí cheil se sis, Sg. 209b28 . inna rundu sa sis, LU 3307 (SC). Referring to what precedes: cid dinig di inchaib neich inna .vii. sa?, Críth G. 308 . in fers áirithisea (already mentioned), PH 6501 . When the subst. is qualified by an adj. so follows the adj.: do thol in maith mórsa, Fél. Prol. 267 . atbéra . . . in n-athesc n-acarb n-adúathmar sa, LU 2342 . ind inbaid garb gemretta so, MU² 341 . feil Assáin baín bindsea, Gorm. Apr. 27 . a chraobh fhionn-sa dot aimhdheoin, DDána 80.31 . uile, however, follows so: inna druingsea uili, Fél. Ep. 285 . atá uisci in mara so uile bren, Maund. 93 . When the subst. is defined by a definite noun in the gen. so precedes this: int aithesc[s]a Apaill, Aen. 94 . do'n beind aird-se in tempuil, PH 4830 . san chríchse chlann Rudhroighe, TD 7.30 . Note however: a chlann Chuirc-se (: dtuigse) 's a chlann Táil, DDána 91.16 . When the dependent genitive is indefinite so follows it: ar gnúis ind ríg nélsa, Fél. Ep. 398 . in méit n-imme sea, IT i 40.30 . issin ló bhaga sa indiu, TBC-LL¹ 5235 . an líog chomhthrom chloichei-se, DDána 20.42 .

(b) With O.Ir. (h)í: anísiu, Wb. 12d21 . innahísiu, 6c7 . Hence emphatic form (h)ísiu (with stressed (h)í, see GOI § 475 - 6 ): in taidbsiu hi siu, Wb. 13b1 . cach fer dinaib feraib hí siu, 12d40 . ní díltai dano in cetbuid nísiu, Sg. 201b10 .

(c) after the vocative: a c[h]uirp-seo, ZCP vi 265 § 17 . a chliar sa, BNnÉ 288.7 . a fhir-se, DDána 53.5 . a dhream-sa, 29.32 . a chairt-se, Dán Dé iii 12 .

(d) with a noun preceded by a possessive. No exx. from O.Ir. of this usage, but for early exx. of a similar constr. see 1 sin. Later: a shamail seo, PH 7328 . ic a furail so, 7393 . atá an t-áer a chomglan so ós cinn an tsleibi, Maund. 22 . briathra a maca samhla so, TD 2.22 . tar éis a suidhighthe so, DDána 85.45 . mairg dá dtig a seach[h]na so, Dán Dé v 31 . os a cheann so, Desid. 60 . 'n-a dhiaigh so, 1141 . dá éis so, TD 26.17 . 'n-a aithle so, Dán Dé v 25 .

(e) with conjugated prepp. (for earlier usage see II (a) below): is amlaid-so . . . do foirned, PH 371 . is amlaid-seo dochuadar amach, TTebe 3024 . gonadh aire so, Desid. 2026 . asta so is follus, TSh. 1697 . ní hiarrthar mórán leabhar chuige so, Desid. 5955 . is slan gach aithne dib so uile, Laws v 190.27 Comm . di ernail . . . dibseo, RC xx 144.z . gurab díobh so ghoireas Pōl . . ., Desid. 4067 . as é as ainm . . . dhi so eile, 6689 . dhóibh so, 5595 . denam-ni fris so, PH 131 . fá ris so, Desid. 2400 . ríu so, 4433 . as uime so nách áil leam, 2011 . tig leis so aní léaghthar, TSh. 672 . as aite leó so comhluadar, Desid. 6348 . nit acca riam remi seo, IT i 120.25 . táinig . . . roimhe so | gorta, TD 15.29 . nachas linub-sa secha so, TBC-LL¹ 2887 . tairis so, Desid. 2061 .

(f) replacing O.Ir. -som, -si after verbs and pronn.: nua na calla sul chríonai-se, Dán Dé xvi 8 . go bhfuilid so, Desid. 3867 . an bail atad so, TTebe 4856 . atáid so ar na suidheaghadh, TD 39.6 . an uair smuainim iad so, Desid. 5774 . iad so uile do bhreith leam, 2954 .

II Substantival (stressed). In O.Ir. freq. in so , more rarely in se (in = article?, see GOI § 482 ) except with prepp.

(a) with simple prepp. O.Ir. a s n. se. d s n. síu. bid amal so, PH 3373 . ní nád mbed arse di chorp `not that it is not therefore of the body', Wb. 12a22 . arse gl. ob hoc, Ml. 18d15 . airsiu therefore, Wb. 1b12 . do chuir mé mo lámh ar só, Irish Texts iii 80.10 . as so go Sliabh gCrot, DDána 74.19 . cose, Wb. 3c15 . cosse hitherto, 1b4 . 7d9 . cuse, 33d8 . diammad chara dam co se | Cu Chulaind mac Soalte, LU 3320 ( SCC 11 ). do claoiiodh leis an nEagluis gó so, Desid. 4057 . With corrici, etc.: corricci se, Wb. 9a9 . connice so, PH 1181 . go roiche so, Desid. 1199 . co ro so, Stair Erc. 1993 . de ṡíu hence : fri alpai ṅdesiu, Sg. 217b8 . fri crích deṡiu, 217b12 . centarach .i. frie deṡiu, 71b2 . do-bertatar glindi ind di síu ┐ anall, BDD² 421 . romsnāidhet de siu | ar demnoibh na ceo, Ériu iv 238.8 . hi síu here: massu bethu Crist . . cretmeni issiu, Wb. 13b21 . intain ṁbís hísiu, 17b3 . Cf. and so do-rala caínchomrád (position of stress doubtful. Cf. mod. use of faí, tairis, etc., as simple prepp.), MU² 136 . la se when see lasé. ó so amach, TD 1.28 . ó sho, DDána 76.3 . oc so, see oc I (c). re síu before see resíu.

(b) with cenmothá: cenmitha se, Wb. 8a2 .

(c) with acht: acht so amháin, TD 20.6 .

(d) with the equative: is lerithir inso nonguidimse, Wb. 27d19 .

(e) acc. with verbs.: labraid in spirut noib . . . inso, Ml. 115a2 . is dun foccull sa adfet inso hule `it is of this word that he declares all this', 125a11 . rogab inso `he sang this', 35b24 . cid aratodlaigther inso `why seekest thou this?', 32a5 . is tussu rogni inse, SR 6147 . asbert Cathbath inso sís, LU 8940 ( FB 71 ). as-bert in so huile, BDD² 168 . ro-chan in fáith in-seo, PH 4838 . cip e duine do-bris so, 7770 . grás na maighdine sir so, DDána 22.21 . In tautology with infixed pron. 3 s. neut.: darigensi (leg. darigénsid or darigénsidsi, Stokes) inso uile `ye have done all this', Wb. 9c29 . atber som inso, Ml. 124b3 . atrópert flaith . . . inso huile, Thes. ii 238.13 (Ardm.).

(f) nom. with pass. verbs: dognither inso, Ml. 32a10 . tuicther so, PH 7697 .

(g) nom. with subst. verb: ata so de, LL 332c56 . bíaid ocut so, LU 4227 . ata so i n-agaid aithne, PH 7566 .

(h) nom. with active verbs: forsaní as iniquitasodium trachtid so sís, Ml. 55c14 . dogní so gadaige de, PH 7600 . eagail dóibh dá ndeachaidh so | i n-éadóchas ar Íosa, DDána 22.4 .

(i) with (i)ná (comparative): dearbhadh as fearr iná so, Desid. 6285 . díoghrais molta as mhó iná so, DDána 13.2 .

(j) In constructions with the copula:

(i) barbár inso `this is a barbarian', Wb. 12d6 . desimrecht fetarlicci inso `this is an example from the Old Law', 29a13 . a montar som inso `this is his household', 7c5 . briathar dǽ inso, Ml. 30c16 . trop les inso, 18b1 . óen desimrecht so, Sg. 49a12 . coitchena so etir di arim, 72a2 . is fo chetbuid ala n-aile beos inso, 201b15 . amra so rig `this is the praise of a king', RC xx 136.16 (ACC, Bodl.). id inso ced sloindes dun, LU 4744 (TBC). Freq. with follg. sís: cosc inna mmoge inso sis, Wb. 29b1 . beím foris inso sís uile `all this below is a recapitulation', 25c18 . foxlidi tres diil inso sís, Sg. 104b1 . do tathmet na rig . . . batar 'sin mórdail inso sis, RC xx 136.17 (ACC, Bodl.). cesad Stephain in sin anuas do fáillsiugud a chuirp so sis `this following refers to the discovery of his body', PH 1482 .

(ii) is hæ inso in fognam, Wb. 27c18 . is sí inso fedb as uisse do goiri in æclis, 28d24 . is ed inso far nindas, 33c14 . ithé inso boill ind sendúini, 27b8 . is he inso in nertad, Ml. 53a18 . issi inso ind insce, 80c3 . issi so a chiall, 65a3 . ised inso a n-aill, 14c3 . ised inse an ecnæ, 128d9 it hé inse ind remerersidi, 115c1 . issí inso sís a chiall, 50c1 . issed inso a frecre `this is the answer to it', Sg. 200a10 . issed inso nád chumaing aranísar and, 209b13 . issed se an dliged, 206a2 . it hé se inna bríathra `these are the words', 4b12 . it é inso trá gníma bóairech, Críth G. 183 . is é so a desmerecht sede, RC xx 150.22 (ACC, Bodl.). at iat so . . . ríg bátar isin dail sin, LU 3444 ( SCC 22 ). is éiseo óenni moedim-se chena, TBC-LL¹ 1776 .

(iii) is he á thuasulcud inso, Ml. 53c14 . issí ind frescisiu inse, 114a1 . issí ind remaisndis inso, Tur. 24 . is é aithech baitside inso dia mbé in[n]a enncai cen gait, Críth G. 142 . it é fodlai boáirech inso, 314 . ise bes aen ciniuda inso, Laws ii 234.2 . Note also: isí inso ind rún inso .i. esséirge inna n-uile marb, Wb. 13d16 . it he inse ind focháinn inso, Ml. 86c3 .

(iv) issí inne inso fil and, Ml. 91a18 . issi chiall so fil and, 114c7 . is si figell indso dogen, Mon. Tall. 47 (144.30) . ite secht mbeocaindle and so forosnad gae cach rig, Laws iv 52.9 . ate donadmand innso diceanglad a feicheamna, 60.14 . iss ed laithe inso as síam limm, TBFr. 133 .

(v) with interrogatives: in cumtubart lib inso?, Wb. 3c3 . cía and-so?, Sc.M² 11 . cia so?, MU² 802 . cia fuaim so?, BDD² 500 . inn é so Muinremor? Sc.M2. inni so in Effis?, PH 1059 .

(k) in vn. constructions: ro-dligfithea dítt so do denum, PH 7404 . is coir . . so do fhis, 7986 . is cóir so do thuigsin, Desid. 2320 .